Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.

Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. (1/2603)

The fine specificity of the Ro and La proteins has been studied by several techniques. In general, there is agreement in a qualitative sense that autoantibodies bind multiple epitopes. For some specific antibody binding, different studies agree quantitatively, for instance, the binding of the carboxyl terminus of 60-kd Ro as described by 2 studies using different techniques and the presence of an epitope within the leucine zipper of 52-kd Ro. In addition, there is general agreement about the location of a prominent epitope at the RRM motif region of the La molecule. On the other hand, the many specific epitope regions of the molecules differ among these studies. These discrepancies are likely the result of using different techniques, sera, and peptide constructs as well as a result of inherent advantages and disadvantages in the individual approaches. Several theories concerning the origin of not only the antibodies, but also the diseases themselves, have been generated from studies of the fine specificity of antibody binding. These include a theory of a primordial foreign antigen for anti-Ro autoimmunity, molecular mimicry with regard to La and CCHB, as well as the association of anti-Ro with HLA. These remain unproven, but are of continuing interest. An explanation for the association of anti-60-kd Ro and anti-52-kd Ro in the sera of patients has sprung from evaluating antibody binding. Data demonstrating multiple epitopes are part of a large body of evidence that strongly suggests an antigen-driven immune response. This means that the autoantigens are directly implicated in initiating and sustaining autoimmunity in their associated diseases. A number of studies have investigated the possibility of differences in the immune response to these antigens in SS and SLE sera. While several differences have been reported, none have been reproduced in a second cohort of patients. Furthermore, none of the reported differences may be sufficiently robust for clinical purposes, such as distinguishing between SS with systemic features and mild SLE, although some might be promising. For instance, in at least 3 groups of SLE patients, no binding of residues spanning amino acids 21-41 of 60-kd Ro has been found. Meanwhile, 1 of those studies found that 41% of sera from patients with primary SS bound the 60-kd Ro peptide 21-41. Perhaps future studies will elaborate a clinical role of such a difference among SS and SLE patients. Study of the epitopes of these autoantigens has, in part, led to a new animal model of anti-Ro and anti-La. Non-autoimmune-prone animals are immunized with proteins or peptides that make up the Ro/La RNP. Such animals develop an autoimmune response to the entire particle, not just the immunogen. This response has been hypothesized to arise from autoreactive B cells. In another, older animal model of disease, the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, B cells have recently been shown to be required for the generation of abnormal, autoreactive T cells. Thus, there are now powerful data indicating that B cells that produce autoantibodies are directly involved in the pathogenesis of disease above and beyond the formation of immune complexes. Given that the autoreactive B cell is potentially critical to the underlying pathogenesis of disease, then studying these cells will be crucial to further understanding the origin of diseases associated with Ro and La autoimmunity. Hopefully, an increased understanding will eventually lead to improved treatment of patients. Progress in the area of treatment will almost surely be incremental, and studies of the fine specificity of autoantibody binding will be a part of the body of basic knowledge contributing to ultimate advancement. In the future, the animal models will need to be examined with regard to immunology and immunochemistry as well as genetics. The development of these autoantibodies has not been studied extensively because upon presentation to medical care, virtually all patients have a full-  (+info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (2/2603)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (3/2603)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Recognition of polynucleotides by antibodies to poly(I), poly(C). (4/2603)

The binding of anti poly(I). poly (C) Fab fragments to double or triple stranded polynucletides has been studied by fluorescence. Association constants were deduced from competition experiments. The comparison of the association constants leads to the conclusion that several atoms of the base residues do not interact with the amino acid residues of the binding site of Fab fragment while the hydroxyl groups of furanose rings interact. These results suggest that the Fab fragments do not bind to the major groove of the double stranded polynucleotides. An interaction between the C(2)O group of pyrimidine residues and Fab fragments cannot be excluded. Circular dichroism of poly(I). poly(C) or poly(I). poly(br5C)-Fab fragments complexes are very different from the circular dichroism of free polynucleotides which suggests a deformation of the polynucleotides bound to the Fab fragments.  (+info)

Analysis of the interaction of monoclonal antibodies with surface IgM on neoplastic B-cells. (5/2603)

In vitro studies identified three Burkitts lymphoma cell lines, Ramos, MUTU-I and Daudi, that were growth inhibited by anti-IgM antibody. However, only Ramos and MUTU-I were sensitive to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing the Fc region of surface IgM (anti-Fc mu). Experiments using anti-Fc mu mAb (single or non-crossblocking pairs), polyclonal anti-mu Ab, and hyper-crosslinking with a secondary layer of Ab, showed that growth inhibition of B-cell lines was highly dependent on the extent of IgM crosslinking. This was confirmed by using Fab', F(ab')2 and F(ab')3 derivatives from anti-Fc mu mAb, where increasing valency caused corresponding increases in growth arrest and apoptosis, presumably as a result of more efficient BCR-crosslinking on the cell surface. The ability of a single mAb to induce growth arrest was highly dependent on epitope specificity, with mAb specific for the Fc region (C mu2-C mu4 domains) being much more effective than those recognizing the Fab region (anti-L chain, anti-Id and anti-Fd mu, or C mu1). Only when hyper-crosslinked with polyclonal anti-mouse IgG did the latter result in appreciable growth inhibition. Binding studies showed that these differences in function were not related to differences in the affinity, but probably related to intrinsic crosslinking capacity of mAb.  (+info)

Characterization of an immunoglobin cDNA clone containing the variable and constant regions for the MOPC 21 kappa light chain. (6/2603)

Nucleotide sequence analysis and restriction endonuclease mapping have been used to characterize a cDNA copy of immunoglobulin MOPC 21 Kappa mRNA clones in the bacterial plasmid pMB9. Three regions of the inserted cDNA of plasmid pL21-1 have been sequenced and match the known protein sequence at amino acid residues 1-24, 128-138 and 171-179. With these sequences to provide absolute correlations between the restriction map and the structural gene sequence it has been possible to exactly deduce the positions of all 11 of the insert restriction sites mapped within the structural gene. The pL21-1 insert contains the complete variable and constant regions as well as parts of the 3' untranslated and polypeptide leader coding sequences.  (+info)

Molecular mapping of influenza virus RNA polymerase by site-specific antibodies. (7/2603)

Influenza virus RNA polymerase with the subunit structure PB1-PB2-PA is involved in both transcription and replication of the RNA genome, including the unique cap-I-dependent RNase activity. To map the important domains for RNA polymerization, cap-I-dependent RNase, and cap-I-binding activity, we generated site-specific antibodies against overlapping 150-amino-acid peptides that cover each entire subunit. Monospecific antibodies against each subunit inhibited RNA synthesis in vitro. Those against PB1 and PB2 inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity, but those against PB2 alone slightly inhibited the cap-I-binding activity. Antibodies against the N-terminal amino acids 1-159 of PB2 that overlap the PB1-binding site on PB2 and the C-terminal amino acids 501-617 of PA that overlap the putative nucleotide-binding site and PB1-binding site on PA inhibited RNA polymerizing activity as well as monospecific antibodies. Those against the N-terminal (amino acids 1-159); the central region (amino acids 305-559) of PB2, where a part of the cap-binding domain predicted previously is localized; the N-terminal (amino acids 1-222) of PB1; and amino acids 301-517 and 601-716 of PA inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity. The cap-binding domain on PB2 could be mapped in amino acids 402-559, where one of the cap-binding domains mapped previously overlapped.  (+info)

Distribution of B-cell epitopes on the pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B. (8/2603)

In order to map antigenically important regions of glycoprotein B (gB) of pseudorabies virus (PrV), a panel of recombinant fragments of gB expressed in E. coli and truncated fragments of gB generated by cleavage of purified native gB with trypsin and cyanogen bromide was analysed by using 26 monoclonal antibodies directed against gB. Three continuous epitopes were localized in the vicinity of the N terminus of gB, between amino acids (aa) 59 and 126. One continuous epitope mapped between residues 214 and 279. The residues involved in the assembly of eight discontinuous epitopes were located between aa 540 and 734. The constituents of two discontinuous epitopes were harboured in a segment encompassing aa 540-646. The clustering of continuous epitopes at the extreme N terminus of PrV gB and the locations of residues involved in the assembly of discontinuous epitopes of PrV gB are in good agreement with data on epitope locations in gB homologues from other herpesviruses.  (+info)

Looking for antibody binding site? Find out information about antibody binding site. antibody combining site McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Explanation of antibody binding site
Inbar, D; Hochman, J; and Givol, D, Localization of antibody-combining sites within the variable portions heavy and light chains. (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 2138 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mapping an antibody binding site by nuclear decay. AU - Mogul, R.. AU - Meares, C. F.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - The study of proteins and their complexes by cleavage of polypeptide chains provides a new approach to understanding their behavior in solution. Using radionuclides as the potential .source for this bond-breaking energy, we have assessed the effects of nuclear decay on two antibody binding sites. Monoclonal antibody CHA255 specifically binds para substituted (S)-benzyl-EDTA[In] chelates. Allowing CHA255 to bind a chelate containing the radioisotope In-111, which decays by electron capture, results in chain cleavage at several points within the binding pocket of the antibody. Correlation with the anti body/hapten crystal structure supports cleavage at or near the residues that either hydrogen bond to the hapten or directly coordinate the metal. In exper iments with a different monoclonal antibody that binds an yttrium chelate. we have found similar results from the ...
Background The capability to predict antibody binding sites (aka antigenic determinants or B-cell epitopes) for a given protein is a precursor to new vaccine design and diagnostics. for antibody and protein binding sites prediction have been evaluated. In no method did performance surpass a 40% precision and 46% recall. The ideals of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the evaluated methods were about 0.6 for ConSurf, DiscoTope, and PPI-PRED methods and above 0.65 but not exceeding 0.70 for protein-protein docking methods when the best of the top ten models for the bound docking were considered; the remaining methods performed close to random. The benchmark datasets are included like a supplement to this paper. Conclusion It may be possible to improve epitope prediction methods through teaching on datasets which include only immune epitopes and through utilizing more features characterizing epitopes, for example, the evolutionary conservation score. Notwithstanding, ...
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Jordyn takes you through one of her ab workouts to help you get defined. This is the best ab workout for lower abs. The reps and sets are here to follow.
Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP - posted in Immunology: Hi, Im new here but have been using this site as a resource for a while, and now I have a question to ask regarding a problem that Ive been stuck on for a few months. Ive been trying to develop an immunoprecipitation protocol for isolating pannexin-1, with the hopes of performing coimmunoprecipitation afterwards. The problem that Ive been having relates to IgG contamination when I run the precipitat...
Signals generated through Igα/Igβ-containing receptor complexes are necessary and in some cases sufficient to direct B cells to execute a highly regulated series of ordered events that exhibit a very complex level of interdependence. However, in most cases, it is not well understood how the receptor-mediated signal is initiated and translated into specific B cell fates. Receptor oligomerization induced after Ag binding is thought to be a required step for generating signals leading to responses such as negative selection and activation (17, 39). However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that both the BCR and the pre-BCR on developing B cells are capable of generating signals independently of ligand (Ag) binding (24, 31, 32, 35, 51, 52). Despite several reports that implicate ligand-independent BCR signaling in B cell development, neither its regulation nor its linkage to specific events in B cell biology have been carefully studied. Moreover, it remains a matter of speculation whether or ...
Looking for online definition of antibody-antigen complex in the Medical Dictionary? antibody-antigen complex explanation free. What is antibody-antigen complex? Meaning of antibody-antigen complex medical term. What does antibody-antigen complex mean?
Protein A is a cell wall protein deriving from Staphylococcus aureus which exhibits unique binding properties for IgG from a variety of mammalian species and for some IgM and IgA as well. It binds with the Fc region of immunoglobulins through interaction with the heavy chain. It couples to a wide variety of reporter molecules including fluorescent dyes, enzyme markers, biotin, colloidal gold and radioactive iodine without affecting the antibody binding site. Recombinant Protein A was developed to increase the specificity of the molecule for IgG and is widely used both in research and bioprocessing. The recombinant protein A is produced by expressing a modified protein A gene in E.coli. A specific purification process with strict quality control was taken to get the recombinant protein A with the purity of more than 98% , no human IgG affinity step is used during validated fermentation and purification and devoid of bacterial contaminant found normally in native Protein A. (Free of Staphylococcus ...
First, samples and controls are added to their respective test wells. Next, an enzyme conjugate (target substance chemically linked with an enzyme) is added. The samples/controls and conjugate are mixed and transferred to antibody wells where they compete for the antibody binding sites. The more target substance in the sample, the less conjugate that binds in the wells.. After an incubation, the wells are washed to remove all unbound materials.. A substrate, which changes color in the presence of the conjugate, is added to the wells. During an incubation, blue color develops in proportion to the amount of conjugate versus target substance in the wells. The more conjugate bound, the more blue color that develops, indicating less substance present.. Results are read visually in a screening format-the less blue color, or more red, the more target substance detected. In a quantitative format, results are obtained by measuring the wells color change in a microwell reader and comparing the readings ...
The structures of only a few hundred antibodies have been solved by X-ray crystallography and there are even fewer structures of antibody-antigen complexes. There are however, many more antibody sequences in the databases, and homology modeling can be a useful tool in extending the number of structures of antigen-binding sites. Being able to model the structures of anitgen-binding sites can help in guiding the synthesis of novel antibody variable regions for potential therapeutics and laboratory regents ...
