Biliverdine: 1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.IndiaBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary: Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Odonata: An order of insects comprising three suborders: Anisoptera, Zygoptera, and Anisozygoptera. They consist of dragonflies and damselflies.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Tennis Elbow: A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Poria: A genus of basiodiomycetous fungi in the family Coriolaceae. Members are known for infesting wood.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.

Crystallization of recombinant human heme oxygenase-1. (1/201)

Heme oxygenase catalyzes the NADPH, O2, and cytochrome P450 reductase dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin and carbon monoxide. One of two primary isozymes, HO-1, is anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane via a stretch of hydrophobic residues at the C-terminus. While full-length human HO-1 consists of 288 residues, a truncated version with residues 1-265 has been expressed as a soluble active enzyme in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme crystallized from ammonium sulfate solutions but the crystals were not of sufficient quality for diffraction studies. SDS gel analysis indicated that the protein had undergone proteolytic degradation. An increase in the use of protease inhibitors during purification eliminated proteolysis, but the intact protein did not crystallize. N-terminal sequencing and mass spectral analysis of dissolved crystals indicated that the protein had degraded to two major species consisting of residues 1-226 and 1-237. Expression of the 1-226 and 1-233 versions of human HO-1 provided active enzyme that crystallizes in a form suitable for diffraction studies. These crystals belong to space group P2(1), with unit cell dimensions a = 79.3 A, b = 56.3 A, c = 112.8 A, and beta = 101.5 degrees.  (+info)

Carbon monoxide stimulates the apical 70-pS K+ channel of the rat thick ascending limb. (2/201)

We have investigated the expression of heme oxygenase (HO) in the rat kidney and the effects of HO-dependent heme metabolites on the apical 70-pS K+ channel in the thick ascending limb (TAL). Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses indicate expression of the constitutive HO form, HO-2, in the rat cortex and outer medulla. Patch-clamping showed that application of 10 microM chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP), an inhibitor of HO, reversibly reduced the activity of the apical 70-pS K+ channel, defined by NPo, to 26% of the control value. In contrast, addition of 10 microM magnesium protoporphyrin had no significant effect on channel activity. HO involvement in regulation of the apical 70-pS K+ channel of the TAL, was further indicated by the addition of 10 microM heme-L-lysinate, which significantly stimulated the channel activity in cell-attached patches by 98%. The stimulatory effect of heme on channel activity was also observed in inside-out patches in the presence of 0.5-1 mM reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. This was completely abolished by 10 microM CrMP, suggesting that a HO-dependent metabolite of heme mediated the effect. This was further supported by exposure of the cytosolic membrane of inside-out patches to a carbon monoxide-bubbled bath solution, which increased channel activity. Moreover, carbon monoxide completely abolished the effect of 10 microM CrMP on the channel activity. In contrast, 10 microM biliverdin, another HO-dependent metabolite of heme, had no effect. We conclude that carbon monoxide produced from heme via an HO-dependent metabolic pathway stimulates the apical 70-pS K+ channel in the rat TAL.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis thaliana HY1 locus, required for phytochrome-chromophore biosynthesis, encodes a protein related to heme oxygenases. (3/201)

The hy1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana fail to make the phytochrome-chromophore phytochromobilin and therefore are deficient in a wide range of phytochrome-mediated responses. Because this defect can be rescued by feeding seedlings biliverdin IXalpha, it is likely that the mutations affect an enzyme that converts heme to this phytochromobilin intermediate. By a combination of positional cloning and candidate-gene isolation, we have identified the HY1 gene and found it to be related to cyanobacterial, algal, and animal heme oxygenases. Three independent alleles of hy1 contain DNA lesions within the HY1 coding region, and a genomic sequence spanning the HY1 locus complements the hy1-1 mutation. HY1 is a member of a gene family and is expressed in a variety of A. thaliana tissues. Based on its homology, we propose that HY1 encodes a higher-plant heme oxygenase, designated AtHO1, responsible for catalyzing the reaction that opens the tetrapyrrole ring of heme to generate biliverdin IXalpha.  (+info)

Bacteriophytochromes: phytochrome-like photoreceptors from nonphotosynthetic eubacteria. (4/201)

Phytochromes are a family of photoreceptors used by green plants to entrain their development to the light environment. The distribution of these chromoproteins has been expanded beyond photoautotrophs with the discovery of phytochrome-like proteins in the nonphotosynthetic eubacteria Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Like plant phytochromes, the D. radiodurans receptor covalently binds linear tetrapyrroles autocatalytically to generate a photochromic holoprotein. However, the attachment site is distinct, using a histidine to potentially form a Schiff base linkage. Sequence homology and mutational analysis suggest that D. radiodurans bacteriophytochrome functions as a light-regulated histidine kinase, which helps protect the bacterium from visible light.  (+info)

Initial-rate kinetics of the flavin reductase reaction catalysed by human biliverdin-IXbeta reductase (BVR-B). (5/201)

