The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • cyclin binding. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular ... p15 and p16 bind to kinases, p21 and p27 bind to cyclins". Oncogene. 11 (8): 1581-8. PMID 7478582.. ... nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin- ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... protein binding. • metal ion binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • carboxy-lyase activity. • 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate ... 1v11: CROSSTALK BETWEEN COFACTOR BINDING AND THE PHOSPHORYLATION LOOP CONFORMATION IN THE BCKD MACHINE ... 1v16: CROSSTALK BETWEEN COFACTOR BINDING AND THE PHOSPHORYLATION LOOP CONFORMATION IN THE BCKD MACHINE ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... protein binding. • ATP binding. • magnesium ion binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase activity. ... nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... protein N-terminus binding. • kinase activity. • protein C-terminus binding. • ATP binding. • transferase activity. • protein ... protein binding. • protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding ... MAP2K1 has been shown to interact with C-Raf,[9] Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1,[9] MAP2K1IP1,[10][11] GRB10,[12] ...
In antibodies, hypervariable regions form the antigen-binding site and are found on both light and heavy chains.[4] They also ... the 3 HV segments of each heavy or light chain fold together at the N-terminus to form an antigen binding pocket. ...
PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase activity. • protein serine/ ... Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • membrane. • ... This GTPase cycles between an inactive GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form, and this RhoA flux seems important for ...
nucleotide binding. • protein kinase C activity. • metal ion binding. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • ... Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... "Extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is associated with an increase in both NF-kappa B binding and ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... ATP binding. • protein kinase binding. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • identical protein binding. • MAP kinase ... nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ... nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway. • response to drug. • signal transduction. • apoptotic ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... nucleotide binding. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • kinase activity. • protein binding. ... 2005). "Characterization of Hap/BAG-1 variants as RP1 binding proteins with antiapoptotic activity". Int. J. Cancer. 117 (6): ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... There are indeed a number of proteins involved in ERK signaling, that can bind to multiple elements of the pathway: MP1 binds ... Other, less well characterised substrate-binding sites also exist. One such site (the DEF site) is formed by the activation ... and lack the features required by other MAPKs for substrate binding. These are usually referred to as "atypical" MAPKs.[3] It ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... nucleotide binding. • kinase activity. • protein binding. • RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity. • ATP ... CDK8 binds to and/or phosphorylates several transcription factors, which can have an activating or inhibitory effect on ... a novel CDK-binding protein". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1589 (2): 219-31. doi:10.1016/S0167-4889(02)00175-1. PMID 12007796 ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... The binding sites for substrate and ATP are located in the catalytic cleft between the domains (or lobes). When ATP and ... Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be ... substrate bind, the two lobes rotate so that the terminal phosphate group of the ATP and the target amino acid of the substrate ...
AMP binding. • protein binding. • cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity. • protein kinase binding. • ATP binding. • ... Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activity. • cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. • ADP binding. • AMP-activated protein ... adenyl ribonucleotide binding. Cellular component. • cytosol. • membrane. • nucleotide-activated protein kinase complex. • ...
Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... Binding sites of rapamycin: Green ring (pipecolate region) represents binding region to FKBP12 and purple ring represents ... This could include both direct and indirect binding as a part of binding to FKBP12. Interaction of the FKBP12-rapamycin complex ... These second generation mTOR inhibitors bind to ATP-binding site in mTOR kinase domain required for the functions of both ...
The specificity of the binding refers to an antibody's capacity to bind and only bind a single target antigen. Scientists ... Antigens are organic molecules, usually proteins, capable of binding to an antibody. These antigens can be visualized using a ... of a single primary antibody binding the target antigen, there is more tagged antibody associated with each antigen. More tag ... The first is producing the antibody that binds specifically to the antigen of interest and the second is fusing the tag to the ...
Antibodies in the antiserum bind the infectious agent or antigen.[8] The immune system then recognizes foreign agents bound to ... "Use Of Immunoturbidimetry To Detect Venom-Antivenom Binding Using Snake Venoms." Journal of Pharmacological & Toxicological ...
If the said and targeted antibodies are present then they will bind to the antigens on the cells; in the case of ANAs, the ... If antibodies that bind to antigen are present then they will remain after washing. A secondary anti-human antibody conjugated ... Binding to these antigens within the kidney could cause inflammation and complement fixation, resulting in kidney damage. ... The 60kDa DNA/RNA binding protein and 52kDa T-cell regulatory protein are the best characterised antigens of anti-Ro antibodies ...
The Dalhousie researchers developed a way to deliver PZP antigens in liposomes, causing the release of antigens to be delayed. ... Thus when a sperm encounters an ovum in an animal immunized against zonae pellucidae, the sperm cannot bind to the ovum because ... fertilization antigen 1 (FA-1), sp17, SOB2, A9D, CD52, YLP12, Eppin, CatSper, Izumo, sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9), 80 ... contemporary research has focused on searching for specific molecular antigens that are involved with sperm function. Antigens ...
B cells acquire antigen directly from the afferent lymph. If a B cell binds its cognate antigen it will be activated. Some B ... Each antibody has a single predetermined target, an antigen, that it can bind to. These circulate throughout the bloodstream ... These are taken up by cells throughout the body called antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells.[12] These antigen ... increasing its antigen binding affinity and changing its effector function. Proliferation of cells within a lymph node will ...
... s are artificial proteins designed to selectively bind antigens. Affilin proteins are structurally derived from human ... In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, whereas the binding regions of antibodies, ... a process creating regions capable of binding different antigens, depending on which amino acids are exchanged. ... The next step is the selection of Affilin proteins that bind the desired target protein. To this end display techniques such as ...
Both antigens bind to cultured skin cancer (melanoma) cells. But the researchers failed to confirm whether or not the protein ... It binds with CD36 on endothelial cells. Only group B and C proteins are able to bind, and that too with only those having CIDR ... Binding of antibody with PfEMP1 disables the binding properties of DBL domains, causing loss of cell adhesion, and the infected ... The primary function of PfEMP1 is to bind and attach RBCs to the wall of the blood vessels. The most important binding ...
It binds to the antigen CD147. Gavilimomab proved slightly less effective than standard antithymocyte globulin therapy. It was ...
When antibodies are bound to its antigens, histamine is released from mast cells and basophils. Either IgE antibodies from the ... Antibodies to human Neutrophil Antigen's (HNA) and Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) have been associated with this type of ... The severity of the transfusion reaction is depended upon amount of donor's antigen transfused, nature of the donor's antigens ... Laura, Dean (2005). Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. Bethesda, United States: National Center for Biotechnology Information ...
IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ... An antibody has Fab (fragment, antigen-binding) and Fc (fragment, crystallizable) regions. Fc receptors bind to the Fc region. ... The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... bind to the pathogen with their Fab region (fragment antigen binding region), their Fc regions point outwards, in direct reach ...
The antibody that is able to bind to the antigen is multiplied. This remarkable example shows chance as the basis for one of ... the DNA promoter where RNA polymerase binds. Synthesis of mRNA is blocked when the repressor is bound to the operator. When the ... He states that the source of information for the antibodies associative structure is not the antigen itself but is instead the ... In reviewing the tertiary structure, what he calls the native shape, he talks about the non-covalent interactions which bind ...
Those lymphocytes that have receptors that bind strongly to self-antigens are removed by induction of apoptosis of the ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ... nTreg cells are specific, modestly, for self-antigen while iTreg cells recognize allergens, commensal bacteria, tumor antigens ...
Such binding results in the disruption of cell membranes, leakage of cell components and finally cell death. Tomatidine is a ... Also, tomatine is known to be an immune adjuvant in connection with certain protein antigens. Studies showed that the molecule ... It is released from the neuron, and binds to the muscular membrane, causing depolarization and muscle action. To allow a new ... The metabolite tomatidine can be hydrolyzed further by membrane-bound CYP-450 oxygenases. Tomatine has been used as a reagent ...
Gerbich antigen receptor negativity[edit]. Main article: Gerbich antigen system. The Gerbich antigen system is an integral ... The Duffy binding protein found on Plasmodia, the one and only invasion ligand for DARC, does not bind to Saimiri erythrocytes ... Human leucocyte antigen polymorphisms[edit]. Main article: Human leukocyte antigen. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms ... Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller, et al. 1976 P. vivax Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller ...
These antigens are recognized by antibody proteins that bind specifically to one of these surface proteins. Today, these ... HBsAg (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current ... which uses a natural dye to bind to the antigen in infected liver cells. Positive HBsAg tests can be due to recent vaccination ... The viral envelope of an enveloped virus has different surface proteins from the rest of the virus which act as antigens. ...
Lesk and Chothia also studied the conformations of antigen-binding sites of immunoglobulins. They discovered the "canonical- ...
Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate ... Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional ... Peyriéras N, Louvard D, Jacob F (December 1985). "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal ... First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a ... Rangarajan ES, Izard T (April 2012). "α-Catenin unfurls upon binding to vinculin". J Biol Chem. 287 (22): 18492-9. doi:10.1074/ ...
"Characterization of RNA-binding domains of hepatitis delta antigen". J. Gen. Virol. 74 (Pt 11): 2473-2478. PMID 8245865.. CS1 ... protitelesa proti HDV razreda IgM ter antigen hepatitisa D (HDV-Ag). Za dokazovanje seroloških označevalcev se največkrat ...
IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). The TH2 ...
"First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... ability to bind to and infect targeted cells.[51] The viral RNA polymerase, encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO.[101] It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ... Once interferon has bound to its receptors on the neighbouring cell, the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and ...