Antigen-Antibody Pen Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET
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Product is purified mouse IgG1 (K) and buffer. Mouse IgG1 (K) is purified from clarified mouse MOPC 21 ascites using multi-step procedures which may include salt fractionation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and immunoabsorption. The product is dialyzed into 0.02M TRIS, 0.15M sodium chloride, pH 8.1, filtered through a 0.22 µm filter and vialed.
structure and there are five types. It is these heavy chains which enable antibodies to be separated into the five classes (or isotypes) of immunoglobins; IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. The way in which the two heavy chains are connected to one another is through disulfide bonds, they are then connected to a light chain by disulfide bonds as well. This therefore creates two identical antigen-binding sites[4]. The regions of the heavy chain includes three constant domains, which are the same for all antibodies, and the one variable domain. The light chains are also composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. The variable regions of the antibodies are where the antigen binding site is located and the constant domain is responsible for the outcome of the antigen[5]. The Fc region is the part of the antibody that binds to cell surface receptors on cells such as macrophages. Finally, the Fab region is primarily known as the location for the antigen binding site[6]. The domains of antibodies are ...
structure and there are five types. It is these heavy chains which enable antibodies to be separated into the five classes (or isotypes) of immunoglobins; IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. The way in which the two heavy chains are connected to one another is through disulfide bonds, they are then connected to a light chain by disulfide bonds as well. This therefore creates two identical antigen-binding sites[4]. The regions of the heavy chain includes three constant domains, which are the same for all antibodies, and the one variable domain. The light chains are also composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. The variable regions of the antibodies are where the antigen binding site is located and the constant domain is responsible for the outcome of the antigen[5]. The Fc region is the part of the antibody that binds to cell surface receptors on cells such as macrophages. Finally, the Fab region is primarily known as the location for the antigen binding site[6]. The domains of antibodies are ...
A new kind of high avidity binding molecule, termed peptabody was made by harnessing the result of multivalent interaction. 85 kDa, with interchain disulfide bonds. Pab-S could be dissociated under denaturing and reducing circumstances and reassociated like a pentamer with full-binding activity. This intrinsic feature has an easy method to mix Pab substances with two different peptide specificities, creating heteropentamers with bispecific and/or chelating properties thus. binding actions for different receptors. A robust method of developing artificial ligands emerges by MCC950 sodium novel inhibtior the testing of huge phage libraries, displaying billions of different polypeptide sequences fused with coat proteins on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage (1, 2). For example, isolation of new peptide ligands allowed the mapping of antibody binding sites, the characterization of important residues in HLA-DR molecules, and the identification of protease substrates or inhibitors (for review see ...
Human induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) were obtained from the HipSci project (http://www.hipsci.org) and differentiated into macrophages using an established protocol (van Wilgenburg, 2013). The genotype_id column of the flow_sample_metadata.txt file contains the canonical HipSci iPSC line name from which the macrophages were differentiated. Data acquisition We used flow cytometry to measure the cell surface expression of three canonical macrophage markers: CD14, CD16 (FCGR3A/FCGR3B) and CD206 (MRC1). Macrophages were cultured in 10 cm tissue-culture treated plates and detached from the plates by incubation in 6 mg/ml lidocaine-PBS solution (Sigma L5647) for 30 minutes followed by gentle scraping. From each cell line we harvested between 300,000-500,000 cells. Detached cells were washed in media, centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 minutes and resuspended in flow cytometry buffer (2% BSA, 0.001% EDTA in D-PBS) and split into two wells of a 96-well plate. Nonspecific antibody binding sites were blocked by
Five such TB-cbEGF junctions exist between the cross-link sites (exons 14-58), and several folding arrangements could thus occur to generate the ∼56-nm untensioned microfibrils. TB3, which precedes the central 12 cbEGF array, has the longest linker region (19 residues) and may be particularly flexible. Of these possibilities, only one fits the formation of interbead arms of observed dimensions (14.7 nm or approximately six domains) and antibody binding sites. This arrangement would involve hinging at the TB3-cbEGF junction so that the central 12 cbEGF array folds back, juxtaposing the center of this array with the core bead, thereby enhancing its mass and reducing periodicity to ∼56 nm (18 cbEGFs, 3 TB modules). Characteristic diameter variations within each untensioned repeat (Fig. 1 C) shown in our reconstructions also indicate complex interbead molecular folding. N-Glycosylation sites, all accommodated within the interbead, would protect exposed interbead domain arrays from proteolytic ...
antibody binding sites. When the absorbent pad is soaked with urine, the The test kit can be stored at temperature urine will migrate via capillary action toward the test window where the test reaction occurs. A negative specimen produces two distinct color bands, one (2 to 30°C) in the sealed pouch to the date in the test zone and one in the control zone. A positive specimen produces of expiration. The test kit should be kept away from direct sunlight, moisture only one color band in the control zone. To serve as an internal process control, a control band was designed to indicate that the test is performed properly. This control line should always be seen after test is completed. PRECAUTION ...
Directory of patents published on February 25, 1992 (3,815 patents): Biosynthetic antibody binding sites; Hydrophilic lubricious coatings; Apparatus and method for adaptively compressing successive blocks of digital video; Inventory, cash, security, and maintenance control apparatus and method for a plurality of remote vending machines; Method for preparation of dialkyl tellurium and dialkyl selenium
Authors Note: This article is cross-posted from my Substack. How does Leronlimab work?. Leronlimab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that antagonistically binds to the CCR5 receptor to block activation of immune cells and lower the release of cytokines. The development of Leronlimab started with mouse antibodies that bind to CCR5. Unfortunately, mouse antibodies cant be directly imported into humans since they are attacked by the immune system as foreign invaders. Thats where next-level genetic engineering comes in. Researchers looked at the genes for human antibodies, identifying ones that were closest to the genes for the antibody that the mice produce. They then took the segment of DNA from the mouse antibody that coded for the antigen binding site and stitched that into the human antibody gene. (The antigen binding site is the key part of the antibody allows it bind to the CCR5 receptor). The result is a chimeric or humanized antibody which can be mass-produced in bacteria.. As alluded ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The physiology of anti-idiotypic interactions. T2 - From clonal to paratopic selection. AU - Greally, John M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - On theoretical and experimental grounds, it has been proposed that the idiotypes of immunoglobulins and of T cell receptors are composed of multiple paratopes, as opposed to a single paratope and several idiotopes. This necessitates a revision of some of the basic principles of anti-idiotypic reactions. It is also possible to infer the presence of the same or similar paratopes on different idiotypes. A paratope cannot therefore be regarded as restricted to or unique on an idiotype. For these reasons, the perception of immunological specificity in terms of clonal units is misleading. This review proposes instead that the physiological unit of immunological specificity and regulation is the paratope. This essential alteration in the perception of the immune system is referred to as paratopic selection. The approach is assessed in terms of ...
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A chronic skin issue like eczema can often be treated with dietary interventions.2 Often your immune system mistakenly identifies a food as being foreign, tagging it with an antibody and forming an antibody-antigen complex. When these form in abundance, they deposit in your joints, and your skin - leading to eczema.2 Conditions like eczema require modulating your immune system to only identify and tag true intruders and not foods that we eat on a daily basis.2. ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays Chem 395 Spring 2007 Instructor : Dr. James Rusling Presenter : Bhaskara V. Chikkaveeraiah OUTLINE Immunoassays Introduction Factors contributing to
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This lab activity is designed to study highly specific lock-key matching properties of antigen-antibody and how this highly specific interaction can be exploited as a tool for research and analysis. This study involves the use of an immunodiffusion technique in which antigen and antibody are allowed to diffuse in a solid agarose medium. When antigen and antibody meet, antigen-antibody complex is formed, which leads to precipitation. Antigen-antibody precipitate is formed in the zone where the concentration of the two matching pair reaches an optimal known as the zone of equivalence, which results in formation of a visible opaque precipitate region in agarose medium. Those regions of precipitation can be used for determination of concentration or titer of both antigen and antibody. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction kit is a hands-on study of both Ouchterlony Double Diffusion and Radial Immunodiffusion techniques. This kit also provides additional guidance materials for teaching other types of ...
Protein A is a cell-wall protein derived from Staphylococcus aureus which has unique binding properties to a variety of mammalian species of IgG. It can also bind some IgM and IgA. Protein A binds the Fc region of immunoglobulins through interaction with the heavy chain. It can be coupled to a variety of reporter molecules, such as fluorescent dyes, enzyme markers, biotin, colloidal gold, and radioactive iodine without affecting the antibody binding site. The recombinant version of protein A was developed to increase the specificity for IgG.. The recombinant protein A is produced by expressing a modified protein A gene in E. coli. It is a non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing the amino acid sequence of Staphylococcal protein A IgG binding domains and having a molecular mass of 41 kDa. The recombinant protein A contains six IgG-binding regions of protein A. The cell-wall binding region, albumin binding region and other non-specific binding regions have been eliminated from the ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a sensitive, heterogenous (multiple phase) analytical technique for quantitation of antigen or antibody in which enzyme-labeled antibody or antigen is bound to a solid support (e.g., tubes, beads, microtiter plate wells, plastic tines or fins). After addition of patient specimen and substrate, antigen, antibody or complex are detected by a color change indicating the presence of the product of an enzyme-substrate reaction. Direct ELISA is a technique for measuring antigen using competition for antibody binding sites between enzyme- labeled antigen and patient antigen. Indirect ELISA, or enzyme immunometric assay, measures antibody concentrations using bound antigen to interact with specimen antibodies. Enzyme-labeled reagent antibodies can be isotype-specific (i.e., capable of determining the presence of IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE classes which react with the antigen of interest). The specificity of indirect ELISA assays for IgM isotypes in some infectious ...
When antigens enter into the body, normally this antigen will be recognized by the antibody that has been generated before during first exposure. The antibody binds to the soluble antigen forming the antibody-antigen complexes in the circulation in order to clear up all of the pathogens. According to Levinson (n.d), the reticuloendothelial system or macrophages system and other phagocytes have the ability to remove the immune antibody-antigen complexes very effectively in a normal condition. However, in type III hypersensitivity, these systems are not capable to remove these complexes. As a result, this antigen-antibody complexes tends to deposit on the wall of the blood vessels. Some of the immune complex deposition on the blood vessel will activate the complement protein such as C1, C4, C3 and C5-9 resulting membrane attack complex, leukocytes chemotaxis, leukocytes polymorphism and phagocytosis as well as inflammation. So that, in classical pathway C1 binds to the antigen-antibody complex and ...
specificalPrinciple of the assay: N1-N12 ELISA kit applies the competitive enzyme immunoassay technique utilizing a monoclonal anti-N1-N12 antibody and an N1-N12-HRP conjugate. The assay sample and buffer are incubated together with N1-N12-HRP conjugate in pre-coated plate for one hour. After the incubation period, the wells are decanted and washed five times. The wells are then incubated with a substrate for HRP enzyme. The product of the enzyme-substrate reaction forms a blue colored complex. Finally, a stop solution is added to stop the reaction, which will then turn the solution yellow. The intensity of color is measured spectrophotometrically at 450nm in a microplate reader. The intensity of the color is inversely proportional to the N1-N12 concentration since N1-N12 from samples and N1-N12-HRP conjugate compete for the anti-N1-N12 antibody binding site. Since the number of sites is limited, as more sites are occupied by N1-N12 from the sample, fewer sites are left to bind N1-N12-HRP ...
Idiotype definition, the molecular arrangement of amino acids unique to the antigen-binding site of a particular antibody. See more.
Mouse IgG2a, 0.1 mg. The specificity of staining by monoclonal antibodies to target antigens should be verified by establishing the amount of non-specific antibody binding.
Mouse IgG2a, 0.1 mg. The specificity of staining by monoclonal antibodies to target antigens should be verified by establishing the amount of non-specific antibody binding.
How to culture cells after sorting? - posted in Flow Cytometry: How are cells cultured after subjecting them to antibodies and cell sorting? How are the bound antibodies removed after sorting? What are the preparation steps after the cells are collected?
Just something iv been wondering about for a awhile, i am a DL and was kinda wondering how i got that way. I know people who are ABs are sometimes that way because they had to grow up to fast or soemthing along those lines/ However i am just a DL, and i have always just wanted to wear diapers, and there was really nothing tramatic in my life that would make me want to. so my question is, do you think it could possible be gene linked? maybe someone in your family likes them too?
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Anti-fluorescein antibodies are excellent model systems for studying the biochemical basis of molecular recognition because a prodigious amount of both physico-chemical and structural information is available for these antibodies. Furthermore, recombinant single-chain antibodies have been produced for several anti-fluorescein antibodies, and site-specific mutagenesis studies have defined the energetic contributions of a number of key active-site residues. In previous studies, we determined the three-dimensional structure of an antigen-binding fragment of a high-affinity anti-fluorescein antibody (4-4-20) in complex with fluorescein. These studies showed that fluorescein binds tightly in an aromatic slot and participates in a network of electrostatic interactions. In this report, we examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the 4-4-20 antigen-combining site by observing the effects of pH on the fluorescence of fluorescein and antigen-binding affinity. These studies showed that the salt ...