The initial-rate kinetics of the flavin reductase reaction catalysed by biliverdin-IXbeta reductase at pH 7.5 are consistent with a rapid-equilibrium ordered mechanism, with the pyridine nucleotide binding first. NADPH binding to the free enzyme was characterized using stopped-flow fluorescence quenching, and a K(d) of 15.8 microM was calculated. Equilibrium fluorescence quenching experiments indicated a K(d) of 0.55 microM, suggesting that an enzyme-NADPH encounter complex (K(d) 15.8 microM) isomerizes to a more stable 'nucleotide-induced' conformation. The enzyme was shown to catalyse the reduction of FMN, FAD and riboflavin, with K(m) values of 52 microM, 125 microM and 53 microM, respectively. Lumichrome was shown to be a competitive inhibitor against FMN, with a K(i) of 76 microM, indicating that interactions with the isoalloxazine ring are probably sufficient for binding. During initial experiments it was observed that both the flavin reductase and biliverdin reductase activities of the enzyme exhibit a sharp optimum at pH 5 in citrate buffer. An initial-rate study indicated that the enzyme obeys a steady-state ordered mechanism in this buffer. The initial-rate kinetics in sodium acetate at pH 5 are consistent with a rapid-equilibrium ordered mechanism, indicating that citrate may directly affect the enzyme's behaviour at pH 5. Mesobiliverdin XIIIalpha, a synthetic biliverdin which binds to flavin reductase but does not act as a substrate for the enzyme, exhibits competitive kinetics with FMN (K(i) 0.59 microM) and mixed-inhibition kinetics with NADPH. This is consistent with a single pyridine nucleotide site and competition by FMN and biliverdin for a second site. Interestingly, flavin reductase/biliverdin-IXbeta reductase has also been shown to exhibit ferric reductase activity, with an apparent K(m) of 2.5 microM for the ferric iron. The ferric reductase reaction requires NAD(P)H and FMN. This activity is intriguing, as haem cleavage in the foetus produces non-alpha isomers of biliverdin and ferric iron, both of which are substrates for flavin reductase/biliverdin-IXbeta reductase.  (+info)

Reaction intermediates and single turnover rate constants for the oxidation of heme by human heme oxygenase-1. (6/201)

Heme oxygenase converts heme to biliverdin, iron, and CO in a reaction with two established intermediates, alpha-meso-hydroxyheme and verdoheme. Transient kinetic studies show that the conversion of Fe(3+)-heme to Fe(3+)-verdoheme is biphasic. Electron transfer to the heme (0.11 s(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.49 s(-1) at 25 degrees C) followed by rapid O(2) binding yields the ferrous dioxy complex. Transfer of an electron (0.056 s(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.21 s(-1) at 25 degrees C) to this complex triggers the formation of alpha-meso-hydroxyheme and its subsequent O(2)-dependent fragmentation to Fe(3+)-verdoheme. The conversion of Fe(3+)-verdoheme to Fe(3+)-biliverdin is also biphasic. Thus, reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+)-verdoheme (0.15 s(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.55 s(-1) at 25 degrees C) followed by O(2) binding and an electron transfer produces Fe(3+)-biliverdin (0.025 s(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.10 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). The conversion of Fe(3+)-biliverdin to free biliverdin is triphasic. Reduction of Fe(3+)-biliverdin (0.035 s(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.15 s(-1) at 25 degrees C), followed by rapid release of Fe(2+) (0.19 s(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.39 s(-1) at 25 degrees C), yields the biliverdin-enzyme complex from which biliverdin slowly dissociates (0.007 s(-1) at 4 degrees C and 0.03 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). The rate of Fe(2+) release agrees with the rate of Fe(3+)-biliverdin reduction. Fe(2+) release clearly precedes biliverdin dissociation. In the absence of biliverdin reductase, biliverdin release is the rate-limiting step, but in its presence biliverdin release is accelerated and the overall rate of heme degradation is limited by the conversion of Fe(2+)-verdoheme to the Fe(3+)-biliverdin.  (+info)

Influence of bilirubin and other antioxidants on nitrergic relaxation in the pig gastric fundus. (7/201)

1. The influence of several antioxidants (bilirubin, urate, ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH), Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the manganese SOD mimic EUK-8) on nitrergic relaxations induced by either exogenous nitric oxide (NO; 10(-5) M) or electrical field stimulation (4 Hz; 10 s and 3 min) was studied in the pig gastric fundus. 2. Ascorbate (5x10(-4) M), alpha-tocopherol (4x10(-4) M), SOD (300 - 1000 u ml(-1)) and EUK-8 (3x10(-4) M) did not influence the relaxations to exogenous NO. In the presence of GSH (5x10(-4) M), the short-lasting relaxation to NO became biphasic, potentiated and prolonged. Urate (4x10(-4) M) and bilirubin (2x10(-4) M) also potentiated the relaxant effect of NO. None of the antioxidants influenced the electrically evoked relaxations. 3. 6-Anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583; 10(-5) M) had no influence on nitrergic nerve stimulation but nearly abolished the relaxant response to exogenous NO. Urate and GSH completely prevented this inhibitory effect, while it was partially reversed by SOD and bilirubin. Ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and EUK-8 were without effect. 4. Hydroquinone (10(-4) M) did not affect the electrically induced nitrergic relaxations, but markedly reduced NO-induced relaxations. The inhibition of exogenous NO by hydroquinone was completely prevented by urate and GSH. SOD and ascorbate afforded partial protection, while bilirubin, EUK-8 and alpha-tocopherol were ineffective. 5. Hydroxocobalamin (10(-4) M) inhibited relaxations to NO by 50%, but not the electrically induced responses. Full protection versus this inhibitory effect was obtained with urate, GSH and alpha-tocopherol. 6. These results strengthen the hypothesis that several endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic, might play a role in the nitrergic neurotransmission process.  (+info)

Arabidopsis phytochromes C and E have different spectral characteristics from those of phytochromes A and B. (8/201)

