Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Utrophin: An autosomally-encoded 376-kDa cytoskeletal protein that is similar in structure and function to DYSTROPHIN. It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Ankyrins: A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.PhosphoproteinsMuscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Zyxin: A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Chaperonin Containing TCP-1: A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cortactin: A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 4: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal FERM domain, an intervening region containing one or more PDZ domains, and a carboxyl-terminal phosphatase domain. The subtype was originally identified in a cell line derived from MEGAKARYOCYTES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mice, Inbred C57BLFibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIB: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in neuronal tissue.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
"Actin Binding Proteins: Regulation of Cytoskeletal Microfilaments". Physiological Reviews. 83 (2): 433-473. doi:10.1152/physrev ... This is due to the constant removal of the protein subunits from these filaments at one end of the filament while protein ... Profilin induces ATP binding to G-actin so that it can be incorporated onto the positive end of the filament. Two main theories ... Cofilin functions by binding to ADP-actin on the negative end of the filament, destabilizing it, and inducing depolymerization ...
DNase I binds to the cytoskeletal protein actin. It binds actin monomers with very high (sub-nanomolar) affinity and actin ... 2001). "Interaction of ADP-ribosylated actin with actin binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 508 (1): 131-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01 ... However, since actin-bound DNase I is enzymatically inactive, the DNase-actin complex might be a storage form of DNase I that ... This protein is stored in the zymogen granules of the nuclear envelope and functions by cleaving DNA in an endonucleolytic ...
Dynamins bind many proteins that bind actin and other cytoskeletal proteins. Dynamins can also self-assemble, a process that ... Dynamins represent one of the subfamilies of GTP-binding proteins. These proteins share considerable sequence similarity over ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), WASP-interacting protein (WIP), and ELMO1". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (31): 28238-46. doi: ... a member of the large GTP-binding protein family". Gene. 163 (2): 301-6. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(95)00275-B. PMID 7590285. Klocke ...
Other cytoskeletal proteins and actin binding proteins are involved in the procedure. Plant cells do not perform cytokinesis ... Cleavage is driven by these motor proteins, actin and myosin, which are the same proteins involved with muscle contraction. ... The same proteins responsible for muscle contraction, actin and myosin, begin the process of forming the cleavage furrow, ... Both require vesicular secretions by the Golgi apparatus for resealing and formation of the cytoskeletal network in addition to ...
The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... within the active zone and connected directly to the presynaptic membrane while the reserve pool is clustered by cytoskeletal ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ... Neuroligin then interacts with proteins that bind to postsynaptic receptors. Protein interactions like that seen between ...
1996). "Differential binding of apolipoprotein E isoforms to tau and other cytoskeletal proteins". Exp. Neurol. 138 (2): 252-60 ... 2000). "Cdk5 and MAPK are associated with complexes of cytoskeletal proteins in rat brain". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 76 (2): ... 2003). "Co-purification and localization of Munc18-1 (p67) and Cdk5 with neuronal cytoskeletal proteins". Neurochem. Int. 44 (1 ... This gene encodes the medium neurofilament protein. This protein is commonly used as a biomarker of neuronal damage. GRCh38: ...
One of the best ways to uncover the many functions of anillin is to study the interactions of the protein with its binding ... Anillin is a conserved protein implicated in cytoskeletal dynamics during cellularization and cytokinesis. The ANLN gene in ... 2006). "The septin-binding protein anillin is overexpressed in diverse human tumors". Clin. Cancer Res. 11 (19 Pt 1): 6780-6. ... It was identified as an F-actin binding protein. Six years later, the anillin gene was cloned from cDNA originating from a ...
This protein functions as an actin-binding protein and possibly in cytoskeletal organization. LASP1 has been shown to interact ... 2003). "Actin binding of human LIM and SH3 protein is regulated by cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation on ... Li B, Zhuang L, Trueb B (2004). "Zyxin interacts with the SH3 domains of the cytoskeletal proteins LIM-nebulette and Lasp-1". J ... 1999). "Lasp-1, a novel type of actin-binding protein accumulating in cell membrane extensions". Mol. Med. 4 (10): 675-87. PMC ...
... a novel vinculin-binding protein with multiple SH3 domains enhances actin cytoskeletal organization". J Cell Biol. 144 (1): 59- ... Kioka N (Jan 2003). "[A novel adaptor protein family regulating cytoskeletal organization and signal transduction--Vinexin, CAP ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... Vinexin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SORBS3 gene. SORBS3 has been shown to interact with DLG5 and MAPK1. ...
These proteins can affect both osteoclastogenesis, cell survival, and cytoskeletal dynamics. In particular, the cytoskeleton is ... Bisphosphonate molecules preferentially "stick" to calcium and bind to it. The largest store of calcium in the human body is in ... While inhibition of protein prenylation may affect many proteins found in an osteoclast, disruption to the lipid modification ... Unlike bisphosphonates, statins do not bind to bone surfaces with high affinity, and thus are not specific for bone. ...
This gene encodes a member of the septin family of cytoskeletal proteins with GTPase activity. This protein localizes to the ... cytoplasm and nucleus and displays GTP-binding and GTPase activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript ... Septin 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEPT10 gene. ...
Janus kinase 3
Jak3 interacts with actin-binding protein villin, thereby facilitating cytoskeletal remodeling and mucosal wound repair. ... Ji H, Zhai Q, Zhu J, Yan M, Sun L, Liu X, Zheng Z (April 2000). "A novel protein MAJN binds to Jak3 and inhibits apoptosis ... Since cytokine receptor proteins lack enzymatic activity, they are dependent upon JAKs to initiate signaling upon binding of ... However, the SH2 domain of Jak3 prevented P-villin from binding to the FERM domain of nonphosphorylated protein. The ...
... is a member of a family of proteins that form bridges between different cytoskeletal elements. This protein facilitates ... a giant protein defining a new family of actin-binding proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (47): 33522-30. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.47. ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... and also binds through many proteins which localize at the microtubule plus end. Such proteins include EB1, CLASP1, and CLASP2 ...
4-bisphosphate-binding protein TAPP1 interacts with syntrophins and regulates actin cytoskeletal organization". J Biol Chem. ... 4-bisphosphate-binding pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of tandem PH-domain-containing protein 1 (TAPP1): molecular basis of ... P2-binding adaptor protein TAPP1". Biochem. J. 376 (Pt 2): 525-35. doi:10.1042/BJ20031154. PMC 1223793 . PMID 14516276. ... "Identification of pleckstrin-homology-domain-containing proteins with novel phosphoinositide-binding specificities". Biochem J ...
