Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)PolysaccharidesFellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It seeks to improve oral, dental and craniofacial health through research, research training, and the dissemination of health information by conducting and supporting basic and clinical research. It was established in 1948 as the National Institute of Dental Research and re-named in 1998 as the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Francisella: The lone genus of bacteria in the family Francisellaceae, frequently found in natural waters. It can be parasitic in humans, other MAMMALS; BIRDS; and ARTHROPODS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. (1/2603)

The fine specificity of the Ro and La proteins has been studied by several techniques. In general, there is agreement in a qualitative sense that autoantibodies bind multiple epitopes. For some specific antibody binding, different studies agree quantitatively, for instance, the binding of the carboxyl terminus of 60-kd Ro as described by 2 studies using different techniques and the presence of an epitope within the leucine zipper of 52-kd Ro. In addition, there is general agreement about the location of a prominent epitope at the RRM motif region of the La molecule. On the other hand, the many specific epitope regions of the molecules differ among these studies. These discrepancies are likely the result of using different techniques, sera, and peptide constructs as well as a result of inherent advantages and disadvantages in the individual approaches. Several theories concerning the origin of not only the antibodies, but also the diseases themselves, have been generated from studies of the fine specificity of antibody binding. These include a theory of a primordial foreign antigen for anti-Ro autoimmunity, molecular mimicry with regard to La and CCHB, as well as the association of anti-Ro with HLA. These remain unproven, but are of continuing interest. An explanation for the association of anti-60-kd Ro and anti-52-kd Ro in the sera of patients has sprung from evaluating antibody binding. Data demonstrating multiple epitopes are part of a large body of evidence that strongly suggests an antigen-driven immune response. This means that the autoantigens are directly implicated in initiating and sustaining autoimmunity in their associated diseases. A number of studies have investigated the possibility of differences in the immune response to these antigens in SS and SLE sera. While several differences have been reported, none have been reproduced in a second cohort of patients. Furthermore, none of the reported differences may be sufficiently robust for clinical purposes, such as distinguishing between SS with systemic features and mild SLE, although some might be promising. For instance, in at least 3 groups of SLE patients, no binding of residues spanning amino acids 21-41 of 60-kd Ro has been found. Meanwhile, 1 of those studies found that 41% of sera from patients with primary SS bound the 60-kd Ro peptide 21-41. Perhaps future studies will elaborate a clinical role of such a difference among SS and SLE patients. Study of the epitopes of these autoantigens has, in part, led to a new animal model of anti-Ro and anti-La. Non-autoimmune-prone animals are immunized with proteins or peptides that make up the Ro/La RNP. Such animals develop an autoimmune response to the entire particle, not just the immunogen. This response has been hypothesized to arise from autoreactive B cells. In another, older animal model of disease, the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, B cells have recently been shown to be required for the generation of abnormal, autoreactive T cells. Thus, there are now powerful data indicating that B cells that produce autoantibodies are directly involved in the pathogenesis of disease above and beyond the formation of immune complexes. Given that the autoreactive B cell is potentially critical to the underlying pathogenesis of disease, then studying these cells will be crucial to further understanding the origin of diseases associated with Ro and La autoimmunity. Hopefully, an increased understanding will eventually lead to improved treatment of patients. Progress in the area of treatment will almost surely be incremental, and studies of the fine specificity of autoantibody binding will be a part of the body of basic knowledge contributing to ultimate advancement. In the future, the animal models will need to be examined with regard to immunology and immunochemistry as well as genetics. The development of these autoantibodies has not been studied extensively because upon presentation to medical care, virtually all patients have a full-  (+info)

Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl. (2/2603)

O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid.  (+info)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (3/2603)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Recognition of polynucleotides by antibodies to poly(I), poly(C). (4/2603)

The binding of anti poly(I). poly (C) Fab fragments to double or triple stranded polynucletides has been studied by fluorescence. Association constants were deduced from competition experiments. The comparison of the association constants leads to the conclusion that several atoms of the base residues do not interact with the amino acid residues of the binding site of Fab fragment while the hydroxyl groups of furanose rings interact. These results suggest that the Fab fragments do not bind to the major groove of the double stranded polynucleotides. An interaction between the C(2)O group of pyrimidine residues and Fab fragments cannot be excluded. Circular dichroism of poly(I). poly(C) or poly(I). poly(br5C)-Fab fragments complexes are very different from the circular dichroism of free polynucleotides which suggests a deformation of the polynucleotides bound to the Fab fragments.  (+info)

Analysis of the interaction of monoclonal antibodies with surface IgM on neoplastic B-cells. (5/2603)

In vitro studies identified three Burkitts lymphoma cell lines, Ramos, MUTU-I and Daudi, that were growth inhibited by anti-IgM antibody. However, only Ramos and MUTU-I were sensitive to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing the Fc region of surface IgM (anti-Fc mu). Experiments using anti-Fc mu mAb (single or non-crossblocking pairs), polyclonal anti-mu Ab, and hyper-crosslinking with a secondary layer of Ab, showed that growth inhibition of B-cell lines was highly dependent on the extent of IgM crosslinking. This was confirmed by using Fab', F(ab')2 and F(ab')3 derivatives from anti-Fc mu mAb, where increasing valency caused corresponding increases in growth arrest and apoptosis, presumably as a result of more efficient BCR-crosslinking on the cell surface. The ability of a single mAb to induce growth arrest was highly dependent on epitope specificity, with mAb specific for the Fc region (C mu2-C mu4 domains) being much more effective than those recognizing the Fab region (anti-L chain, anti-Id and anti-Fd mu, or C mu1). Only when hyper-crosslinked with polyclonal anti-mouse IgG did the latter result in appreciable growth inhibition. Binding studies showed that these differences in function were not related to differences in the affinity, but probably related to intrinsic crosslinking capacity of mAb.  (+info)

Characterization of an immunoglobin cDNA clone containing the variable and constant regions for the MOPC 21 kappa light chain. (6/2603)

Nucleotide sequence analysis and restriction endonuclease mapping have been used to characterize a cDNA copy of immunoglobulin MOPC 21 Kappa mRNA clones in the bacterial plasmid pMB9. Three regions of the inserted cDNA of plasmid pL21-1 have been sequenced and match the known protein sequence at amino acid residues 1-24, 128-138 and 171-179. With these sequences to provide absolute correlations between the restriction map and the structural gene sequence it has been possible to exactly deduce the positions of all 11 of the insert restriction sites mapped within the structural gene. The pL21-1 insert contains the complete variable and constant regions as well as parts of the 3' untranslated and polypeptide leader coding sequences.  (+info)

Molecular mapping of influenza virus RNA polymerase by site-specific antibodies. (7/2603)

Influenza virus RNA polymerase with the subunit structure PB1-PB2-PA is involved in both transcription and replication of the RNA genome, including the unique cap-I-dependent RNase activity. To map the important domains for RNA polymerization, cap-I-dependent RNase, and cap-I-binding activity, we generated site-specific antibodies against overlapping 150-amino-acid peptides that cover each entire subunit. Monospecific antibodies against each subunit inhibited RNA synthesis in vitro. Those against PB1 and PB2 inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity, but those against PB2 alone slightly inhibited the cap-I-binding activity. Antibodies against the N-terminal amino acids 1-159 of PB2 that overlap the PB1-binding site on PB2 and the C-terminal amino acids 501-617 of PA that overlap the putative nucleotide-binding site and PB1-binding site on PA inhibited RNA polymerizing activity as well as monospecific antibodies. Those against the N-terminal (amino acids 1-159); the central region (amino acids 305-559) of PB2, where a part of the cap-binding domain predicted previously is localized; the N-terminal (amino acids 1-222) of PB1; and amino acids 301-517 and 601-716 of PA inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity. The cap-binding domain on PB2 could be mapped in amino acids 402-559, where one of the cap-binding domains mapped previously overlapped.  (+info)

Distribution of B-cell epitopes on the pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B. (8/2603)

In order to map antigenically important regions of glycoprotein B (gB) of pseudorabies virus (PrV), a panel of recombinant fragments of gB expressed in E. coli and truncated fragments of gB generated by cleavage of purified native gB with trypsin and cyanogen bromide was analysed by using 26 monoclonal antibodies directed against gB. Three continuous epitopes were localized in the vicinity of the N terminus of gB, between amino acids (aa) 59 and 126. One continuous epitope mapped between residues 214 and 279. The residues involved in the assembly of eight discontinuous epitopes were located between aa 540 and 734. The constituents of two discontinuous epitopes were harboured in a segment encompassing aa 540-646. The clustering of continuous epitopes at the extreme N terminus of PrV gB and the locations of residues involved in the assembly of discontinuous epitopes of PrV gB are in good agreement with data on epitope locations in gB homologues from other herpesviruses.  (+info)

*Antigen-antibody interaction

... of the concentration of bound ligand to total antibody concentration and n is the maximum number of binding sites per antibody ... The strength of an individual interaction between a single binding site on an antibody and its target epitope is termed the ... Since the antibody necessarily has two paratopes, and in many circumstances complex binding occurs, the multiple binding ... In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ...

*CD2

Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2)". Nature. 329 ... Hahn WC, Menu E, Bothwell AL, Sims PJ, Bierer BE (1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a ... Bell GM, Fargnoli J, Bolen JB, Kish L, Imboden JB (January 1996). "The SH3 domain of p56lck binds to proline-rich sequences in ... ISBN 1-84110-100-1. Nishizawa K, Freund C, Li J, Wagner G, Reinherz EL (December 1998). "Identification of a proline-binding ...

*ELISA

The steps are: A surface is prepared to which a known quantity of capture antibody is bound. Any nonspecific binding sites on ... Enzyme-linked secondary antibodies are applied as detection antibodies that also bind specifically to the antibody's Fc region ... By using an enzyme-linked antibody that binds the Fc region of other antibodies, this same enzyme-linked antibody can be used ... A specially prepared "secondary antibody" - an antibody that binds to other antibodies - is then applied to the plate, followed ...