The red/far-red light absorbing phytochromes play a major role as sensor proteins in photomorphogenesis of plants. In Arabidopsis the phytochromes belong to a small gene family of five members, phytochrome A (phyA) to E (phyE). Knowledge of the dynamic properties of the phytochrome molecules is the basis of phytochrome signal transduction research. Beside photoconversion and destruction, dark reversion is a molecular property of some phytochromes. A possible role of dark reversion is the termination of signal transduction. Since Arabidopsis is a model plant for biological and genetic research, we focussed on spectroscopic characterization of Arabidopsis phytochromes, expressed in yeast. For the first time, we were able to determine the relative absorption maxima and minima for a phytochrome C (phyC) as 661/725 nm and for a phyE as 670/724 nm. The spectral characteristics of phyC and E are strictly different from those of phyA and B. Furthermore, we show that both phyC and phyE apoprotein chromophore adducts undergo a strong dark reversion. Difference spectra, monitored with phycocyanobilin and phytochromobilin as the apoprotein's chromophore, and in vivo dark reversion of the Arabidopsis phytochrome apoprotein phycocyanobilin adducts are discussed with respect to their physiological function.  (+info)

*Scipionyx

Also biliverdine was present, a bile component expected in the liver. The blood might also partly have originated from the ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... biliverdine MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.249.727 --- urobilin MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.249.852 --- urobilinogen MeSH D03.383. ... biliverdine MeSH D03.549.909.249.727 --- urobilin MeSH D03.549.909.249.852 --- urobilinogen MeSH D03.549.909.374 --- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... biliverdine MeSH D23.767.193.727 --- urobilin MeSH D23.767.193.852 --- urobilinogen MeSH D23.767.261.050 --- beta carotene MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D04)