The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Rituximab binds to amino acids 170-173 and 182-185 on CD20, which are physically close to each other as a result of a disulfide ... Rituximab binding to CD20. The CD20 proteins are sticking out of the cell membrane, and rituximab, the Y-shaped antibody, is ...
"Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... After the bacteria migrate from the midgut to the salivary glands, OspC binds to Salp15, a tick salivary protein that appears ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ...
2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1". Nature 423 (6935): 49-56. PMID 12721620. doi:10.1038/ ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
Bind bones and other tissues to each other. Alpha polypeptide chains. tendon, ligament, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood ... providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens.[15]:161 ... "Mapping the Ligand-binding Sites and Disease-associated Mutations on the Most Abundant Protein in the Human, Type I Collagen" ...
Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing ... Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ...
... or antigen binding sites, to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a ... Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen.[1] This enormous diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to ... 1. Fragment antigen binding region. 2. Fragment crystallizable region. 3. Heavy chain (blue) with one variable (VH) domain ... This binds the two structures together. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for ...
chromatin binding. • DNA polymerase binding. • protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. ... ATP binding. • single-stranded DNA binding. • double-stranded DNA binding. • single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity. ... nucleotide binding. • DNA binding. • DNA-dependent ATPase activity. • recombinase activity. • ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2[10] and RAD52. ...
1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ... 1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ... 1992). "Overlapping but nonidentical binding sites on CD2 for CD58 and a second ligand CD59.". Science 256 (5065): 1805-7. PMID ... Peterson A, Seed B (1987). "Monoclonal antibody and ligand binding sites of the T cell erythrocyte receptor (CD2).". Nature 329 ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... Other studies have implicated neutral endopeptidase and cationic bovine serum albumin as antigens.[4] ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine ...
A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... "Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports ... Further research is needed to determine the exact etiological role of T-antigen, but there seems to be a connection to the ... T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation,[11] directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well ...
FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... These cells have T-cell receptors and CD4 molecules that, in combination, bind antigenic peptides presented on major ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... These proteins, generated by plasma cells, normally bind to pathogens, targeting them for destruction. Absent B cells with a ... it is a group of circulating proteins that can bind pathogens and form a membrane attack complex. Complement deficiencies are ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ...
In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... that use recombinant antigens will not have a false-positive result. ... Anti-ApoH and a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind to ApoH, which in turn inhibits Protein C, a glycoprotein with ... VDRL, which detects antibodies against syphilis, may have a false positive result in aPL-positive patients (aPL bind to the ...
The first step of replication is the binding of the glycoprotein to the receptor protein (2). Once these have been bound, the ... Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. ... PBS (primer binding site) consists of 18 bases complementary to 3' end of tRNA primer. L region is an untranslated leader ... A retrovirus has a membrane containing glycoproteins, which are able to bind to a receptor protein on a host cell. There are ...
Immunofluorescence pattern produced by binding of ANCA to ethanol-fixed neutrophils, from a person with GPA ... and human leukocyte antigen genes may influence the risk of developing GPA.[7] ...
... when a T cell is induced to mature by binding to a peptide:MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7: ... When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ... The cell then releases IL-2, which binds to its own new IL-2 receptors, causing self-stimulation and ultimately a monoclonal ... that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell. This can be contrasted with paracrine ...
rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... The binding of bacterial molecules to receptors on the surface of a macrophage triggers it to engulf and destroy the bacteria. ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
... of cell transformation by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 requires binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen ... a b Ono T, Kitaura H, Ugai H, Murata T, Yokoyama KK, Iguchi-Ariga SM, Ariga H. TOK-1, a novel p21Cip1-binding protein that ... A degradation signal located in the C-terminus of p21WAF1/CIP1 is a binding site for the C8 alpha-subunit of the 20S proteasome ... Białko p21 (WAF1) jest w stanie oddziaływać z jądrowym antygenem komórek proliferujących (proliferating cell nuclear antigen − ...
In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of ... TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ...
Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... Del Valle JM، Engel P، Martín M (2003). "The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its ... "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... The strength of MHC class I ligand binding is dependent on the composition of the ligand C-terminus, as peptides bind by ... Binding of these C-termini into these 20S pockets by themselves stimulates opening of the gate in the 20S in much the same way ... Bortezomib bound to the core particle in a yeast proteasome. The bortezomib molecule is in the center colored by atom type ( ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Lectin: starts when lectins bind to mannose on bacteria. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. • integral component of plasma ... Boucher LM, Marengère LE, Lu Y, Thukral S, Mak TW (Apr 1997). "Binding sites of cytoplasmic effectors TRAF1, 2, and 3 on CD30 ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ...
The antigen-binding fragment (Fab) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens. It is composed of one constant and one ... The variable domain contains the paratope (the antigen-binding site), comprising a set of complementarity determining regions, ... Each arm of the Y thus binds an epitope on the antigen. ... Fragment antigen-binding. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... Arcitumomab is a mouse antibody that recognizes Carcinoembryonic antigen, an antigen over-expressed in 95% of colorectal ...
Domain architectures: T antigen, Ori-binding (IPR003133). Showing 1 to 13 of 13 results ...
... when reacted with antigens passing through said first zone but not removed from said first zone in the absence of such antigens ... a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens ... A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises ... The free antigen in the sample competes with the immobilized bound reference antigen in the second layer for combining with the ...
T-cell antigen receptor binding sites for the microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A.. C H Pontzer, M J Irwin, N R ... T-cell antigen receptor binding sites for the microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A. ... T-cell antigen receptor binding sites for the microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A. ... T-cell antigen receptor binding sites for the microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A. ...
The blood-group antigen-binding adhesin, BabA, has been shown to mediate adherence of H. pylori to human Lewisb (α-1,3/4- ... The correlation between babA2 genotype and in vitro binding to Lewisbantigens was determined in a subset of strains (n = 54) by ... Clinical relevance of the Helicobacter pylori gene for blood-group antigen-binding adhesin. Markus Gerhard, Norbert Lehn, Nina ... No binding was observed to Lewisa. None of the babA2-negative strains showed any binding in the adherence assay. Of 31 babA2- ...
Yeast display is particularly well suited for the selection of antigen-binding Fc fragments (Fcabs) as it allows rapid ... The particular properties of the Fcab scaffold, such as its homodimeric state which can promote binding to multiple antigen ... Wozniak-Knopp G, Bartl S, Bauer A et al (2010) Introducing antigen-binding sites in structural loops of immunoglobulin constant ... Preferred to equilibrium selections are kinetically driven antigen selections, designed to specifically influence the binding ...
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) associated drug hypersensitivity: consequences of drug binding to HLA.. Yun J1, Adam J, Yerly D ... Recent publications have shown that certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are strongly associated with hypersensitivity ...
... Shuang Han,1 Guanyu Wang,2 Naijin Xu,1 ... "Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Oxidants on Antigen-Antibody Binding In Vitro," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular ...
... Shuang Han,1 Guanyu Wang,2 Naijin Xu,1 ... Objective. We quantitatively assessed the influence of oxidants on antigen-antibody-binding activity. Methods. We used several ... Oxidants had a significant influence on interactions between antigen and antibody, but minimal effect on the peptide of the ...
... both T antigen and T peptide (amino acids 101-118) were able to compete with RbAP46 for binding to Rb. The apparent targeting ... Two lines of evidence support the notion that RbAP46 and simian virus 40 T antigen have homologous Rb-binding properties: first ... These observations suggest that endogenous cellular proteins might exist that bind to the same regions of Rb and thereby ... several mutated Rb proteins that failed to bind to T also did not associate with RbAP46; and second, ...
Single-chain antigen-binding proteins. By RE Bird, KD Hardman, JW Jacobson, S Johnson, BM Kaufman, SM Lee, T Lee, SH Pope, GS ... Single-chain antigen-binding proteins. By RE Bird, KD Hardman, JW Jacobson, S Johnson, BM Kaufman, SM Lee, T Lee, SH Pope, GS ... Single-chain antigen-binding proteins are novel recombinant polypeptides, composed of an antibody variable light-chain amino ... These proteins have the same specificities and affinities for their antigens as the monoclonal antibodies whose VL and VH ...
... but to recognition of monomeric or oligomeric soluble antigen versus highly multivalent membrane-bound antigen. Our findings ... Elimination from peripheral lymphoid tissues of self-reactive B lymphocytes recognizing membrane-bound antigens.. Hartley SB1, ... The long-standing hypothesis that tolerance to self antigens is mediated by either elimination or functional inactivation ( ...
Monoclonal Antibody Immunofluorescence Immunocytochemistry Antigen Binding. Monoclonal Antibody - PP2A A Subunit (81G5) Rabbit ... These B subunits competitively bind to a shared binding site on the core A subunit (1). This variable array of holoenzyme ... It is expressed at high levels on B cells and to a lesser extent on numerous antigen presenting cell (APC) types including ... Through this interaction, CD74 blocks the peptide binding cleft of MHC Class II molecules and prevents their premature ...
... of CAR T cells are humanization of the scFv and the use of naturally occurring receptor ligands as antigen-binding domains. ... for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so does the potential for unwanted immune responses ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and ... Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains Donald R. Shaffer 1,*,†, Penghui Zhou 1 and Stephen ...