*Envelope glycoprotein GP120

Many neutralizing antibodies bind to sites located in variable regions of gp120, so mutations in these regions will be selected ... The presence of large carbohydrate chains extending from gp120 might obscure possible antibody binding sites. The boundaries of ... "Fine mapping of the interaction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies with the CD4 binding site of human ... "Global Shape and Ligand Binding Efficiency of the HIV-1-neutralizing Antibodies Differ from Those of Antibodies That Cannot ...

*Immunosignature

... or antibody binding sites, of pathogens. When a sample of diluted blood serum (containing antibodies) is applied to the surface ... This collection of antibodies will bind to regions of some of the random sequence peptides. The antibodies in the serum sample ... This secondary antibody binds to the patient antibody already on the array from the diluted serum sample, and since this ... and an unknown number of antibodies bound to some of those peptides. To detect those human antibodies, the array is covered ...

*Meir Wilchek

Using this method, Wilchek collaborated with a team who proved that the binding site of antibodies lies in the Fv portion of ... "A homologous series of affinity labeling reagents and their use in the study of antibody binding sites". Biochemistry. 10 (13 ... "The covalent binding of daunomycin and adriamycin to antibodies, with retention of both drug and antibody activities". Cancer ... These molecules covalently modify active site residues in order to elucidate the structure of the active site. ...

*Agglutinin

... s can be antibodies that cause antigens to aggregate by binding to the antigen-binding sites of antibodies. ... Agglutinins can also be any substance other than antibodies such as sugar-binding protein lectins. Agglutinins work by clumping ... When an agglutinin is added to a uniform suspension of particles such as bacteria or blood, agglutinin binds to the agglutinin- ... When erythrocytes are exposed to hemagglutinins (anti-A and Anti-B antibodies), those expressing antigen A or B coagulate upon ...

*CD117

"Soluble c-kit proteins and antireceptor monoclonal antibodies confine the binding site of the stem cell factor". J. Biol. Chem ... CD117 antibodies can also be used in the diagnosis of mast cell tumours and in distinguishing seminomas from embryonal ... CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase type III, which binds to stem cell factor (a substance that causes certain types of cells ... Antibodies to CD117 are widely used in immunohistochemistry to help distinguish particular types of tumour in histological ...

*Stem cell factor

"Soluble c-kit proteins and antireceptor monoclonal antibodies confine the binding site of the stem cell factor". J. Biol. Chem ... "Soluble c-kit proteins and antireceptor monoclonal antibodies confine the binding site of the stem cell factor". J. Biol. Chem ... In adult mice, the injection of the ACK2 anti-KIT antibody, which binds to the c-Kit receptor and inactivates it, leads to ... The soluble form of SCF contains a proteolytic cleavage site in exon 6. Cleavage at this site allows the extracellular portion ...

*Pepsin

This generates two separate monovalent (containing a single antibody binding site) Fab fragments and an intact Fc fragment. The ... containing two antibody binding sites), hence the designation F(ab')2. The light chains remain intact and attached to the heavy ... Use of F(ab')2 or Fab fragments ensures that the antibodies are binding to the antigen and not Fc receptors. These fragments ... In some assays, it is preferable to use only the antigen-binding (Fab) portion of the antibody. For these applications, ...

*Precipitin

... only antigens that have multiple antibody-binding sites epitopes. This allows for the formation of large antigen:antibody ... As the amount of antigen added: In the zone of antibody excess, each molecule of antigen is bound extensively by antibody and ... A precipitin is an antibody which can precipitate out of a solution upon antigen binding. The precipitin reaction provided the ... The average size of antibody-antigen complex is small; cross-linking between antigen molecules by antibody is rare. In the zone ...

*Integrin

Nevertheless, these so-called LIBS (Ligand-Induced-Binding-Sites) antibodies unequivocally show that dramatic changes in ... The structure poses many questions, especially regarding ligand binding and signal transduction. The ligand binding site is ... Those integrins that don't carry this inserted domain also have an A-domain in their ligand binding site, but this A-domain is ... It showed the molecule to be folded into an inverted V-shape that potentially brings the ligand-binding sites close to the cell ...

*Radioimmunoassay

... for antibody binding sites. As the concentration of "cold" antigen is increased, more of it binds to the antibody, displacing ... and reducing the ratio of antibody-bound radiolabeled antigen to free radiolabeled antigen. The bound antigens are then ... unlabeled antibody being allowed to interact and bind to the target molecule in solution. Preferably, this unlabeled antibody ... After extensive washing, the direct amount of radioactive antibody bound is measured and the amount of target molecule ...

*Leonard Lerman

Lerman discovered that antibodies have two binding sites. Later, perhaps his most important discovery was that certain ... molecules bind to DNA by intercalation. This discovery has shaped much of science's understanding about how drugs and mutagens ...

*Fragment crystallizable region

Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. doi:10.1093/ ... with both Fab and Fcab regions containing distinct binding sites). These bispecific monoclonal antibodies are sometimes ... the Fc region of immunoglobulins has been engineered to contain an antigen-binding site. This type of antigen-binding fragment ... This property allows antibodies to activate the immune system. In IgG, IgA and IgD antibody isotypes, the Fc region is composed ...

*Fcab

In naturally occurring antibodies (such as IgGs), the antigen-binding sites are located at the variable regions (Fab). Fcabs ... Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties.". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. PMID 20150180 ... hence the name of bispecific antibodies. This antibody fragment is part of the modular antibody technology of F-star ... Fcabs are antibodies fragments engineered from the constant region of an antibody (Fc). ...

*Epitope mapping

... of antibodies on their target antigens. Identification and characterization of the binding sites of antibodies can aid in the ... and tested for antibody binding. Target protein amino acids that are required for antibody binding can be identified by a loss ... Knowledge of the specific binding sites of antibodies strengthens patents and regulatory submissions by distinguishing between ... Characterization of epitopes can also help elucidate the mechanism of binding for an antibody and facilitate the prediction of ...

*F-star

Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties". Protein Eng Des. 23 (4): 289-297. doi:10.1093/ ... "Introducing antigen-binding sites in structural loops of immunoglobulin constant domains: ... is a biotechnology company, founded in Vienna in 2006, with a current main research site in Cambridge, UK. The company is ... a modular combinatorial approach that engineers the Fc constant region of an immunoglobulin into a novel antigen-binding site ...

*Single-chain variable fragment

... the common binding sites (e.g., protein G) cannot be used to purify antibodies. These fragments can often be purified or ... "Protein engineering of antibody binding sites: recovery of specific activity in an anti-digoxin single-chain Fv analogue ... Peterson, Eric; Owens, SM; Henry, RL (2006). "Monoclonal Antibody Form and Function: Manufacturing the Right Antibodies for ... "Expression and purification of monospecific and bispecific recombinant antibody fragments derived from antibodies that block ...

*Bispecific monoclonal antibody

The most common types are called trifunctional antibodies, as they have three unique binding sites on the antibody: the two Fab ... Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties". Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 23 (4 ... A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb, BsAb) is an artificial protein that can simultaneously bind to two different types of ... Bispecific antibodies also have a higher cytotoxic potential, and bind to antigens that are expressed relatively weakly. The ...

*Lateral flow test

The test line contains antibodies to the target/its analogue. Unlabeled analyte in the sample will block the binding sites on ... If the target analyte is detected within the sample the conjugate antibodies will bind and subsequently reach the test line ... A widely spread and well known application is the home pregnancy test. The technology is based on a series of capillary beds, ... In this way, the analyte binds to the particles while migrating further through the third capillary bed. This material has one ...

*Immunoprecipitation

... non-specific binding is not limited to the antibody-binding sites on the immobilized support; any surface of the antibody or ... must remain bound to each other (in the case of co-IP) and bound to the antibody during the wash steps to remove non-bound ... irrelevant antibody of the same antibody subclass as the IP antibody is used instead of the IP antibody itself. This approach ... The beads with bound antibodies are then added to the protein mixture, and the proteins that are targeted by the antibodies are ...

*Protein M

... has a C-terminal domain with 115 amino acid residues that probably protrudes over the antibody binding site. It binds ... It is presumably a universal antibody-binding protein, as it is known to be reactive against all antibody types tested so far. ... It is capable of preventing the antigen-antibody interaction due to its high binding affinity to any antibody. The Scripps ... "A Unique Mycoplasma Protein Generically Binds All Types of Antibodies and Blocks Antigen Binding". biotechdaily. Globetech ...

*Antigenic drift

... for variation in viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the genes that code for antibody-binding sites. ... If one of these new forms of an antigen is sufficiently different from the old antigen, it will no longer bind to the receptors ... Sites recognized on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins by host immune systems are under constant selective pressure. ... This results in a new strain of virus particles which cannot be inhibited as effectively by the antibodies that were originally ...

*Protein L

Also, Protein L does not interfere with the antigen-binding site of the antibody, making it useful for immunoprecipitation ... Each of these immunoglobulin-binding proteins has a different antibody binding profile in terms of the portion of the antibody ... Unlike Protein A and Protein G, which bind to the Fc region of immunoglobulins (antibodies), Protein L binds antibodies through ... Protein L binds a wider range of antibody classes than Protein A or G. Protein L binds to representatives of all antibody ...