... cytoskeletal-associated protein that binds a PEST-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase". J Biol Chem. 273 (46): 30487-96. doi: ... Pope SN, Lee IR (2005). "Yeast two-hybrid identification of prostatic proteins interacting with human sex hormone-binding ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... A spontaneous mutation of the gene that codifies for this protein can be a cause of Osteomyelitis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Paxillin LD4 motif binds PAK and PIX through a novel 95-kD ankyrin repeat, ARF-GAP protein: A role in cytoskeletal remodeling ... Vinculin is a 117-kDa cytoskeletal protein with 1066 amino acids. The protein contains an acidic N-terminal domain and a basic ... binds to β-integrins, and the carboxy-terminus binds to actin, phospholipids, and paxillin-forming homodimers. The binding of ... Vinculin is a cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix junctions, where it is thought to function as one ...
... belongs to the spectrin family of cytoskeletal proteins. SPTBN5 contains the following domains: actin-binding domain ... Spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 5 also known as SPTBN5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPTBN5 gene. ... 1993). "Human Sos1: a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras that binds to GRB2". Science. 260 (5112): 1338-43. doi:10.1126 ...
"Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding partner of human Lnk adaptor protein". Mol. Immunol. 37 (10): ... "Localized mutations in the gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein filamin A cause diverse malformations in humans". Nat Genet. ... Filamin A, alpha (FLNA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLNA gene. Actin-binding protein, or filamin, is a 280-kD ... The edited adenosine is located in the 22 immunogloulin like repeat of the protein. This region is an integrin β binding domain ...
"Association of the cytoskeletal GTP-binding protein Sept4/H5 with cytoplasmic inclusions found in Parkinson's disease and other ... alpha interacting protein (synphilin), and SYPH1. This gene encodes a protein containing several protein-protein interaction ... Synphilin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNCAIP gene. SNCAIP stands for "synuclein, alpha interacting protein ... The SNCAIP gene provides instructions for making a protein called synphilin-1 and a slightly different version of this protein ...
"Association of the cytoskeletal GTP-binding protein Sept4/H5 with cytoplasmic inclusions found in Parkinson's disease and other ... This gene is a member of the septin gene family of nucleotide binding proteins, originally described in yeast as cell division ... Septins are highly conserved in yeast, Drosophila, and mouse and appear to regulate cytoskeletal organization. The protein ... distinct patterns of cytoskeletal and membrane association from other septin proteins". Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 43 ...
Actinin alpha 1
"Identification of the cytoskeletal protein alpha-actinin as a platelet thrombospondin-binding protein". FEBS Lett. 364 (2): 109 ... Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that provide a ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (April 1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that ...
This protein may also help maintain the membrane skeleton of erythrocytes. Kindlin 3 is a cytoskeletal signalling protein ... Together with the Talin protein it binds cooperatively to beta integrin's cytoplasmic domain causing tail reorientation, thus ... or unc-112-related protein 2 (URP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FERMT3 gene. The kindlin family of proteins, ... domain of the cytoskeletal Talin protein. Kindlins have been linked to Kindler syndrome, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, cancer ...
The conserved residues are those involved in zinc binding or the hydrophobic core of the protein. The sequence signature of LIM ... LIM-domain containing proteins have been shown to play roles in cytoskeletal organisation, organ development and oncogenesis. ... LIM-domains mediate protein-protein interactions that are critical to cellular processes. LIM domains have highly divergent ... as seen in proteins such as TES, LMO4, and can also be attached to other domains in order to confer a binding or targeting ...
NEFM - ويكيبيديا
1996). "Differential binding of apolipoprotein E isoforms to tau and other cytoskeletal proteins". Exp. Neurol. 138 (2): 252-60 ... 2000). "Cdk5 and MAPK are associated with complexes of cytoskeletal proteins in rat brain". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 76 (2): ... 2003). "Co-purification and localization of Munc18-1 (p67) and Cdk5 with neuronal cytoskeletal proteins". Neurochem. Int. 44 (1 ... microtubule binding. • structural constituent of cytoskeleton. • GO:0001948 ربط بروتيني. • structural molecule activity. ...
Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor 2
"NHE3 kinase A regulatory protein E3KARP binds the epithelial brush border Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 and the cytoskeletal protein ... "NHE3 kinase A regulatory protein E3KARP binds the epithelial brush border Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 and the cytoskeletal protein ... 2002). "The down regulated in adenoma (dra) gene product binds to the second PDZ domain of the NHE3 kinase A regulatory protein ... Reczek D, Bretscher A (2001). "Identification of EPI64, a TBC/rabGAP domain-containing microvillar protein that binds to the ...
"NHE3 kinase A regulatory protein E3KARP binds the epithelial brush border Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 and the cytoskeletal protein ... The N-terminal FERM domain strongly binds sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) proteins (involving long-range ... As a member of the ERM protein family, this protein serves as an intermediate between the plasma membrane and the actin ... The cytoplasmic peripheral membrane protein encoded by this gene functions as a protein-tyrosine kinase substrate in microvilli ...
2003). "Association of the cytoskeletal GTP-binding protein Sept4/H5 with cytoplasmic inclusions found in Parkinson's disease ... Sung YH, Eliezer D (2006). "Secondary structure and dynamics of micelle bound β- and γ-synuclein". Protein Sci. 15 (5): 1162-74 ... The protein encoded by this gene is highly homologous to alpha-synuclein. These proteins are abundantly expressed in the brain ... 1997). "Binding of Abeta to alpha- and beta-synucleins: identification of segments in alpha-synuclein/NAC precursor that bind ...
It was the first prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein identified. TubZ was identified in Bacillus thuringiensis as essential for ... Dimers bound to GTP tend to assemble into microtubules, while dimers bound to GDP tend to fall apart; thus, this GTP cycle is ... as well as the bacterial protein TubZ, the archaeal protein CetZ, and the FtsZ protein family widespread in Bacteria and ... Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member ...
2004). "Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation ... ATP binding. • protein kinase binding. • 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity. • kinase binding. ... nucleotide binding. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • catalytic activity. • fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase ... 2001). "Characterization of glucokinase-binding protein epitopes by a phage-displayed peptide library. Identification of 6- ...
"Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ... Any changes in cytoskeletal organization and adhesion can lead to altered signaling, migration and a loss of contact inhibition ... A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional ... First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a ...
Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing ... Mangeat PH (1989). "Interaction of biological membranes with the cytoskeletal framework of living cells". Biol. Cell. 64 (3): ... Definition of the calmodulin-binding domain and sites of phosphorylation by protein kinases A and C". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (41): ... Alpha-adducin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADD1 gene. Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded ...