What is antigen-binding site? Meaning of antigen-binding site medical term. What does antigen-binding site mean? ... Looking for online definition of antigen-binding site in the Medical Dictionary? antigen-binding site explanation free. ... Antigen-binding site , definition of antigen-binding site by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ... is a relatively straightforward method for identifying suitable peptides for binding to the antigen-binding site of mAbs (27). ...
Goodpasture antigen-binding phosphoprotein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and Goodpasture antigen-binding ... "Goodpasture antigen-binding protein, the kinase that phosphorylates the goodpasture antigen, is an alternatively spliced ... In enzymology, a Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP ... Other names in common use include GPBPK, GPBP kinase, STK11, and Goodpasture antigen-binding protein kinase. This enzyme ...
Recombinant E.Coli Maltose Binding Protein, Recombinant E.Coli Maltose Binding Protein His Tag, Recombinant E.Coli Maltose ...
The available antigens exhibit exceptional purity levels as a result of unique chromatographic techniques, while the antibodies ... Binding Site Offers Family of Recombinant Parvovirus Antigens. Binding Site Offers Family of Recombinant Parvovirus Antigens. ... Highly Purified Torch Panel Antigens Available from Binding Site. Highly Purified Torch Panel Antigens Available from Binding ... Binding Site Now Offers Bordetella pertussis Antigens for IVD Manufacturing & Research Applications. Binding Site Now Offers ...
Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cellsAdd BLAST. 213. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,Q9D0V7,RCAS1_MOUSE Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Ebag9 PE=1 SV=2 ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of mouse EBAG9, homolog of a human cancer associated surface antigen: expression and ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of mouse EBAG9, homolog of a human cancer associated surface antigen: expression and ...
Structure of the Campylobacter jejuni antigen Peb1A, an aspartate and glutamate receptor with bound aspartate. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... Lys19 and Arg67 line a positively charged groove, which favours binding of Asp over the neutral Asn. The ligand-binding cleft ... MAJOR CELL-BINDING FACTOR. A, B. 259. Campylobacter jejuni. Mutation(s): 0 ... A Bacterial Virulence Factor with a Dual Role as an Adhesin and a Solute Binding-Protein: The Crystal Structure at 1.5 A ...
receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : EBAG9 (estrogen receptor binding ... antigen, 9) Alliance Chinchilla lanigera (long-tailed chinchilla) : Ebag9 (estrogen receptor binding site associated antigen 9) ... estrogen receptor binding site associated antigen 9) Canis lupus familiaris (dog) : EBAG9 (estrogen receptor binding site ... estrogen receptor binding site associated antigen 9. Description:. INVOLVED IN apoptotic process (inferred); ASSOCIATED WITH ...
Using a murine model of tolerance induced by repeated exposure to a low dose of aerosolized antigen, we show an important ... the respiratory tract maintains immune tolerance in the face of constant antigen provocation. ... Tolerance induced by inhaled antigen involves CD4(+) T cells expressing membrane-bound TGF-beta and FOXP3 J Clin Invest. 2004 ... cells to proliferate in response to antigen. We propose a model of antigen-induced tolerance that involves cell-cell contact ...
The binding site for the chemokine is induced after the CD4 antigen is bound. This site overlaps with the heavy chain of the ... This structure shows the extracellular part of HIV gp120 (dark blue) bound to the extracellular part of CD4 antigen (light blue ... gp120-CD4 antigen interactions. The CD4 antigen on the cell surface and the gp120 of the virus interact via a depression in the ... HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein complexed with CD4 antigen and an antibody Note: this page requires Java; if you do not have ...
The antigens are designed for use as integral components within solid phase enzyme immunoassay test procedures ... New Antigens Introduced For Use In Diagnostic Manufacturing And Research *Binding Site Offers Antibody/Antigen Products with ... Binding Site Introduces New Borrelia & Chikungunya Glycoprotein Antigens *The Native Antigen Company bacterial and viral ... Binding Site Offers Native Parainfluenza Virus Antigens for IVD Manufacturing and Research Applications. 00:00 EDT 18 Apr 2018 ...
Bifidobacterial α-galactosidase with unique carbohydrate-binding module specifically acts on blood group B antigen.. [Takura ... We also revealed that CBM51 specifically bound blood group B antigen using both isothermal titration calorimetry and a solid- ... phase binding assay, and it enhanced the affinity of the enzyme toward substrates with multivalent B antigens. We suggest that ... The recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed α1,3-linked Gal in branched blood group B antigen [Galα1-3(Fuc ...
Analysis of the Costructure of the Simian Virus 40 T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain with Site I Reveals a Correlation between ... Crystal structure of the SV40 large T-antigen origin bining domain bound to Site I DNA. ... Description: Large T antigen protein , Length: 132 No structure alignment results are available for 4FGN.A, 4FGN.B explicitly. ...
Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Antigen-Like 1 Is Expressed in the Uterus and Binds with Integrins in Decidualized Endometrium ... "Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Antigen-Like 1 Is Expressed in the Uterus and Binds with Integrins in Decidualized Endometrium ... "Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Antigen-Like 1 Is Expressed in the Uterus and Binds with Integrins in Decidualized Endometrium ... Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1 (TINAGL1, also known as adrenocortical zonation factor 1 [AZ-1] or lipocalin 7) is ...
For this study, an IgG antibody was cleaved into antigen-binding fragments using pepsin and papain digestion, followed by ... Biophysical Characterization Of A Therapeutic MAb And Its Associated Antigen-binding Fragments Changes during purification, ... Biophysical characterization of a therapeutic mAb and its associated antigen-binding fragments ...
One such property is how much of the conjugated antibody is able to bind to the relevant antigen. Based on theoretical ... Due to its principle of determining binding at infinite antigen excess, the present method is quite insensitive to variation in ... The described assay is based on a double-inverse plot of the binding data which may be considered a modification of the ... of the immunoreactive fraction of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies by linear extrapolation to binding at infinite antigen ...
... antibodies parametrized directly on cryo-EM data and simulate the binding dynamics of many IgGs to antigens adsorbed on a ... This is made clear by the strongly reduced ability to bind with both arms displayed by artificial IgGs designed to rigidly keep ... i) Internal flexibility is key to maximize bivalent binding, flexible IgGs being able to explore the surface with their second ... iii) One needs to account independently for the thermodynamic and geometric factors that regulate the binding equilibrium. The ...
  • A device for determining the presence of antigens which comprises a first zone containing antigens and enzyme-linked antibodies which are capable of immunologically reacting with said antigens, said antibodies being positioned in said first zone such that they will be removed from said first zone when. (
  • 3. The device of claim 1 wherein said first zone contains enzyme-linked antibodies which are combined with bound and immobilized specific antigens. (
  • 4. The device of claim 1 wherein said first zone consists of at least two individual layers, with one of said layers containing enzyme-linked antibodies and another layer containing specific antigen bound and immobilized in said layer. (
  • Since the introduction of the yeast display platform, this method has increasingly gained popularity for the discovery and affinity maturation of antibodies and other protein scaffolds intended for antigen recognition. (
  • These proteins have the same specificities and affinities for their antigens as the monoclonal antibodies whose VL and VH sequences were used to construct the recombinant genes that were expressed in Escherichia coli. (
  • Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv), often derived from murine monoclonal antibodies, for antigen specificity. (
  • generally an antigen has several or many different antigenic determinants and reacts with many different antibodies. (
  • Antigens contain antigenic determinants (epitopes) and antibodies contain antibody combining sites (paratopes). (
  • Both of these points maybe linked to the observation that as a result of the half-antibody exchange reaction (Fab-arm exchange), most IgG4-type antibodies are bispecific antibodies with two different antigen-binding sites that make the molecules functionally monovalent for a given antigen (25). (
  • Light chains attach to the antigen-binding sites of the heavy chains, forming complete antibodies. (
  • The availability of these antigens and antibodies are certain to help meet the needs of both clinical laboratory professionals and manufacturers of in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) products, but also biopharmaceutical, medical, and life science researchers, as all of the products are designed to work as critical components within a number of enzyme immunoassay testing applications, especially ELISA. (
  • Based on theoretical considerations, we have developed a binding assay for radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in which the fraction of immunoreactive antibody is determined by linear extrapolation to conditions representing infinite antigen excess. (
  • In this paper we introduce a fully flexible coarse-grained model of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies parametrized directly on cryo-EM data and simulate the binding dynamics of many IgGs to antigens adsorbed on a surface at increasing densities. (
  • The key geometrical parameters, besides excluded-volume repulsion, describe the screening of free haptens by neighboring bound antibodies. (
  • Importantly, we prove that screening effects are concealed in relative measures, such as the fraction of bivalently bound antibodies. (
  • Overall, our model provides a valuable, accurate theoretical paradigm beyond existing frameworks to interpret experimental profiles of antibodies binding to multivalent surfaces of different sorts in many contexts. (
  • Our bispecific antibodies incorporate a blocking component with weak affinity for CD47, rendering them unable to bind normal cells expressing CD47 alone, and require simultaneous binding to CD20 for high avidity binding to dual antigen-expressing tumor cells. (
  • Such bispecific antibodies targeting CD47 along with tumor-associated antigens may be an effective strategy for selectively eliminating tumor cells that can be broadly applied to cancer. (
  • The aim of this work is to study whether acoustic micromixing can increase the binding efficiency of antibodies to their antigens, a reaction that forms the basis of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Antigenic binding sites of monoclonal antibodies specific for simian virus 40 large T antigen. (