... biliverdine MeSH D04.345.783.249.727 --- urobilin MeSH D04.345.783.249.852 --- urobilinogen MeSH D04.345.783.374 --- ...
Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic ...
Biliverdin reductase (BVR) is an enzyme (EC 1.3.1.24) found in all tissues under normal conditions, but especially in reticulo-macrophages of the liver and spleen. BVR facilitates the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin via the reduction of a double-bond between the second and third pyrrole ring into a single-bond. There are two isozymes, in humans, each encoded by its own gene, biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA) and biliverdin reductase B (BLVRB). BVR acts on biliverdin by reducing its double-bond between the pyrrole rings into a single-bond. It accomplishes this using NADPH + H+ as an electron donor, forming bilirubin and NADP+ as products. BVR catalyzes this reaction through an overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 as key residues. This binding site attaches to biliverdin, and causes its dissociation from heme oxygenase (HO) (which catalyzes reaction of ferric heme biliverdin), causing the subsequent reduction to bilirubin. BVR is composed of two ...
Catalyses the two-electron reduction of biliverdin IXalpha at the C15 methine bridge. It has been proposed that this enzyme and EC 1.3.7.3, phycoerythrobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, function as a dual enzyme complex in the conversion of biliverdin IXalpha into phycoerythrobilin ...
Monoklonale und polyklonale Biliverdin Reductase Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Biliverdin Reductase Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
... in an Estrogen Depleted Rat Model: The Role of the Heme Oxygenase System and Inflammatory Processes in Cardiovascular Risk
Complete information for BLVRA gene (Protein Coding), Biliverdin Reductase A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Biliverdin definition, a dark-green bile pigment, C 33 H 34 O 6 N 4 , formed as a breakdown product of hemoglobin and converted in humans to bilirubin. See more.
The ability to accurately sense light governs everything from seed germination, photosynthesis and pigmentation to patterns of growth and flowering. Now, University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists have obtained a detailed map of one of biologys most important light detectors, a protein found in many species across lifes plant, fungal and bacterial kingdoms. Scientists can now find out the secrets of how plants, in particular, react to light, allowing for a host of manipulations that could have a big impact on agriculture.. According to the university, a team of scientists from UW-Madison report in the Nov. 17 issue of the journal Nature that they have obtained the crystal structure of a phytochrome from a bacterium, the first such light-gathering structure depicted for all of biology. The structure of the bacterial phytochrome, according to the report, suggests its architecture first arose a billion or so years ago in a common ancestor and is shared among not only bacteria but also plants and ...
Jaundice, marked by yellowing of the skin, is common in infants, but also a symptom of various adult diseases. This discoloration is caused by excess bilirubin (BR), the substance that gives bile its yellow tinge. However, BR is also a vital antioxidant, which at healthy levels protects cells against peroxide damage. Its production in the body, though, has long been a source of uncertainty.. Now, a Japanese research collaboration involving Osaka University believes it has the answer. BR is already known to be produced from a related chemical, biliverdin (BV), by the enzyme biliverdin reductase (BVR). The enzyme wraps around BV and transfers two hydrogen atoms - one positive and one negative - to produce the yellow antioxidant. However, biologists could not establish which part of the enzyme was chemically involved in the process (the active site), or where the positive hydrogen came from. The findings were recently reported in Nature Communications.. "Previous studies used BVR from rats, and ...
BVR Hottest Shape produk keluaran terbaru daripada Belle Vous Resources (BVR).Losyen yang mewangi membelai sambil buang lemak-lemak yang berlipat-lipat di badan.Losyen perlangsingan yang diformula khusus menggunakan bahan terbaik dan terpilih untuk merawat dan memecahkan berinci-inci lemak degil tubuh anda.BVR Hottest Shape… Maklumat Lanjut →. ...
Ya Allah, Murahkan Rezeki Bagiku ..... " Ya Allah, apabila rezekiku ada di langit, maka turunkanlah, apabila di dalam bumi maka keluarkanlah, apabila di laut maka naikkanlah, apabila jauh maka dekatkanlah, sekiranya dekat maka permudahkanlah, dan sekiranya sedikit maka perbanyakkanlah dan sekiranya sedia banyak maka permudahkanlah untuk mendapatkannya , juga berilah keberkatan terhadap rezeki tersebut dan berikanlah rezeki padaku sebagaimana yang kujangka, dengan rezeki yang halal dan baik, serta banyak lagi keberkatan sehinggakan kutidak memerlukan sesiapa selain dari-Mu, dan jadikanlah kedua tanganku ini berada di atas dengan suka memberi dan menderma, dan jangan jadikan dua tanganku ini di bawah dengan suka meminta-minta, sesungguhnya Engkau amat berkuasa ke atas setiap sesuatu ". ...
Heme oxygenase or haem oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme. This produces biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide. There is limited evidence that levels of heme oxygenase are positive predictors of metabolic disease, insulin resistance, and metaflammation. Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha-methene bridge to form either biliverdin or, if the heme is still attached to a globin, verdoglobin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. The reaction comprises three steps, which may be: Heme b3+ + O 2 + NADPH + H+ → α-meso-hydroxyheme3+ + NADP+ + H 2O α-meso-hydroxyheme3+ + H+ + O 2 → verdoheme4+ + CO + H2O verdoheme4+ + 7/2 NADPH + O 2+ 3/2 H+ → biliverdin + Fe2+ + 7/2 NADP+ + H 2O The sum of these reactions is: Heme b3+ + 3O 2 + 9/2 NADPH + 7/2 H+ → biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + 9/2 NADP+ + 3H 2O If the iron is initially in the +2 state, the reaction could be: Heme b2+ + 3O2 + 4 NADPH + 4 H+ → biliverdin + ...
Phytochromobilin (P Phi B), the chromophore of plant phytochromes, is difficult to isolate because phytochromes occur at very low concentrations in plants. It is, therefore, frequently replaced in plant phytochrome studies by phycocyanobilin, which is abundant in cyanobacteria. P Phi B is also an attractive chromophore for far-red emitting chromoproteins. In this work, we design and optimize a simple method to efficiently isolate useful quantities of P Phi B: The chromophore is generated in Escherichiacoli and transiently bound to a tailored chromophore-binding domain of ApcE2, the apo-protein of a core-membrane linker, from which it can subsequently be released. The ease and effectiveness of this method hinges not only on the enhanced biosynthesis of P Phi B in the presence of the ApcE2 construct from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, but also on the noncovalent binding of the pigment to its apo-protein. The isolated P Phi B was successfully incorporated into phytochrome-related assemblies, and ...