In 1993, Alan Hall was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal ... The immunofluorescence following the increase of vinculin and talin, two cytoskeletal proteins, at the intracellular face of ... Finally, Ral mutants unable to bind to their specific effector proteins showed that RalA and RalB isoforms promote branching ... "The small GTP-binding protein rac regulates growth factor-induced membrane ruffling". Cell. 70 (3): 401-410. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ... another cytoskeletal protein, to create stable and integrated cytoskeletal networks. Actins have a variety of roles in ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... positive regulation of receptor binding. • regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor ...
identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane. • cell differentiation. • signal transduction. • keratinocyte development. Sources: ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... Xu W, Xie Z, Chung DW, Davie EW (1998). "A novel human actin-binding protein homologue that binds to platelet glycoprotein ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
There are a number of ALS genes that encode for RNA-binding proteins. The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein, a ... Once these mutant RNA-binding proteins are misfolded and aggregated, they may be able to misfold normal protein both within and ... Mutant SOD1 protein forms intracellular aggregations that inhibit protein degradation. Cytoplasmic aggregations of wild-type ( ... another RNA-binding protein with a similar function to TDP-43, which can cause ALS when mutated. It is thought that ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
"Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the SH3-mediated binding of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein to PSTPIP, a cytoskeletal- ... SH3 domain binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ... "Fyn-binding protein (Fyb)/SLP-76-associated protein (SLAP), Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins and the ...
protein tyrosine kinase binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cell junction. • cytoskeleton. • focal adhesion. • cell ... Given the likely conserved CAS-family cytoskeletal function of CASS4, it has been speculated that it may have a role in axonal ... "Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene. ...
The protein product of WAS is known as WASp. It contains 502 amino acids and is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells (the ... binds ICAM-1". Nature. 354 (6350): 233-5. Bibcode:1991Natur.354..233R. doi:10.1038/354233a0. PMID 1683685.. ... "Activating WASP mutations associated with X-linked neutropenia result in enhanced actin polymerization, altered cytoskeletal ... Several proteins can serve as NPFs, and it has been observed that in WAS platelets the Arp2/3 complex functions normally, ...
calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. • identical protein binding. • cytoskeletal protein binding. • protein ... cadherin binding. Cellular component. • axon terminus. • integral component of membrane. • synaptic cleft. • membrane. • plasma ... Cadherin-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH8 gene. ... Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a ...
ion channel binding. • cytoskeletal protein binding. • protein C-terminus binding. • ionotropic glutamate receptor binding. • ... protein binding. • protein complex scaffold activity. • protein kinase binding. • L27 domain binding. • ligand-gated ion ... and to bind the protein 4.1N. The GK domain allows SAP97 to bind to GKAP/SAPAP-family proteins. ... kinase binding. • mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase binding. • guanylate kinase activity. • ...
... a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts with the Src homology 3 domain of Grb2 and cytoskeletal proteins". J. ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... iron ion binding. • arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activity. • dioxygenase activity. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • ... protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with ...
Chromosome duplication results in two identical sister chromatids bound together by cohesin proteins at the centromere. ... Lancaster OM, Baum B (October 2014). "Shaping up to divide: coordinating actin and microtubule cytoskeletal remodelling during ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... During anaphase A, the cohesins that bind sister chromatids together are cleaved, forming two identical daughter chromosomes.[ ...
One mechanism consists of an abnormal accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein bound to ubiquitin in the damaged cells. This ... Cytoskeletal defects. *Psychiatric diagnosis. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value. *CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... regimens for PD restrict proteins during breakfast and lunch, allowing protein intake in the evening. ... Levodopa and proteins use the same transportation system in the intestine and the blood-brain barrier, thereby competing for ...
Neurofilament light polypeptide
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • Ras guanyl ... protein domain specific binding. • phospholipase binding. • structural constituent of postsynaptic intermediate filament ... protein binding, bridging. • structural molecule activity. • structural constituent of cytoskeleton. • ... Frappier T, Regnouf F, Pradel LA (December 1987). "Binding of brain spectrin to the 70-kDa neurofilament subunit protein". ...
Each type of membrane vesicle is specifically bound to its own kinesin motor protein via binding within the tail domain. One of ... issues in movement of vesicles along cytoskeletal tracks, and fusion at the target membrane. Since the life cycle of the cell ... Small membrane bound vesicles responsible for transporting proteins from one organelle to another are commonly found in ... Rab proteins on the surface of the transport vesicle are responsible for aligning with the complementary tethering proteins ...
Each tropomyosin molecule has a smaller calcium-binding protein called troponin bound to it. All thin filaments are attached to ... The protein complex composed of actin myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin". In striated ... Troponin and the associated tropomyosin undergo a conformational change after calcium binding and expose the myosin binding ... Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, constructed from proteins, principally myosin or actin. Types of muscle are ...
"Transcriptional activity among high and low risk human papillomavirus E2 proteins correlates with E2 DNA binding". The Journal ... Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells with cytoskeletal microtubules (magenta) and DNA (cyan). Nikon RTS2000MP custom ... HeLa cells grown in culture and stained with antibody to tubulin (green), antibody to Ki-67 (red) and the blue DNA binding dye ... Multiphoton fluorescence image of cultured HeLa cells with a fluorescent protein targeted to the Golgi apparatus (orange), ...
protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • insulin receptor substrate binding. • ATP binding. • ... "Protein kinase Calpha-induced p115RhoGEF phosphorylation signals endothelial cytoskeletal rearrangement". The Journal of ... "The small GTP-binding protein, Rhes, regulates signal transduction from G protein-coupled receptors". Oncogene. 23 (2): 559-68 ... nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activator activity. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase activity. • ...
Protein tau bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
"Process outgrowth of oligodendrocytes is promoted by interaction of fyn kinase with the cytoskeletal protein tau". Departments ... "alpha-synuclein binds to Tau and stimulates the protein kinase A-catalyzed tau phosphorylation of serine residues 262 and 356" ... Protein tau (bahasa Inggris: microtubule-associated protein tau, MAPT) adalah protein yang membuat mikrotubula menjadi stabil. ... Proses fosforilasi juga dikatalisasi oleh cAMP-dependent protein kinase setelah protein tau terikat pada protein 14-3-3zeta. ...
Ensuing binding of ephrin-B3 to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein, Grb4, leads to the recruitment and binding of Dock180 and p21 ... "Ephrin-B3 reverse signaling through Grb4 and cytoskeletal regulators mediates axon pruning". Nature Neuroscience. 12 (3): 268- ... Reverse signaling between ephrin-B proteins and their Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have been found to initiate the retraction ... This suggests that pruning is triggered once the ligand reaches threshold protein levels within a few days after detectable ...
GO:0001948 protein binding. • metal ion binding. • GTP binding. • protein domain specific binding. ... tTG is thought to be involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton by crosslinking various cytoskeletal proteins including ... tTG binds to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM), binding particularly tightly to fibronectin. Extracellular tTG ... Multiple Ca2+ can bind to a single tTG molecule. Specifically, tTG binds up to 6 calcium ions at 5 different binding sites. ...
protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta-catenin binding. • GTPase activating protein binding. • ... Beta-catenin can also bind to alpha-catenin. Alpha-catenin participates in regulation of actin-containing cytoskeletal ... metal ion binding. • cell adhesion molecule binding. • cadherin binding. • identical protein binding. ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ...
protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein ... Rho GTPases are central to dynamic actin cytoskeletal assembly and rearrangement that are the basis of cell-cell adhesion and ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • apolipoprotein A-I receptor binding. • GTP-dependent protein binding. • GTPase activity. • ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ...