  • We isolated 16 new monoclonal antibodies that recognize large T antigen of simian virus 40 and mapped the epitopes to three distinct regions of the large T antigen. (
  • now describe cocrystal structures of the RSV G glycoprotein conserved central domain (CCD) bound by two different broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). (
  • Although the G glycoprotein is a target of protective RSV-neutralizing antibodies, its development as a vaccine antigen has been hindered by its heterogeneous glycosylation and sequence variability outside a conserved central domain (CCD). (
  • We describe the cocrystal structures of two high-affinity broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies bound to the RSV G CCD. (
  • The antibodies bind to neighboring conformational epitopes, which we named antigenic sites γ1 and γ2, that span a highly conserved surface, illuminating an important region of vulnerability. (
  • Direct visualization of IgM antibodies bound to tissue antigens using a monoclonal anti-type III collagen IgM as a model system. (
  • Also included are antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprising the antibodies or bispecific antigen-binding molecules provided herein linked to a cytotoxic agent, radionuclide, or other moiety, as well as methods of treating cancer in a subject by administering to the subject a bispecific antigen-binding molecule or an ADC thereof. (
  • Epitope mapping of the carcinoembryonic antigen with various related recombinant proteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and 25 distinct monoclonal antibodies. (
  • However, staining in the presence of antibodies reactive with ILT receptors revealed that the interaction of HLA-G tetramers with blood monocytes was largely due to binding to ILT4. (
  • Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for UBP1 / upstream binding protein 1 (LBP-1a) and Streptavidin / Avidin. (
  • Although immunization with GAD65 did not produce any behavioral abnormality in the mice, the induction of neuronal-surface antibodies and the trend towards loss of GABAergic neurons in the brainstem, supports a role for humoral autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of SPS and suggests that the mechanisms may involve spread to antigens expressed on the surface of these neurons. (
  • Antibodies in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reacted with a nuclear acidic protein called Sm antigen, and these antibodies were used as reagents to identify Sm antigen in preparative fractionation procedures. (
  • As a major innate immune component, the complement system is an early barrier for intruding pathogens and is activated directly by pathogens or indirectly by pathogen-bound antibodies. (
  • these antibodies can bind a spectrum of DNA and non-DNA structures Anti-dsDNA antibodies are. (
  • that recognize DNA (anti-DNA antibodies) can bind to sites on the phosphodiester backbone of single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA, to nucleotide sequences or to higher-order structures such. (
  • In conclusion, certain antibodies can bind to compounds of low molecular mass (Ca 2+ ions or haem) and use these compounds as interfacial. (
  • In addition, cross-reacting antiviral antibodies (molecular mimicry with self antigens) may also. (
  • Evidence for the 'single initiating antigen' hypothesis is provided by the observation that autoimmune diseases are often tissue-specific and sometimes involve antibodies. (
  • WO2016028672A1 ] The present invention includes antibodies and antigen-binding fragments thereof that specifically bind to human or cynomolgous monkey LAG3 as well as immunoglobulin chains thereof and polynucleotides encoding the same along with injection devices comprising such antibodies or fragments. (
  • Antigen-antibody complexes formed by different lgG antibodies against a large antigen like HSA all had similar surface properties. (
  • Here, we describe a UV photo-cross-linking method (UV-NBS) that utilizes the NBS for oriented immobilization of antibodies onto surfaces, such that the antigen binding activity remains unaffected. (
  • Apart from expression-related normalization, isolation of properly folded Fcabs can be guided efficiently by simultaneous staining with ligands such as protein A, FcγRI, or the conformation-sensitive anti-FigC H 2 antibody, whose binding is critically dependent on the integrity of the Fc structure. (
  • How Rb acts to bring about this suppression is not clear 5 but one clue is that the Rb protein forms complexes with the transforming oncoproteins of several DNA tumour viruses 6-8 , and that two regions of Rb essential for such binding frequently contain mutations in tumour cells 9,10 . (
  • A recombinant protein antigen with a N-terminal His6-ABP tag corresponding to human AEBP1. (
  • The AE Binding Protein 1/ACLP Recombinant Protein Antigen has been validated for the following applications: Antibody Competition. (
  • In enzymology, a Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + Goodpasture antigen-binding protein ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + [Goodpasture antigen-binding phosphoprotein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and Goodpasture antigen-binding protein, whereas its two products are ADP and Goodpasture antigen-binding phosphoprotein. (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:[Goodpasture antigen-binding protein] phosphotransferase. (
  • Other names in common use include GPBPK, GPBP kinase, STK11, and Goodpasture antigen-binding protein kinase. (
  • This is the first structure of an ABC-type aspartate-binding protein, and explains the high affinity of the protein for aspartate and glutamate, and its much weaker binding of asparagine and glutamine. (
  • The alignments suggest a more distant homology with GltI from Escherichia coli, a known glutamate and aspartate-binding protein, but Lys19 and Tyr156 are not conserved in GltI. (
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1 (TINAGL1, also known as adrenocortical zonation factor 1 [AZ-1] or lipocalin 7) is a novel matricellular protein that promotes cell adhesion and spreading. (
  • For this study, an IgG antibody was cleaved into antigen-binding fragments using pepsin and papain digestion, followed by protein purification. (
  • These two specific aptamers were selected from an initial 40mer library of ∼6 × 10 14 random-sequence RNA molecules for their ability to bind to a recombinant protein representing the extracellular 706 amino acids of PSMA, termed xPSM. (
  • Three complementary DNA encoding S19 ribosomal protein (S19), laminin-binding protein (LBP), and HLA class I (HLA-I) genes were isolated from a colon tumor-enriched subtraction library. (
  • The Role of Human Antigen R, an RNA-binding Protein, in Mediating the Stabilization of Toll-Like Receptor 4 mRNA Induced by Endotoxin. (
  • Zinc-binding and protein-protein interactions mediated by the polyomavirus large T antigen zinc finger. (
  • Here I found that actin-binding protein 1 (Abp1/HIP-55/SH3P7) functioned as an actin-binding adaptor protein, coupling BCR signaling and antigen-processing pathways with the actin cytoskeleton. (
  • One genomic locus that is believed to contribute to adherence is the fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T-antigen (FCT) region, primarily due to the inclusion of genes that encode for a pilus (tee18.1), collagen-binding protein (cpa), and fibronectin-binding protein (prtF2). (
  • One particular genomic locus implicated in adhesion is the fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T-antigen (FCT) region, which notably encodes a pilus structure (tee18.1), a collagen-binding protein ( cpa ), and a fibronectin-binding protein ( prtF2 ). (
  • The retinoblastoma protein-binding region of simian virus 40 large T antigen alters cell cycle regulation in lenses of transgenic mice. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen can interact with DNA polymerase epsilon on linear DNA templates, even in the absence of other auxiliary factors (replication factor C, replication protein A), and thereby stimulate its primer recognition and DNA synthesis. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), the most widely used human tumor marker, is a heavily glycosylated protein over-expressed by a wide range of tumors. (
  • In a multi-purpose research program to provide a reliable source for large production of CEA, we converted the membrane-bound carcinoembryonic antigen into a secretory protein by site-specific mutagenesis. (
  • The second objective was to define the FMDV capsid protein peptide repertoire bound by BoLA class I molecules using bioinformatics and biochemical affinity and stability assays to facilitate the identification of T cell epitopes (See Chapter 3). (
  • The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA is identical to that of carbohydrate-binding protein 35, a galactose-specific lectin found in fibroblasts and highly homologous to a rat IgE-binding protein from basophilic leukemia cells. (
  • The in vitro synthesized Mac-2 protein displayed the expected carbohydrate- and IgE-binding properties. (
  • Possible functions for the Mac-2 protein based on its lectin- and IgE-binding properties are discussed. (
  • DNA affinity chromatography showed that Sm antigen was associated with nuclear protein fractions which had DNA-binding capacity. (
  • Bovine serum albumin (BSA) Widely used, Inexpensive, blocks non specific protein-surface binding. (
  • What is the abbreviation for Antigen-Binding Protein? (
  • What is shorthand of Antigen-Binding Protein? (
  • The most common shorthand of "Antigen-Binding Protein" is ABP. (
  • Cohen, P. / Biochemical analysis of prostate specific antigen-proteolyzed insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 . (
  • Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin ( Ts -CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. (
  • Many studies have demonstrated that some pathogens produce proteins such as human astrovirus coat protein ( 7 ), scabies mite inactive serine proteases ( 8 ), and Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) ( 9 ), which can bind human C1q and inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation as a strategy to evade complement attack in the host. (
  • The lectin pathway is initiated by binding of the serum protein MBL to the surface of a pathogen. (
  • Like entire myelin homogenates, the major myelin adhesion molecule P0 (also known as myelin protein zero, MYP0 or MPZ), the fatty acid binding protein P2 and. (
  • With a gel mobility shift assay, several IL-2-inducible DNA-protein complexes were detected, including CREB (CRE-binding) and ATF1 (activating transcription factor) proteins that are specific for the PCNA-CRE sequence. (
  • The non-canonical protein binding site at the monomer-monomer interface of yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulates the Rev1-PCNA interaction and Pol? (
  • T-Ag-related antigens could be detected with both types of antisera by applying a more sensitive 125 I-protein A assay. (
  • Sulesomab , an antigen that recognizes proteins on the surface of granulocytes , is used to label out infections, again using the 99m Tc isotope. (