TEPC-15 is a phosphorylcholine-binding mouse myeloma protein which reacts with an ester-containing phosphorylcholine, the p-nitrophenyl ester of 6-(phosphorylcholine)hexanoic acid (PEPCH). The rate...
specificalPrinciple of the Assay: CD40L ELISA kit applies the competitive enzyme immunoassay technique utilizing a monoclonal anti-CD40L antibody and an CD40L-HRP conjugate. The assay sample and buffer are incubated together with CD40L-HRP conjugate in pre-coated plate for one hour. After the incubation period, the wells are decanted and washed five times. The wells are then incubated with a substrate for HRP enzyme. The product of the enzyme-substrate reaction forms a blue colored complex. Finally, a stop solution is added to stop the reaction, which will then turn the solution yellow. The intensity of color is measured spectrophotometrically at 450nm in a microplate reader. The intensity of the color is inversely proportional to the CD40L concentration since CD40L from samples and CD40L-HRP conjugate compete for the anti-CD40L antibody binding site. Since the number of sites is limited, as more sites are occupied by CD40L from the sample, fewer sites are left to bind CD40L-HRP conjugate. A ...
Q: Must manufacturers who label foods gluten-free test these foods for gluten?. A: NO.. Q: If the FDA tests food for gluten as part of rule enforcement what tests will they use?. A: At present the FDA states that they will use two sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)-based methods (R5 ELISA from R-Biopharm and Wheat Protein ELISA Kit (gliadin) from Morinaga).. Q: How is the FDA handling foods made from hydrolyzed or fermented ingredients?. A: First a little background information… What is known as a sandwich ELISA is used to assess the gluten content of foods when the gluten protein is intact or relatively intact. With this type of assay, two epitopes or antibody binding sites are needed. When an ingredient or food is hydrolyzed or fermented the gluten protein is broken into smaller protein fragments. These peptides may no longer contain two epitopes. As a result gluten content may be underestimated if the food is assessed using a sandwich ELISA.. For example consider the ...
For antibodies both the amine and carboxylate groups are plentiful. For this reason, conjugation procedures that utilize these groups will cross link randomly to all parts of the antibody molecule. The distribution of amine and carboxylate groups on a three dimensional structure of an immunoglobin is nearly uniform throughout the surface topology. Conjugation to these functional groups can lead to random conjugation and hence, random orientation of the antibody often blocking the antigen binding site. Obscuring the binding site will decrease antigen binding activity in the conjugate. Site directed conjugation generally leads to conjugation chemistry that is successful at preserving the activity of the antibody. Conjugation through the sulfhydryl of a fragmented antibody is one such method of site directed conjugation. In this method the conjugation takes place at certain positions on the immunoglobin surface that is far from the antigen binding sites thus preventing blockage of these sites and ...
Specific Interference with the Determination of the Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed after Treatment with the Anti-Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 Antibody ...
Hi, Someone did a kinetics analysis of antibody binding to immune cells after ip injection of monoclonal antibody? How long time would it take fter injection before the target cells are stained? With best regards Petter Höglund Department of Microbiology Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institute, Box 280, S-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden -------------- next part -------------- HTML attachment scrubbed and removed ...
Rose, L M.; Goldman, M; and Lambert, P, The production of anti-idiotypic antibodies and of idiotype- -anti-idiotype immune complexes after polyclonal activation induced by bacterial lps. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2727 ...
You searched for: Subject Molecular Structure Remove constraint Subject: Molecular Structure Subject Antigen-Antibody Complex Remove constraint Subject: Antigen-Antibody Complex ...
Ongoing since 1999, the lab has worked to develop infrared probes of protein dynamics, specifically the carbon-deuterium (C-D) bond. Weve used C-D bonds to characterize stability, folding, and function of a variety of proteins, and compared their use to other common IR probes of proteins. A second biophysical project focuses on protein evolution, specifically evolution of antibodies and the role of somatic mutations in altering antibody structure and dynamics. Weve characterized antibodies raised against several chromophoric antigens, which have allowed us to measure the rigidity of the antibody-antigen complex using nonlinear optical spectroscopy.. ...
|strong|Mouse IgG2a negative control antibody, clone OX-34|/strong| is suitable for use as a negative control reagent for the measurement of non-specific binding of mouse monoclonal antibodies of isot…
substrate EW-80110 Kit EW-80200 Kit EW-80201 Kit EW-80202 Kit EW-80203- Kit EW-80204 Kit EW-80205 Kit EW-80206 Kit EW-80207 Kit EW-80208 Kit EW-80209 Kit EW-80215 Kit EW-90100 EW-BLP01 EW-BLP02 EW-BP01-1L EW-BSB01 EW-BSB02 EW-BSB03 EW-BSB04 EW-EP05-30 EW-FP01-5 EW-FP01-50 EW-GLP01 EW-GLP02 EW-HB01 EW-IF01-4N EW-IOR01 EW-LF01-10S EW-LF01-500 EW-LF08-10S EW-LF08-500 EW-LF16-10S EW-LF16-500 EW-LH604-200 EW-LH604-30 EW-PP03-2C EW-PP03-5E EW-PP03-6C EW-PP05-2C EW-PP05-5E EW-PP05-6C dye EW-SALL-500 EW-VG01-10S EW-VG01-300 EW-VG01-500 EW-VG08-10S EW-VG08-300 EW-VG08-500 EW-VG16-100 EW-VP01-125 EW-VP01-500 EW-VP05-125 EW-VP05-500 EW-VP10-1L Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET Antigen
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding to specific antigens. Due to the differences between antigens and their corresponding antibodies, protocols for IHC vary widely. At Wax-it, our expert staff will efficiently develop such protocols to bring you results of the highest quality.. Our areas of expertise in IHC include:. ...
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"MatInspector: Search for transcription factor binding sites". www.genomatix.de. Retrieved 2020-12-19. "FAM120AOS Antibodies". ... There are 4 large stem loops present in the 5' UTR of the human FAM120AOS protein 1. There are 8 miRNA binding sites identified ... Isoform 3 is 2199 bp and uses an alternate splice site in the first exon. The transcript variants (e.g. isoforms) 6-12 are all ... "RNAfold web server". rna.tbi.univie.ac.at. Retrieved 2020-12-19. "miRDB - Custom Prediction". mirdb.org. Retrieved 2020-12-19 ...
Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2)". Nature. 329 ... Hahn WC, Menu E, Bothwell AL, Sims PJ, Bierer BE (1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a ... Bell GM, Fargnoli J, Bolen JB, Kish L, Imboden JB (January 1996). "The SH3 domain of p56lck binds to proline-rich sequences in ... "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the mitogenic ...
The antigen binding site consists of two variable regions, VL and VH. The remainder of the antibody structure is made up of ... Anti-XRCC4 antibodies including phosphospecific antibodies to pS260 and pS318 in XRCC4 have been developed. Antibodies to XRCC4 ... J recombination when gene regions are rearranged to create the unique antigen binding sites of antibodies and T-cell receptors ... Upon generation of a DSB, Ku proteins will move through the cytoplasm until they find the site of the break and bind to it. Ku ...
This can be accomplished by metabolizing bound LHCGR sites. The bound LCGR complex is brought by lateral migration to a coated ... Antibodies to LHCGR can interfere with LHCGR activity. LHCGR abnormalities[edit]. Loss-of-function mutations in females can ... Ligand binding and signal transduction[edit]. Upon binding of LH to the external part of the membrane spanning receptor, a ... Upregulation refers to the increase in the number of receptor sites on the membrane. Estrogen and FSH upregulate LHCGR sites in ...
HVTN 703 and HVTN 704 test VRC01, a mAb that targets the CD4 binding site. In 2017, Janssen and the HVTN launched the phase IIb ... Potential broadly neutralizing antibodies have been cloned in the laboratory (monoclonal antibodies) and are being tested in ... the first phase IIb trial of a monoclonal antibody for HIV prevention. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a passive vaccination ... April 1999). "Neutralizing antibodies have limited effects on the control of established HIV-1 infection in vivo". Immunity. 10 ...
For many interactions, the binding site is known on one or more of the proteins to be docked. This is the case for antibodies ... Do these proteins bind in vivo? If they do bind, What is the spatial configuration which they adopt in their bound state? How ... In other cases, a binding site may be strongly suggested by mutagenic or phylogenetic evidence. Configurations where the ... A binding affinity benchmark has been based on the protein-protein docking benchmark. 81 protein-protein complexes with known ...
Many neutralizing antibodies bind to sites located in variable regions of gp120, so mutations in these regions will be selected ... The presence of large carbohydrate chains extending from gp120 might obscure possible antibody binding sites. The boundaries of ... "Fine mapping of the interaction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies with the CD4 binding site of human ... "Global Shape and Ligand Binding Efficiency of the HIV-1-neutralizing Antibodies Differ from Those of Antibodies That Cannot ...
Another binding-site is the CRE, where the CREB binds, taking part in NIS transcription. In contrast, growth factors such as ... Moreover, antibodies anti-NIS have been found in thyroid autoimmune diseases. Using RT-PCR tests, it has been proved that there ... The transcriptional factor Pax8 binds in two of these sites. Pax8 mutations lead to a decrease in the transcriptional activity ... This can activate the CREB transcription factor (cAMP Response Element-Binding) that will bind to the CRE (cAMP Responsive ...
This structure showed where antibody binding sites can obstruct the interaction and prevent host cell invasion. Tham was named ... Her further work in the same lab found the binding sites on the CR1 peptide for Rh4, and proved that phosphorylation of the ... In 2018, Tham's lab proved that the P. vivax reticulocyte-binding protein binds the human transferrin receptor 1 protein in ... In 2018 the WEHI institute awarded Tham the Burnet Prize for work on the binding of P. vivax parasites and red blood cells, and ...
... or antibody binding sites, of pathogens. When a sample of diluted blood serum (containing antibodies) is applied to the surface ... This collection of antibodies will bind to regions of some of the random sequence peptides. The antibodies in the serum sample ... This secondary antibody binds to the patient antibody already on the array from the diluted serum sample, and since this ... and an unknown number of antibodies bound to some of those peptides. To detect those human antibodies, the array is covered ...
Structural analysis by X-ray crystallography indicates that antibody binding partially occludes putative carbohydrate binding ... Bezlotoxumab specifically binds to two homologous sites within the CROP domain of TcdB. ... When TcdB binds to Rho and other small GTPases, GTP hydrolyzes to GDP, which leads to GTP-bound (active) to GDP-bound (inactive ... This SRs and LRs region allows formation of cell wall binding motifs that help to bind sugar moieties of the cell surfaces. In ...
Epitope mapping identifies the sites of antibodies to which their target antigens bind. In the past, scientists would have to ... Bound T-cells are activated and secrete cytokines, which are captured by specific detection antibodies. This microarray can map ... Antibody microarrays use antibodies as probes and antigens as targets. They can be used to directly measure the antigen ... Peptide microarrays use antigen peptides as probes and serum antibodies as targets. These can be used for functional immunomic ...
Using this method, Wilchek collaborated with a team who proved that the binding site of antibodies lies in the Fv portion of ... "A homologous series of affinity labeling reagents and their use in the study of antibody binding sites". Biochemistry. 10 (13 ... "The covalent binding of daunomycin and adriamycin to antibodies, with retention of both drug and antibody activities". Cancer ... These molecules covalently modify active site residues in order to elucidate the structure of the active site. ...
In antibodies, hypervariable regions form the antigen-binding site and are found on both light and heavy chains. They also ... The hyperbariable regions for the antigen-binding site. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hypervariable+region at the US ... In the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence of the human mitogenome, the most variable sites of HVR1 are numbered 16024-16383 ( ... Antibodies are remarkably specific, thanks to hypervariable regions in both light and heavy chains. ...
The abzyme does more than bind to the site: it catalytically destroys the site, rendering the virus inert, and then can attack ... By raising an antibody to bind to a stable transition-state analog, a new and unique type of enzyme is produced. So far, all ... from catalytic monoclonal antibody), and most often called catalytic antibody, is a monoclonal antibody with catalytic activity ... The possibility of catalyzing a reaction by means of an antibody which binds the transition state was first suggested by ...
In naturally occurring antibodies (such as IgGs), the antigen-binding sites are located at the variable regions (Fab). Fcabs ... Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. doi:10.1093/ ... hence the name of bispecific antibodies. This antibody fragment is part of the modular antibody technology of F-star ... Fcabs are antibodies fragments engineered from the constant region of an antibody (Fc). ...
... s can be antibodies that cause antigens to aggregate by binding to the antigen-binding sites of antibodies. ... Agglutinins can also be any substance other than antibodies, such as sugar-binding protein lectins. When an agglutinin is added ... When erythrocytes are exposed to hemagglutinins (anti-A and Anti-B antibodies), those expressing antigen A or B coagulate upon ... In cold agglutinin disease, the body produces agglutinins or antibodies that coagulate erythrocytes and lyse them at room ...
This generates two separate monovalent (containing a single antibody binding site) Fab fragments and an intact Fc fragment. The ... containing two antibody binding sites), hence the designation F(ab')2. The light chains remain intact and attached to the heavy ... Use of F(ab')2 or Fab fragments ensures that the antibodies are binding to the antigen and not Fc receptors. These fragments ... In some assays, it is preferable to use only the antigen-binding (Fab) portion of the antibody. For these applications, ...
V(D)J recombination is the process by which the large variation in antibody binding sites is created. In this mechanism, DNA is ... two at each end of the transposon called terminal inverted repeats and one at the target site. The transposase will bind to the ... The addition of the new DNA into the target site causes short gaps on either side of the inserted segment. Host systems repair ... This enzyme would make a single stranded cut in the DNA which explains the lack of Target Site Duplications found in Helitrons ...