*Phage display

This initial study described the rapid isolation of human antibody Fab that bound tetanus toxin and the method was then ... targeting the integrin ligand binding site". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (21): 10003-7. Bibcode:1993PNAS...9010003B. doi: ... Antibody phage display was later used by Carlos F. Barbas at The Scripps Research Institute to create synthetic human antibody ... HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn. Below ...
Inbar, D; Hochman, J; and Givol, D, "Localization of antibody-combining sites within the variable portions heavy and light chains." (1972). Subject Strain Bibliography 1972. 2138 ...
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Antibody-antigen complex not dissociating in IP - posted in Immunology: Hi, Im new here but have been using this site as a resource for a while, and now I have a question to ask regarding a problem that Ive been stuck on for a few months. Ive been trying to develop an immunoprecipitation protocol for isolating pannexin-1, with the hopes of performing coimmunoprecipitation afterwards. The problem that Ive been having relates to IgG contamination when I run the precipitat...
Signals generated through Igα/Igβ-containing receptor complexes are necessary and in some cases sufficient to direct B cells to execute a highly regulated series of ordered events that exhibit a very complex level of interdependence. However, in most cases, it is not well understood how the receptor-mediated signal is initiated and translated into specific B cell fates. Receptor oligomerization induced after Ag binding is thought to be a required step for generating signals leading to responses such as negative selection and activation (17, 39). However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that both the BCR and the pre-BCR on developing B cells are capable of generating signals independently of ligand (Ag) binding (24, 31, 32, 35, 51, 52). Despite several reports that implicate ligand-independent BCR signaling in B cell development, neither its regulation nor its linkage to specific events in B cell biology have been carefully studied. Moreover, it remains a matter of speculation whether or ...
Protein A is a cell wall protein deriving from Staphylococcus aureus which exhibits unique binding properties for IgG from a variety of mammalian species and for some IgM and IgA as well. It binds with the Fc region of immunoglobulins through interaction with the heavy chain. It couples to a wide variety of reporter molecules including fluorescent dyes, enzyme markers, biotin, colloidal gold and radioactive iodine without affecting the antibody binding site. Recombinant Protein A was developed to increase the specificity of the molecule for IgG and is widely used both in research and bioprocessing. The recombinant protein A is produced by expressing a modified protein A gene in E.coli. A specific purification process with strict quality control was taken to get the recombinant protein A with the purity of more than 98% , no human IgG affinity step is used during validated fermentation and purification and devoid of bacterial contaminant found normally in native Protein A. (Free of Staphylococcus ...
The structures of only a few hundred antibodies have been solved by X-ray crystallography and there are even fewer structures of antibody-antigen complexes. There are however, many more antibody sequences in the databases, and homology modeling can be a useful tool in extending the number of structures of antigen-binding sites. Being able to model the structures of anitgen-binding sites can help in guiding the synthesis of novel antibody variable regions for potential therapeutics and laboratory regents ...
Antigen-Antibody Pen Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET
Product is purified mouse IgG1 (K) and buffer. Mouse IgG1 (K) is purified from clarified mouse MOPC 21 ascites using multi-step procedures which may include salt fractionation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and immunoabsorption. The product is dialyzed into 0.02M TRIS, 0.15M sodium chloride, pH 8.1, filtered through a 0.22 µm filter and vialed.
structure and there are five types. It is these heavy chains which enable antibodies to be separated into the five classes (or isotypes) of immunoglobins; IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. The way in which the two heavy chains are connected to one another is through disulfide bonds, they are then connected to a light chain by disulfide bonds as well. This therefore creates two identical antigen-binding sites[4]. The regions of the heavy chain includes three constant domains, which are the same for all antibodies, and the one variable domain. The light chains are also composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. The variable regions of the antibodies are where the antigen binding site is located and the constant domain is responsible for the outcome of the antigen[5]. The Fc region is the part of the antibody that binds to cell surface receptors on cells such as macrophages. Finally, the Fab region is primarily known as the location for the antigen binding site[6]. The domains of antibodies are ...
structure and there are five types. It is these heavy chains which enable antibodies to be separated into the five classes (or isotypes) of immunoglobins; IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. The way in which the two heavy chains are connected to one another is through disulfide bonds, they are then connected to a light chain by disulfide bonds as well. This therefore creates two identical antigen-binding sites[4]. The regions of the heavy chain includes three constant domains, which are the same for all antibodies, and the one variable domain. The light chains are also composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. The variable regions of the antibodies are where the antigen binding site is located and the constant domain is responsible for the outcome of the antigen[5]. The Fc region is the part of the antibody that binds to cell surface receptors on cells such as macrophages. Finally, the Fab region is primarily known as the location for the antigen binding site[6]. The domains of antibodies are ...
A new kind of high avidity binding molecule, termed peptabody was made by harnessing the result of multivalent interaction. 85 kDa, with interchain disulfide bonds. Pab-S could be dissociated under denaturing and reducing circumstances and reassociated like a pentamer with full-binding activity. This intrinsic feature has an easy method to mix Pab substances with two different peptide specificities, creating heteropentamers with bispecific and/or chelating properties thus. binding actions for different receptors. A robust method of developing artificial ligands emerges by MCC950 sodium novel inhibtior the testing of huge phage libraries, displaying billions of different polypeptide sequences fused with coat proteins on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage (1, 2). For example, isolation of new peptide ligands allowed the mapping of antibody binding sites, the characterization of important residues in HLA-DR molecules, and the identification of protease substrates or inhibitors (for review see ...
Human induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) were obtained from the HipSci project (http://www.hipsci.org) and differentiated into macrophages using an established protocol (van Wilgenburg, 2013). The genotype_id column of the flow_sample_metadata.txt file contains the canonical HipSci iPSC line name from which the macrophages were differentiated. Data acquisition We used flow cytometry to measure the cell surface expression of three canonical macrophage markers: CD14, CD16 (FCGR3A/FCGR3B) and CD206 (MRC1). Macrophages were cultured in 10 cm tissue-culture treated plates and detached from the plates by incubation in 6 mg/ml lidocaine-PBS solution (Sigma L5647) for 30 minutes followed by gentle scraping. From each cell line we harvested between 300,000-500,000 cells. Detached cells were washed in media, centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 5 minutes and resuspended in flow cytometry buffer (2% BSA, 0.001% EDTA in D-PBS) and split into two wells of a 96-well plate. Nonspecific antibody binding sites were blocked by
Five such TB-cbEGF junctions exist between the cross-link sites (exons 14-58), and several folding arrangements could thus occur to generate the ∼56-nm untensioned microfibrils. TB3, which precedes the central 12 cbEGF array, has the longest linker region (19 residues) and may be particularly flexible. Of these possibilities, only one fits the formation of interbead arms of observed dimensions (14.7 nm or approximately six domains) and antibody binding sites. This arrangement would involve hinging at the TB3-cbEGF junction so that the central 12 cbEGF array folds back, juxtaposing the center of this array with the core bead, thereby enhancing its mass and reducing periodicity to ∼56 nm (18 cbEGFs, 3 TB modules). Characteristic diameter variations within each untensioned repeat (Fig. 1 C) shown in our reconstructions also indicate complex interbead molecular folding. N-Glycosylation sites, all accommodated within the interbead, would protect exposed interbead domain arrays from proteolytic ...
antibody binding sites. When the absorbent pad is soaked with urine, the The test kit can be stored at temperature urine will migrate via capillary action toward the test window where the test reaction occurs. A negative specimen produces two distinct color bands, one (2 to 30°C) in the sealed pouch to the date in the test zone and one in the control zone. A positive specimen produces of expiration. The test kit should be kept away from direct sunlight, moisture only one color band in the control zone. To serve as an internal process control, a control band was designed to indicate that the test is performed properly. This control line should always be seen after test is completed. PRECAUTION ...
Directory of patents published on February 25, 1992 (3,815 patents): Biosynthetic antibody binding sites; Hydrophilic lubricious coatings; Apparatus and method for adaptively compressing successive blocks of digital video; Inventory, cash, security, and maintenance control apparatus and method for a plurality of remote vending machines; Method for preparation of dialkyl tellurium and dialkyl selenium
TY - JOUR. T1 - The physiology of anti-idiotypic interactions. T2 - From clonal to paratopic selection. AU - Greally, John M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - On theoretical and experimental grounds, it has been proposed that the idiotypes of immunoglobulins and of T cell receptors are composed of multiple paratopes, as opposed to a single paratope and several idiotopes. This necessitates a revision of some of the basic principles of anti-idiotypic reactions. It is also possible to infer the presence of the same or similar paratopes on different idiotypes. A paratope cannot therefore be regarded as restricted to or unique on an idiotype. For these reasons, the perception of immunological specificity in terms of clonal units is misleading. This review proposes instead that the physiological unit of immunological specificity and regulation is the paratope. This essential alteration in the perception of the immune system is referred to as paratopic selection. The approach is assessed in terms of ...
A chronic skin issue like eczema can often be treated with dietary interventions.2 Often your immune system mistakenly identifies a food as being foreign, tagging it with an antibody and forming an antibody-antigen complex. When these form in abundance, they deposit in your joints, and your skin - leading to eczema.2 Conditions like eczema require modulating your immune system to only identify and tag true intruders and not foods that we eat on a daily basis.2. ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays Chem 395 Spring 2007 Instructor : Dr. James Rusling Presenter : Bhaskara V. Chikkaveeraiah OUTLINE Immunoassays Introduction Factors contributing to
my abs are very late in the game here compared to the rest of my body and i cant seem to shed that last bit of fat in the lower ab area. can anyone
and 2 quick workouts to get your there By Chanel Collette In the fitness world abs are the hottest commodities - everyone wants them and only a select few achie