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5
... and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization". ... methyl-CpG binding. • core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • protein heterodimerization ... identical protein binding. • GO:0032403 macromolecular complex binding. • E-box binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ... "A novel WD repeat protein component of the methylosome binds Sm proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (10): 8243-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Node of Ranvier
The filamentous network subjacent to the nodal membrane contains cytoskeletal proteins called spectrin and ankyrin. The high ... co-clusters of ankyrin and ankyrin-binding integral proteins define early developmental intermediates". Journal of Neuroscience ... The recent identification of the Schwann cell microvilli protein gliomedin as the likely binding partner of axonal neurofascin ... Several extracellular matrix proteins are enriched at nodes of Ranvier, including tenascin-R, Bral-1, and proteoglycan NG2, as ...
Ion channels, proton pumps, G protein-coupled receptor Lipid anchored proteins. Covalently bound to single or multiple lipid ... Indeed, cytoskeletal elements interact extensively and intimately with the cell membrane. Anchoring proteins restricts them ... Proteins. Type. Description. Examples Integral proteins. or transmembrane proteins. Span the membrane and have a hydrophilic ... Membrane proteins consist of three main types: Integral proteins, peripheral proteins, and lipid-anchored proteins. ...
... which binds to and caps the 5' end of mRNAs. The protein TOR, part of the TORC1 complex, is an important upstream regulator of ... and it is hypothesized that mechanical stress detection by cytoskeletal structures is involved. Work on the topic generally ... Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase that normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein (the homolog of CDK1 in ... Further experimentation with GFP-tagged proteins and mutant proteins indicates that the medial cortical nodes are formed by the ...
protein domain specific binding. • actin binding. • motor activity. • ATP binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. • actin ... "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin ... protein binding. • ADP binding. • protein membrane anchor. • actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase ... Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2  and a novel actin ...
Trak2 cytoskeletal protein binding gene ontology
Ampd1 cytoskeletal protein binding gene ontology
Bni1p implicated in cytoskeletal control is a putative target of Rho1p small GTP binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
Bni1p implicated in cytoskeletal control is a putative target of Rho1p small GTP binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. ... Using the two-hybrid screening system, we cloned a gene encoding a protein which interacted with the GTP-bound form of Rho1p. ... The RHO1 gene encodes a homolog of mammalian RhoA small GTP binding protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rho1p is ... We have recently shown that Pkc1p, a yeast homolog of mammalian protein kinase C, and glucan synthase are targets of Rho1p. ...
Actin Binding Domains Direct Actin-Binding Proteins to Different Cytoskeletal Locations
... BMC Cell Biology 9: 10. ... Although these two proteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about what regulates their binding to F-actin ... We have constructed fusion proteins consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with either the entire cross-linking protein ... Conclusion: These observations strongly suggest that the regulation of the binding of these proteins to actin filaments is ...
Identification of Cytoskeletal [14C]Carboplatin-Binding Proteins Reveals Reduced Expression and Disorganization of Actin and...
... carboplatin-binding proteins and decreased expression and disorganization of several cytoskeletal proteins in CP-r cells ... Identification of Cytoskeletal [14C]Carboplatin-Binding Proteins Reveals Reduced Expression and Disorganization of Actin and ... Identification of Cytoskeletal [14C]Carboplatin-Binding Proteins Reveals Reduced Expression and Disorganization of Actin and ... Identification of Cytoskeletal [14C]Carboplatin-Binding Proteins Reveals Reduced Expression and Disorganization of Actin and ...
Tubulin-binding cofactor C domain-containing protein TBCCD1 orchestrates cytoskeletal filament formation - Research Portal |...
Tubulin-binding cofactor C domain-containing protein TBCCD1 orchestrates cytoskeletal filament formation. Research output: ... TBCCD1 is an enigmatic member of the tubulin-binding cofactor C (TBCC) family of proteins required for mother-daughter ... We therefore identify TBCCD1 as an essential protein associated with at least two filament-based structures in the trypanosome ...
α-Actinin-2, a cytoskeletal protein, binds to angiogenin<...
Hu H, Gao X, Sun Y, Zhou J, Yang M, Xu Z. α-Actinin-2, a cytoskeletal protein, binds to angiogenin. Biochemical and Biophysical ... Hu, H., Gao, X., Sun, Y., Zhou, J., Yang, M., & Xu, Z. (2005). α-Actinin-2, a cytoskeletal protein, binds to angiogenin. ... Hu, H, Gao, X, Sun, Y, Zhou, J, Yang, M & Xu, Z 2005, α-Actinin-2, a cytoskeletal protein, binds to angiogenin, Biochemical ... α-Actinin-2, a cytoskeletal protein, binds to angiogenin. Huajun Hu, Xiangwei Gao, Yishan Sun, Jiliang Zhou, Min Yang, ...
Krt1 - Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Krt1 gene & protein
... and the receptor of activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1). In complex with C1QBP is a high affinity receptor for kininogen-1/ ... May regulate the activity of kinases such as PKC and SRC via binding to integrin beta-1 (ITB1) ... May regulate the activity of kinases such as PKC and SRC via binding to integrin beta-1 (ITB1) and the receptor of activated ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...
Krt18 - Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Krt18 gene & protein
scaffold protein binding Source: MGI. *structural molecule activity Source: InterPro. View the complete GO annotation on ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in SMART. SM01391 Filament, 1 hit. PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00226 IF_ROD_1, 1 hit. PS51842 IF_ROD_2 ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00226 IF_ROD_1, 1 hit. PS51842 IF_ ...
CDH3 cadherin 3 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
cytoskeletal protein binding IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. cadherin-3. Names. cadherin 3, type 1, P-cadherin ( ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38 ... protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. Homo sapiens Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; ...
The nesprins are giant actin-binding proteins, orthologous to Drosophila melanogaster muscle protein MSP-300
We show that the previously described nesprins are short isoforms of giant proteins … ... vertebrate proteins associated with emerin and lamin A at the nuclear envelope of muscle cells and other cell types. ... Cytoskeletal Proteins * Drosophila Proteins * Membrane Proteins * Microfilament Proteins * Msp300 protein, Drosophila * Muscle ... The nesprins are giant actin-binding proteins, orthologous to Drosophila melanogaster muscle protein MSP-300 Genomics. 2002 Nov ...
Actin binding domains direct actin-binding proteins to different cytoskeletal locations | BMC Molecular and Cell Biology | Full...
We have constructed fusion proteins consisting of green fluorescent protein (GFP) with either the entire cross-linking protein ... Although these two proteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about what regulates their binding to F-actin ... These observations strongly suggest that the regulation of the binding of these proteins to actin filaments is built into the ... Surprisingly, the localization of the GFP-actin-binding domain fusion proteins precisely reflected that of their respective ...
TCR, LFA-1, and CD28 Play Unique and Complementary Roles in Signaling T Cell Cytoskeletal Reorganization | The Journal of...