This initial study described the rapid isolation of human antibody Fab that bound tetanus toxin and the method was then ... targeting the integrin ligand binding site". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (21): 10003-7. Bibcode:1993PNAS...9010003B. doi: ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... Adalimumab, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. ...
Conversely, when the target analyte is present in the sample, it binds to the antibodies to prevent them binding to the fixed ... Sandwich assays are generally used for larger analytes because they tend to have multiple binding sites. As the sample migrates ... The test line also contains immobilized antibodies specific to the target analyte, which bind to the migrated analyte bound ... The antibodies bind to the target analyte within the sample and migrate together until they reach the test line. ...
Capture molecules such as antibodies can be bound to the ion channel so that the binding of the target molecule controls the ... The integration of the fluorophore must be done in a site where it is sensitive to the binding of the analyte without ... There are limitations with using antibodies in sensors: 1. The antibody binding capacity is strongly dependent on assay ... Antibodies have a high binding constant in excess of 10^8 L/mol, which stands for a nearly irreversible association once the ...
"Targeting of humanized antibody D93 to sites of angiogenesis and tumor growth by binding to multiple epitopes on denatured ... "A collagen-binding EGFR single-chain Fv antibody fragment for the targeted cancer therapy". Journal of Controlled Release. 209 ... derived from collagen binding proteins, or antibodies raised against collagens. Unfortunately, these compounds cannot target ... as opposed to specific epitopes binding that is seen for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), for example. Due to their unique ...
... of acute vascular thrombosis in chimpanzees by an anti-human tissue factor antibody targeting the factor X binding site". ... Company website Press on Pharming Purchase of PPL assets Phyton Biotech Official Website Company website Company website Press ... Wettstein lab webpage COST Action FA0804 Official Website Ward, Andrew (8 August 2014) Biotech groups face ethical dilemmas in ... 2003 Press Release Purchase contract Press Release Altor website Clinical trial number NCT00879606 for "Anti-TF Antibody (ALT- ...
"Protein antigen-monoclonal antibody contact sites investigated by limited proteolysis of monoclonal antibody-bound antigen: ... was originally coined in reference to the use of limited proteolysis to investigate contact sites within a monoclonal antibody ... protein antigen complex and a year later to examine the protection from hydroxyl radical cleavage conferred by a protein bound ...
Antibodies are Y-shaped which allows them to work properly because that is how their unique sites bind with a matching site on ... Anti-ovarian antibodies are found against the ovaries, they bind to the working sites of the ovaries. According to research ... Antibodies target its own cells, tissues, and organs. Antibodies are made by the immune system as a response to an infection. ... "Do Antibodies Mean Immunity?". Dictionary.com. 2020-05-05. Retrieved 2020-12-18. Welt CK (2008). "Autoimmune oophoritis in the ...
The antibodies were able to bind to the neuraminidase active site neutralizing the virus across multiple strains. The site ... FI6 is the only known antibody that binds (its neutralizing activity is controversial) to all 16 subtypes of the influenza A ... Stadlbauer D, "Broadly protective human antibodies that target the active site of influenza virus neuraminidase" "Science", ... In trials using mice all three antibodies were effective across multiple strains, one antibody was able to protect the mice ...
Specifically, neutralization occurs when the antidrug antibody binds to infliximab's antigen binding site instead of TNF-α. ... Neutralization occurs when an antidrug antibody prevents a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab from binding antigen in a ... Individuals with psoriasis may develop neutralizing antibodies against monoclonal antibodies. ... Several monoclonal antibodies target cytokines, the molecules that cells use to send inflammatory signals to each other. TNF-α ...
Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell.[5] Unlike their ... Plasma cells can only produce a single kind of antibody in a single class of immunoglobulin. In other words, every B cell is ...
IgM antibodies are detectable two days after symptom onset and IgG antibodies can be detected six to 18 days after symptom ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... ability to bind to and infect targeted cells.[51] The viral RNA polymerase, encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, ...
The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Rituximab binding to CD20. The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is ... antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity).[55] This strategy for enhancing a monoclonal antibody's ability to induce ADCC takes ...
acrosin binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • carbohydrate binding. • identical protein binding. • receptor ligand activity ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... immunogenicity and characterization of antibodies". J. Reprod. Immunol. 79 (2): 137-47. doi:10.1016/j.jri.2008.09.002. PMID ... binding of sperm to zona pellucida. • negative regulation of binding of sperm to zona pellucida. • positive regulation of ...
Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound to plasma proteins including thyroxine-binding globulin, ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... people with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, people with symptoms of hypothyroidism and TSH levels between 5-10 mIU ... The primary pathway of thyroid hormone metabolism is through sequential deiodination.[20] The liver is the main site of T4 ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... Afatinib covalently binds to cysteine number 797 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a Michael addition (IC50 = ...
The OspC antibodies kill any of the bacteria that have not been killed by the OspA antibodies. Canine Recombinant Lyme, ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... IgM and IgG antibody levels may be elevated for years even after successful treatment with antibiotics.[23] As antibody levels ...
Kalled SL (2007). "Impact of the BAFF/BR3 axis on B cell survival, germinal center maintenance and antibody production.". Semin ... "Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1". Nature 423 (6935): 49-56. PMID 12721620. doi:10.1038/ ... "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=10673. ...
The level of A1AT in serum is most often determined by adding an antibody that binds to A1AT, then using turbidimetry to ... The three N-linked glycosylations sites are mainly equipped with so-called diantennary N-glycans. However, one particular site ... Normally, A1AT leaves its site of origin, the liver, and joins the systemic circulation; defective A1AT can fail to do so, ... Most serpins inactivate enzymes by binding to them covalently, requiring very high levels to perform their function. In the ...
Fluorescently tagged antibodies or streptavidin are bound to the dye molecule. These secondary components are selected so that ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only ... The probe is tagged directly with fluorophores, with targets for antibodies or with biotin. Tagging can be done in various ways ...
The binding of the dye to a protein causes a shift in the absorbance maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm. The increase of ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... It is applied as an anionic pre-antibody stain. ... The dye molecules bind to proteins including wool (keratin) to ... On binding to a protein the negatively charged Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye molecule will give an overall negative charge ...
Then, hyper-mutations occur in the binding site area of the antibody gene. This creates further diversity.[10][11] ... Mian I, Bradwell A, Olson A (1991). "Structure, function and properties of antibody binding sites". J Mol Biol 217 (1): 133-51 ... This binds the two structures together. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for ... humans generate about 10 billion different antibodies, each capable of binding a distinct antigen site.[8] This must be done ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... and very high concentrations of the serum antibody IgE. Inheritance can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.[3] Many ... DNA-binding domains. 2.1. *(Intracellular receptor): Thyroid hormone resistance. *Androgen insensitivity syndrome *PAIS ...
Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2).". Nature 329 ... 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59.". Science 256 (5065): 1805-7. PMID ... 1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ... "Identification of a proline-binding motif regulating CD2-triggered T lymphocyte activation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... One study has identified antibodies to an M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in 70% (26 of 37) cases evaluated.[2] In 2014, a ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Immunofluorescence and antibody techniques were used to localise the mutant V12rac1 protein after being microinjected into the ... After size fractionation of FCS and analysis of the lipids that bound to serum albumin, the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was ... In 1993, Alan Hall was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal ...
The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[5] The virus then remains latent ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... "Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ...
B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ...
In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... VDRL, which detects antibodies against syphilis, may have a false positive result in aPL-positive patients (aPL bind to the ... Anti-ApoH and a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind to ApoH, which in turn inhibits Protein C, a glycoprotein with ...
Fyn can bind to NR2B through its SH2 domain and mediate phosphorylation of its Tyr-1472 site.[49] Similar studies have ... Antibodies: Against TrkA: GBR-900; Against NGF: ABT-110 (PG110). *ASP-6294 ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ... It binds carboxypeptidase E (CPE), and the disruption of this binding has been proposed to cause the loss of sorting of BDNF ...
However, HpaII requires that a C within that site be methylated, whereas MspI cleaves only DNA unmethylated at that site. ... To ensure the specificity of the binding of the probe to the sample DNA, most common hybridization methods use salmon or ... Proteins from Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gels to Unmodified Nitrocellulose and Radiographic Detection with Antibody ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ...
They are usually the first cells to arrive at the site of an infection.[5] The bone marrow of a normal healthy adult produces ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps antibodies clear pathogens or mark them for ... The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria. ... When host cells die, phagocytic cells remove them from the affected site.[1] By removing dead cells, phagocytosis is an ...
Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ...
Del Valle JM، Engel P، Martín M (2003). "The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its ... 1984). "Natural killer-like function of activated T lymphocytes: differential blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies ... "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites". Protein Sci. 13 (10): 2819-24. PMC ... "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" ...
carbohydrate binding. • virus receptor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... In the case of dengue virus, monoclonal anti-CLEC5A antibodies are able to suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines ... The most known ligand for CLEC5A is dengue virus (DV). Activated CLEC5A by binding to the dengue virion leads to ...
The proteasome is also involved in Intracellular antibody-mediated proteolysis of antibody-bound virions. In this ... The inner two rings are made of seven β subunits that contain three to seven protease active sites. These sites are located on ... The strength of MHC class I ligand binding is dependent on the composition of the ligand C-terminus, as peptides bind by ... Light blue chemical structures are the inhibitor bortezomib bound to the active sites. ...
Classical: starts when antibody bind to bacteria. *Alternative: starts "spontaneously". *Lectin: starts when lectins bind to ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... The complement system is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps, or "complements", the ability of antibodies to ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
"Distinct sites of intracellular production for Alzheimer's disease A beta40/42 amyloid peptides". Nat. Med. 3 (9): 1016-20. ... and antibody response of active Aβ immunotherapy with CAD106 in patients with Alzheimer's disease: randomised, double-blind, ... "Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptides compete for insulin binding to the insulin receptor" (PDF). J. Neurosci. 22 (10): RC221. ... "The Alzheimer's amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) binds a specific DNA Aβ-interacting domain (AβID) in the APP, BACE1, and APOE promoters ...
Boucher LM, Marengère LE, Lu Y, Thukral S, Mak TW (Apr 1997). "Binding sites of cytoplasmic effectors TRAF1, 2, and 3 on CD30 ... Gedrich RW, Gilfillan MC, Duckett CS, Van Dongen JL, Thompson CB (May 1996). "CD30 contains two binding sites with different ... nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. • integral component of plasma ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ...
Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... we measured the entropies of binding for 20 gp120-reactive antibodies. Here we show that recognition by receptor-binding-site ... HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites.. Kwong PD1, Doyle ML, ... which are larger than the typical antibody footprint and should therefore be accessible for antibody binding. Because gp120- ...
S139/1 is a cross-reactive antibody that neutralizes multiple HA stra … ... virus reveals that the antibody targets highly conserved residues in the receptor binding site and contacts antigenic sites A, ... Heterosubtypic antibody recognition of the influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding site enhanced by avidity Proc Natl ... Thus, antibodies making relatively low affinity Fab interactions with the receptor binding site can have significant antiviral ...
... while the antibodies demonstrate outstanding degrees of both purity and specificity ... Credit: Binding SiteSan Diego, CA - Binding Sites Immunologicals Group is pleased announce that it has just completed a major ... Binding Site Offers Family of Recombinant Parvovirus Antigens. Binding Site Offers Family of Recombinant Parvovirus Antigens. ... Binding Site Now Offers Bordetella pertussis Antigens for IVD Manufacturing & Research Applications. Binding Site Now Offers ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Binding of site-directed monoclonal antibodies to an epitope located in the A/B region (amino acids 140-154) of human estrogen ... Mab F9 bound ER and formed a complex sedimenting at the approximately 11S region of the gradients. Mabs 213 and NMT-1 bound ER ... as determined by the inability of Mab 213 to remain bound to its epitope. These data further suggest that the DNA-binding ...
An antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR ... The hydrogen exchange labeling approach can be used to map binding sites on small proteins in antibody-antigen complexes and ... An antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR ... An antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR ...
89 Polyamine-antibody interactions: A conserved binding site motif JULIE S. JOHNSTON; JULIE S. JOHNSTON ... This site uses cookies. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our privacy policy. ... IQ-motif selectivity in human IQGAP2 and IQGAP3: binding of calmodulin and myosin essential light chain Biosci Rep (August, ... JULIE S. JOHNSTON, NATHALIE N. BOUILLE, JEAN GUY DELCROS, DILJEET S. ATHWAL; 89 Polyamine-antibody interactions: A conserved ...
Antibodies] antibodies in the SelectScience.net Antibody products and suppliers directory ...
A tier 2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), HJ16 recognizes a new epitope in the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) region that only ... We aimed to identify the critical binding site by resistance induction in a sensitive primary CRF02_AG strain. In four ... This mutation removes an N-linked glycosylation site. The effect of N276D was very selective, as it failed to confer resistance ... These data indicate that binding of the CD4bs specific HJ16 mAb critically depends on the interaction with the N276-glycan, ...
Antibody active site contributions to fluorescein ligand binding. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... responsible for the observed Fl binding characteristics. To begin active site structure-function assessments, V$\sb{\rm H}$ and ... To verify this, Fl binding assays, following in vitro H and L chain reassociations, were performed. Results indicated: (1) L34 ... A panel of idiotypically cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) isolated in response to fluorescein (Fl) was ...