This lab activity is designed to study highly specific lock-key matching properties of antigen-antibody and how this highly specific interaction can be exploited as a tool for research and analysis. This study involves the use of an immunodiffusion technique in which antigen and antibody are allowed to diffuse in a solid agarose medium. When antigen and antibody meet, antigen-antibody complex is formed, which leads to precipitation. Antigen-antibody precipitate is formed in the zone where the concentration of the two matching pair reaches an optimal known as the zone of equivalence, which results in formation of a visible opaque precipitate region in agarose medium. Those regions of precipitation can be used for determination of concentration or titer of both antigen and antibody. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction kit is a hands-on study of both Ouchterlony Double Diffusion and Radial Immunodiffusion techniques. This kit also provides additional guidance materials for teaching other types of ...
Protein A is a cell-wall protein derived from Staphylococcus aureus which has unique binding properties to a variety of mammalian species of IgG. It can also bind some IgM and IgA. Protein A binds the Fc region of immunoglobulins through interaction with the heavy chain. It can be coupled to a variety of reporter molecules, such as fluorescent dyes, enzyme markers, biotin, colloidal gold, and radioactive iodine without affecting the antibody binding site. The recombinant version of protein A was developed to increase the specificity for IgG.. The recombinant protein A is produced by expressing a modified protein A gene in E. coli. It is a non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing the amino acid sequence of Staphylococcal protein A IgG binding domains and having a molecular mass of 41 kDa. The recombinant protein A contains six IgG-binding regions of protein A. The cell-wall binding region, albumin binding region and other non-specific binding regions have been eliminated from the ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a sensitive, heterogenous (multiple phase) analytical technique for quantitation of antigen or antibody in which enzyme-labeled antibody or antigen is bound to a solid support (e.g., tubes, beads, microtiter plate wells, plastic tines or fins). After addition of patient specimen and substrate, antigen, antibody or complex are detected by a color change indicating the presence of the product of an enzyme-substrate reaction. Direct ELISA is a technique for measuring antigen using competition for antibody binding sites between enzyme- labeled antigen and patient antigen. Indirect ELISA, or enzyme immunometric assay, measures antibody concentrations using bound antigen to interact with specimen antibodies. Enzyme-labeled reagent antibodies can be isotype-specific (i.e., capable of determining the presence of IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE classes which react with the antigen of interest). The specificity of indirect ELISA assays for IgM isotypes in some infectious ...
When antigens enter into the body, normally this antigen will be recognized by the antibody that has been generated before during first exposure. The antibody binds to the soluble antigen forming the antibody-antigen complexes in the circulation in order to clear up all of the pathogens. According to Levinson (n.d), the reticuloendothelial system or macrophages system and other phagocytes have the ability to remove the immune antibody-antigen complexes very effectively in a normal condition. However, in type III hypersensitivity, these systems are not capable to remove these complexes. As a result, this antigen-antibody complexes tends to deposit on the wall of the blood vessels. Some of the immune complex deposition on the blood vessel will activate the complement protein such as C1, C4, C3 and C5-9 resulting membrane attack complex, leukocytes chemotaxis, leukocytes polymorphism and phagocytosis as well as inflammation. So that, in classical pathway C1 binds to the antigen-antibody complex and ...
Idiotype definition, the molecular arrangement of amino acids unique to the antigen-binding site of a particular antibody. See more.
Mouse IgG2a, 0.1 mg. The specificity of staining by monoclonal antibodies to target antigens should be verified by establishing the amount of non-specific antibody binding.
Mouse IgG2a, 0.1 mg. The specificity of staining by monoclonal antibodies to target antigens should be verified by establishing the amount of non-specific antibody binding.
How to culture cells after sorting? - posted in Flow Cytometry: How are cells cultured after subjecting them to antibodies and cell sorting? How are the bound antibodies removed after sorting? What are the preparation steps after the cells are collected?
Just something iv been wondering about for a awhile, i am a DL and was kinda wondering how i got that way. I know people who are ABs are sometimes that way because they had to grow up to fast or soemthing along those lines/ However i am just a DL, and i have always just wanted to wear diapers, and there was really nothing tramatic in my life that would make me want to. so my question is, do you think it could possible be gene linked? maybe someone in your family likes them too?
KCNC1小鼠多克隆抗体(ab21840)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
My ab development is comming along nicely, Ive been training my abs for years now (im 22) my bodyfat is down to about 7 - 8% my abs are relatively
Anti-fluorescein antibodies are excellent model systems for studying the biochemical basis of molecular recognition because a prodigious amount of both physico-chemical and structural information is available for these antibodies. Furthermore, recombinant single-chain antibodies have been produced for several anti-fluorescein antibodies, and site-specific mutagenesis studies have defined the energetic contributions of a number of key active-site residues. In previous studies, we determined the three-dimensional structure of an antigen-binding fragment of a high-affinity anti-fluorescein antibody (4-4-20) in complex with fluorescein. These studies showed that fluorescein binds tightly in an aromatic slot and participates in a network of electrostatic interactions. In this report, we examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the 4-4-20 antigen-combining site by observing the effects of pH on the fluorescence of fluorescein and antigen-binding affinity. These studies showed that the salt ...
TEPC-15 is a phosphorylcholine-binding mouse myeloma protein which reacts with an ester-containing phosphorylcholine, the p-nitrophenyl ester of 6-(phosphorylcholine)hexanoic acid (PEPCH). The rate...
For antibodies both the amine and carboxylate groups are plentiful. For this reason, conjugation procedures that utilize these groups will cross link randomly to all parts of the antibody molecule. The distribution of amine and carboxylate groups on a three dimensional structure of an immunoglobin is nearly uniform throughout the surface topology. Conjugation to these functional groups can lead to random conjugation and hence, random orientation of the antibody often blocking the antigen binding site. Obscuring the binding site will decrease antigen binding activity in the conjugate. Site directed conjugation generally leads to conjugation chemistry that is successful at preserving the activity of the antibody. Conjugation through the sulfhydryl of a fragmented antibody is one such method of site directed conjugation. In this method the conjugation takes place at certain positions on the immunoglobin surface that is far from the antigen binding sites thus preventing blockage of these sites and ...
Specific Interference with the Determination of the Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 by Human Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Formed after Treatment with the Anti-Tumour-Associated Glycoprotein 72 Antibody ...
Hi, Someone did a kinetics analysis of antibody binding to immune cells after ip injection of monoclonal antibody? How long time would it take fter injection before the target cells are stained? With best regards Petter Höglund Department of Microbiology Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institute, Box 280, S-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden -------------- next part -------------- HTML attachment scrubbed and removed ...
Rose, L M.; Goldman, M; and Lambert, P, "The production of anti-idiotypic antibodies and of idiotype- -anti-idiotype immune complexes after polyclonal activation induced by bacterial lps." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2727 ...
Ongoing since 1999, the lab has worked to develop infrared probes of protein dynamics, specifically the carbon-deuterium (C-D) bond. Weve used C-D bonds to characterize stability, folding, and function of a variety of proteins, and compared their use to other common IR probes of proteins. A second biophysical project focuses on protein evolution, specifically evolution of antibodies and the role of somatic mutations in altering antibody structure and dynamics. Weve characterized antibodies raised against several chromophoric antigens, which have allowed us to measure the rigidity of the antibody-antigen complex using nonlinear optical spectroscopy.. ...
substrate EW-80110 Kit EW-80200 Kit EW-80201 Kit EW-80202 Kit EW-80203- Kit EW-80204 Kit EW-80205 Kit EW-80206 Kit EW-80207 Kit EW-80208 Kit EW-80209 Kit EW-80215 Kit EW-90100 EW-BLP01 EW-BLP02 EW-BP01-1L EW-BSB01 EW-BSB02 EW-BSB03 EW-BSB04 EW-EP05-30 EW-FP01-5 EW-FP01-50 EW-GLP01 EW-GLP02 EW-HB01 EW-IF01-4N EW-IOR01 EW-LF01-10S EW-LF01-500 EW-LF08-10S EW-LF08-500 EW-LF16-10S EW-LF16-500 EW-LH604-200 EW-LH604-30 EW-PP03-2C EW-PP03-5E EW-PP03-6C EW-PP05-2C EW-PP05-5E EW-PP05-6C dye EW-SALL-500 EW-VG01-10S EW-VG01-300 EW-VG01-500 EW-VG08-10S EW-VG08-300 EW-VG08-500 EW-VG16-100 EW-VP01-125 EW-VP01-500 EW-VP05-125 EW-VP05-500 EW-VP10-1L Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-B9 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-C5 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-G3 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-H7 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-M2 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-P6 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R1 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-R10 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-S4 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN-T8 Antigen-Antibody Pens PEN13-SET Antigen
... (IHC) is the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding to specific antigens. Due to the differences between antigens and their corresponding antibodies, protocols for IHC vary widely. At Wax-it, our expert staff will efficiently develop such protocols to bring you results of the highest quality.. Our areas of expertise in IHC include:. ...
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479000617 - EP 3182999 A1 2017-06-28 - ANTI-LAG3 ANTIBODIES AND ANTIGEN-BINDING FRAGMENTS - [origin: WO2016028672A1] The present invention includes antibodies and antigen-binding fragments thereof that specifically bind to human or cynomolgous monkey LAG3 as well as immunoglobulin chains thereof and polynucleotides encoding the same along with injection devices comprising such antibodies or fragments. Vaccines including such antibodies and fragments as well as compositions comprising the antibodies and fragments (e.g., including anti-PD1 antibodies) are included in the invention. Methods for treating or preventing cancer or infection using such compositions are also provided. In addition, methods for recombinant expression of the antibodies and fragments are part of the present invention.[origin: WO2016028672A1] The present invention includes antibodies and antigen-binding fragments thereof that specifically bind to human or cynomolgous monkey LAG3 as well as immunoglobulin chains thereof and
LLPC may also be used to detect conformational changes occuring upon binding of antigen by antibody. Antigen-antibody complexes formed by different lgG antibodies against a large antigen like HSA all had similar surface properties. different from those of both antigen and antibody. In contrast, the surface properties of complexes formed by small antigens haptens are related to those of the lgG antibody ...