Integrin β cytoplasmic domains differentially bind to cytoskeletal proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 6104. ... T cell cytoskeletal elements also rearrange in response to APC binding. Filamentous actin (17, 18) and the actin-binding ... Membrane and cytoskeletal reorganizations in the bound T cell as a function of antigen dose. J. Exp. Med. 170: 1697. ... The actin-binding protein talin has been shown to colocalize with clustered and occupied integrins, in part via direct ...
Cell autonomous regulation of herpes and influenza virus infection by the circadian clock | PNAS
Cytoskeletal protein binding. DBNL, UTRN, WASF2, MARCKS, STMN1, TPM1. 5.35. 4.30E-03. ... Vitamin binding. GOT2, LEPRE1, P4HA2, P4HA1, PSAT1. 5.18. 1.55E-02. Carboxylic acid binding. LEPRE1, P4HA2, P4HA1, CAD. 5.90. ... Proteins that show significantly different expression levels at between WT and Bmal1−/− cells. (A) Proteins whose abundance ... genome-bound) BMAL1 protein over the day and night. Infection was monitored by bioluminescence imaging. Primary infection in ...
Evidence of impaired adipogenesis in insulin resistance
Specc1l MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1921642 - sperm antigen with calponin homology and coiled-coil domains 1-like
Src-Family Kinases Stabilize the Neuromuscular Synapse In Vivo via Protein Interactions, Phosphorylation, and Cytoskeletal...
Alternatively, rapsyn protein may be present in higher amount in the mutant cells, so that more rapsyn is available to bind the ... SFKs control AChR-cytoskeletal interactions. Unstability of AChR-protein interactions is sufficient to explain the ... In addition, they control rapsyn protein levels and AChR-cytoskeletal linkage.. SFKs hold together the postsynaptic apparatus. ... Mohamed AS, Swope SL (1999) Phosphorylation and cytoskeletal anchoring of the acetylcholine receptor by Src class protein- ...
Active zone - Wikipedia
The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... within the active zone and connected directly to the presynaptic membrane while the reserve pool is clustered by cytoskeletal ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ... Neuroligin then interacts with proteins that bind to postsynaptic receptors. Protein interactions like that seen between ...
Loss of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 8 Alters Synapse Composition and Function, Resulting in Behavioral Defects | Journal...
C, Cytoskeletal and synaptic scaffolding proteins. D, Translation initiation factors and mRNA binding proteins. N = 4 for all. ... 2008) Identification of proteins interacting with protein arginine methyltransferase 8: the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) protein binds ... PRMT8 can physically interact with a number of RNA binding proteins, and numerous RNA binding proteins, such as FMRP, are ... We also examined levels of the RNA binding protein FMRP and a number of cap-dependent translation regulators as these proteins ...
Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse...
Fat1 and Fat4 bind distinct sets of junctional and cytoskeletal proteins. The additive effects we observed with loss of Fat1 ... Fat cadherins bind both junctional and cytoskeletal proteins, which could explain the reduced apical constriction. We favor the ... Some of these proteins are already known to bind Fat1 (Mena, Vasp and Homer) or Fat4 (Lix1l, Mupp1), validating the biological ... 2004). Protocadherin FAT1 binds Ena/VASP proteins and is necessary for actin dynamics and cell polarization. EMBO J. 23, 3769- ...
Actin-binding protein - Wikipedia
Zipper protein Zo-1 Zyxin Cytoskeletal drugs dos Remedios CG, Chhabra D, Kekic M, et al. (April 2003). "Actin binding proteins ... Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABP) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or ... This is a list of actin-binding proteins in alphabetical order. List: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W x Y Z ... Mayven Myelin basic protein Naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein (NPA) N-RAP Nebulin N-WASP Neurabin Nullo Neurexins ...
HOGENOM: DANRE21 26 PE52
Prostate intraepithelial neoplasia induced by prostate restricted Akt activation: The MPAKT model | PNAS
α-Actinin-2, a cytoskeletal protein, binds to angiogenin. Huajun Hu, Xiangwei Gao, Yishan Sun, Jiliang Zhou, Min Yang, ... Integrin signaling links protein kinase Cɛ to the protein kinase B/Akt survival pathway in recurrent prostate cancer cells ... The protein kinase C super-family member PKN is regulated by mTOR and influences differentiation during prostate cancer ... Binding and Phosphorylation of Par-4 by Akt Is Essential for Cancer Cell Survival ...
Pacsin2 - Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 protein - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Pacsin2 gene & protein
... protein that is able to promote the tubulation of the phosphatidic acid-containing membranes it preferentially binds. Plays a ... cytoskeletal protein binding Source: RGDInferred from sequence orthologyi*11082044. *identical protein binding Source: RGD ... Protein-protein interaction databases. The Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource for Functional Sites in Proteins ... Protein-protein interaction databases. The Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource for Functional Sites in Proteins ...
FRMD3 Gene - GeneCards | FRMD3 Protein | FRMD3 Antibody
Protein Coding), FERM Domain Containing 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... GO annotations related to this gene include cytoskeletal protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is FRMD5. ... Protein Symbol:. A2A2Y4-FRMD3_HUMAN. Recommended name:. FERM domain-containing protein 3 Protein Accession:. A2A2Y4. Secondary ... The protein encoded by this gene is a single pass membrane protein primarily found in ovaries. A similar protein in ...
ALDOB Gene - GeneCards | ALDOB Protein | ALDOB Antibody
Protein Coding), Aldolase, Fructose-Bisphosphate B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... cytoskeletal protein binding. IDA. 9244396. GO:0016829. lyase activity. IEA. --. GO:0042802. identical protein binding. IPI. ... GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and ATPase binding. An important paralog of this gene is ... Protein Symbol:. P05062-ALDOB_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B Protein Accession:. P05062. Secondary ...
The paxillin LD motifs.
Paxillin is a focal adhesion adapter protein implicated in growth factor- as well as integrin-mediated signal ... Adapter/scaffold proteins, through their multidomain structure, perform a fundamental role in facilitating signal transduction ... Binding Sites. Cell Adhesion Molecules / chemistry, metabolism. Cytoskeletal Proteins / chemistry*, metabolism. Humans. ... 0/Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0/Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0/PXN protein, human; 0/Paxillin; 0/Phosphoproteins ...
Frontiers | The Sarcomeric Protein Nebulin: Another Multifunctional Giant in Charge of Muscle Strength Optimization | Physiology
Recent studies indicate that nebulin is part of a protein complex that mechanically links adjacent myofibrils. In addition to ... Recent studies indicate that nebulin is part of a protein complex that mechanically links adjacent myofibrils. In addition to ... Work during the 1980s revealed the existence of two additional filaments: the giant filamentous proteins titin and nebulin. ... Work during the 1980s revealed the existence of two additional filaments: the giant filamentous proteins titin and nebulin. ...