  • CagA is a 120-kDa immunodominant antigen that elicits a strong immunological response to H. pylori strains ( 15 , 16 ) and is used as a marker for the insertion of a large pathogenicity island encoding many proteins, several of which have been implicated in pathogenesis ( 17 ). (
  • These observations suggest that endogenous cellular proteins might exist that bind to the same regions of Rb and thereby mediate its function. (
  • Single-chain antigen-binding proteins are novel recombinant polypeptides, composed of an antibody variable light-chain amino acid sequence (VL) tethered to a variable heavy-chain sequence (VH) by a designed peptide that links the carboxyl terminus of the VL sequence to the amino terminus of the VH sequence. (
  • Background: CD74, which is also known as the MHC Class II-associated invariant chain (Ii), is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a critical role in the antigen presentation process as a chaperone of MHC Class II proteins. (
  • Blotting experiments also showed that fusion proteins containing the element, as well as full-length LT, bound 65Zn. (
  • In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNAs encoding proteins that specifically bind to sites IIa and IIb. (
  • The structure and DNA binding specificity of the bHLH motif are distinguishable from those of other known bHLH proteins that bind to the E-box. (
  • Lipid-binding proteins in membrane digestion, antigen presentation, and antimicrobial defense. (
  • All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. (
  • Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. (
  • The Hu proteins are a group of antigens targeted in an immune-mediated neurodegenerative disorder associated with cancer. (
  • We find that the Hu genes encode a large number of alternatively spliced transcripts to produce a series of related neuron-specific RNA binding proteins. (
  • RNA binding proteins specifically expressed in the nervous system have been described in several species, although their functions remain unknown. (
  • Two distinct families of mammalian neuron-specific RNA binding proteins (n-RBPs) have been identified as target antigens in the human paraneoplastic neurological disorders (for review, see Darnell, 1996 ). (
  • The Hu family of proteins was identified as target antigens in a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (the Hu syndrome) consisting of a diverse set of neuronal degenerations associated with small-cell lung cancer. (
  • This toxin is made up of Dabrafenib three proteins as follows: protective antigen (PA),3 edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). (
  • Methylation interference analysis confirmed specific binding of these proteins to the CRE sites. (
  • These results indicate that IL- 2-stimulated PCNA transcription may be partially mediated by these CRE- binding proteins. (
  • and Rev1 are unique among PCNA-interacting proteins in using the novel binding site near the intermolecular interface of PCNA. (
  • Its unique carbohydrate binding specificity for Tn antigen. (
  • The carbohydrate-binding specificity of the recombinant macrophage lectin was investigated by comparing elution profiles of various glycopeptides having defined carbohydrate structures from immobilized macrophage lectins. (
  • BCR-initiated signaling increases BCR-mediated antigen-processing efficiency by increasing the rate and specificity of antigen transport. (
  • Consequently, we investigated whether heterologous C-regions from mice and humans affected specificity and affinity, and determined the contribution of C H glycosylation to antigen binding. (
  • V region affinity was not affected by C H region glycosylation whereas heterologous C region of the same isotype altered the Ab binding affinity and the specificity for self-antigens. (
  • We demonstrate here that soluble V beta 3-bearing beta chains can bind to a complex of SEA and major histocompatibility complex class II and that the synthetic peptide V beta 3-(57-77) blocked this interaction. (
  • Oxidants had a significant influence on interactions between antigen and antibody, but minimal effect on the peptide of the antibody molecule. (
  • and second, both T antigen and T peptide (amino acids 101-118) were able to compete with RbAP46 for binding to Rb. (
  • Through this interaction, CD74 blocks the peptide binding cleft of MHC Class II molecules and prevents their premature association with endogenous polypeptides (3). (
  • Phage display, using combinatorial peptide libraries, is a relatively straightforward method for identifying suitable peptides for binding to the antigen-binding site of mAbs (27). (
  • The use of peptide analogs with improved stability and MHC binding capacity to inhibit antigen presentation in vitro and in vivo. (
  • However, when assessed in vivo, it was clear that high Ia binding was not sufficient in itself to define the inhibitory capacity of a given peptide. (
  • Here, we describe the crystal structure of CD94-NKG2A in complex with HLA-E bound to a peptide derived from the leader sequence of HLA-G. The CD94 subunit dominated the interaction with HLA-E, whereas the NKG2A subunit was more peripheral to the interface. (
  • Kinetics of T-cell receptor binding by bivalent HLA-DR. Peptide complexes that activate antigen-specific human T-cells. (
  • These CD8+ T cells recognize BoLA class I molecules bearing epitopes (antigenic peptides) of intracellular origin in their peptide binding groove. (
  • Polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class I molecules determine affinity of peptide binding and stability during antigen presentation. (
  • Different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class I molecules. (
  • HBV-specific CD8 cells show altered MHC/peptide binding in the presence of high levels of circulating viral antigen. (
  • The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW). (
  • These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding motifs. (
  • Effects of epitope modification on T cell receptor-ligand binding and antigen recognition by seven H-2Kd-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones specific for a photoreactive peptide derivative. (
  • We tested for antigen recognition and T cell receptor (TCR)-ligand binding 12 peptide derivative variants on seven H-2Kd-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) clones specific for a bifunctional photoreactive derivative of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite peptide 252-260 (SYIPSAEKI). (
  • TCR photoaffinity labeling with covalent Kd-peptide derivative complexes allowed direct assessment of TCR-ligand binding on living CTL. (
  • SIRPabodies selectively bound to dual antigen-expressing tumor cells in the presence of a large antigen sink. (
  • Yeast display is particularly well suited for the selection of antigen-binding Fc fragments (Fcabs) as it allows rapid combinatorial library construction via gap repair-driven homologous recombination and an efficient display of a glycosylated Fc able to interact with Fcγ receptors. (
  • Recent studies have identified CXCR2 and CXCR4 as co-receptors for CD74 where MIF binding to CD74 complexes contributes to MIF-mediated monocyte chemotaxis and the induction of Akt signaling, respectively (7,8). (
  • Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and recent results with CD19-specific CARs showing complete tumor regressions has sparked the interest of researchers and the public alike. (
  • Antigen-induced redistribution of T cell receptors, analogous to that previously described for B cell receptors (16), occurs as readily in θ + RFC as in θ - RFC, without altering the symmetrical ring distribution of θAKR antigen. (
  • Rapid recovery of antigen-binding receptors on chicken B cells following anti-Ig serum treatment. (
  • Rosette-forming cells (RFC) from the peripheral blood of sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-immunized chickens were characterized as B cells which manifest antigen-binding receptors but no antibody secretion. (
  • These HLA-G tetramers failed to bind to NK cells and cells transfected with CD94/NKG2 and killer immunoglobulin-like NK receptors. (
  • On transfectants, HLA-G tetramers bound to inhibitory immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)2 and ILT4 receptors. (
  • Secondary antibody Antigen Primary Antibody PG electrode In addition to binding to receptors of interest, sec. antibody may also bind to other sites. (
  • The capacity of dissociated spleen cell suspensions to be immunized by dinitrophenylated polymeric flagellin (DNP POL), in the absence of thymus-dependent lymphocytes or macrophages, provided a simple experimental system to investigate the mechanism of binding of antigen molecules to nonthymus-dependent lymphocyte (B cell) receptors during the induction of immunity or tolerance. (
  • Recent demonstrations of the rapid metabolic turnover of receptor antibody molecules suggests that the requirement for multipoint binding (to different receptors) may simply be to maintain the antigen at the cell surface in a dynamic system. (
  • The particular properties of the Fcab scaffold, such as its homodimeric state which can promote binding to multiple antigen molecules, require modifications of traditional affinity maturation strategies. (
  • We used the crystal structure of DQ8 to select drug-like small molecules predicted to bind structural pockets in the MHC antigen-binding cleft. (
  • Binding to CD74 also facilitates the translocation of MHC Class II molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endocytic compartments during antigen presentation (4). (
  • ii) The large size of IgGs is instrumental to keep neighboring molecules at a certain distance (surface repulsion), which essentially makes antigens within reach of the second Fab always unoccupied on average. (
  • The recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E by the heterodimeric CD94-NKG2 natural killer (NK) receptor family is a central innate mechanism by which NK cells monitor the expression of other HLA molecules, yet the structural basis of this highly specific interaction is unclear. (
  • The essentially monomorphic HLA-E has evolved to selectively bind peptides derived from the leader sequences of other class I molecules. (
  • Sound wave-assisted acoustic micromixing has been shown to increase the binding of molecules in small volumes (10-100 μL) where effective mixing is difficult to achieve through conventional techniques. (
  • At this site DCs present HIV-1 derived antigen on MHC class I and II molecules and trigger an HIV-1 specific T cell response. (
  • Molecules able to bind tightly and specifically to the surface of malignant cells would greatly benefit cancer diagnosis and treatment. (
  • The bispecific antigen-binding molecules comprise a first and a second antigen-binding domain, wherein the first and second antigen-binding domains bind to two different (preferably non-overlapping) epitopes of the extracellular domain of human MET. (
  • The bispecific antigen-binding molecules are capable of blocking the interaction between human MET and its ligand HGF. (
  • The bispecific antigen-binding molecules can exhibit minimal or no MET agonist activity, e.g., as compared to monovalent antigen-binding molecules that comprise only one of the antigen-binding domains of the bispecific molecule, which tend to exert unwanted MET agonist activity. (
  • CD1 molecules are comprised of five isoforms, known as group 1 (CD1a, b, c, e) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1, presenting lipid antigens to conventional T lymphocytes or innate-like T cells bearing an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and known as invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. (