1. In four animals with a bile duct-ureter anastomosis and without disturbance due to obstruction or absorption, the total quantity of bile pigment output during a day under normal conditions varied from 0.0618 to 0.0678 gm. These figures are practically identical with those of Stadelmann (9, 10) but lower than those given by Hooper and Whipple (7), who find that the average bile pigment excretion amounts to about 1 mg. per pound of body weight per 6 hours.. 2. In all the experiments there is definite evidence of a decrease in bile pigment elimination after splenectomy. This is true not only of the elimination when no hemolytic agent is administered but also when excessive blood destruction is caused. Under the latter circumstances the amount of bile pigment is greatly increased but never reaches the high level of blood destruction before splenectomy.. 3. These observations appear to show conclusively that the absence of the spleen influences the formation of bile pigment. To what extent the ...
To get an adequate understanding of the problem of jaundice in neonates, to know a little about the metabolism of bilirubin in neonates. Bilirubin is a product that is toxic and must be issued by the body. Most of the bilirubin is derived from blood hemoglobin degradation and partly from the hem free or eritropoesis ineffective. Bilirubin formation was initiated by the oxidation process that produces biliverdin and several other substances. Biliverdin is reduced and this is a free bilirubin or bilirubin IX alpha. This substance is difficult to dissolve in water but soluble in fat, therefore had the difficult nature of the lipophilic and easily excreted through biological membranes such as the placenta and blood brain barrier. Free bilirubin is then fused with albumin and transported to the liver. In the hepatic uptake mechanism occurs, so that bilirubin is bound by the receptor liver cell membrane and into the liver cell. As soon as there is in the heart cells, occur persnyawaan with ligandin ...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:2:180597790:180622189:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000016344 transcript:OTTMUST00000039291 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Col9a3 description:procollagen type IX alpha 3 ...
The majority of bilirubin (80%) is produced from the degradation of hemoglobin from erythrocytes undergoing normal (removal of aged or effete cells) or abnormal destruction (i.e. intravascular or extravascular hemolysis) within mononuclear phagocytes (principally splenic, hepatic and bone marrow macrophages). A small percentage (20%) is derived from the catabolism of various hepatic hemoproteins (myoglobin, cytochrome P450) as well as from the overproduction of heme from ineffective erythropoiesis in the bone marrow.. Within macrophages, a free heme group (iron + porphyrin ring) is oxidized by microsomal heme oxygenase into biliverdin and the iron is released (the iron is then stored as ferritin or released into plasma, where it is bound to the transport protein, transferrin). Biliverdin reductase then reduces the green water-soluble biliverdin into unconjugated (water-insoluble but lipid soluble) bilirubin. Heme oxygenase is also located in renal and hepatic parenchyma, enabling these tissues ...
The biochemistry of the porphyrins and of the bile pigments are closely related topics. Heme is synthesized from porphyrins and iron, and the products of degradation of heme are the bile pigments and iron. The biochemistry of the porphyrins and of heme is basic to understanding the varied functions of hemoproteins, and the porphyrias, a group of diseases caused by abnormalities in the pathway of porphyrin biosynthesis. A much more common clinical condition is jaundice, a consequence of an elevated level of plasma bilirubin, due either to overproduction of bilirubin or to failure of its excretion. Jaundice occurs in numerous diseases ranging from hemolytic anemias to viral hepatitis and to cancer of the pancreas. ...
E photoisomerization of the tetrapyrrole chromophore, believed to occur at C15 of the methine bridge between rings C and D. Recent crystal structures show that ring D in Pr is less tightly packed by the protein than rings A, B and C, which should favor the C15 reaction over reactions at C4 (AB methine bridge) and C10 (BC). In the present work, quantum chemical methods are used to establish the intrinsic reactivity of the chromophore towards all three possible Z ...
A heme group is a prosthetic group consisting of a protoporphyrin ring and a central iron (Fe) atom. A protoporphyrin ring is made up of four pyrrole rings linked by methine bridges. Four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionate side chains are attached. Heme of hemoglobin protein is a prosthetic group of heterocyclic ring of porphyrin of an iron atom; the biological function of the group is for delivering oxygen to body tissues, such that bonding of ligand of gas molecules to the iron atom of the protein group changes the structure of the protein by amino acid group of histidine residue around the heme molecule. The iron lies in the center is an organic component called protoporphyrin, which is bound to four pyrrole nitrogen atom linked by a methine bridge that forms a tetrapyrrole ring. The iron can either be in the ferrous (Fe2+) or the ferric (Fe3+) oxidation state. However, it is only able to bind to oxygen when in the ferrous state. The iron can form two additional bonds in fifth and in sixth ...
Bile - What causes green bile? Chemical properties. Biliverdin is a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, and is a product of heme/redcell breadown. Biliverdin is further broken down to bilirubin for easier excretion to the outside world (also into urobilinogen in urine-as mild yellow). This compound absorbs green light, thus appears green to your eyes! (put in dard room=brown/black). I think u maybe asking why u threw up green? Consult doc. Good luck.
New hope in the fight against cardiovascular disease has arrived, following breakthrough research identifying a pigment in our bile which could protect us.
A liquid crystal host-guest system composed of achiral organic molecules (host) and colored chiral metal complexes (guest) was fabricated to sense both right- and left-handed circularly polarized light (r- and l-CPL), depending on the guest (dopant) concentration. The CPL-sensing can be reversibly turned on and off
Heme oxygenase (HO) is a microsomal enzyme involved in cellular response to oxidative stress. HO oxidatively cleaves the heme ring at the alpha…
Old red blood cells are broken down in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Some of the iron from the Hb is stored, and used for making new Hb, some of it is turned into bile pigment and excreted ...