Treadmilling - Wikipedia
"Actin Binding Proteins: Regulation of Cytoskeletal Microfilaments". Physiological Reviews. 83 (2): 433-473. doi:10.1152/physrev ... This is due to the constant removal of the protein subunits from these filaments at one end of the filament while protein ... Profilin induces ATP binding to G-actin so that it can be incorporated onto the positive end of the filament. Two main theories ... Cofilin functions by binding to ADP-actin on the negative end of the filament, destabilizing it, and inducing depolymerization ...
Expression patterns of focal adhesion associated proteins in the developing retina - Li - 2002 - Developmental Dynamics - Wiley...
The cytoskeletal protein talin contains at least two distinct vinculin binding domains. J Cell Biol 122: 337-347.. *CrossRef , ... Paxillin can bind the integrin cytoplasmic tail, vinculin, or other cytoskeletal and signaling proteins (Schaller et al., 1995 ... Focal adhesions consist of clustered integrins and associated proteins, referred to as focal adhesion proteins. These proteins ... including phosphorylation of proteins and the recruitment of cytoskeletal proteins that lead to the formation of focal ...
Implicated in cytoskeletal organizationFilamentsTubulinCellularMicrotubules and Microtubule-AssociatFluorescence ResonancAmino Acid SeqUniProtSignal TransductionMetabolismMembrane ProteinsCortical cytoskeletalMRNAComplexesAnnotationsEncodesSequenceReorganizationTumorExtracellularCross-linkingTalinSynaptic transmissionRegulatory proteinsSeveral signalliHumansDomain bindsCalponin HomologyFocal adhesionGreen fluoresVinculinSmall GTP bindingStructuralTargetsTransmembrane proteinsAntigenDefectsCytoplasmStructuresCytoplasmicCell LysatesFilaminPost-translationalVitroIntracellular proteinLysatesFilamentous
Implicated in cytoskeletal organization2
- Calponin 2 (h2 calponin, CNN2) is an actin-binding protein implicated in cytoskeletal organization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Shroom4 (Kiaa1202) is an actin-associated protein implicated in cytoskeletal organization. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Although these two proteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about what regulates their binding to F-actin filaments in the cell. (harvard.edu)
- Conclusion: These observations strongly suggest that the regulation of the binding of these proteins to actin filaments is built into the actin-binding domains. (harvard.edu)
- We suggest that different actin binding domains have different affinities for F-actin filaments in functionally distinct regions of the cytoskeleton. (harvard.edu)
- Work during the 1980s revealed the existence of two additional filaments: the giant filamentous proteins titin and nebulin. (frontiersin.org)
- Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). (hmdb.ca)
- Previous research indicated that the active zone of glutamatergic neurons contained a highly regular array of pyramid shaped protein dense material and indicated that these pyramids were connected by filaments. (wikipedia.org)
- Recent data shows that the glutamatergic active zone does contain the dense protein material projections but these projections were not in a regular array and contained long filaments projecting about 80 nm into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
- It comprises three major filament systems-actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments-along with a host of adaptors, regulators, molecular motors, and additional structural proteins. (cshlpress.com)
- Fig 1: In the plant cell, actin filaments, which are cytoskeletal proteins, are stretched around. (eurekalert.org)
- Plant myosin XI bound to organelles moves directionally on these actin filaments, resulting in active. (eurekalert.org)
- It is known that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by the sliding of motor protein myosin XI(2), which is binding to organelles, along the cytoskeleton constituting actin filaments. (eurekalert.org)
- Treadmilling is a phenomenon observed in many cellular cytoskeletal filaments, especially in actin filaments and microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
- This is due to the constant removal of the protein subunits from these filaments at one end of the filament while protein subunits are constantly added at the other end. (wikipedia.org)
- The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic part of a cell and cytoskeletal filaments constantly grow and shrink through addition and removal of subunits. (wikipedia.org)
- 2002). The Self-Assembly and Dynamic Structure of Cytoskeletal Filaments. (wikipedia.org)
- We have found that Capping protein α (Cpa) and Capping protein β (Cpb), which prevent extension of the barbed ends of actin filaments, are specifically required in the wing blade primordium of the Drosophila wing disc. (biologists.org)
- The critical importance of these cytoskeletal linker proteins is evidenced by severe neurological and skin blistering diseases that result from defects in plakins, a family of coiled-coil proteins that physically link intermediate filaments with actin microfilaments and microtubules ( Klymkowsky, 1999 ). (rupress.org)
- ECs contain cytoskeletal "cables" of F-actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments that can contract and exert tension. (ahajournals.org)
- The ERM family (Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin), which directly interacts with actin filaments through its C-terminal region and with a transmembrane protein, CD44, through its N-terminal region, is located at these areas. (nii.ac.jp)
- Calcium-binding protein from instestinal brush-border associates specifically with membranes and cytoskeletal filaments. (mpg.de)
- Tubulin-binding cofactor C domain-containing pr. (lancs.ac.uk)
- TBCCD1 is an enigmatic member of the tubulin-binding cofactor C (TBCC) family of proteins required for mother-daughter centriole linkage in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and nucleus-centrosome-Golgi linkage in mammalian cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Caltubin, a novel molluscan tubulin-interacting protein, promotes axonal growth and attenuates axonal degeneration of rodent neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
- The E . coli membrane protein ZipA, binds to the tubulin homologue FtsZ, in the early stage of cell division. (nature.com)
- It consists of three major sub-structures inside the cell, which are made up of long, filamentous proteins: tubulin and actin. (innovations-report.com)
- The challenge was getting SiR to bind specifically to the cytoskeleton's proteins, actin and tubulin. (innovations-report.com)
- To achieve this, the scientists fused SiR molecules with compounds that bind tubulin or actin. (innovations-report.com)
- One such compound was docetaxel, an anticancer drug that binds tubulin, and the other jasplakinolide, which specifically binds the cytoskeletal form of actin. (innovations-report.com)
- The identification of actin and filamin as [ 14 C]carboplatin-binding proteins and decreased expression and disorganization of several cytoskeletal proteins in CP-r cells provide a molecular and cellular basis for the known defect in endocytosis in these cells. (aspetjournals.org)
- The developing embryo produces aldolase A, which is produced in even greater amounts in adult muscle where it can be as much as 5% of total cellular protein. (genecards.org)
- Furthermore, it is well established that PTB recruitment in internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activates the translation of picornaviral and cellular proteins. (mdpi.com)
- Transcriptional studies suggest Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves dysfunction of many cellular pathways, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal dynamics, energetics, and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Some studies have shown that membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) 3 on tumor cells are involved in the recognition of cellular targets by NKp46 and NKp30 ( 11 ), whereas others have found that HSPG do not bind to NKp30 ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Approaches in the lab include in vitro motility assays for motors, microtubules and organelles, biochemical and cellular assays for binding partners, live cell microscopy, and development and characterization of transgenic mouse models for motor neuron disease. (upenn.edu)