  • Inexpensive, stable, can be stored at room temperature ( wash buffers) strips off loosely bound molecules in wash steps % is commonly used. (
  • An IgG molecule, on the other hand, contains only a single Clq-binding site in the CH2 domain of the Fc, so that firm Clq binding is achieved only when two IgG molecules are within 30-40 nm of each other on a target surface or in a complex, providing two attachment sites for Clq. (
  • This difference accounts for the observation that a single molecule of IgM bound to a red blood cell can activate the classical complement pathway and lyse the red blood cell while some 1000 molecules of IgG are required to assure that two IgG molecules are close enough to each other on the cell surface to initiate C1q binding. (
  • The nonreducing termini of O-linked glycans on mucin are frequently covered with histo-blood group antigens. (
  • T-cell antigen receptor binding sites for the microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A. (
  • We have examined the interaction of the microbial superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with peptides corresponding to overlapping regions of the T-cell antigen receptor beta chain variable region V beta 3. (
  • These data suggest that the region of V beta 3 encompassing amino acids 57-77 is an area that displays the appropriate sequence and conformation for binding of the SEA molecule and blocking of the resultant interaction with the T-cell antigen receptor. (
  • Binding to CD74 and its co-receptor, CD44, has been shown to induce the activation of the NFkB and ERK pathways to promote cell proliferation and survival signals (5,6). (
  • Strategies that may reduce the immunogenicity of CAR T cells are humanization of the scFv and the use of naturally occurring receptor ligands as antigen-binding domains. (
  • Gottschalk, S. Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains. (
  • 2014. "Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains. (
  • the site in the variable region of an antibody or T cell receptor that binds to an epitope of an antigen. (
  • Besides interacting with CD4 antigen on the surface of the T4 cell, gp120 must also interact with a co-receptor. (
  • The interplay between the virus and the DCs is complex and the initial receptor binding may affect antigen uptake, infection, and antigen presentation. (
  • The B cell receptor (BCR) serves as both signal-transducer and antigen-transporter. (
  • Specifically, RSV G CCD contains a CX3C chemokine motif that facilitates binding to the human chemokine receptor CX3CR1, a critical step for RSV infection in human airway epithelial cells ( 10 - 13 ). (
  • Binding to the receptor of interest is called specific binding, while binding to the other sites is called nonspecific binding (NSB). (
  • The B subunit (PA) is involved in receptor binding and cellular internalization into the cytoplasm, whereas the A subunit (EF and/or LF) bears the enzymatic activity (1). (
  • The cellular receptor binding region is localized to the small loop of domain 4, and this region has been described to be recognized by two neutralizing mAbs (7, 9). (
  • The inhibition data obtained here, together with prior results describing the differential immunogenicity of DNP conjugates of different structure, and the importance of epitope density on DNP POL conjugates, permit certain conclusions about the details of antigen-receptor interaction in immunity and tolerance. (
  • A simple design of a yeast-displayed heterodimeric Fc fragment is described and can be used as a general guideline for affinity selection of Fcabs with an asymmetric binding site. (
  • Chen Y, Wiesmann C, Fuh G et al (1999) Selection and analysis of an optimized anti-VEGF antibody: crystal structure of an affinity-matured Fab in complex with antigen. (
  • By modifying the structure of the lysozyme transgene and the isotype of the anti-lysozyme immunoglobulin genes, we demonstrate here that induction of anergy or deletion is not due to differences in antibody affinity or isotype, but to recognition of monomeric or oligomeric soluble antigen versus highly multivalent membrane-bound antigen. (
  • We also revealed that CBM51 specifically bound blood group B antigen using both isothermal titration calorimetry and a solid-phase binding assay, and it enhanced the affinity of the enzyme toward substrates with multivalent B antigens. (
  • When assessed for binding capacity, several peptides were shown to have increased affinity for IAd compared with the parent sequence, and in addition, some peptides had acquired binding specificities for class II MHC haplotypes not present for OVA 323-339. (
  • We have identified two synthetic oligonucleotides (aptamers) that bind to prostate cancer cells,with low nanomolar affinity, via the extracellular portion of the prostate-specificmembrane antigen (PSMA). (
  • Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, affinity chromatography, and altered migration in an electric field, we assayed the binding of toxin A to purified carbohydrates and glycoproteins. (
  • This is the code used to create the figures in my preprint 'Physical epistatic landscape of antibody binding affinity' ( (
  • These data indicate that PSA proteolyzes IGFBP-3 with both 'kallikrein-like' and (chymotryptic-like' activity and that some of the fragments produced retain their ability to bind IGFs with an apparent reduction in affinity. (
  • PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. (
  • Immunoadsorbent purification of carcinoembryonic antigen using a monoclonal antibody: a direct comparison with a conventional method. (
  • Protection against invasive amebiasis by a single monoclonal antibody directed against a lipophosphoglycan antigen localized on the surface of Entamoeba histolytica. (
  • Biochemical studies, in vitro adherence assays, and in vivo animal models revealed that epithelial attachment of H. pylori can be mediated by the blood-group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) targeting human Lewis b surface epitopes. (
  • In vitro adherence assays revealed that H. pylori bound in a lineage-specific manner to gastric surface mucous cells mediated by fucosylated blood-group antigens ( 25 ). (
  • A limited number of the predicted compounds inhibited DQ8 antigen presentation in vitro with one compound preventing insulin autoantibody production and delaying diabetes onset in an animal model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. (
  • Binding Site's Immunologicals Group serves the in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) manufacturing and biopharmaceutical, clinical, life-science, medical research markets with a comprehensive line of innovative products. (
  • The correlation between binding and the ability to inhibit T cell activation in vitro was good. (
  • Six rounds of in vitro selection were performed, enriching for xPSM binding as monitored by aptamer inhibition of xPSM N -acetyl-α-linked acid dipeptidase (NAALADase) enzymatic activity. (
  • In vitro antigen-binding properties of coelomocytes of Eisenia foetida (Annelida). (
  • Each arm of the Y thus binds an epitope on the antigen. (
  • and wherein D2 specifically binds a second epitope of human MET. (
  • The third objective was to demonstrate clonal T cell expansion for specific epitope polypeptides using ex-vivo multi-color flow cytometric MHC-epitope complexes (tetramers), followed by IFN-γ production measured by an ELIspot assay to quantify and define the antigen specific response of Holstein cattle to FMDV vaccination (see Chapter 4). (
  • The long-standing hypothesis that tolerance to self antigens is mediated by either elimination or functional inactivation (anergy) or self-reactive lymphocytes is now accepted, but little is known about the factors responsible for initiating one process rather than the other. (
  • Simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed cells express the SV40-specific tumour transplantation antigen (TSTA) on the cell surface and the SV40-coded tumour antigen in their nuclei. (
  • We hypothesized blocking DQ8 antigen presentation would provide therapeutic benefit by preventing recognition of self-peptides by pathogenic T cells. (
  • The identification of a core region for OVA 323-339, which is critical in determining binding to IAd, has enabled us to generate a series of analog peptides in which this core region was extended at both the N and C termini with different amino acid residues. (
  • Synthetic peptides of this region bound a single atom of zinc, as determined by spectroscopic analysis. (
  • This study was carried out to examine the hypothesis that peptides known to specifically block adhesive interactions between the connecting segment-1 (CS1)-binding domain of FN andα4β1 integrin on circulating cells may interfere with the immune cascade, which would lead to acute rejection in transplant recipients. (
  • The novel therapeutic approach of selectively blocking the α4β1-FN activation pathway with CS1 peptides prevents acute allograft rejection by inhibiting expansion of antigen-specific T cells and inducing a transient state of cytokine-responsive anergy in the residual T-cell population. (
  • para·tope/ ( par´ah-tōp ) the site on the antibody molecule that attaches to an antigen. (
  • 2. The bispecific antigen-binding molecule of claim 1, wherein D1 and D2 do not compete with one another for binding to human MET. (
  • 3. The bispecific antigen-binding molecule of claim 1, wherein the bispecific antigen-binding molecule is capable of blocking the interaction between human MET and HGF. (
  • 4. The bispecific antigen-binding molecule of claim 3, wherein the bispecific antigen-binding molecule exhibits minimal agonist activity in a cell-based MET activity reporter assay. (
  • 5. The bispecific antigen-binding molecule of claim 3, wherein the bispecific antigen-binding molecule does not exhibit MET agonist activity in a cell-based MET activity reporter assay. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen, a human tumor marker, functions as an intercellular adhesion molecule. (
  • The nonclassical MHC class I molecule human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is selectively expressed on fetal trophoblast tissue at the maternal-fetal interface in pregnancy. (
  • 3 Immunoassay Immunoassay A biochemical test-measures levels of a particular molecule in biological samples- e.g. serum uses antibody binding to its antigen (specific binding). (
  • The formation of an antigen-antibody complex induces conformational changes in the Fc portion of the IgM molecule that expose a binding site for the C1 component of the complement system . (
  • The C1q molecule is composed of 18 polypeptide chains that associate to form six collagen-like triple helical arms, the tips of which bind to exposed C1q-binding sites in the Ch2 domain of the antibody molecule (Figure 13-3, on page 302). (
  • Hence, the surface properties of the antigen binding sites dominate over all other surfaces of the free antibody molecule. (
  • The described assay is based on a double-inverse plot of the binding data which may be considered a modification of the Lineweaver-Burk plot. (
  • Polyomavirus middle T and small T antigens also bound zinc in the blotting assay. (