Vmn2r51 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN319181G1|/strong|, Vmn2r51 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Using recently developed molecular-shape description algorithms, we searched the Available Chemical Directory for known compounds similar in shape to the potent HIV-1 protease inhibitor Merck L-700,417; 15 compounds most similar in shape to the inhibitor were selected for testing in vitro. Four of these inhibited the protease at 100 µM or less and the most active of the four were the naturally occurring pigments biliverdin and bilirubin. Biliverdin and bilirubin inhibited recombinant HIV-1 protease in vitro at pH 7.8 with Ki values of approx. 1 µM, and also inhibited HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus proteases. The related pyrrolic pigments stercobilin, urobilin, biliverdin dimethyl ester and xanthobilirubic acid showed similar inhibitory activity at low micromolar concentrations. Biliverdin, bilirubin and xanthobilirubic acid did not inhibit viral polyprotein processing in cultured cells, but they reduced viral infectivity significantly. At 100 µM, xanthobilirubic acid affected viral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilirubin, renal hemodynamics, and blood pressure. AU - Stec, David E.. AU - Hosick, Peter A.. AU - Granger, Joey P.. PY - 2012/9/13. Y1 - 2012/9/13. N2 - Bilirubin is generated from the breakdown of heme by heme oxygenase and the reduction of biliverdin by the enzyme biliverdin reductase. Several large population studies have reported a significant inverse correlation between plasma bilirubin levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Protection from cardiovascular disease is also observed in patients with Gilberts syndrome which is a disease characterized by mutations in hepatic UGT1A1, the enzyme responsible for the conjugation of bilirubin into the bile. Despite the strong correlation between plasma bilirubin levels and the protection from cardiovascular disease, the mechanism by which increases in plasma bilirubin acts to protect against cardiovascular disease is unknown. Since the chronic antihypertensive actions of bilirubin are likely due to its renal actions, ...
Title:Application of Carbon Monoxide for Transplantation. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Atsunori Nakao and Yoshiya Toyoda. Affiliation:E1551, Biomedical Science Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.. Keywords:Carbon monoxide, transplantation, ischemia reperfusion, rejection. Abstract:Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible, chemically inert, colorless and odorless gas and is toxic at high concentrations due to its interference with oxygen delivery. However, CO is endogenously and physiologically generated in mammalian cells via the catabolism of heme in a rate-limiting step of heme oxygenase systems, and CO potently protects against cellular injury. CO relaxes blood vessels and exerts anti-thrombotic effects by inhibiting platelet aggregation and derepressing fibrinolysis. In addition, CO reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury and inflammatory responses. CO inhibits apoptosis of endothelial and epithelial cells and reduces proliferation of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and T ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Heme Oxygenase 1 protein. Ab86919 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
3-Amino-phthalic acid dimethyl ester/ACM34529061 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a microsomal enzyme that degrades heme, a prosthetic group of the heme protein family (e.g., hemoglobin), into the bile pigment biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and reduced iron. Bilirubin has an anti-inflammatory effect and is part of the oxidative stress response due to its strong free radical scavenging activity, whereas carbon monoxide has a vasodilatory effect on organ blood flow ...
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a microsomal enzyme that degrades heme, a prosthetic group of the heme protein family (e.g., hemoglobin), into the bile pigment biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and reduced iron. Bilirubin has an anti-inflammatory effect and is part of the oxidative stress response due to its strong free radical scavenging activity, whereas carbon monoxide has a vasodilatory effect on organ blood flow ...
Cairan empedu berasal dari penghancuran hemoglobin dari eritrosit yang telah tua. Hemoglobin ini akan di uraikan menjadi hemin, zat besi, dan globin. Zat besi dan globin akan di simpan di dalam hati kemudian di kirim ke sum-sum tulang merah. Zat-zat tersebut digunakan dalam pembentukan antibodi atau hemoglobin baru. Sementara itu, Hemin akan di rombak menjadi bilirubin dan biliverdin. Bilirubin dan biliverdin ini merupakan zat warna bagi empedu dan mengandung warna hijau-biru. Zat warna tersebut di dalam usus akan mengalami oksidasi menjadi urobilin. Urobilin kemudian di eksresikan dari dalam tubuh dan memberi warna kekuningan pada feses dan urine ...
Porphyrins are a accumulation of heterocyclic macrocycle amoebic compounds, composed of four adapted pyrrole subunits commutual at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−). The ancestor porphyrin is porphin, and commissioned porphines are alleged porphyrins. The porphyrin ring anatomy is aromatic, with a absolute of 26 electrons in the conjugated system. Various analyses announce…
Pathways of intracellular communication: tetrapyrroles and plastid-to-nucleus signaling. Checkpoint signaling: epigenetic events sound the DNA strand-breaks alarm to the ATM proein kinase
Amlodipine dimethyl ester/ACM140171660 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
J R Hess Company is a leading supplier of dimethyl esters (also known as DMEs, dibasic esters and DBEs) and optimized co-solvent blends.
Photoconversion, the method by which a fluorescent dye is transformed into a stable, osmiophilic product that can be visualized by electron microscopy, is the most widely used method to enable the ultrastructural analysis of fluorescently labeled cellular structures
In studies in mice, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report they have found that bilirubin, a bile pigment most commonly known for yellowing the skin of people with jaundice, may play an unexpected role in protecting brain ...
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible, detoxifying enzyme that is critical for limiting oxidative stress, inflammation, and cellular injury within the CNS and other tissues. Here, we demonstrate a deficiency of HO-1 expression in the brains of HIV-infected individuals. This HO-1 .... ...
Reaktivität: Huhn, Rind (Kuh), Hund and more. 63 verschiedene HMOX1 ELISA Kits vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikoerper-online.de bestellbar!
Pravilnik o spremembah Pravilnika o ukrepih za ugotavljanje, preprečevanje in zatiranje goveje virusne diareje (BVD) - mukozne bolezni (MB) (Diarrhoea viralis bovum - Morbus mucosae bovum). SOP 2007-01-6199. EVA 2007-2311-0200. EPA -
The antioxidant properties of protoporphyrin IX and related tetrapyrroles are poorly characterized. Therefore, eight tetrapyrroles, five of which are produced in vivo, were tested to assess their antioxidant capacities in the Salmonella reverse mutation, TEAC, FRAP and ORAC assays. Tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (ᓹ) was added to Salmonella strain TA102 together with the test compounds. In the absence of metabolic activation, the order of effectiveness was protoporphyrin , biliverdin , bilirubin ditaurate , bilirubin , biliverdin dimethyl ester , stercobilin , bilirubin dimethyl ester , urobilin. In the presence of S9, the effectiveness was reversed, with urobilin , biliverdin dimethyl ester , bilirubin dimethyl ester , stercobilin , biliverdin , bilirubin , bilirubin ditaurate , protoporphyrin. In the antioxidant capacity assays FRAP, TEAC and ORAC, mainly bilirubin, bilirubin ditaurate, biliverdin and protoporphyrin showed ...