Antibodies are a vital part of our immune system. These proteins bind to specific antigen proteins on the surface of foreign bodies such as bacteria and viruses in order to neutralize or disarm them. Since each antigen has a different shape, it requires a different antibody to attach to it. By tailoring antibodies to attach to proteins responsible for specific diseases, pharmaceutical companies seek to develop drugs that minimise side-effects caused by antibodies binding to the wrong targets. Researchers at Boehringer have been studying a molecule in an antibody and they found that it was unusually compact as a single crystal. The next step was to obtain structural information of the molecule in solution.. ...
You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.A rich history and cultural heritage nestled in southern Alberta, Canada. Welcome.Blood may be donated from another person, or stored by the recipient at an earlier date.English dictionary definition of Blood system. circulatory system Arteries carry blood rich in oxygen from the heart to tissues of the body.The raw material for blood plasma industry is the straw colored liquid that is a component of blood called blood plasma.There was an error trying to load your rating for this title.. Thus each antibody has two identical antigen-binding sites, one at the end of each arm, and the antigen-binding sites vary greatly among antibodies ...
Mouse IL-17A will bind to the capture antibody coated on the microtiter plate. After appropriate washing steps, biotinylated primary antibody binds to the captured protein. Excess primary antibody is washed away and bound antibody is reacted with horsera
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References for Abcams Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG Fc (DyLight® 550) preadsorbed (ab102341). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
My abs are really sore, and not just the lower ones. That seems weird too. Im not working out besides walking the dog and I really dont feel like I could at the moment. But I want to start ramping up the walking a bit. And maybe start yoga again, but Im afraid of twisting and stretching far due to discomfort. Maybe its from the IVF. Ive also worried that I have mild OHSS. I havent really gained any weight, but I am massively bloated. (Hopefully my kids havent noticed that Ive worn the same pair of jeans 3 times this week ...
Membrane-based blotting applications that employ enzyme conjugates to generate colorimetric or chemiluminescent signal require the use of an added blocking step to decrease the signal generated by non-specific binding.
The protein matrix of the plasma sample is removed by using special precipitating reagents. normetanephrine and metanephrine in the supernatant are then quantitatively acylated to their N-acyl-derivates. The assay procedure follows the basic principle of radioimmunoassays, involving competition between a radioactive and a non-radioactive antigen for a fixed number of antibody binding sites. The amount of 125Ilabelled antigen bound to the antibody is inversely proportional to the analyte concentration of the sample. When the system is in equilibrium, the antibody bound radioactivity is separated using a 2nd antibody and PEG. After centrifugation the precipitate is counted in a gamma counter. Quantification of unknown samples is achieved by comparing their activity with a reference curve prepared with known standards. Important note: The antisera used in this test kit only recognize the biologically relevant L-forms of metanephrines. Commercially availabe synthetic normetanephrine or metanephrine ...
article{31e17f38-485f-4324-be67-f72cc473b767, abstract = {Both the antibody affinity and the detectability of the label are essential in deciding the final characteristics of a heterogeneous immunoassay. This paper describes an approach to obtain a supplementary enhancement of the signal generated by using an enzyme label, e.g., by including the product of the enzymatic reaction in an additional amplification cycle during the detection step performed with an amperometric biosensor based on glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). An immunoassay format with a labelled analyte derivative that competes with the analyte present in the sample for a limited amount of antibody binding sites was employed. The beta-galactosidase label hydrolyses the substrate aminophenyl-beta-galactopyranoside, and the generated aminophenol enters then into a bioelectrocatalytic amplification cycle at the GDH biosensor. The principle was applied for determination of 4-nitrophenol, with the best minimal concentration of 1.5 microM ...
This study was conducted to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) detection method for point-of-care diagnosis. The one-dot LFIA for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was based on the modified competitive binding format using competition between AFB1 and colloidal gold-AFB1-BSA conjugate for antibody binding sites in the test zone. A Smartphone-based reading system consisting of a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone, a LFIA reader, and a Smartphone application for the image acquisition and data analysis. The detection limit of one-dot LFIA for AFB1 is 5 μg/kg. This method provided semi-quantitative analysis of AFB1 samples in the range of 5 to 1,000 μg/kg. Using combination of the one-dot LFIA and the Smartphone-based reading system, it is possible to conduct a more fast and accurate point-of-care diagnosis.
This study was conducted to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) detection method for point-of-care diagnosis. The one-dot LFIA for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was based on the modified competitive binding format using competition between AFB1 and colloidal gold-AFB1-BSA conjugate for antibody binding sites in the test zone. A Smartphone-based reading system consisting of a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone, a LFIA reader, and a Smartphone application for the image acquisition and data analysis. The detection limit of one-dot LFIA for AFB1 is 5 μg/kg. This method provided semi-quantitative analysis of AFB1 samples in the range of 5 to 1,000 μg/kg. Using combination of the one-dot LFIA and the Smartphone-based reading system, it is possible to conduct a more fast and accurate point-of-care diagnosis.
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Hi All, I am wondering if anyone has experience showing therapeutic monoclonal antibody binding in mouse xenografts (human tumor cells injected subcutaneously in SCID mice and then dose treated with therapeutic antibody injected intraperitoneally). For instance, can trastuzamab (Herceptin) binding be seen in a breast tumor xenograft treated with Herceptin? I have tried using Dakos goat-anti mouse dextran HRP conjugated secondary antibody developed with DAB. I also tried using an Abcam goat-anti mouse antibody conjugated with biotin, then adding Vectors elite ABC, then developing with DAB. Both times I used FFPE tissue. In both techniques, results showed minimal to staining and showed no difference between mice treated with antibody and control mice treated. I would appreciate if anyone knew of published papers or have experience using IHC to show therapeutic antibody bound to tumor cell in mouse xenografts. Thanks -Sam Research Technician Dana Farber ...
The antigen-binding end of an antibody molecule and green fluorescent protein (GEP) both contain β-strands that are connected by exposed loops. Zeytun et al. have taken advantage of this commonality and engineered libraries of "fluorobodies" by inserting antigen-binding sequences (the complementarity-determining regions) within four of the GFP loops. They isolated fluorobodies that bound specifically to several proteins (ubiquitin, tubulin, and myoglobin) with submicromolar affinities and were used successfully in immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblots, or flow cytometry. - GJC. NatureBiotechnol. 10.1038/nbt911 (2003).. ...
COPYRIGHT (C) 2016 KISTI. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.. 대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] ...
Protein blocking buffer for serum-free blocking of non-specific antibody binding in IHC, ELISA and western blot. No mixing or dilution required.PROTOCOL: Immunohistochemistry Incubate tissue se…
Abstract: 对大连某城市污水处理厂活性污泥进行长期驯化,筛选得到好氧条件下以对氨基苯磺酸(4-aminobenzenesulphonate,4-ABS)为唯一碳源和能源生长的高效降解菌株W1.根据菌株W1的形态特征、生理生化特征及16S rDNA序列分析,初步鉴定为Pannonibacter菌属.通过考察生长条件对降解效果的影响,确定了该菌株降解4-ABS的优化条件为:接种量10%、 30℃、 pH 7、摇床转速150 r/min,并且在有外加碳源的情况下仍保持较高的4-ABS降解活性.在4-ABS的降解过程中,4-ABS自身含有的氨基和磺酸基会以NH+4和SO2-4的形式释放到水体中,但浓度仅为理论释放量的77.6%和91.5%,推测原因是部分释放的NH+4和SO2-4被菌株W1作为氮源和硫源利用;菌株W1可以耐受2 500 mg/L的4-ABS,且在32 ...
The invention provides recombinant antibody molecules comprising antigen binding regions derived from the heavy and/or light chain variable regions of a donor anti-CD3 antibody, e.g. OKT3, and which have anti-CD3 binding specificity, preferably of affinity similar to that of OKT3. The recombinant antibody is preferably a humanized antibody and may be a chimeric or CDR-grafted antibody. A method is disclosed for preparing CDR-grafted humanized antibodies in which, in addition to the CDRs, non-human antibody residues are preferably used at positions 23, 24, 49, 71, 73 and 78 of the heavy chain variable region and at positions 46, 48, 58, and 71 of the light chain variable region. The recombinant, especially the humanized, anti-CD3 antibodies may used for in vivo therapy or diagnosis.
To identify which polymorphic residues determine the allospecific antibody binding sites on A beta polypeptides, mutant Ak beta genes were constructed encoding single or multiple amino acids of the d allele at 14 polymorphic positions in the beta 1 domain. Cell lines expressing these genes were analyzed by quantitative immunofluorescence using 16 mAbs reactive to Ak beta or Ad beta. Substitution of d allele residues at positions 63 and 65-67 in the Ak beta polypeptide resulted in the loss of binding of all Ak beta-reactive antibodies and the gain of binding of most Ad beta-reactive antibodies. Two Ad beta-reactive mAbs bound to the mutant Ak beta polypeptide containing d allele-characteristic residue at position 40. In contrast, substitution of the other polymorphic residues in the NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal regions of the beta 1 domain did not alter antibody binding. ...
Fluorescent labeling reagents are used as diagnosis and research reagents that label specific protein, antigen, antibody, and DNA. However, the chromophoric groups are not stable under long-time Ultra Violet (UV) excitation measurement condition. Nanometer-sized semiconductor particles (for example, CdS or CdSe nanometer-sized particles) provide high intensity fluorescence with durability under long-time UV irradiation. However, the CdSe particles are usually insoluble to water. We prepared terpolymers which consist of water-soluble and hydrophobic parts, and functional group for antibody binding site. Water-soluble part in the polymers is composed of N-isopropylacrylamide. Hydrophobic part for anchoring to CdSe nanoparticles coated with hydrophobic stabilizing reagents and oleic acid is prepared by copolymerization of oleic acid (Ole) as a monomer. The terpolymers were prepared by radical polymerization of Nipam, Ole, and acrylic acid and their structures were confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopic
October 10, 2019-New York, US Antibodies are crucial tools in scientific researches, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Designing antibodies with desired functions targeting specific epitopes now becomes a powerful prompter in the field of medical research and medicine development. Creative Biolabs, equipped with the first-level technology support and knowledgeable scientists, has launched the one-stop services regarding antibody design, aiming to help clients obtain ideal, highly developable and stable epitope-specific mAbs.. The neo epitope-specific mAbs design services are comprehensive and systematic, mainly made up of antibody structure modelling, antibody-antigen complex analysis, computer-aided affinity maturation, antibody structure determination, and experimental validation.. For the first step antibody structure design modeling, Creative Biolabs provides two approaches: homology modeling and antibody initio (or de novo) modeling. The homology modeling method takes advantage of ...
Generation of Antibody Diversity. The big question:how do you get all those different antibodies? Two other big questions- getting different classes with the same variable regions, and getting secreted and membrane-bound forms of the same class Slideshow 6869117 by amal-herring