  • A supershift assay using an anti-PCF2 antibody showed the involvement of PCF2 in site IIa (site IIb) binding activities in rice nuclear extracts, particularly in meristematic tissues. (
  • NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. (
  • Defining essential tumor-associated antigens on the cancerous tissue specimen by immunohistochemistry became the other part of the tumorimmunological panel assay. (
  • NSB can be minimized by saturating the unoccupied binding sites with a blocking reagent (NSB agent) without taking active part in specific assay reaction. (
  • The blood-group antigen-binding adhesin, BabA, has been shown to mediate adherence of H. pylori to human Lewis b (α-1,3/4-difucosylated) blood-group antigens on gastric epithelial cells ( 23 , 24 ). (
  • It is expressed at high levels on B cells and to a lesser extent on numerous antigen presenting cell (APC) types including dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, monocytes, and macrophages as well as non-traditional APCs such as epithelial cells (1,2). (
  • Using a murine model of tolerance induced by repeated exposure to a low dose of aerosolized antigen, we show an important contribution by CD4(+) T cells in the establishment and maintenance of tolerance. (
  • Strikingly, separation of the TGF-beta(+) cells from the rest of the cells allowed the TGF-beta(-) cells to proliferate in response to antigen. (
  • We propose a model of antigen-induced tolerance that involves cell-cell contact with regulatory CD4(+) T cells that coexpress membrane-bound TGF-beta and FOXP3. (
  • Due to its principle of determining binding at infinite antigen excess, the present method is quite insensitive to variation in the actual amounts of cells and antibody used, as well as the incubation time. (
  • In the lysates of these cells, an MR 38,000 component, which bound to galactose-Sepharose, was identified after electrophoretic separation by its interaction with polyclonal antisera against synthetic polypeptides representing a portion of the carbohydrate recognition domain. (
  • The tendency for T cells to bind less antigen and the tendency for antigen-binding T cells to bear less θ than other spleen T cells, first suggested by other studies involving rosette-elimination by anti-θC3H plus complement, were confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. (
  • A potential limitation of therapeutic CD47-SIRPα antagonists is that expression of CD47 on normal cells may create sites of toxicity or an "antigen sink. (
  • Selective tumor binding was tested using CFSE-labeled human primary CLL cells in the presence of 20-fold excess of human RBCs. (
  • One aptamer was truncated from 23.4 kDa to 18.5 kDa and specifically binds LNCaP human prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA but not PSMA-devoid PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. (
  • In this study, we utilize the M18 serotype S. pyogenes strain MGAS8232 to demonstrate that the presence of the FCT region is critical in binding collagen type IV and fibronectin, and is additionally required for invasion into human pharyngeal cells, despite not impacting adherence to these cells. (
  • In this study we remove this region from the bacteria's genome and assess the adherence capabilities of this mutant to several components found at the site of infection, including collagen type IV, fibronectin, and human pharyngeal cells and demonstrated that the FCT region is required to bind collagen type IV and fibronectin, but not the pharyngeal cells. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen has a different molecular weight in normal colon and in cancer cells due to N-glycosylation differences. (
  • Release of carcinoembryonic antigen from human tumor cells by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C: highly effective extraction and upregulation from LS-174T colonic adenocarcinoma cells. (
  • Expression of complementary DNA and genomic clones for carcinoembryonic antigen and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen in Chinese hamster ovary and mouse fibroblast cells and characterization of the membrane-expressed products. (
  • Labeling antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells with class II MHC oligomers. (
  • Frequency and avidity of specific antigen-binding cells in developing mice. (
  • In order to analyze the development of antibody diversity in which the genes coding for the antigen-specific cells we have compared the binding of diverse antigens by cells in the fetal, neonatal, and adult mouse. (
  • Although the numbers of antigen-binding cells present in fetuses and young animals were smaller than in adults, no restriction could be detected in the varity of specificities expressed in the fetuses, either with respect to the kinds of antigens bound, or to the range of avidities of binding. (
  • Cells specific for each of the 11 antigens tested could be detected in the fetus only in the last 4 days before birth, at which time they appeared both in the liver and in the spleen. (
  • Tetrameric complexes of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G bind to peripheral blood myelomonocytic cells. (
  • These cells express a range of TCR α- and β-chains that show differential recognition of glycolipid antigens. (
  • 3. Hapten inhibition studies of antigen binding to B cells in immunity and tolerance. (
  • While many elements contribute to PCNA promoter strength in IL-2-stimulated cells, the largest decrease in activity occurred with deletion of the tandem CRE (cyclic AMP response element) binding sites located at nucleotides -37 to -52. (
  • Such antigens could not be detected on the surface of living SV40-transformed cells in monolayers. (
  • The localization of T-Ag-related antigens on the outside of plasma membranes of formaldehyde-fixed cells was shown by an anti-SDS-T-Ag serum-specific binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Staphylococcus aureus to the cell surface. (
  • Overall, this chapter underlines the importance of the versatile yeast display technique for the optimization of the novel Fcab scaffold for antigen recognition. (
  • Conversion into Lewis antigens by the FUT3 enzyme impaired recognition, explaining their lower binding to saliva of Lewis positive phenotype. (
  • These homologies are concentrated in three RNA recognition motifs present in all of the Hu antigens. (
  • Gene knockout of Abp1 and over-expression of the SH3 domain of Abp1 inhibited BCR-mediated antigen internalization, consequently reducing the rate of antigen transport to processing compartments and the efficiency of BCR-mediated antigen-processing and presentation. (
  • We have previously defined the promoter elements, sites IIa and IIb, in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene that are essential for meristematic tissue-specific expression. (
  • Our results suggest that PCF1 and PCF2 are involved in meristematic tissue-specific expression of the rice PCNA gene through binding to sites IIa and IIb and formation of homodimers or heterodimers. (
  • The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene encodes an auxiliary factor of DNA polymerase delta and functions in DNA replication during S phase. (
  • Both antigens, however, are derived from the A gene of SV40. (
  • Digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) evaluation are the two components used in prostate cancer screening. (
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been shown to proteolyze. (
  • Both mAbs bind to conformational epitopes on this highly conserved region. (
  • With the exception of a neutralizing mAb that bound to PA20 (13), no B-cell epitopes have been reported in domain 1. (
  • The recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed α1,3-linked Gal in branched blood group B antigen [Galα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-R], but not in a linear xenotransplantation antigen (Galα1-3Galβ1-R). The enzyme also acted on group B human salivary mucin and erythrocytes. (
  • We suggest that this enzyme plays an important role in degrading B antigens to acquire nutrients from mucin oligosaccharides in the gastrointestinal tracts. (
  • 14 Reduction of the Nonspecific Binding of a Target Antibody and of Its Enzyme-Labeled Detection Probe Enabling Electrochemical Immunoassay of Antibody through the 7 pg/ml 100 ng/ml (40 fm pm) Range Yongchao Zhang and Adam Heller * Department of Chemical Engineering and Texas Materials Institute University of Texas at Austin. (
  • Dual mode of interaction of DNA polymerase epsilon with proliferating cell nuclear antigen in primer binding and DNA synthesis. (
  • In contrast with what has been found in interaction studies between DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, our data suggested that stimulation of DNA polymerase epsilon primer binding involves interactions with both the C-terminal side and the back side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • The significance of this dual interaction is discussed with reference to the physiological roles of DNA polymerase epsilon and its interaction with the clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • However, this modification abolished the interaction of pol beta with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • Each C1 r and C1s monomer contains a cat alytic domain with enzymatic activity and an interaction domain that facilitates binding with C1q or with each other. (
  • The ligand-binding cleft is of sufficient depth to accommodate a glutamate. (
  • Stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy indicates a simple bimolecular mechanism of ligand binding, with high association rate constants. (
  • In most cases (over 80%) cytotoxicity (chromium release) and TCR-ligand binding differed by less than fivefold. (
  • There was no correlation between these divergences and the avidity of TCR-ligand binding, indicating that other factors than binding avidity determine the nature of the CTL response. (
  • As there was no correlation between CD8 dependence and the avidity of TCR-ligand binding, the possibility is suggested that CD8 plays a critical role in aberrant CTL function. (
  • Wozniak-Knopp G, Bartl S, Bauer A et al (2010) Introducing antigen-binding sites in structural loops of immunoglobulin constant domains: Fc fragments with engineered HER2/neu-binding sites and antibody properties. (
  • These data indicate that some IGFBP-3 fragments retain their ability to bind IGF. (
  • A procedure is described for the preparation of antigen-binding monomeric (IgM m ) and half-monomeric (IgMI ½m fragments from two human IgM MAbs, COU-1 and D4213. (
  • The fragments retained binding activity against colon carcinoma. (
  • Antigen-binding IgM m and IgMI ½m fragments were obtained after treatment with mercaptoethanol, mercaptoethylamine, metabisulphite, and cysteine. (
  • The fragments obtained with 2-mercaptoethanol and mercaptoethylamine were most effective in binding to the cancer cell extract. (
  • A procedure is described for the preparation of antigen-binding monomeric (IgMm) and half-monomeric (IgMI½m fragments from two human IgM MAbs, COU-1 and D4213. (
  • Antigen-binding IgMm and IgMI½m fragments were obtained after treatment with mercaptoethanol, mercaptoethylamine, metabisulphite, and cysteine. (
  • Elimination from peripheral lymphoid tissues of self-reactive B lymphocytes recognizing membrane-bound antigens. (
  • Our antibody profile analysis revealed glycoprotein and sialylated glycolipid based tumor-associated antigen-specific antibody-variable regions in various patterns. (