Crystal structure of broadly neutralizing VH1-46 germline-derived CD4-binding site-directed antibody CH235 in complex with HIV- ... Crystal structure of broadly neutralizing VH1-46 germline-derived CD4-binding site-directed antibody CH235 in complex with HIV- ... Our website will not work properly. Please update to a newer version or download a new web browser, such as Chrome or Firefox. ... Maturation Pathway from Germline to Broad HIV-1 Neutralizer of a CD4-Mimic Antibody.. Bonsignori, M., Zhou, T., Sheng, Z., Chen ...
Biological activities of binding site specific monoclonal antibodies to prolactin receptors of rabbit mammary gland ... Accepted Manuscript: Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies ... Title: Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies. ... "Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies". United States. doi ...
Monoclonal, polyclonal, and recombinant antibodies. Select applications, conjugates, hosts, and reactivity. Get complete ... Find and compare multiple sources of anti-C1q antibody using the Linscotts Directory search engine. ... BINDING SITE IMMUNOLOGICALS GROUP. BINDING SITE IMMUNOLOGICALS GROUP. 8 Calthorpe Road. Birmingham, West Midlands B15 1QT U.K. ... C1q Antibody from BINDING SITE IMMUNOLOGICALS GROUP. Product Specific References. Effects of Hydrophobicity and Electrostatic ...
Micropharmacology of Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Tumors: Direct Experimental Evidence for a Binding Site Barrier. Malik ... Micropharmacology of Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Tumors: Direct Experimental Evidence for a Binding Site Barrier ... Micropharmacology of Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Tumors: Direct Experimental Evidence for a Binding Site Barrier ... Micropharmacology of Monoclonal Antibodies in Solid Tumors: Direct Experimental Evidence for a Binding Site Barrier ...
These neutralizing llama antibodies target different areas of the CD4-binding site of the virus, therefore breadth and potency ... deep sequencing of the HIV binding region of the antibodies was performed. This revealed that the antibodies were matured fully ... Llamas possess heavy chain only antibodies and conventional heavy and light chain antibodies. We previously reported the heavy ... Here we immunized two further llamas and elicited three novel broadly neutralizing heavy chain only antibodies, which were ...
Hyperglycosylated stable core immunogens designed to present the CD4 binding site are preferentially recognized by broadly ... neutralizing antibodies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... binding site. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited from HIV patients do target this gp120 CD4 binding site (CD4bs ... binding site. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited from HIV patients do target this gp120 CD4 binding site (CD4bs ...
... Schröder, A K ; Gharavi, A E ; ... Binding of monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factor to streptococci via the antibody combining site}, volume = {83}, year = {1987}, } ... indicating that the reaction was mediated via the antibody combining sites.. Links. *Research Portal page ... indicating that the reaction was mediated via the antibody combining sites.}, author = {Schröder, A K and Gharavi, A E and ...
The increased avidity of IgG binding was shown to reduce Kd values and improve ability of S139/1 to recognize different ... Kd values for S139/1 Fab and IgG binding to various influenza HA strains were determined to assess enhanced virus ... Heterosubtypic Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site Enhanced by Avidity ... Using the Octet RED system, Kd values for S139/1 Fab and IgG binding to various influenza HA strains were determined to assess ...
Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... we studied the fine epitope specificity of a panel of CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibodies to define the molecular recognition ... A set of 16 samples from the RV217 HIV cohort were titrated for binding to WT (red) and STG (blue) core before and following ...
Home , Newsroom , Scientific Publications , Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an ... Identification of CD4-Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV-1 Infected Indian Individual. PLoS ONE ... Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV 1 Infected Indian Individual ... Title: Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV 1 Infected Indian Individual ...
Probing the nucleotide binding site of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies ANA M. MATA ... Probing the nucleotide binding site of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies. Biochem Soc ... This site uses cookies. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our privacy policy. ... The binding of epidermolytic toxin to epidermal cells Biochem Soc Trans (June, 1988) ...
Home , Newsroom , Scientific Publications , HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment ... HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization ... HIV-1 receptor binding site-directed antibodies using a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization. ... Title: HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer ...
A Catalytic Antibody That Accelerates the Hydrolysis of Carbonate Esters. Prediction of the Binding-Site Structure of the ... One of the antibodies, 4A1, has a relatively high activity for the substrate having a bulky group. To determine the amino acid ... About us Privacy Policy Terms of Use Site Map. Copyright © Ovid Technologies, Inc., and its partners and affiliates. All Rights ... From these results, the possibility that Arg-H28 of the heavy chain is involved in binding the bulky group of the substrate is ...
... and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. Kiyohara, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on... Kiyohara, Tomoko; Totsuka, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. ...
2015) A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo. PLoS Pathog 11(10): ... A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo ... The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different ... This binding mode is similar to the previously identified antibody HJ16, however the new antibodies identified herein are more ...
Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... we studied the fine epitope specificity of a panel of CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibodies to define the molecular recognition ... Heatmap of the relative binding of sera before (. A. ) and after (. B. ) STG-based enrichment for a set of 10 samples from a ...
... the authors demonstrate that by targeting different residues of the same antibody gene, it is possible to create sublibraries ... Two ScFv Antibody Libraries Derived from Identical VL-VH Framework with Different Binding Site Designs Display Distinct Binding ... In this study of diverse antibody libraries, the authors demonstrate that by targeting different residues of the same antibody ... In this study of diverse antibody libraries, ...
Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies whose binding to gp120 is enhanced by CD4 binding (CD4i antibodies ... HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites. Nature420:678-682. ... Access of Antibody Molecules to the Conserved Coreceptor Binding Site on Glycoprotein gp120 Is Sterically Restricted on Primary ... Access of Antibody Molecules to the Conserved Coreceptor Binding Site on Glycoprotein gp120 Is Sterically Restricted on Primary ...
Site Ia includes residues 216 to 234, site Ib includes residues 222 to 252, site II includes residues 272 to 279, site III ... Monoclonal Antibodies to Distinct Sites on Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein D Block HSV Binding to HVEM. Anthony V. ... Monoclonal Antibodies to Distinct Sites on Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein D Block HSV Binding to HVEM ... Monoclonal Antibodies to Distinct Sites on Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein D Block HSV Binding to HVEM ...
Moreover, the new antibodies complement the neutralization spectrum of potent broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site (CD4bs ... Broad Neutralization by a Combination of Antibodies Recognizing the CD4 Binding Site and a New Conformational Epitope on the ... Broad neutralization by a combination of antibodies recognizing the CD4 binding site and a new conformational epitope on the ... identified antibodies that bind to a new broadly neutralizing epitope in the vicinity of the V3 loop and the CD4-induced site ( ...
  • The interactions of estrogen receptor (ER) with monoclonal antibody (Mab) F9, developed against a synthetic 30-mer hybrid oligopeptide, were determined in the presence or absence of Mab NMT-1, raised against 15-mer peptide from the N-terminal A/B region (amino acids 140- 154) or Mab 213, raised to a peptide AT3 in the DNA-binding domain (amino acids 247-263). (nih.gov)
  • The interaction of a protein antigen, horse cytochrome c (cyt c), with a monoclonal antibody has been studied by hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange labeling and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) methods. (sciencemag.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody characterization of two distant sites required for function of the central cell-binding domain of fibronectin in cell adhesion, cell migration, and matrix assembly. (rupress.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody CHA255 specifically binds para substituted (S)-benzyl-EDTA[In] chelates. (elsevier.com)
  • In exper iments with a different monoclonal antibody that binds an yttrium chelate. (elsevier.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody against human colonic sulfomucin: immunochemical detection of its binding sites in colonic mucosa, colorectal primary carcinoma, and metastases. (duke.edu)
  • One cloned hybridoma, designated as 91.9H, produced a monoclonal antibody strongly reactive with a component which migrated at an identical position as the metabolically [35S]sulfate-labeled high-molecular-weight glycoprotein after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. (duke.edu)
  • The [35S]sulfate-labeled high-molecular-weight glycoprotein was bound to Staphylococcus Protein A-agarose coated with this monoclonal antibody but did not bind to unconjugated Protein A-agarose. (duke.edu)
  • The reactivity of monoclonal antibody 91.9H with the extracts of normal mucosa, colorectal primary carcinoma, and metastasis was compared by dot blot assay on a nitrocellulose membrane. (duke.edu)
  • Direct localization of monoclonal antibody-binding sites on Acanthamoeba myosin-II and inhibition of filament formation by antibodies that bind to specific sites on the myosin-II tail. (duke.edu)
  • Mapping the Binding Site of a Cross-Reactive Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 Monoclonal Antibody Inhibitory of ICAM-1 Binding. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We developed a mouse monoclonal antibody (MoAb 115-21) to human high- molecular-weight kininogen (HK) that recognizes its prekallikrein binding site (residues 565 through 595 of HK). (ashpublications.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said first antibody is a monoclonal antibody. (google.com.au)
  • Elecsys Testosterone is based on a competitive test principle using a monoclonal antibody specifically directed against testosterone. (cdc.gov)
  • AMG 102 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets and neutralizes hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Affibody molecules were, on biosensor analysis, found to compete for the same binding site as the natural ligand IL-2 and the IL-2 blocking monoclonal antibody 2A3. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, antibodies making relatively low affinity Fab interactions with the receptor binding site can have significant antiviral activity when enhanced by avidity through bivalent interactions of the IgG, thereby extending the breadth of binding and neutralization to highly divergent influenza virus strains and subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • A panel of idiotypically cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) isolated in response to fluorescein (Fl) was generated and segregated based on Fl affinity. (illinois.edu)
  • 90% active site quaternary structural homology to the intermediate affinity 9-40 idiotype family (comprised of 12-40, 3-24, 10-25, 5-14 and 5-27). (illinois.edu)
  • This anti-Fl panel spanned a greater affinity range than any previously reported idiotype family and was exploited to define specific active site residues (and their interactions with antigen) responsible for the observed Fl binding characteristics. (illinois.edu)
  • We demonstrate through diffraction methods, biophysical studies, and sequence analysis that this peptide, a meditope, has moderate affinity for the Fab, is specific to cetuximab (i.e., does not bind to human IgGs), and has no significant effect on antigen binding. (osti.gov)
  • We further demonstrate by diffraction studies and biophysical methods that the meditope binding site can be grafted onto the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 mAb trastuzumab, and that the antigen binding affinity of the grafted trastuzumab is indistinguishable from the parental mAb. (osti.gov)
  • After affinity purification using glutaraldehyde-fixed line 10 cells, the D3 had an average immunoreactivity of 88%, a binding constant of 1.6 ± 0.3 (SEM) × 10 10 m -1 , and saturation binding of 355,000 ± 15,000 molecules/cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This interaction induces conformational changes in gp120 resulting in the exposure of a conserved high-affinity binding site for the coreceptor (the chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4) ( 46 , 47 , 54 , 56 , 59 ). (asm.org)
  • Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has an affinity for the NBS with a K d ranging from 1 to 8 μM for different antibody isotypes and can be covalently photo-cross-linked to the antibody at the NBS upon exposure to UV light. (elsevier.com)
  • This allowed the retrofitting of existing binders, as highlighted by the development of robust high affinity antibody fragments derived from the breast cancer therapeutic Herceptin. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, high-affinity antigen binding has not been demonstrated ( 8 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • but a hybrid dimer of the Weir and Mcg light chains binds one ligand molecule with the same affinity as the Mcg dimer. (springer.com)
  • Here we describe a novel affinity chromatography method that utilizes the NBS as a target for selectively purifying antibodies from complex mixtures. (elsevier.com)
  • The results presented in this study establish the NBS IBA column as a viable small-molecule-based affinity chromatography method for antibody purification with significant implications in industrial antibody production. (elsevier.com)
  • 24E9 Fab fragments bind DBLβ3_D4 with nanomolar affinity and inhibit ICAM-1 binding of domain cassette 4-expressing IE. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 5. The composition of claim 1, wherein said immunoglobulins exhibit decreased binding affinity for an FcγRIIb receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The composition of claim 1, wherein said immunoglobulins exhibit increased binding affinity for an FcγRIII receptor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The unique interdigitation of Fab domains within an antibody uncovers a previously unappreciated mechanism for high-affinity recognition of carbohydrate or other repeating epitopes on cell or microbial surfaces. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this research article, we focus on the broadly neutralizing human antibody 2G12, which binds with nanomolar affinity to gp120. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nevertheless, antibody 2G12 binds with high affinity to carbohydrate epitopes on gp120. (sciencemag.org)
  • NK1, NK2, and NK4) contain a high-affinity c-Met receptor binding domain and can act as HGF agonists or as antagonists, showing that HGF binds to c-Met and can function through determinants in the α-chain ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This displayed the different peptides on the outer surfaces of the collection of viral clones, where the screening step of the process isolated the peptides with the highest binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results indicate that binding of Mab F9 and Mab NMT-1, with epitopes located within amino acids 140-154 of the A/B region of ER, induced conformational changes in the DNA-binding domain, as determined by the inability of Mab 213 to remain bound to its epitope. (nih.gov)
  • Dissecting antibody specificities in the plasma of HIV-1 infected individuals that develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is likely to provide useful information for refining target epitopes for vaccine design. (iavi.org)
  • Thus, the poor ability of CD4i-specific antibodies to neutralize primary isolates is due, at least in part, to steric factors that limit antibody access to the gp120 epitopes. (asm.org)
  • The results identify hurdles in using CD4i epitopes as targets for antibody-mediated neutralization in vaccine design but also indicate that the CD4i regions could be efficiently targeted by small molecule entry inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • A molecular understanding of the binding of these broadly neutralizing antibodies to their cognate envelope epitopes should facilitate rational HIV-1 vaccine design. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conclusions Double-negative VGKC complex antibodies are often directed against cytosolic epitopes of Kv1 subunits and occasionally against non-mammalian αDTX. (bmj.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus is also known to induce dsDNA antibodies, as seen after immunisation of animals with EBNA-1 epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies with ontogenies from VH1-2 or VH1-46-germline genes dominate the broadly neutralizing response against the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1. (rcsb.org)