GenScript provides custom solutions for antibody lead optimization, providing antibody humanization, affinity maturation services to reduce the immunogenicity and improve affinity, thermostability and expression level.
ULight™ labeled anti-FITC antibody for LANCE® TR-FRET assays. The anti-FITC antibody is a purified mouse IgG2a monoclonal antibody ...
Plexera® develops products for detection and quantification of molecular binding interactions such as protein-protein, antibody-antigen, protein-oligonucleotide, and other molecular binding interactions.
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
1. Monoclonal antibody binding to human CD40, comprising (i) two heavy chains, each of which contains a constant region derived from human IgG4, with the substitution of serine with Proline at position 228 and the substitution of LEU is in glutamic acid at position 235, and the variable region of the heavy chain of the monoclonal antibody produced by hybridoma 4D11 (no access FERM BP-7758), and (ii) two light chains, each of which contains the variable region of the light chain of the monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridoma 4D11 (no access FERM BP-7758).. 2. Monoclonal antibody binding to human CD40, comprising (i) two heavy chains, each of which contains a constant region derived from human IgG4, with the substitution of serine with Proline at position 228 and the substitution of leucine glutamic acid at position 235, and variable region represented by amino acid sequence in the range from Q at position 27 to S at position 147 in SEQ ID NO:46, and (ii) two light chains, each of which ...
Point mutations in human CD26/DP IV were analysed for adenosine deaminase (ADA) binding, monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding and DP IV enzyme activity. Point mutations at either Leu294 or Val341 ablated ADA binding. Binding by mAbs that inhibit ADA binding was found to involve both Leu340 to Arg343 and Thr440/Lys441. Glu205 and Glu206 were found to be essential for enzyme activity. All residues of interest were mapped onto a model of the beta-propeller domain of DP IV. These data led us to suggest that in DP IV and related peptidases ligand and antibody binding sites are non-linear and that enzyme activity depends on charged sidechains that surround the entrance to the central tunnel of the beta-propeller.
Looking for online definition of conformational epitope in the Medical Dictionary? conformational epitope explanation free. What is conformational epitope? Meaning of conformational epitope medical term. What does conformational epitope mean?
Rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies were prepared by injection of specifically purified anti-p-azobenzoate antibodies (D) from individual donor rabbits. Benzoate derivatives were found to be strong inhibitors of the reactions of D with anti-D antisera. There was a close correlation between the combining affinities of the benzoate derivatives used and their effectiveness as inhibitors. Compounds tested that are chemically unrelated to benzoate were ineffective. The results indicate either that the combining site of anti-benzoate antibody is part of an important idiotypic determinant, which is sterically blocked by hapten, or that the hapten induces a conformational change which alters idiotypic determinants not involving the active site. Such conformational changes, if they occur, must be restricted since hapten has little effect on the reactions of F(ab)2 fragments of anti-benzoate antibodies with antisera directed to rabbit fragment Fab and no detectable effect on reactions with antibodies ...
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize the heavy and light chains (H+L) of rabbit or mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. They are provided in unlabeled form or as a conjugate with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The antibodies were raised in goat or rabbit using rabbit IgG (H+L) or mouse IgG (H+L), and can be used as a secondary antibody for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or ELISAs.. ...
Immunogenicity of Protein-315 and its Fab fragment (Fab-315) for isologous and heterologous strains of mice was investigated by comparing the characteristics of the anti-idiotypic response produced in BALB/c and A/J mice. The ability of these anti-idiotypic antisera to compete with DNP-lys for the ligand-binding site of Protein-315 were analyzed by comparing their hapten inhibition curves.. The anti-idiotypic responses of BALB/c mice to Protein-315 and to Fab-315 were similar to one another with regard to antibody specificity and sensitivity to inhibition by hapten, suggesting that both forms were equally immunogenic in inbred BALB/c mice. This observation indicates that the Fc portion of Protein-315 is not essential for the induction of anti-idiotypic response. Both BALB/c and A/J mice recognized the same antigenic determinants on Fab-315 since the anti-idiotypic antibodies produced by these animals were indistinguishable with regard to their interaction with Protein-315, Fv-315, and ...
The general hybridoma antibody cloning protocol and antibody sequencing protocol seem very straightforward: RNA extraction, reverse transcription to cDNA, nested PCR amplifications, cloning of PCR products, sequencing, and analysis of sequences.
Pathogens antibodies and vaccines science take out answers, I got a snake man, Create models of pathogens, antibodies, and antigen-antibody interaction. Perform simulated laboratory tests to compare the antibody levels of unvaccinated.
cel s bind to the Fc portion of the antibody, a signal ing cascade is Targeting cancer with a mAb was described by Milstein in initiated to kil the cancer cel s. However, the Fc domain of an intact 198123. Over the past two decades, the feasibility of antibody-based mAb can also bind to the Fc receptors on normal cel s, as occurs with tissue targeting has been clinical y demonstrated (reviewed in macrophages. This may lead to increased immunogenicity - the refs 24,25) with 17 different mAbs approved by the US Food and ability to evoke an immune response - and liver and spleen uptake of Drug Administration (FDA)26. The mAb rituximab (Rituxan) was the nanocarrier. An additional advantage of whole/intact antibodies approved in 1997 for treatment of patients with non-Hodgkins is their ability to maintain stability during long-term storage. lymphoma - a type of cancer that originates in lymphocytes27. Although antibody fragments including antigen-binding fragments A year later, Trastuzumab ...
|strong|Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255|/strong| is a paratope specific, inhibitory anti-idiotypic antibody that specifically recognizes the monoclonal antibody drug nivolumab. The antib…
, Rabbit IgG antibody, Fab fragment (Rhodamine), GTX27051, Applications: ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF; ELISA, Flow cytometry/FACS, Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence (ICC/IF); CrossReactivity: Rabbit
Immunohistochemistry is used to confirm the presence of or to identify certain structures or substances in tissue sections which cannot be identified with conventional staining methods. Such structures include: cells, enzymes, hormones, macromolecules like nucleic acids and polysaccharides. The basis of immunohistochemical staining techniques is the antigen-antibody reaction. This method makes it possible to differentiate, for example, various cells in a tissue section according to their different metabolic products or surfaces. Either the metabolic product or a certain surface component serves as the antigen. In the first step, the antigen reacts with a specific antibody. The resulting antigen-antibody complex is invisible. Therefore, in a further step a second antibody bound to an adjuvant is added and binds to the initial antibody (so-called sandwich procedure). The bound adjuvant makes the antigen-antibody complex visible under the microscope and identifies the sought structure. Adjuvants ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human IgG1 (Fc) antibody, clone 8c/6-39|/strong| recognizes an epitope within the CH2 domain of the Fc region in Human IgG1. It is negative on IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, free kappa or free l…
Antibody molecules to PD-1 and uses thereof | Antibodies directed against programmed death-1 (PD-1) | Monoclonal antibody STRO-4 | Methods of reducing basophil levels | Use of reslizumab to treat moderate to severe eosinophilic asthma |
483279889 - EP 3108256 A4 2017-10-04 - METHOD OF DETECTING CANCER - [origin: WO2015120523A1] The disclosure provides methods for resolving an inconclusive cytological assessment of clinically relevant cells in a sample obtained from a patient based on the cytological detection of antibody binding to telomerase in clinically relevant cells in the sample, wherein binding of the antibody to clinically relevant cells indicates the presence of malignant or cancerous cells.[origin: WO2015120523A1] The disclosure provides methods for resolving an inconclusive cytological assessment of clinically relevant cells in a sample obtained from a patient based on the cytological detection of antibody binding to telomerase in clinically relevant cells in the sample, wherein binding of the antibody to clinically relevant cells indicates the presence of malignant or cancerous cells.
Figure 2. The protein binds to the well plate and the primary antibody binds to the protein. The secondary antibody binds to the primary antibody, and pNPP turns yellow. Photo: Arlen Heginbotham. ...
, Rabbit IgG (F(ab)2) antibody, F(ab)2 fragment, pre-adsorbed (Biotin), GTX26111, Applications: ELISA, IHC, WB; ELISA, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity: Rabbit
1IC4: Structural evidence for entropic contribution of salt bridge formation to a protein antigen-antibody interaction: the case of hen lysozyme-HyHEL-10 Fv complex.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic antibodies. AU - Benkovic, Stephen. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026717963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026717963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1146/annurev.bi.61.070192.000333. DO - 10.1146/annurev.bi.61.070192.000333. M3 - Review article. C2 - 1497313. AN - SCOPUS:0026717963. VL - 61. SP - 29. EP - 54. JO - Annual Review of Biochemistry. JF - Annual Review of Biochemistry. SN - 0066-4154. ER - ...
Most biological samples are made up of a complex mixture of many different proteins and salts. The presence of these dissolved components is known to reduce the binding ability of antigens and antibodies. This leads to much greater time frame required for end point binding or equilibrium conditions being established. False signals are also known to be generated because of non-specific binding interactions of IgG present in the sample. The formulation of sample diluent buffer can be used to reduce the assay background noise which is associated with matrix effects and also minimise non-specific binding of IgG thereby helping to optimise the assay signal. For this reason alone many samples may need dilution in order to fall within the functions range of the assay.. ...
M protein is an abnormal protein produced by plasma cells. If you have a lot of it in your blood, it can signal certain conditions and risks, though it more frequently has no ill health effects.
Scattergram of serum levels of IgG4 bound to IgG1κ myeloma protein.Similar results were seen with assay systems for IgG4 bound to IgG2 κ and IgG3 κ myeloma p
MAP4K1 Antibody 23950-1-AP has been identified with IP, WB, ELISA. 23950-1-AP detected 90 kDa band in Raji cells with 1:500-1:2000 dilution...
By defimtion, nnmunocytochemistry IS a biomolecular technique that mvolves the use of a specific antibody-antigen reaction to identify cellular constituents in situThe techmque requires that the...
Dubbed metallobodies, the antibodies bound to the destructive enzyme that causes autoimmune activity in mice and humans, and has prevented destructive
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab109484 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,ICC/IF…MAT2B抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab84516 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: IHC-P,ICC/IF…TPR抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。

Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier | PNASTargeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier | PNAS

Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier. T Saga, R D Neumann, T Heya, J Sato, S ... Targeting cancer micrometastases with monoclonal antibodies: a binding-site barrier Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/92/19/8999

An antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR | ScienceAn antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR | Science

An antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR ... The hydrogen exchange labeling approach can be used to map binding sites on small proteins in antibody-antigen complexes and ... An antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR ... An antibody binding site on cytochrome c defined by hydrogen exchange and two-dimensional NMR ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/249/4970/755

Antigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen. | Journal of VirologyAntigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen. | Journal of Virology

Antigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen.. E G Gurney, S Tamowski, W ... Antigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen. ... Antigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen. ... Antigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/57/3/1168?ijkey=c3b4ad45c6ea81a96f1453eea522d7161e127812&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

The N276 Glycosylation Site Is Required for HIV-1 Neutralization by the CD4 Binding Site Specific HJ16 Monoclonal AntibodyThe N276 Glycosylation Site Is Required for HIV-1 Neutralization by the CD4 Binding Site Specific HJ16 Monoclonal Antibody

A tier 2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), HJ16 recognizes a new epitope in the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) region that only ... We aimed to identify the critical binding site by resistance induction in a sensitive primary CRF02_AG strain. In four ... This mutation removes an N-linked glycosylation site. The effect of N276D was very selective, as it failed to confer resistance ... These data indicate that binding of the CD4bs specific HJ16 mAb critically depends on the interaction with the N276-glycan, ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0068863

A human monoclonal antibody against the CD4-binding site of HIV1 gp120 exhibits potent, broadly neutralizing activity.  -...A human monoclonal antibody against the CD4-binding site of HIV1 gp120 exhibits potent, broadly neutralizing activity. -...

Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... A human monoclonal antibody against the CD4-binding site of HIV1 gp120 exhibits potent, broadly neutralizing activity.. Tilley ... indicating that its epitope was in or near the CD4-binding site. 1125H antibody recognized a variety of divergent HIV1 strains ... This antibody was specific for gp120, and its binding to gp120 was inhibited by soluble CD4, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1724568?dopt=Abstract

RCSB PDB - 5F9W: Crystal structure of broadly neutralizing VH1-46 germline-derived CD4-binding site-directed antibody CH235 in...RCSB PDB - 5F9W: Crystal structure of broadly neutralizing VH1-46 germline-derived CD4-binding site-directed antibody CH235 in...

Crystal structure of broadly neutralizing VH1-46 germline-derived CD4-binding site-directed antibody CH235 in complex with HIV- ... Crystal structure of broadly neutralizing VH1-46 germline-derived CD4-binding site-directed antibody CH235 in complex with HIV- ... Our website will not work properly. Please update to a newer version or download a new web browser, such as Chrome or Firefox. ... Maturation Pathway from Germline to Broad HIV-1 Neutralizer of a CD4-Mimic Antibody.. Bonsignori, M., Zhou, T., Sheng, Z., Chen ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/5F9W

HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites.  - PubMed - NCBIHIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites. - PubMed - NCBI

Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... we measured the entropies of binding for 20 gp120-reactive antibodies. Here we show that recognition by receptor-binding-site ... HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites.. Kwong PD1, Doyle ML, ... which are larger than the typical antibody footprint and should therefore be accessible for antibody binding. Because gp120- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12478295?dopt=Abstract

A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo  - CaltechAUTHORSA New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo - CaltechAUTHORS

2015) A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo. PLoS Pathog 11(10): ... A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo ... The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different ... This binding mode is similar to the previously identified antibody HJ16, however the new antibodies identified herein are more ...
more infohttps://authors.library.caltech.edu/61994/

Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV 1 Infected Indian Individual  - IAVI -...Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV 1 Infected Indian Individual - IAVI -...

Home , Newsroom , Scientific Publications , Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an ... Identification of CD4-Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV-1 Infected Indian Individual. PLoS ONE ... Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV 1 Infected Indian Individual ... Title: Identification of CD4 Binding Site Dependent Plasma Neutralizing Antibodies in an HIV 1 Infected Indian Individual ...
more infohttps://www.iavi.org/newsroom/iavi-partner-scientific-publications/identification-of-cd4-binding-site-dependent-plasma-neutralizing-antibodies-in-an-hiv-1-infected-indian-individual

HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization ...HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization ...

Home , Newsroom , Scientific Publications , HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment ... HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization ... HIV-1 receptor binding site-directed antibodies using a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization. ... Title: HIV 1 receptor binding site directed antibodies using a VH1 2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer ...
more infohttps://www.iavi.org/newsroom/iavi-partner-scientific-publications/hiv-1-receptor-binding-site-directed-antibodies-using-a-vh1-2-gene-segment-orthologue-are-activated-by-env-trimer-immunization

Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of...Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of...

... and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. Kiyohara, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on... Kiyohara, Tomoko; Totsuka, ... Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking antibody- and receptor-binding sites on hepatitis A virus. ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/characterization-of-anti-idiotypic-antibodies-mimicking-antibody-and-CEsH8AJDl9

Epitopes described in The binding sites of monoclonal antibodies to the non-reducing end of Francisella tularensis O-antigen...Epitopes described in The binding sites of monoclonal antibodies to the non-reducing end of Francisella tularensis O-antigen...

Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
more infohttp://www.iedb.org/pmId/23844703

Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies (Journal Article) |...Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies (Journal Article) |...

Biological activities of binding site specific monoclonal antibodies to prolactin receptors of rabbit mammary gland ... Accepted Manuscript: Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies ... Title: Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies. ... "Identification and grafting of a unique peptide-binding site in the Fab framework of monoclonal antibodies". United States. doi ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1135749-identification-grafting-unique-peptide-binding-site-fab-framework-monoclonal-antibodies

Targeting Ligand-Induced Binding Sites on GPIIb/IIIa via Single-Chain Antibody Allows Effective Anticoagulation Without...Targeting Ligand-Induced Binding Sites on GPIIb/IIIa via Single-Chain Antibody Allows Effective Anticoagulation Without...

Targeting Ligand-Induced Binding Sites on GPIIb/IIIa via Single-Chain Antibody Allows Effective Anticoagulation Without ... Targeting Ligand-Induced Binding Sites on GPIIb/IIIa via Single-Chain Antibody Allows Effective Anticoagulation Without ... Targeting Ligand-Induced Binding Sites on GPIIb/IIIa via Single-Chain Antibody Allows Effective Anticoagulation Without ... Targeting Ligand-Induced Binding Sites on GPIIb/IIIa via Single-Chain Antibody Allows Effective Anticoagulation Without ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/early/2007/02/22/ATVBAHA.106.138875

Heterosubtypic Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site Enhanced by Avidity | Molecular...Heterosubtypic Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site Enhanced by Avidity | Molecular...

The increased avidity of IgG binding was shown to reduce Kd values and improve ability of S139/1 to recognize different ... Kd values for S139/1 Fab and IgG binding to various influenza HA strains were determined to assess enhanced virus ... Heterosubtypic Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site Enhanced by Avidity ... Using the Octet RED system, Kd values for S139/1 Fab and IgG binding to various influenza HA strains were determined to assess ...
more infohttps://www.moleculardevices.com/resources/publications/heterosubtypic-antibody-recognition-of-the-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-receptor-binding-site-enhanced-by-avidity

JCI Insight -
Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding siteJCI Insight - Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site

Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... we studied the fine epitope specificity of a panel of CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibodies to define the molecular recognition ... A set of 16 samples from the RV217 HIV cohort were titrated for binding to WT (red) and STG (blue) core before and following ...
more infohttps://insight.jci.org/articles/view/97018/figure/4

JCI Insight -
Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding siteJCI Insight - Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site

Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... Fine epitope signature of antibody neutralization breadth at the HIV-1 envelope CD4-binding site. ... we studied the fine epitope specificity of a panel of CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibodies to define the molecular recognition ... Heatmap of the relative binding of sera before (. A. ) and after (. B. ) STG-based enrichment for a set of 10 samples from a ...
more infohttps://insight.jci.org/articles/view/97018/figure/5

Two ScFv Antibody Libraries Derived from Identical VL-VH Framework with Different Binding Site Designs Display Distinct Binding...Two ScFv Antibody Libraries Derived from Identical VL-VH Framework with Different Binding Site Designs Display Distinct Binding...