- Lysosomes are membrane bound acidic intracellular organelles filled with hydrolytic enzymes that normally function as recycling centers within cells by breaking down damaged cellular macromolecules. (stanford.edu)
- Despite this progress, the number of proteins identified remains insufficient to allow a comprehensive analysis of the underlying cellular processes that are taking place within this unique enucleate sieve tube system. (mcponline.org)
- As new fiber cells are added over the older differentiating fiber cells in the outer cortex, inner cortical, and outer nuclear fiber cells undergo maturation and compaction for which loss of cellular nuclei, organelles, cytoskeletal proteins as well as reduction in the extracellular space and water becomes essential. (arvojournals.org)
Microtubules and Microtubule-Associat1
Amino Acid Seq1
- Adapter/scaffold proteins, through their multidomain structure, perform a fundamental role in facilitating signal transduction within cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- Pathways affected by differential protein expression include transport, signal transduction, energy pathways, cell growth and maintenance and protein metabolism. (genes2cognition.org)
- In addition to alternative splicing, PTB is involved in almost all steps of mRNA metabolism, including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and initiation of protein translation. (mdpi.com)
- In our studies on neurotransmitter metabolism we have focused our efforts on transporters, a functional class of proteins that move neurotransmitters and other small molecules across membranes in cells. (stanford.edu)
- Preparation of Enriched Plasma Membrane Proteins and Whole Cell Lysates. (aspetjournals.org)
- Membrane proteins were purified according to the method of Cornwell et al. (aspetjournals.org)
- Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are integral membrane proteins belonging to the superfamily of Aquaporins. (arvojournals.org)
- Interestingly, these altered protein levels are due to post-transcriptional mechanisms as the corresponding mRNA levels are unaffected. (jneurosci.org)
- Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. (mdpi.com)
- The inherited intellectual disability and autism-associated disorder fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the loss of the mRNA-binding protein FMRP and characterized by an increased formation, but impaired maturation, of dendritic spines. (sciencemag.org)
- Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses identified sets of phloem proteins that function in RNA binding, mRNA translation, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and macromolecular and vesicle trafficking. (mcponline.org)
- Recent studies have shown that the phloem translocation stream also serves as a conduit for the long distance delivery of proteins as well as mRNA, small RNA, and viral nucleic acids ( 2 - 16 ). (mcponline.org)
- Rapidly express full-length, functional proteins from mRNA or plasmid templates with yields of up to 100µg/mL per reaction using these cell-free kits. (fishersci.com)
- Classical cadherins are transmembrane proteins at the core of intercellular adhesion complexes in cohesive metazoan tissues. (pnas.org)
- Upon encountering an APC bearing appropriate peptide-MHC complexes, T cell migration is arrested, the uropod is retracted, and APC binding is stabilized by integrin activation ( 6 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- When pre-mRNAs emerge from the transcription sites, they are associated with trans -acting proteins and RNAs, to form the RNA-protein complexes also referred as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. (mdpi.com)
- Scaffolding proteins are thought to provide stable linkages between components of multiprotein complexes, yet in several types of epithelial cells, EBP50, but not E3KARP, shows rapid exchange from microvilli compared with its binding partners. (nih.gov)
- The temporal and spatial complexity of this process requires exquisite control of a number of protein complexes and their interaction with the membrane in order to complete septa formation and fission. (nature.com)
- One of the last proteins to be recruited to the divisome is the essential protein FtsN 21 , 22 which is thought to interact with various parts of the sub-complexes (ZipA:FtsZ:FtsA, FtsQ:FtsL:FtsB) as well as divisome associated penicillin binding proteins. (nature.com)
- Easily immunoprecipitate target protein complexes by magnetic separation using high-quality Protein A/G magnetic beads and optimized buffers. (fishersci.com)
- p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
- GO annotations related to this gene include cytoskeletal protein binding . (genecards.org)
- Since a given protein can contain multiple domains, it is possible that some of the annotations below come from additional domains that occur in the same protein, but have been classified elsewhere in CATH. (cathdb.info)
- The RHO1 gene encodes a homolog of mammalian RhoA small GTP binding protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
- Shank3 , which encodes a scaffolding protein at glutamatergic synapses, is a genetic risk factor for autism. (jneurosci.org)
- This gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein that is required for organizing the actin cytoskeleton. (nih.gov)
- Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
- 1987). "The human mid-size neurofilament subunit: a repeated protein sequence and the relationship of its gene to the intermediate filament gene family" . (wikipedia.org)
- These proteins share considerable sequence similarity over the N-terminal portion of the molecule, which contains the GTPase domain. (thermofisher.com)
- We have therefore identified a region of 50 amino acids (residues 979-1028) within the C-terminal region of vinculin that contains both the paxillin-binding site and the focal adhesion targeting sequence. (biologists.org)
- Listed below are up to the top 10 sequence alignment matches, by species, for the PSI-BLAST search against the protein sequence for ARC15 . (yeastrc.org)
- The Shroom family is a small group of related proteins that are defined by sequence similarity and in most cases by some link to the actin cytoskeleton. (ebi.ac.uk)
- This protein family is based on the conservation of a specific arrangement of an N-terminal PDZ domain, a centrally positioned sequence motif termed ASD1 (Apx/Shrm Domain 1) and a C-terminal motif termed ASD2 [ PMID: 16684770 , PMID: 17009331 , PMID: 10589677 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Our finding presents the first evidence of an interaction of a cytosolic protein with angiogenin, which might be a novel interference target for anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor therapy. (elsevier.com)
- We previously discovered a family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins that includes GAS11 , a candidate human tumor suppressor upregulated in growth-arrested cells, and trypanin, a component of the flagellar cytoskeleton of African trypanosomes. (rupress.org)
- This calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion protein is comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. (nih.gov)
- The extracellular domain of classical cadherins forms intercellular bonds with cadherins on neighboring cells, whereas the cytoplasmic domain recruits catenins, which in turn associate with additional cytoskeleton binding and regulatory proteins. (pnas.org)
- Cadherins are transmembrane proteins, and the N and C terminal of the cadherins are present in the extracellular and intracellular domain of a cell, respectively. (news-medical.net)
- The presence of Ca2+ is critical to bind with the extracellular domain and maintain the stability of the cadherin molecule. (news-medical.net)
- Paxillin and vinculin are cytoskeletal proteins that colocalise to focal adhesions, specialised regions of the cell involved in attachment to the extracellular matrix. (biologists.org)
- 1992 ). Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK accompanies cell adhesion to extracellular matrix: a role in cytoskeletal assembly. (biologists.org)
- Background: Filamin (FLN) and non-muscle α-actinin are members of a family of F-actin cross-linking proteins that utilize Calponin Homology domains (CH-domain) for actin binding. (harvard.edu)