  • The present technological developments enable the specific detection of cancer associated sialylated glycolipid and glycoprotein antigens with unique characteristics. (
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) associated drug hypersensitivity: consequences of drug binding to HLA. (
  • Recent publications have shown that certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are strongly associated with hypersensitivity to particular drugs. (
  • Credit: Binding Site San Diego, CA - Binding Site's Immunologicals Group is pleased announce that it has just completed a major expansion to their antibody and antigen product offerings for human coagulation testing applications. (
  • When N-terminal octapeptides from human glycophorin A that bore NeuAc alpha 2-3 Gal beta 1-3 (NeuAc alpha 2-6) GalNAc and its sequentially deglycosylated derivatives were compared, glycopeptides carrying three constitutive GalNAc-Ser/Thr (Tn Ag) strongly bound to the recombinant human macrophage lectin. (
  • Also, 3 of the 16 recognized the large T antigen of the human papovavirus BKV. (
  • The match between results from saliva-based binding assays and the epidemiological data indicates that the polymorphism of human HBGAs controls susceptibility to RVAs, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. (
  • Toxin A of Clostridium difficile binds to the human carbohydrate antigens I, X, and Y. (
  • This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. (
  • HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. (
  • Li D, Breiman A, le Pendu J, Uyttendaele M. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress. (
  • In this study, we proteolyzed recombinant human IGFBP-3 with PSA bound to a solid phase support. (
  • Functional analysis identified that Ts -CRT was able to bind to human C1q, resulting in the inhibition of C1q-initiated complement classical activation pathway reflected by reduced C4/C3 generation and C1q-dependent lysis of antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. (
  • The goal of the work presented herein was to further our understanding of Bovine Leukocyte Antigen (BoLA) class I diversity of Holstein cattle and develop tools to measure class I restricted T cell responses to intracellular pathogens such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) following vaccination. (
  • Antigen targeting to major histocompatibility complex class II with streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z-2 M1, a superantigen-based vaccine carrier. (
  • We quantitatively assessed the influence of oxidants on antigen-antibody-binding activity. (
  • Therefore acoustic micromixing has the potential to increase the detection sensitivity of ELISA as well as shorten the antigen-antibody binding times from typically 45-60 min to 15 min. (
  • Immunization against GAD induces antibody binding to GAD-independent antigens and brainstem GABAergic neuronal loss. (
  • In contrast, the surface properties of complexes formed by small antigens haptens are related to those of the lgG antibody. (
  • The Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Binding Antigen-175 (EBA-175) is an antigen considered to be one of the leading malaria vaccine candidates. (
  • Home Research Outputs Erythrocyte-Binding Antigens of Plasmodium falciparum Are Ta. (
  • It was found that monovalent DNP compounds or multivalent DNP(12)HgG did not prevent the induction of tolerance, unlike their capacity to inhibit immunity, suggesting that a tolerance-inducing antigen binds more avidly to the cell membrane than an immunogen. (
  • Complement activation by the classical pathway commonly begins with the formation of soluble antigen-antibody complexe s ( immune complexes ) or with the binding of antibody to antigen on a suitable target, such as a bacterial cell . (
  • The classical pathway is initiated when C1 binds to antigen-antibody complexes. (
  • C3b also can diffuse away from the activating surface and bind to immune complexes or foreign cell surfaces, where it functions as an opsonin. (
  • In addition, antigen-antibody complexes were found to have similar surface properties irrespective of the molar ratio of antigen to antibody at which the complexes had been formed. (
  • In addition, RSV G is increasingly recognized as a critical target ( 9 ), yet its development as a vaccine antigen has been hindered by its dense and heterogeneous N- and O-glycosylation in the highly variable mucin-like regions and a paucity of information correlating specific molecular structure with biological activity. (
  • Carcinoeinbryonic antigen as a target for therapeutic anticancer vaccines: a review. (
  • These antisera have allowed the cloning of target antigens, which have been used as defined diagnostic reagents to identify patients with the Hu syndrome. (
  • Mutation at the PCNA-CRE motif abolishes IL-2-inducible binding and reduces substantially PCNA promoter activity. (
  • The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the auxiliary factor of nuclear DNA polymerases, plays an important role in regulating the access of TLS polymerases to the primer terminus. (
  • The new mode of Rev1-PCNA binding described here suggests a mechanism by which Rev1 adopts a catalytically inactive configuration at the replication fork. (
  • Binding of antigens to the BCR induces signaling cascades and antigen-processing and presentation, two essential cellular events for B cell activation. (
  • LLPC may also be used to detect conformational changes occuring upon binding of antigen by antibody. (
  • Traxlmayr MW, Lobner E, Antes B et al (2013) Directed evolution of Her2/neu-binding IgG1-Fc for improved stability and resistance to aggregation by using yeast surface display. (
  • This structure shows the extracellular part of HIV gp120 (dark blue) bound to the extracellular part of CD4 antigen (light blue) which is located on the surface of a T lymphocyte or macrophage. (
  • i) Internal flexibility is key to maximize bivalent binding, flexible IgGs being able to explore the surface with their second arm in search for an available hapten. (
  • We prove that the thermodynamic parameters govern the low-antigen-concentration regime, while the surface screening and repulsion only affect the binding at high hapten densities. (
  • A cDNA encoding the Mac-2 antigen, a surface marker highly expressed by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages, has been cloned by immunoscreening of a lambda gt11-P388D1 expression library. (
  • Immunization with GAD65 resulted in autoantibodies that immunoprecipitated GAD, bound to CNS tissue in a highly characteristic pattern, and surprisingly bound not only to GAD intracellularly but also to the surface of cerebellar neurons in culture. (
  • Space out and stabilize biomolecules bound to the surface to reduce the steric hindrance. (
  • When pentameric IgM is bound to antigen on a target surface it assumes the so-called 'staple' configuration, in which at least three binding sites for C1q are exposed. (
  • Our results demonstrate the importance and, for the first time, the protective capacity of glycan antigens on the surface of the amebas. (
  • Home Research Outputs Antigen-binding sites dominate the surface properties of ant. (
  • An optimal UV exposure of 2 J/cm 2 yielded significant antibody immobilization on the surface with maximal relative antibody activity per immobilized antibody without any detectable damage to antigen binding activity. (
  • There are around 350 million of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers worldwide, and among them, high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been identified by epidemiological studies. (
  • Black lines represent data from different reactions, with the indicated concentrations of PAM 3.10 binding to VAR2CSA DBL5ε immobilized on a carboxyl surface. (
  • See Additional file 1 for surface antigen density calculations. (
  • Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling of trophozoites localized the antigen on the outer face of the plasma membrane and on the inner face of internal vesicle membranes. (
  • Protective antigen (PA), the binding subunit of anthrax toxin, is the major component in the current anthrax vaccine, but the fine antigenic structure of PA is not well defined. (
  • The RSV G CCD can activate CX3CR1, and this activity can be blocked by binding of these mAbs. (
  • For both mAbs, LeTx neutralization was associated with interference with furin cleavage, but they differed in effectiveness depending on whether they bound on the N- or C-terminal aspect of the cleaved products. (
  • Two mAbs to PA have been reported previously by our laboratory, one known as 7.5G binds to domain 1 and can neutralize the cytotoxic activity of lethal toxin (LeTx) (13). (
  • Annelids are capable of cellular and humoral defence reactions against foreign antigens. (
  • Immunoglobulins also participate in cell killing by binding cellular antigen and activating. (
  • To determine the cellular localization of the antigen recognized by the EH5 antibody in the amebas by independent means, immunolocalization experiments on the light and electron microscopic levels were performed. (
  • Using four characterized mutants of proliferating cell nuclear antigen containing three or four alanine residue substitutions on the C-terminal side and the back side of the trimer, we have tested the kinetics of primer binding and nucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerase epsilon in different assays. (
  • Bifidobacterial α-galactosidase with unique carbohydrate-binding module specifically acts on blood group B antigen. (
  • AgaBb is a 1289-amino acid polypeptide containing an N-terminal signal sequence, a GH110 domain, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) 51 domain, a bacterial Ig-like (Big) 2 domain and a C-terminal transmembrane region, in this order. (
  • We found that toxin A bound to the carbohydrate antigens designated I, X, and Y. Each of these carbohydrates exist on the intestinal epithelium of humans. (
  • Comparison of the UV-NBS method with two other commonly used methods, ε-NH 3 + conjugation and physical adsorption, demonstrated that the UV-NBS method yields surfaces with significantly enhanced antigen detection efficiency, higher relative antibody activity, and improved antigen detection sensitivity. (
  • Arcitumomab is a mouse antibody that recognizes Carcinoembryonic antigen , an antigen over-expressed in 95% of colorectal cancers. (
  • Efficient retroviral vector targeting of carcinoembryonic antigen positive tumors. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen is anchored to membranes by covalent attachment to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol moiety: identification of the ethanolamine linkage site. (
  • The conserved nucleotide binding site (NBS), found on the Fab variable domain of all antibody isotypes, remains a not-so-widely known and unutilized site. (
  • Polyomavirus large tumor antigen (LT) contains a potential C2H2 zinc binding element between residues 452 and 472. (
  • Mutants resulting from mutations in the conserved cysteine or histidine residues retained the ability to bind origin DNA. (
  • This is made clear by the strongly reduced ability to bind with both arms displayed by artificial IgGs designed to rigidly keep a prescribed shape. (

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