  • Structures of lineage antibodies CH235 (week 41 from time-of-infection, 18% breadth), CH235.9 (week 152, 77%), and CH235.12 (week 323, 90%) demonstrated the maturing epitope to focus on the conformationally invariant portion of the CD4bs. (rcsb.org)
  • Similarities between CH235 lineage and five unrelated CD4bs lineages in epitope focusing, length-of-time to develop breadth, and extraordinary level of somatic hypermutation suggested commonalities in maturation among all CD4bs antibodies. (rcsb.org)
  • To begin to address this discrepancy between recombinant protein recognition and virus neutralization, we studied the fine epitope specificity of a panel of CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibodies to define the molecular recognition features of functionally potent humoral responses targeting the HIV-1 envelope site bound by CD4. (jci.org)
  • Whereas previous studies have used neutralization data and machine-learning methods to provide epitope maps, here, this approach was reversed, demonstrating that simple binding assays of fine epitope specificity can prospectively identify broadly neutralizing CD4bs-specific mAbs. (jci.org)
  • A set of 16 samples from the RV217 HIV cohort were titrated for binding to WT (red) and STG (blue) core before and following enrichment of CD4bs bnAbs via STG-based depletion to enable inference of the presence or absence of CD4bs bnAbs. (jci.org)
  • Here, we report on the presence of CD4bs antibodies and their contribution to virus neutralization in the plasma from a cohort of HIV-1 infected Indian individuals. (iavi.org)
  • Analyses of these 11 plasma samples for the presence of CD4bs antibodies using two CD4bs-selective probes (antigenically resurfaced HXB2gp120 core protein RSC3 and hyperglycosylated JRFLgp120 mutant ΔN2mCHO) revealed that five (AIIMS 617, 619, 627, 642, 660) contained RSC3-reactive plasma antibodies and only one (AIIMS 660) contained ΔN2mCHO-reactive antibodies. (iavi.org)
  • Plasma antibody depletion and competition experiments confirmed that the neutralizing activity in the AIIMS 660 plasma was dependent on CD4bs antibodies. (iavi.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report specifically on the presence of CD4bs antibodies in the plasma of a cohort of HIV-1 infected Indian donors. (iavi.org)
  • The identification of CD4bs dependent neutralizing antibodies in an HIV-1 infected Indian donor is a salient finding of this study and is supportive of ongoing efforts to induce similar antibodies by immunization. (iavi.org)
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from chronically HIV-1 infected individuals reveal important information regarding how antibodies target conserved determinants of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike such as the primary receptor CD4 binding site (CD4bs). (iavi.org)
  • This contrasts to the highly potent CD4bs-directed VRC01 class of bNAb, which bind Env predominantly through the HCDR2. (iavi.org)
  • The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. (caltech.edu)
  • Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape pathways. (caltech.edu)
  • Although this group of CD4bs glycan-dependent antibodies can be broadly and potently neutralizing in vitro, their in vivo activity has not been tested to date. (caltech.edu)
  • Heatmap of the relative binding of sera before ( A ) and after ( B ) STG-based enrichment for a set of 10 samples from a second Boston area (BIDMC) cohort against CD4bs mutant cores (green), the WT core, and the triple mutant STG core (both in gray). (jci.org)
  • Moreover, the new antibodies complement the neutralization spectrum of potent broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site (CD4bs) antibodies obtained from the same individual. (harvard.edu)
  • We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of glycosylation to allow CD4 receptor engagement, but is ringed by surrounding N-glycans. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We selectively deleted potential N-glycan sites (PNGS) proximal to the CD4bs on well-ordered clade C 16055 native flexibly linked (NFL) trimers to potentially increase recognition by naïve B cells in vivo. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We demonstrated that the 16055 PNGS-deleted trimers more rapidly elicited serum antibodies that more potently neutralized the CD4bs-proximal-PNGS-deleted viruses in a statistically significant manner and strongly trended towards increased neutralization of fully glycosylated autologous virus. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The gp120 CD4 binding site (CD4bs) and coreceptor binding site (CoRbs) are two functionally conserved elements of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously defined the presence of CD4bs neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in the serum of an HIV-1 infected individual and subsequently isolated the CD4bs-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) VRC01 and VRC03 from the memory B cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • VRC06 and VRC06b are novel neutralizing mAbs that bind to a region of gp120 that overlaps with both the primary and secondary HIV-1 receptor binding sites, preferentially recognize fully-cleaved Env, and complement the neutralizing capacity of other CD4bs bNAbs isolated from the same individual. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that recognition by receptor-binding-site antibodies induces conformational change. (nih.gov)
  • Correlation with neutralization potency and analysis of receptor-antibody thermodynamic cycles suggested a receptor-binding-site 'conformational masking' mechanism of neutralization escape. (nih.gov)
  • We speculated that mAb2 94-7 mimicked a portion of the HAV receptor-binding site. (deepdyve.com)
  • Targeted N-glycan deletion at the receptor-binding site retains HIV Env NFL trimer integrity and accelerates the elicited antibody response. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • article{82cc5c31-03b5-4bb0-839b-2c96a7fc08c1, abstract = {Radiolabelled monoclonal IgM rheumatoid factors, four from patients with type II essential cryoglobulinaemia and one originating from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, were tested for binding to group A, B, C and G streptococci and Escherichia coli. (lu.se)
  • Major advances in donor identification, antigen probe design, and experimental methods to clone pathogen-specific antibodies have led to an exponential growth in the number of newly characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that recognize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. (jci.org)
  • Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in selected HIV-infected individuals reveals that Abs capable of penetrating the glycan shield can be generated by the B cell repertoire. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Although the vaccine Env AE.A244 gp120 is antigenic for the unmutated common ancestor of V1V2 broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAbs), no plasma bnAb activity was induced. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Recently identified broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that potently neutralize most HIV-1 strains are key to potential antibody-based therapeutic approaches to combat HIV/AIDS in the absence of an effective vaccine. (rupress.org)
  • One variant, 45-46m2, neutralizes 96% of HIV-1 strains in a cross-clade panel and viruses isolated from an HIV-infected individual that are resistant to all other known bNAbs, making it the single most broad and potent anti-HIV-1 antibody to date. (rupress.org)
  • These data further suggest that the DNA-binding region is sensitive to conformational changes induced in the native protein. (nih.gov)
  • The hydrogen exchange labeling approach can be used to map binding sites on small proteins in antibody-antigen complexes and may be applicable to protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions in general. (sciencemag.org)
  • A variant gD protein, gD-1(Δ290-299t), showed enhanced binding to HVEMt relative to the binding of wild-type gDt ( 55 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • Although the role of gD as a receptor binding protein has been well documented ( 3 , 5 , 28 , 29 , 31 , 55 ), blocking of virion gD binding to a specific cellular receptor has not been demonstrated as a mechanism of neutralization. (asm.org)
  • Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize the HIV-1 envelope protein have been isolated from these patients by single-cell sorting and by neutralization screens. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we report a new method for anti-HIV-1 antibody isolation based on capturing single B cells that recognize the HIV-1 envelope protein expressed on the surface of transfected cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Although far less efficient than soluble protein baits, the cell-based capture method identified antibodies that bind to a new broadly neutralizing epitope in the vicinity of the V3 loop and the CD4-induced site (CD4i). (harvard.edu)
  • Using a novel toolkit of approaches, the scientists uncovered the first full structure of the Nucleocapsid (N) protein and discovered how antibodies from COVID-19 patients interact with that protein. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We discovered new features about the N protein structure that could have large implications in antibody testing and the long-term effects of all SARS-related pandemic viruses," said Deb Kelly, professor of biomedical engineering (BME), Huck Chair in Molecular Biophysics and director of the Penn State Center for Structural Oncology, who led the research. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines were designed to help recipients produce antibodies that protect against the Spike protein. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The free-roaming protein causes a strong immune response, leading to the production of protective antibodies. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Most antibody-testing kits look for the N protein to determine if a person was previously infected with the virus - as opposed to diagnostic tests that look for the Spike protein to determine if a person is currently infected. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The researchers used an electron microscope to image both the N protein and the site on the N protein where antibodies bind, using serum from COVID-19 patients, and developed a 3D computer model of the structure. (technologynetworks.com)
  • If a therapeutic can be designed to target the N protein binding site, it might help reduce the inflammation and other lasting immune responses to COVID-19, especially in COVID long haulers," Kelly said, referring to people who experience COVID-19 symptoms for six weeks or longer. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The nature of this second, synergistic site was analyzed further by protein chemical and immunological approaches using biological assays for adhesion, migration, and matrix assembly. (rupress.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies against human erythrocyte band 3 protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies against the membrane domain of human red blood cell band 3 protein have been prepared and used in topographical studies of the arrangement of the polypeptide in the membrane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is known that the novel SARS-Cov2 virus (like the SARS virus) binds to the ACE2 receptor on the surface of human cells in the lung tissue via its spike protein. (biocopy.ch)
  • The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is an interesting target for the development of neutralizing antibodies, as they can occupy the RBD of the virus and thus inhibit its binding to the human cell. (biocopy.ch)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Cholesterol-binding site of the influenza M2 protein in lipid bilayers from solid-state NMR. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Cholesterol-binding site of the influenza M2 protein in lipid bilayers from solid-state NMR. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • We have now determined the cholesterol-binding site of the M2 protein in phospholipid bilayers using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • SEC14L2 encodes a cytosolic protein which belongs to a family of lipid-binding proteins including Sec14p, alpha-tocopherol transfer protein, and cellular retinol-binding protein. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The new patent is much broader and now claims the use of any antibody that recognizes or binds to the epitope, an antibody binding site on the TpP protein, that is recognized by MH-1 or 45J. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, we report that the GRIP domain golgins, whose C termini bind the Arf-like 1 G protein on the trans-Golgi, can also bind four members of the Rab family of G proteins. (rupress.org)
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), [1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein aggregation represents a key bottleneck in the generation of antibody-based reagents and hinders the development and production of human therapeutics ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, the C terminal of stargazin also predicts phosphorylation at a threonine residue critical for PDZ protein binding. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because protein phosphorylation regulates synaptic plasticity, we characterized this site and the effects of stargazin phosphorylation on AMPAR function. (jneurosci.org)
  • In vitro peptide phosphorylation assays and Western blot analysis with phospho-stargazin-specific antibodies indicate that the critical threonine within the stargazin PDZ binding site is phosphorylated by protein kinase A. This phosphorylation disrupts stargazin interaction and clustering with postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in transfected COS-7 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Interestingly, stargazin and its close homologs all contain a consensus sequence for protein kinase phosphorylation within their PDZ binding site. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that the critical threonine within the stargazin PDZ binding site can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA). (jneurosci.org)
  • Acetylcholine binding protein binds with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and modulate neural transmissions. (dnatube.com)
  • This video shows a acetylcholine binding protein molecule bound with cocaine. (dnatube.com)
  • Pulse-labeling hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments monitored by mass spectrometry reveal that binding of the antibody fragment strongly inhibits the locally cooperative unfolding of the I56T and D67H variants and restores their global cooperativity to that characteristic of the wild-type protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These observations indicate further that molecular targeting of enzyme active sites, and of protein binding sites in general, is an effective strategy for inhibiting or preventing the aberrant self-assembly process that is often a consequence of protein mutation and the origin of pathogenicity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interaction between the regulatory protein Ebp1 (short for ErbB3 binding protein 1) and the ribosome takes place at the ribosome's exit tunnel, through which the newly formed protein chain emerges from the ribosome. (phys.org)
  • An antibody , or immunoglobulin , is a Y- shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign pathogens, like bacteria , parasites , and viruses . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Furthermore, carbohydrate-protein interactions are usually much weaker (in the micro-molar range) than protein-protein interactions ( 17 - 19 ) and restrict antibodies from approaching their expected range of nanomolar binding affinities. (sciencemag.org)
  • Knowledge of protein-protein interactions and their binding sites is indispensable for in-depth understanding of the networks in living cells. (mdpi.com)
  • With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is critical to develop computational methods for identifying in a timely fashion the protein-protein binding sites (PPBSs) based on the sequence information alone because the information obtained by this way can be used for both biomedical research and drug development. (mdpi.com)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, that small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage display technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Frank Breitling and Stefan Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein that binds to one of those targets on its surface will remain while others are removed by washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of site-directed monoclonal antibodies to an epitope located in the A/B region (amino acids 140-154) of human estrogen receptor-induced con. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, binding of Mab NMT-1 to the A/B region of ER also produced conformational changes causing the release of Mab 213 from its epitope in the DNA-binding region. (nih.gov)
  • The interaction site determined in this way is consistent with prior epitope mapping studies and includes several residues that were not previously identified. (sciencemag.org)
  • We predict these sites may form a functional variant-specific epitope that evolves under selective pressure from the host immune response and gives rise to antibody escape mutants. (nih.gov)
  • We performed an epitope analysis and could show that at least 6 neutralizing antibodies bind to the RBD region. (biocopy.ch)
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitope-mapping studies of recombinant HGF molecules comprising human/mouse chimeras and human-to-mouse amino acid substitutions showed that amino acid residues near the NH 2 -terminus of the β-chain are critical for AMG 102 binding. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hence the Affibody molecules were assumed to have an overlapping binding site with IL-2 and antibodies targeting the IL-2 blocking Tac epitope (for example, the monoclonal antibodies Daclizumab and Basiliximab, both of which have been approved for therapeutic use). (biomedsearch.com)