- The many different actin cross-linking proteins share a common architecture, consisting of a globular actin-binding domain and an extended rod. (embl.de)
- Gelation factor (ABP120) is one of the principal actin-cross-linking proteins of Dictyostelium discoideum. (embl.de)
- We show that polarization of talin, an actin-binding protein, occurs in response to integrin engagement. (jimmunol.org)
- Filamentous actin ( 17 , 18 ) and the actin-binding protein talin ( 15 ) accumulate at the T cell:APC interface, and the T cell microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) 3 , which was previously in the trailing uropod ( 12 ), is actively recruited into the portion of the cytoplasm proximal to the APC ( 14 , 15 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Talin was also found to bind to synthetic peptides corresponding to the cytoplasmic domain of the β3 subunit, but it also bound to an αIIb cytoplasmic domain peptide suggesting that integrin α-subunits might also participate in the interaction. (rupress.org)
- 1992 ). Further characterisation of the talin-binding site in the cytoskeletal protein vinculin. (biologists.org)
- 1993 ). The cytoskeletal protein talin contains at least two distinct vinculin binding domains. (biologists.org)
- We genetically and biochemically isolated the regulatory proteins (RDI1 and ROM1/ROM2) and target proteins (PKC1, BNI1/BNR1, glucan synthase) for Rho. (nii.ac.jp)
- We had isolated its regulatory protein, named Rab GDI,and its target protein, named Rabphilin-3A.In this research project, we isolated other regulatory proteins for Rab3A,Rab3 GEP and Rab3 GAP. (nii.ac.jp)
- We show that the previously described nesprins are short isoforms of giant proteins comprising an actin-binding amino-terminus connected to a carboxy-terminal klarsicht-related transmembrane domain by a massive ( approximately 6000-8000 amino acid) spectrin-like rod domain, making full-length nesprin-1, at one megadalton, the largest non-titin protein hitherto described in humans. (nih.gov)
- Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRMT5 gene . (wikipedia.org)
- Many actin-binding proteins, including α-actinin, β-spectrin, dystrophin, utrophin and fimbrin, do this through the actin-binding calponin homology domain. (wikipedia.org)
- Whereas their actin-binding domains consist of two calponin homology domains (see IPR001715 ), their rods fall into three families. (embl.de)
- Paxillin is a focal adhesion adapter protein implicated in growth factor- as well as integrin-mediated signaling pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the present study, we have used a series of vinculin deletion mutants to map more precisely the sites in vinculin responsible for paxillin binding and focal adhesion localisation. (biologists.org)
- Knockdown of calponin 2 in the Tg(fli1:EGFP)(y1) zebrafish line (in which a fli1 promoter drives vascular-specific enhanced green fluorescent protein expression) indicated that diminished calponin 2 expression blocked the proper migration of endothelial cells during formation of intersegmental vessels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This linkage may also involve additional actin-binding proteins such as activated vinculin or epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN), which bind to α-catenin ( 16 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ). (pnas.org)
- Paxillin has been shown to bind directly in vitro to the C-terminal region of vinculin (Turner et al. (biologists.org)
- A glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein spanning vinculin residues 881-1000 was sufficient to support 125I-paxillin binding in a gel-blot assay while no detectable binding was observed to a fusion protein spanning residues 881-978. (biologists.org)
- 1987 ). Interaction of iodinated vinculin, metavinculin and-actinin with cytoskeletal proteins. (biologists.org)
Small GTP binding2
- The spectrin repeat: a structural platform for cytoskeletal protein assemblies. (biomedsearch.com)
- Accordingly, PTB can interact with selected RNA targets, structural elements and proteins. (mdpi.com)
- Detailed studies of the structural properties of PTB have contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of RNA binding by RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domains. (mdpi.com)
- Muscle LIM protein (MLP) is an LIM-only protein that shares structural and functional properties of the cysteine-rich protein (CRP) subfamily. (ahajournals.org)
- This can be attributed to the significant challenges concomitant with structural and biochemical studies of the many protein components that are embedded in the inner membrane. (nature.com)
- To provide a structural basis for understanding these crucial biological events, we have solved the crystal structure of a complex between bovine calmodulin and the calmodulin-binding domain of human alphaII-spectrin (Protein Data Bank ID code 2FOT). (rcsb.org)
- The identity of available biological structures on 365 drug targets was retrieved from the RCSB Protein Databank for you to easily review the 6753 structures available today among drug targets. (marketresearch.com)
- Cytoskeletal proteins as targets for organophosphorous compound and aliphatic hexacarbo n- induced neurotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
- The assembly of the mega-protein complex 1 known as the divisome, required to initiate and complete bacterial cell division, remains of fundamental interest for biochemists and microbiologists alike and is a key to designing molecular targets to control cell proliferation. (nature.com)
- The full-length fusion proteins, but not the ABD's complemented the defects of cells lacking both endogenous proteins indicating that they are functional. (harvard.edu)
- We find that MSP-300, a 7000-residue Drosophila melanogaster protein whose disruption results in defects of muscle development, corresponds to the N-terminal two-thirds of the Drosophila nesprin ortholog. (nih.gov)
- We therefore identify TBCCD1 as an essential protein associated with at least two filament-based structures in the trypanosome cytoskeleton. (lancs.ac.uk)
- The binding sites were found to be mainly located on the stereocilia, the cuticular plate of hair cells, the head plate of Deiters' cells, the tonofilaments in pillar cells and Deiters' cells, fibrous structures in the spiral limbus, the tectorial membrane and the basilar membrane and neural elements such as nerve endings, fibers, and the myelin sheath. (springer.com)
- A gap in our understanding of this dynamic network is the identification of proteins that connect subsets of cytoskeletal structures. (rupress.org)
- We also showed that SMALP's provided a material amenable to study using electron microscopy yielding medium resolution protein structures 25 . (nature.com)
- Cytoskeletal structures are imaged by biologists all the time", says Johnsson. (innovations-report.com)
- In this report, two major [ 14 C]carboplatin-binding proteins were identified as filamin and actin by photoaffinity labeling and mass spectrometry. (aspetjournals.org)
- Two [ 14 C]carboplatin-binding proteins (actin and filamin) were identified as elements of the cytoskeleton involved in endocytosis, both of which were down-regulated in CP-r cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
- These form a rod-like structure in the actin-binding cytoskeleton protein, filamin. (embl.de)
- The C-terminal repeats of filamin bind beta1-integrin (CD29). (embl.de)
- Although it is generally thought that cadherins are physically connected to the cytoskeleton through catenins ( 13 ), the cadherin/catenin complex appears to bind poorly to actin in vitro ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
- Therefore, the cadherin/catenin/actin linkage may be highly dynamic, or its components may require a specific conformation not recapitulated in vitro to bind actin. (pnas.org)
- The active zones examined so far have at least two features in common, they all have protein dense material that project from the membrane and tethers synaptic vesicles close to the membrane and they have long filamentous projections originating at the membrane and terminating at vesicles slightly farther from the presynaptic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- Anti-vimentin antiserum inhibited NK cell lysis of infected monocytes, whereas antiserum to actin, another filamentous protein, did not. (jimmunol.org)
- Binds to proteins that bind to either monomeric or filamentous actin. (nih.gov)