Since ZnDPBG and ZnPP inhibit heme oxygenase-mediated conversion of heme to carbon monoxide and biliverdin,9 10 11 12 the effects of these inhibitors on hemodynamics may provide insights into the physiological influence of heme oxygenase products on BP regulation. ZnDPBG and ZnPP administration produces pressor responses that are maximal within 5 minutes and maintained for approximately 1 hour. ZnDPBG-induced increases in arterial pressure are paralleled by increases in total peripheral resistance, establishing systemic vasoconstriction as the major hemodynamic determinant of the increase in BP. Importantly, nonmetallic DPBG, which does not inhibit heme oxygenase activity, does not affect hemodynamics. This strengthens the argument that the pressor effect of ZnDPBG is a consequence of decreased heme oxygenase activity. If so, these findings imply that heme oxygenase activity is subserving a vasodepressor function by promoting vasodilation.. Elevation of BP after pretreatment with an inhibitor of ...
Bilirubin is a bile pigment that is a degradation product of heme. In particular, bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Its levels are elevated in certain diseases and it is responsible for the yellow color of bruises. Bilirubin is an excretion product, and the body does not control levels. Bilirubin levels reflect the balance between production and excretion. Thus, there is no "normal" level of bilirubin. Bilirubin consists of an open chain of four pyrroles (tetrapyrrole); by contrast, the heme molecule is a closed ring of four pyrroles, called porphyrin. -- Wikipedia ...
Bilirubin as such is not reabsorbed from the intestine by way of the portal vein in healthy animals. Bilirubin may be absorbed from the intestine by the lymphatics but only in minute amounts.. Urobilin is reabsorbed from the intestine by way of the portal vein and by way of the lymphatics.. ...
1,4-Dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-methylphenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester | C18H21NO4 | CID 133439 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Propanedioic acid, (2-methylpropylidene)-, dimethyl ester | C9H14O4 | CID 578969 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Answer Bile is a digestive juice secreted by the liver. Although it does not contain any digestive enzymes, it plays an important role in the digestion of fats. Bile juice has bile salts such as bilirubin and biliverdin. These break down large fat globules into smaller globules so that the pancreatic enzymes can easily act on them. This process is known as emulsification of fats. Bile juice also makes the medium alkaline and activates lipase.. Question 8: Describe the digestive role of chymotrypsin. What two other digestive enzymes of the same category are secreted by its source gland ...
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia. ...
Liver is among the most important body organs because it participates in the vital functions of a persons body. Detoxification of toxins, generation of glucose, storage of glycogen, breaking down of amino acids, protein formation and generation of digestive juices and bile pigments are top functions performed by liver. In case, the normal functioning of Read more ...
Liver is among the most important body organs because it participates in the vital functions of a persons body. Detoxification of toxins, generation of glucose, storage of glycogen, breaking down of amino acids, protein formation and generation of digestive juices and bile pigments are top functions performed by liver. In case, the normal functioning of Read more ...
IL-4 Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: BVD6-24G2, eBioscience™ 50μg; FITC IL-4 Rat anti-Mouse, FITC, Clone: BVD6-24G2, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies IgY to...
In the U.S., macular degeneration is the leading cause of severe vision loss in people over age 60. It occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates. The retina is the light-sensing nerve tissue at the back of the eye. Because the disease develops as a person ages, it […]. ...
We provide answers to some common questions about dimethyl esters and our Sta-Sol® solvents, including product origins, properties, and usage and disposal.
Heme oxygenase (staphylobilin-producing)Protoheme + 4 AH2 + 4 O2 = 5-oxo-delta-bilirubin + Fe2+ + CO + 4 A + 4 H2OProtoheme + 4 AH2 + 4 O2 = 15-oxo-beta-bilirubin + Fe2+ + CO + 4 A + 4 H2O ...
The report generally describes azodicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, examines its uses, production methods, patents. AZODICARBOXYLIC ACID DIMETHYL ESTER
The presence of bilirubin in amniotic fluid, which results in a yellow color, is an indicator of fetal erythroblastosis. Visual inspection of amniotic fluid is unreliable because bilirubin is not the only cause of an excessive yellow color; therefore, the presence of bilirubin must be confirmed with spectrophotometric methods. Meconium may contribute a green color (biliverdin) that can obscure the color of bilirubin and hemoglobin.. ...
Diverse organisms use phytochrome photoreceptors to measure the ratio of red to far-red light in their respective environments. In addition to red/far-red phytochromes, many cyanobacteria contain distantly related cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) photosensors that also use photoisomerization of a covalently bound
John Finnerty (Alix Partners) has developed a new version of his average-strike put option DLOM model that can be generalized to accommodate a restriction period of any particular fixed length. He presented the new model during a BVR webinar and asked the audience for comments and suggestions. He would also like some real data for testing purposes. Read more >> ...
John Finnerty (Alix Partners) has developed a new version of his average-strike put option DLOM model that can be generalized to accommodate a restriction period of any particular fixed length. He presented the new model during a BVR webinar and asked the audience for comments and suggestions. He would also like some real data for testing purposes. Read more >> ...