  • To verify this, Fl binding assays, following in vitro H and L chain reassociations, were performed. (illinois.edu)
  • The antibodies found to be inhibitory in cell spreading assays for BHK cells also inhibited both fibronectin-mediated cell spreading and migration of human HT-1080 cells, functions which were also dependent on function of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin (fibronectin receptor). (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, cell-surface binding assays demonstrated their preferential recognition of fully-cleaved Env trimers compared to un-cleaved trimers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Holographic molecular binding assays therefore can be used to perform fast quantitative immunoassays that are complementary to conventional serological tests," the study published in the "Soft Matter" says. (financialexpress.com)
  • This high dose saturated the antibody binding sites and induced falsely increased results in the competition assays for free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine and lower results in the sandwich method for thyroid-stimulating hormone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Binding sites for two of these Rabs are also present on two coiled-coil proteins of the cis-Golgi, the Drosophila melanogaster orthologues of GM130 and GMAP-210. (rupress.org)
  • However, most of the Golgi coiled-coil proteins are peripheral membrane proteins that bind to either the cis or the trans side of the Golgi. (rupress.org)
  • By screening a panel of small G proteins, we identify new binding partners for the proteins from the Rab family of small G proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Stargazin interacts with postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) proteins via a C-terminal PDZ binding motif. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is particularly important in the production of membrane proteins, which play an important role in cell-to-cell sites of synaptic contact between nerve cells. (phys.org)
  • Most of the circulating testosterone is bound to carrier proteins (SHBG = sex hormone-binding globulin). (cdc.gov)
  • and third, because glycosylated proteins are synthesized as a collection of glycoforms in which multiple sugars can be present at a single site, which dilutes any potential antigenic response ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Anti-dsDNA antibodies might also be created secondary to the production of antibodies to other proteins within the nucleosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies (also called immunoglobulins ) are large Y-shaped proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a huge variety of different antibodies is made in a single individual, the number of genes available to make these proteins is limited by the size of the genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • This lack of neutralization is paradoxical, given the functional conservation and exposure of receptor-binding sites on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein, which are larger than the typical antibody footprint and should therefore be accessible for antibody binding. (nih.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into host cells is initiated by the binding of the gp120 subunit of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex to the host cell receptor (CD4) ( 8 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • We previously showed that soluble, truncated forms of HSV glycoprotein D (gDt) bind to HVEMt in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Scientists at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center have isolated and characterized neutralizing antibodies (VRC01, 02, 03, and 07) that bind to the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. (nature.com)
  • Human antibody 2G12 neutralizes a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates by binding an unusually dense cluster of carbohydrate moieties on the "silent" face of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mabs 213 and NMT-1 bound ER and formed complexes sedimenting at approximately 7S and 9S, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Capitalizing on their extraordinary specificity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most reengineered classes of biological molecules. (osti.gov)
  • Lastly, we demonstrate a bivalent meditope variant binds specifically and stably to antigen-bearing cells only in the presence of the meditope-enabled mAbs. (osti.gov)
  • Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) often distribute nonuniformly in tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To map sites on virion gD which are necessary for its interaction with HVEM, we preincubated virions with gD-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). (asm.org)
  • MAbs that recognize antigenic sites Ib and VII of gD were the only MAbs which blocked the HSV-HVEM interaction. (asm.org)
  • Group Ia and II MAbs failed to block HSV binding to HVEM yet still neutralized HVEM-mediated entry, suggesting that these MAbs block entry at a step other than HVEM binding. (asm.org)
  • Assembly of endogenously synthesized fibronectin into an extracellular matrix was not significantly inhibited by most of the anti-37-kD mAbs, but was strongly inhibited only by the antibodies binding close to the RGD site or the putative synergy site. (rupress.org)
  • This site is mapped by mAbs closer to the RGD site than previously expected. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinant 4-4-20 molecules (generated by an in vivo H chain expression system) that expressed IgG1 and IgG2b H chains possessed identical Fl binding patterns as 4-4-20 (IgG2a). (illinois.edu)
  • Neutralizing antibodies are believed to act, at least in part, by binding to the exposed Env surface and obstructing the initial interaction between a trimeric array of gp120 molecules on the virion surface and receptor molecules on the target cell ( 36 , 37 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbon-fluorine distance measurements show that at a cholesterol concentration of 17 mol%, two cholesterol molecules bind each M2 tetramer. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Electron microscopy of myosin-II molecules and filaments reacted with monoclonal antibodies demonstrates directly where the antibodies bind and shows that certain antibodies can inhibit the polymerization of myosin-II into filaments. (duke.edu)
  • The Bence-Jones dimer binds 2 molecules of bis(DNP)lysine in solution and one in trigonal crystals. (springer.com)
  • Kinetic biosensor analysis revealed that the two monomeric Affibody molecules bound to CD25 with apparent affinities of 130 and 240 nM respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometric analysis of CD25-expressing cells demonstrated that the selected Affibody molecules bound to CD4+ CD25+ PMBCs (peripheral-blood mononuclear cells), the IL-2-dependent cell line NK92 and phytohaemagglutinin-activated PMBCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The potential use of the CD25-binding Affibody molecules as targeting agents for medical imaging and for therapeutic applications is discussed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen , via the Fab's variable region . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article, we report the functional characterization of an mAb that recognizes a panel of PfEMP1s and inhibits ICAM-1 binding. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 24E9 recognizes native PfEMP1 expressed on the IE surface and shows cross-reactivity with and cross-inhibition of the ICAM-1 binding capacity of domain cassette 4 PfEMP1s. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Each antibody recognizes and binds to a specific antigen (which is any substance that stimulates an immune response from the body, and which can then react with products of that response). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Further biochemical, biophysical, and mutagenesis data strongly support a Fab-dimerized antibody as the prevalent form that recognizes gp120. (sciencemag.org)
  • This antibody recognizes terminal Manα1-2Man-linked moieties ( 13 , 14 ), contributed by oligomannose-type sugars that form a cluster on the silent face of gp120 ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target called an antigen . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of antibodies and associated processes are referred to as the humoral immune system . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Response: Involves production of antibodies and generation of specialized lymphocytes against specific antigens. (scribd.com)
  • Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. (scribd.com)
  • The H-exchange rate of residues in three discontiguous regions of the cyt c polypeptide backbone was slowed by factors up to 340-fold in the antibody-antigen complex compared with free cyt c. (sciencemag.org)
  • This implicated HCDR3 residues for subtle binding differences observed between the various idiotype family members. (illinois.edu)
  • To determine the amino acid residues related to the binding of the bulky group, we determined the amino acid sequences of VL and VH regions of 4A1 by the cycle sequencing method, built the three-dimensional structure of the V regions, labeled 4A1 with [14C]phenyl glyoxal in the presence and absence of I-1 or I-13, and analyzed the labeled incubation mixture with SDS-PAGE. (ovid.com)
  • In this study of diverse antibody libraries, the authors demonstrate that by targeting different residues of the same antibody gene, it is possible to create sublibraries with distinct profiles in terms of the number and affinities of the library clones against different-sized antigens. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The current experiments indicate that these sites contain residues important for HSV binding to HVEM. (asm.org)
  • Localization of proteolytic cleavage sites and stilbenedisulfonate-binding lysine residues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cholesterol binds the C-terminal transmembrane (TM) residues, near an amphipathic helix, without requiring a cholesterol recognition sequence motif. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Deuterium NMR spectra indicate that bound cholesterol is approximately parallel to the bilayer normal, with the rough face of the sterol rings apposed to methyl-rich TM residues. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Analyzing X-ray crystal structures of such adducts, two binding modes were observed: some inhibitors bind with their tail within the hydrophobic half of the active site, defined by residues Phe131, Val135, Leu198, Pro202, Leu204. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The funding for the HCV database project has stopped, and this website and the HCV immunology database are no longer maintained. (lanl.gov)
  • The HIV immunology website contains the same tools, and may be usable for non-HCV-specific analyses. (lanl.gov)
  • To understand how such an escape mechanism would be compatible with virus-receptor interactions, we tested a soluble dodecameric receptor molecule and found that it neutralized primary HIV-1 isolates with great potency, showing that simultaneous binding of viral envelope glycoproteins by multiple receptors creates sufficient avidity to compensate for such masking. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we define with longitudinal sampling from time-of-infection the development of a VH1-46-derived antibody lineage that matured to neutralize 90% of HIV-1 isolates. (rcsb.org)
  • Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies whose binding to gp120 is enhanced by CD4 binding (CD4i antibodies) are generally considered nonneutralizing for primary HIV-1 isolates. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the precise nature of the extraordinary neutralizing ability of Fab X5, we evaluated the abilities of different forms (immunoglobulin G [IgG], Fab, and single-chain Fv) of X5 and other CD4i monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a range of primary HIV-1 isolates. (asm.org)
  • However, immunogens that are able to elicit neutralizing antibodies to a broad range of primary HIV-1 isolates have not been found. (sciencemag.org)
  • This binding mode is similar to the previously identified antibody HJ16, however the new antibodies identified herein are more potent and broad. (caltech.edu)
  • It is well established that gD can induce potent virus-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) ( 7 , 9 , 25 , 34 , 40 , 43 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, combinations of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies with complementary activity can account for the breadth and potency of naturally arising anti-HIV-1 serologic activity. (harvard.edu)
  • 2010) Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01. (nature.com)
  • We then investigated the conformation acquired by all four peptides in their antibody-bound state, which possibly illustrates the local conformation of the corresponding sites on the intact AChR molecule. (openarchives.gr)
  • 289, 373-378 (1981)] to form the antigenic sites of this molecule. (edu.au)
  • 5000 Da and only providing one viable antibody binding site per molecule) by using the principle of immunoinhibition [5]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The antibodies bind to a variety of sites on the myosin-II molecule, including the heads, the proximal end of the tail near the junction of the heads and tail, and the tip of the tail. (duke.edu)
  • This demonstrates that antibodies can inhibit polymerization of myosin-II, but only when they bind to key sites on the tail of the molecule. (duke.edu)
  • A. are parts of the antibody molecule. (brainscape.com)
  • The chains of an antibody molecule are bonded to one another by A. disulfide bonds. (brainscape.com)
  • Because this solution is available for cell-surface receptors but not for most antibodies, conformational masking enables HIV-1 to maintain receptor binding and simultaneously to resist neutralization. (nih.gov)
  • In binding to such antigens, they can cause agglutination (clumping of cells) and precipitation of antibody-antigen products primed for phagocytosis by macrophages and other cells, block viral receptors, and stimulate other immune responses, such as the complement pathway. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Because gp120-receptor interactions involve conformational reorganization, we measured the entropies of binding for 20 gp120-reactive antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Using a gp120 2CC core as bait, we isolated antibodies encoded by IGVH3-21 and IGVL3-1 genes with long CDRH3s that depend on the presence of the N-linked glycan at position-276 for activity. (caltech.edu)
  • A second obligatory binding step between the gp120-CD4 complex and the coreceptor is then thought to induce additional conformational changes that ultimately result in the fusion of viral and host cell membranes ( 9 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The extraordinary configuration of this antibody provides an extended surface, with newly described binding sites, for multivalent interaction with a conserved cluster of oligomannose type sugars on the surface of gp120. (sciencemag.org)
  • Studies of temperature-regulated neutralization or fusion-arrested intermediates suggest that the steric effects are important in limiting the binding of IgG to the viral envelope glycoproteins after HIV-1 has engaged CD4 on the target cell membrane. (asm.org)
  • Combination therapy with anti-HIV-1 antibodies maintains viral suppression. (chavi-id.org)
  • Nevertheless, a few rare, broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that have been isolated from patients protect against viral challenge in animal models ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In combination, 45-46m2 and 45-46m7 reduce the possible routes for the evolution of fit viral escape mutants in HIV-1 YU-2 -infected humanized mice, with viremic control exhibited when a third antibody, 10-1074, was added to the combination. (rupress.org)
  • Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally believed that the aggregation propensity of larger antibody reagents (such as immunoglobulin G and Fab) is mostly determined by their variable domain components (V H and V L ), although there is currently little understanding of the mechanisms involved ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin generally are used interchangeably. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulins, or antibodies, are glycoproteins in the immunoglobulin superfamily that function as antibodies. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • the terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with them and several other partners, BioCopy was involved in the characterization of various antibody interactions. (biocopy.ch)
  • Antibodies and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) have the potential to make a groundbreaking impact upon medicinal therapies, diagnostics and characterization of diseases. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • The same general principles of micropharmacology may apply to biological ligands other than antibodies, including those secreted by genetically modified cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MAb2 94-7 competed with an anti-HAV cellular receptor antibody for binding to HAV-susceptible cells and partially blocked virus infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, the inability of rid1 and ANG to infect HVEM-expressing cells may be due to the failure of these virion gDs to bind to HVEM on the cell. (asm.org)
  • The present invention provides antibodies useful as therapeutics for treating and/or preventing diseases associated with cells expressing GT468, including tumor-related diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, and hepatocellular cancer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies have been widely used for cancer therapy owing to their ability to distinguish cancer cells by recognizing cancer-specific antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells. (google.com)