... the authors demonstrate that by targeting different residues of the same antibody gene, it is possible to create sublibraries ... Two ScFv Antibody Libraries Derived from Identical VL-VH Framework with Different Binding Site Designs Display Distinct Binding ... In this study of diverse antibody libraries, the authors demonstrate that by targeting different residues of the same antibody ... In this study of diverse antibody libraries, ...
more infohttps://www.moleculardevices.com/resources/publications/two-scfv-antibody-libraries-derived-from-identical-vl-vh-framework-with-different-binding-site-designs-display-distinct-binding-profiles

Probing the nucleotide binding site of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies | Biochemical...Probing the nucleotide binding site of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies | Biochemical...

Probing the nucleotide binding site of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies ANA M. MATA ... Probing the nucleotide binding site of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca2+ -Mg2)-ATPase with anti-fluorescein antibodies. Biochem Soc ... This site uses cookies. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our privacy policy. ... The binding of epidermolytic toxin to epidermal cells Biochem Soc Trans (June, 1988) ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/biochemsoctrans/article-abstract/17/6/1105/60444/Probing-the-nucleotide-binding-site-of

A Catalytic Antibody That Accelerates the Hydrolysis of Carbonate Esters. Prediction of the Binding-Site Structure of the...A Catalytic Antibody That Accelerates the Hydrolysis of Carbonate Esters. Prediction of the Binding-Site Structure of the...

A Catalytic Antibody That Accelerates the Hydrolysis of Carbonate Esters. Prediction of the Binding-Site Structure of the ... One of the antibodies, 4A1, has a relatively high activity for the substrate having a bulky group. To determine the amino acid ... About us Privacy Policy Terms of Use Site Map. Copyright © Ovid Technologies, Inc., and its partners and affiliates. All Rights ... From these results, the possibility that Arg-H28 of the heavy chain is involved in binding the bulky group of the substrate is ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/jproc/199817030/00001936-199817030-00011

Targeted N-glycan deletion at the receptor-binding site retains HIV Env NFL trimer integrity and accelerates the elicited...Targeted N-glycan deletion at the receptor-binding site retains HIV Env NFL trimer integrity and accelerates the elicited...

N-glycan deletion at the receptor-binding site retains HIV Env NFL trimer integrity and accelerates the elicited antibody ... We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of ... Use of this site constitutes acceptance of the PhysiciansWeekly.com Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The material on this site ... The first was to delete 4 PNGS sites and then boost with fully glycosylated Env; the second was to delete 4 sites and gradually ...
more infohttps://www.physiciansweekly.com/targeted-n-glycan-deletion-at-the-receptor-binding-site-retains-hiv-env-nfl-trimer-integrity-and-accelerates-the-elicited-antibody-response-2/

Chemical-reactivity at an antibody-binding site elicited by mechanistic design of a synthetic antigenChemical-reactivity at an antibody-binding site elicited by mechanistic design of a synthetic antigen

... Academic Article ... The evidence is discussed in terms of a mechanism in which amino acids of the antibody combining site participate in ... were synthesized and used as haptens to generate specific monoclonal antibodies. Some of these antibodies react with cognate ...
more infohttps://vivo.scripps.edu/display/endnote259948

Antigen-binding sites dominate the surface properties of antibodies - Lund UniversityAntigen-binding sites dominate the surface properties of antibodies - Lund University

Antigen-binding sites dominate the surface properties of antibodies. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ... Hence, the surface properties of the antigen binding sites dominate over all other surfaces of the free antibody molecule.. ... HomeResearch Outputs Antigen-binding sites dominate the surface properties of ant... ... LLPC may also be used to detect conformational changes occuring upon binding of antigen by antibody. Antigen-antibody complexes ...
more infohttp://portal.research.lu.se/portal/en/publications/antigenbinding-sites-dominate-the-surface-properties-of-antibodies

GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Cholesterol-binding site of the influenza M2 protein in lipid...GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Cholesterol-binding site of the influenza M2 protein in lipid...

Find the right antibody for your research needs. Cholesterol-binding site of the influenza M2 protein in lipid bilayers from ... antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. ... Albumin D box-binding protein,Albumin D-element-binding protein,D site albumin promoter-binding protein 1,D site-binding ... Albumin D box-binding protein,Albumin D-element-binding protein,D site-binding protein,DBP,Homo sapiens,Human,TaxREB302,Tax- ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/pubmed-29158386-Cholesterolbinding_site_of_the_influenza_M2_protein_in_lipid_bilayers_from_solidstate_NMR.html
  • Lastly, we demonstrate a bivalent meditope variant binds specifically and stably to antigen-bearing cells only in the presence of the meditope-enabled mAbs. (osti.gov)
  • We demonstrate through diffraction methods, biophysical studies, and sequence analysis that this peptide, a meditope, has moderate affinity for the Fab, is specific to cetuximab (i.e., does not bind to human IgGs), and has no significant effect on antigen binding. (osti.gov)
  • We further demonstrate by diffraction studies and biophysical methods that the meditope binding site can be grafted onto the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 mAb trastuzumab, and that the antigen binding affinity of the grafted trastuzumab is indistinguishable from the parental mAb. (osti.gov)
  • Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) has an affinity for the NBS with a K d ranging from 1 to 8 μM for different antibody isotypes and can be covalently photo-cross-linked to the antibody at the NBS upon exposure to UV light. (elsevier.com)
  • 90% active site quaternary structural homology to the intermediate affinity 9-40 idiotype family (comprised of 12-40, 3-24, 10-25, 5-14 and 5-27). (illinois.edu)
  • This anti-Fl panel spanned a greater affinity range than any previously reported idiotype family and was exploited to define specific active site residues (and their interactions with antigen) responsible for the observed Fl binding characteristics. (illinois.edu)
  • This region called V (variable) domain is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their binding affinity to an antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen and antibody interact through a high affinity binding much like lock and key. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three amino acids in the VH1-2*02 gene segment that define a motif for VRC01-like antibodies (W50, N58, flanking the HCDR2 region, and R71), the two identified macaque VH1.23 alleles described here encode two. (iavi.org)
  • Also unlike VRC01, GE356 was minimally modified by somatic hypermutation, its light (L) chain CDRs were of average lengths and it displayed a binding footprint proximal to the trimer axis. (iavi.org)
  • To verify this, Fl binding assays, following in vitro H and L chain reassociations, were performed. (illinois.edu)
  • Herein, we present a unique peptide-binding site within the central cavity of the fragment antigen binding framework region of the chimeric, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor mAb cetuximab. (osti.gov)
  • The distance- and orientation-restrained cholesterol-binding site structure shows that cholesterol is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions with the TM helix and polar and aromatic interactions with neighboring amphipathic helices. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions are all known to be involved depending on the interaction sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies penetrate bulky tumors poorly after intravenous administration, in part because of specific binding to the target antigen. (pnas.org)
  • One of the antibodies, 4A1, has a relatively high activity for the substrate having a bulky group. (ovid.com)
  • To determine the amino acid residues related to the binding of the bulky group, we determined the amino acid sequences of VL and VH regions of 4A1 by the cycle sequencing method, built the three-dimensional structure of the V regions, labeled 4A1 with [14C]phenyl glyoxal in the presence and absence of I-1 or I-13, and analyzed the labeled incubation mixture with SDS-PAGE. (ovid.com)
  • From these results, the possibility that Arg-H28 of the heavy chain is involved in binding the bulky group of the substrate is discussed. (ovid.com)
  • The increased avidity of IgG binding was shown to reduce Kd values and improve ability of S139/1 to recognize different heterosubtypes of the virus. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Monoaryl phosphonate esters, designated as analogs of the transition state in the hydrolysis of carboxylic esters, were synthesized and used as haptens to generate specific monoclonal antibodies. (scripps.edu)
  • In an antibody, the Fab (fragment, antigen-binding) region is formed from the amino-terminal end of both the light and heavy chains of the immunoglobulin polypeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these antibodies react with cognate aryl carboxylic esters to release a fluorescent alcohol. (scripps.edu)
  • Carbon-fluorine distance measurements show that at a cholesterol concentration of 17 mol%, two cholesterol molecules bind each M2 tetramer. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Electron microscopy of myosin-II molecules and filaments reacted with monoclonal antibodies demonstrates directly where the antibodies bind and shows that certain antibodies can inhibit the polymerization of myosin-II into filaments. (duke.edu)
  • Recombinant 4-4-20 molecules (generated by an in vivo H chain expression system) that expressed IgG1 and IgG2b H chains possessed identical Fl binding patterns as 4-4-20 (IgG2a). (illinois.edu)
  • The variable region in turn has hyper-variable regions which are unique amino acid sequences in each antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of the UV-NBS method with two other commonly used methods, ε-NH 3 + conjugation and physical adsorption, demonstrated that the UV-NBS method yields surfaces with significantly enhanced antigen detection efficiency, higher relative antibody activity, and improved antigen detection sensitivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we describe a UV photo-cross-linking method (UV-NBS) that utilizes the NBS for oriented immobilization of antibodies onto surfaces, such that the antigen binding activity remains unaffected. (elsevier.com)
  • Using the UV-NBS method, antibody was successfully immobilized on synthetic surfaces displaying IBA via UV photo-cross-linking at the NBS. (elsevier.com)
  • Relationship between latent and rebound viruses in a clinical trial of anti-HIV-1 antibody 3BNC117. (chavi-id.org)
  • The evidence is discussed in terms of a mechanism in which amino acids of the antibody combining site participate in nucleophilic and/or general base catalysis. (scripps.edu)
  • The H-exchange rate of residues in three discontiguous regions of the cyt c polypeptide backbone was slowed by factors up to 340-fold in the antibody-antigen complex compared with free cyt c. (sciencemag.org)