  • Antibodies are made by A. red blood cells. (brainscape.com)
  • Antibodies are found on the surface of B cells (short for B- lymphocytes -a type of white blood cell). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • B cells and T cells (short for T-lymphocytes) play the key roles in the immune system, with B cells involved in the antibody component. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • B cells manufacture, secrete, and present antibodies, with each type of B cell producing a unique antibody. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Antibodies actually are synthesized and secreted by plasma cells that are derived from the B cells of the immune system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • B cells are activated upon binding to their specific antigen and multiply and transform into plasma cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • None of the 27 Kv1-precipitating samples bound live hippocampal neurons or Kv1 extracellular domains, but 16 (59%) bound to permeabilised Kv1-expressing human embryonic kidney 293T cells. (bmj.com)
  • Blebs on apoptotic cells contain nearly all the autoantigens found in SLE, and phagocytes bind these apoptotic cells and phagocytose them. (wikipedia.org)
  • These allow vertebrate B cells to generate a huge pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • they can recognize tumour cells as well as two different types of immune cells and bind to them. (voiceamerica.com)
  • defence against bacteria.Duality of Immune System I. . antibodies and are called plasma cells. (scribd.com)
  • Antibodies are produced by a subset of lymphocytes called B cells. (scribd.com)
  • Bacteria and viruses that are inside host cells and are inaccessible to antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • [1] The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, hyper - mutations occur in the binding site area of the antibody gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that 179NC75 is highly active when administered to HIV-1-infected humanized mice, where it selects for escape variants that lack a glycan site at position-276. (caltech.edu)
  • They found that the antibody binding site remained the same across every sample, making it a potential target to treat people with any of the known COVID-19 variants. (technologynetworks.com)
  • As predicted by our earlier study, significant amino acid changes at site A and site B give rise to GII-4 norovirus epidemic variants that are antibody escape mutants. (nih.gov)
  • Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single-domain fragment, cAb-HuL22, of a camelid heavy-chain antibody specific for the active site of human lysozyme has been generated, and its effects on the properties of the I56T and D67H amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme, which are associated with a form of systemic amyloidosis, have been investigated by a wide range of biophysical techniques. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The antibody fragment was, however, not stable enough under the conditions used to explore its ability to perturb the aggregation behavior of the lysozyme amyloidogenic variants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The binding of this engineered antibody fragment to the amyloidogenic variants of lysozyme inhibited their aggregation into fibrils. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) to persist and cause AIDS is dependent on its avoidance of antibody-mediated neutralization. (nih.gov)
  • The virus elicits abundant, envelope-directed antibodies that have little neutralization capacity. (nih.gov)
  • Using the Octet RED system, Kd values for S139/1 Fab and IgG binding to various influenza HA strains were determined to assess enhanced virus neutralization effects due to avidity of full IgG vs. Fab. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Inactivated HAV inhibited mAb2 binding to KF94, indicating that the mAb2s mimicked the HAV neutralization site that was complementary to the paratope of KF94. (deepdyve.com)
  • The availability of these antigens and antibodies are certain to help meet the needs of both clinical laboratory professionals and manufacturers of in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) products, but also biopharmaceutical, medical, and life science researchers, as all of the products are designed to work as critical components within a number of enzyme immunoassay testing applications, especially ELISA. (labmanager.com)
  • Blood tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence are routinely performed to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies in diagnostic laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although IF can be used to screen for many ANCAs, ELISA is used to detect antibodies to individual antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • S139/1 is a cross-reactive antibody that neutralizes multiple HA strains and subtypes, including those from H1N1 and H3N2 viruses that currently infect humans. (nih.gov)
  • Upon exposure to pneumococcal polysaccharides, cross reactive antibodies between dsDNA and pneumococcal polysaccharides are produced in lupus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing the dose of antibody can partially overcome this limitation, but at a cost in specificity. (pnas.org)
  • The binding sites of seven of 23 different monoclonal antibodies were localized by platinum shadowing of myosin monomer-antibody complexes. (duke.edu)
  • This theory solves the paradox of how it could be possible for antibodies to be raised against the intracellular antigenic targets of ANCA. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used sucrose density centrifugation to demonstrate that purified HSV-1 KOS virions bind directly to a soluble, truncated form of HVEM (HVEMt) in the absence of any other cell-associated components. (asm.org)
  • Subsequently, we demonstrated that soluble, truncated gD (gDt) from the KOS strain binds directly to a soluble, truncated form of HVEM (HVEMt) in vitro ( 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Soluble gDt from the rid1 or ANG strains was unable to bind to HVEMt. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma , and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three amino acids in the VH1-2*02 gene segment that define a motif for VRC01-like antibodies (W50, N58, flanking the HCDR2 region, and R71), the two identified macaque VH1.23 alleles described here encode two. (iavi.org)
  • Previous mapping data indicated that site VII includes amino acids 11 to 19 and site Ib includes 222 to 252. (asm.org)
  • If the amino acids in this stem antibody binding site prove to be so important to the structure of hemagglutinin that the virus can't tolerate change there, then the virus wouldn't be able to adapt to and mutate away from a vaccine targeting this site via stimulation of neutralizing antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The evidence is discussed in terms of a mechanism in which amino acids of the antibody combining site participate in nucleophilic and/or general base catalysis. (scripps.edu)
  • If the sequences were numbered inaccurately by the primary authors, or if we made a mistake in this process, we may have misrepresented the binding site's amino acid sequence. (lanl.gov)
  • The corresponding synthesized 31-amino acid peptide (peptide IV) was recently shown to retain native HK's prekallikrein binding property. (ashpublications.org)
  • E. are a portion of antigen recognized by antibody AND may be approximately 10-25 amino acids in length. (brainscape.com)
  • Herein, we present a unique peptide-binding site within the central cavity of the fragment antigen binding framework region of the chimeric, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor mAb cetuximab. (osti.gov)
  • Engineering a camelid antibody fragment that binds to the active site of human lysozyme and inhibits its conversion into amyloid fibrils. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Key topics that will be covered in the upcoming event include: fragment drug conjugates, ADC payloads, site-selective ADCs/ site-specific conjugation and the best linker and warhead combinations. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of one of the factors to group A streptococci type 15 was inhibited by F(ab')2-fragments of anti-idiotypic antibodies but not anti-IgM Fc or F(ab')2 of normal rabbit IgG, indicating that the reaction was mediated via the antibody combining sites. (lu.se)
  • Fragments derived from the cell-binding domain were coupled covalently to plates, and their specific molar activities in mediating BHK cell spreading were compared with that of intact fibronectin. (rupress.org)
  • This mechanism of action has been validated by experiments with single-chain antibody fragments containing the antibody binding site (15). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common formats include human single chain fragments (scFv) and human single domain antibodies, both of which frequently display poor biophysical properties ( 1 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, this work further demonstrates the unique properties of camelid single-domain antibody fragments as structural probes for studying the mechanism of aggregation and as potential inhibitors of fibril formation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The conserved nucleotide binding site (NBS), found on the Fab variable domain of all antibody isotypes, remains a not-so-widely known and unutilized site. (elsevier.com)
  • 1991-=-). A PWM assigns a weight to each possible nucleotide at each position of a putative binding site and gives as a site score the sum of these weights. (psu.edu)
  • The conserved nucleotide binding site (NBS), found within the Fab variable domain of antibodies, remains a not-so-widely known and underutilized site. (elsevier.com)
  • The distance- and orientation-restrained cholesterol-binding site structure shows that cholesterol is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions with the TM helix and polar and aromatic interactions with neighboring amphipathic helices. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that antibodies specific for gD, but not the other entry glycoproteins gB, gC, or the gH/gL complex, completely block HSV binding to HVEM. (asm.org)
  • The present invention is directed to a membrane-based immunoassay method for an analyte of interest having at least two sterically separate antigenic sites. (google.com.au)
  • The same glycan was absent from the virus isolated from the 179NC75 donor, implying that the antibody also exerts selection pressure in humans. (caltech.edu)
  • [7] Actually, humans generate about 10 billion different antibodies, each capable of binding a distinct antigen site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding Site's Immunologicals Group serves the in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) manufacturing and biopharmaceutical, clinical, life-science, medical research markets with a comprehensive line of innovative products. (labmanager.com)
  • 2014) Enhanced potency of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody in vitro improves protection against lentiviral infection in vivo. (nature.com)
  • In previous studies ( 24 , 25 ), we reported on the biological activity of novel, fully human anti-HGF antibodies in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-dsDNA antibodies can also be produced through infection via a mechanism known as molecular mimicry. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010) Immunotypes of a quaternary site of HIV-1 vulnerability and their recognition by antibodies. (nature.com)
  • Natively glycosylated HIV-1 Env structure reveals new mode for antibody recognition of the CD4-binding site. (harvard.edu)
  • Also unlike VRC01, GE356 was minimally modified by somatic hypermutation, its light (L) chain CDRs were of average lengths and it displayed a binding footprint proximal to the trimer axis. (iavi.org)
  • 9. The composition of claim 1, wherein said immunoglobulins exhibit increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 17. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 14, wherein said immunoglobulins comprise an antibody which binds to an antigen selected from the group consisting of growth factors, FGFR, EGFR, VEGF, leukocyte antigens, CD20, CD33, cytokines, TNF-α and TNF-β. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Boosting of HIV Envelope Cd4 Binding Site Antibodies with Long Variabl" by David Easterhoff, M. Anthony Moody et al. (dartmouth.edu)
  • is a member of the Triomab® family of antibodies which are able to treat a wide range of cancers. (voiceamerica.com)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis studies have suggested that additional peptide information in the central cell-binding domain of fibronectin besides the minimal Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence is required for its full adhesive activity. (rupress.org)
  • All four peptides were efficient inhibitors of mAb 148 binding to AChR, although the nonphosphorylated human peptide was considerably less effective than the three others. (openarchives.gr)
  • Animals were immunized with free peptide or peptide conjugated to a carrier and the resulting antisera examined for their capacities to bind to homologous peptide, whole HA, reduced and alkylated HA, and intact virus. (edu.au)
  • Only antibodies raised against the C-terminus of HA1 peptide displayed binding to virus. (edu.au)
  • By combining the data from these electron microscope studies and the peptide mapping and competitive binding studies we have established the binding sites of 16 of 23 monoclonal antibodies. (duke.edu)
  • The same peptide bound factor XI also, although less avidly. (ashpublications.org)
  • The binding of MoAb 115-21 to purified light chain of HK was competitively inhibited by peptide IV. (ashpublications.org)
  • Since the kd for HK-MoAb 115- 21 interaction is ten times lower than that of HK-prekallikrein, our data suggest that binding of MoAb 115-21 to HK's peptide IV site increases the free prekallikrein concentration in plasma and thus results in the decreased efficiency of factor XIIa-mediated activation of prekallikrein. (ashpublications.org)
  • The humoral immune response involves the manufacture and use of A. antibodies. (brainscape.com)
  • The humoral immune response has several steps that culminate in the use of antibodies, which are present in the blood . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • To address this, concentrations of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (a metabolite of dihydrotestosterone) and estradiol were measured in stored serum specimens from men examined in the morning sample of the first phase of NHANES III (1988-1991). (cdc.gov)
  • Antiserum: Antiserum: Serology: Serology: Gamma Globulins: Globulins: Fraction of serum that contains most of the antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • Serum containing antibodies to a specific antigen(s). (scribd.com)
  • The availability of stable human antibody reagents would be of considerable advantage for research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, human antibody variable domains are highly diverse and encompass multiple germline families for both heavy and light domains ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The five different types of Fc regions allow antibodies to be grouped into five isotypes . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies penetrate bulky tumors poorly after intravenous administration, in part because of specific binding to the target antigen. (pnas.org)
  • 5656-5663, 1989), the idea that antibodies (and other ligands) could be prevented from penetrating tumors by the very fact of their successful binding to target antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-double stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA) antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. heavy chains, light chains AND antigen binding sites. (brainscape.com)
  • This allows millions of antibodies with different tip structures to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passive antibody administration (immediate immunity) as a specific defense against biological weapons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity: Immunity: Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or breast feeding (colostrum). (scribd.com)
  • 2. . Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity: Immunity: Preformed antibodies (antiserum) are introduced into body antiserum) by injection. (scribd.com)
  • named 94-2 and 94-7), were generated from a BALB/c mouse immunized with human monoclonal anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) neutralizing antibody KF94. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2015) Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. (nature.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies are elicited by most, if not all, successful vaccines ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that AMG 102 preferentially bound to the mature, active form of HGF, and incubation of AMG 102/HGF complexes with kallikrein protease indicated that AMG 102 had no apparent effect on proteolytic processing of the inactive HGF precursor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a promising target for the cancer therapeutics, against which several antibody clones have been developed and brought into therapeutic use. (cdc.gov)
  • These human monoclonal antibodies can be used as a therapeutic to: (1) treat an HIV infection, (2) decrease and prevent HIV-transmission from mother to infant, and (3) be effectively combined with anti-retroviral drug therapy. (nature.com)
  • Two of the preparations exhibited different binding patterns for the streptococci, whereas the remaining three were not reactive. (lu.se)
  • This antibody was more reactive with the extracts of mucosa adjacent to carcinoma tissues than with the carcinoma extracts. (duke.edu)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly. (wikipedia.org)