The fine structure of Cyanidium caldarium, as seen in thin sections of KMnO4-fixed cells examined with the electron microscope, is described. This organism, whose taxonomic position among algae is undetermined, contains a single well defined chloroplast, a nucleus, and mitochondria. Studies, with the electron microscope, of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Nostoc are also reported. Structural differences within cells of Cyanidium, chlorella, and Nostoc are discussed. It is concluded that if Nostoc can be taken as a typical Cyanophyte and Chlorella as a representative Chlorophyte and if the items of fine structure examined are diagnostic, then Cyanidium is certainly not a Cyanophyte and, while it has numerous features in common with Chlorella, is not a green alga similar to Chlorella. Comparisons are also made between Cyanidium and other algae whose fine structure has been described by others.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of heme oxygenase is a rapid, protective response in rhabdomyolysis in the rat. AU - Nath, Karl A. AU - Balla, Gyorgy. AU - Vercellotti, Gregory M.. AU - Balla, Jozsef. AU - Jacob, Harry S.. AU - Levin, Michael D.. AU - Rosenberg, Mark E.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Heme proteins such as myoglobin or hemoglobin, when released into the extracellular space, can instigate tissue toxicity. Myoglobin is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. In the glycerol model of this syndrome, we demonstrate that the kidney responds to such inordinte amounts of heme proteins by inducing the heme-degradative enzyme, heme oxygenase, as well as increasing the synthesis of ferritin, the major cellular repository for iron. Prior recruitment of this response with a single preinfusion of hemoglobin prevents kidney failure and drastically reduces mortality (from 100% to 14%). Conversely, ablating this response with a competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase ...
Measurement of the levels of bilirubin is used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver, hemolytic, hematologic, and metabolic disorders, including hepatitis and gall bladder obstruction. The assessment of direct bilirubin is helpful in the differentiation of hepatic disorders. The increase in total bilirubin associated with obstructive jaundice is primarily due to the direct (conjugated) fraction. Both direct and indirect bilirubin are increased in the serum with hepatitis. ...
But it also identified a new, previously unknown gene that contributes to the accumulation of the colorful compounds. Both genes are recessive, which means two copies of each are needed for carotenoids to build up in the plant, which is actually a defect in a metabolic pathway that appears to be related to light-sensing.. Plants derive their own nutrition through light-sensing, or photosynthesis, but roots like carrots arent normally exposed to light and do not need photosynthetic pigments like carotenoids. "Its a repurposing of genes plants usually use when growing in light," says Simon.. It appears these genes were inadvertently selected for by early growers, and Simon suggests it may have simply been to aid early domesticators - likely to have been women - differentiate between wild carrots and the plants they intended to grow.. "They could keep their crops clean from a patch of wild carrots growing 50 meters away by choosing only the purple or yellow ones," says Simon, who jokes: "Or ...
2-Chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)vinyl phosphoric acid dimethyl ester - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more chemical data.
InvoTek has launched the Safe Laser System, a device that uses laser technology to allow people with limited movement to write, communicate, and control th
83707-94-2 - Sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester, compd. with 2,2-(cyclohexylimino)bis(ethanol)homopolymer - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Basal and inducer‐dependent transcription activity of the heme oxygenase‐1 gene promoter can be measured using the luciferase reporter gene in transfection assays
The key components of bile are; bile salts that facilitate enzymatic fat digestion; bile pigments, such as bilirubin, that are the waste product of hemoglobin
Jaundice is the primary sign of disorders of the liver and biliary system. Jaundice is characterized by skin that takes on a yellowish color, due to accumulation of the yellow-brown bile pigment bilirubin in the blood. It can be caused by an imbalance.
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or ...
Looking for A-ring? Find out information about A-ring. first letter of the alphabet alphabet , system of writing, theoretically having a one-for-one relation between character and phoneme . Few alphabets have... Explanation of A-ring
Plays a role in phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis, the red pigment chromophore photosynthetically active biliproteins of the host cyanobacteria. Uses a four-electron reduction to carry out the reactions catalyzed by two enzymes (EC 1.3.7.2 and EC 1.3.7.3) in host.
Schmorl noted that unless the specimens were preserved in formaldehyde, the color would disappear. A similar observation led Brodersen and Bartels14 to examine brain tissue for the possible presence of bilirubin oxidizing enzyme in the brain, concluding that such an enzyme was indeed present on the inner mitochondrial membrane of brain cells. Work in our group has since confirmed and expanded upon these observations.15-20 In the brains that Schmorl examined, the jaundiced nuclei were very sharply demarcated and, therefore, contrasted clearly with the color of the surrounding tissue. Because of this sharp demarcation and the predilection for staining of the nuclei, Schmorl proposed the term kernicterus. He further suggested that the yellow color was not simply attributable to saturation of the tissue with bile pigments, such as was the case (he believed) with eg, skin, but to binding of the bile pigments to specific structural elements in the tissue.. Microscopic examination of the tissue ...
Up to 50 million Americans have tinnitus on a regular basis with between 2-3 million suffering from tinnitus where it affects daily living. The Inhibitor™ Tinnitus Masking Device is a new tinnitus treatment device recently available in the United States for use of temporary relief of tinnitus. The device emits an ultra high frequency sound for 60 seconds via bone conduction when applied to the mastoid. Patients reporting tinnitus will be provided the opportunity to demonstrate the device to observe any changes in their tinnitus. The device may be demonstrated up to 5 times. The investigators will be recording the the degree and duration of change in tinnitus perception following treatment with the Inhibitor™ Tinnitus Masking Device. Patients may provide a genetic sample (typically via saliva sample) to look for expression of a particular genetic marker that may be associated with tinnitus. The investigators will be collect samples from both people with tinnitus and those without tinnitus to ...
In the study, researchers gave ginkgo biloba EGb 761 - a lab-quality form of the extract - to normal mice and HO-1 knockout mice, mice lacking the gene that produces the enzyme heme oxygenase-1(HO-1). HO-1 breaks down heme, a common iron molecule found in blood, into carbon monoxide, iron and biliverdin. HO-1 has been shown to act as an antioxidant and have a protective effect against inflammation in animal models. Doré and his team gave 100 milligrams per kilogram of EGb 761 extract orally once daily for seven days before inducing stroke in the mice by briefly blocking an artery to one side of the brain. After stroke induction, the mice were tested for brain function and brain damage. One such test, for example, involves running patterns, another tests reaction to an external stimulus. Similar tests were conducted on mice that did not receive the ginkgo extract. Neurobehavioral function was evaluated before the study and at 1, 2 and 22 hours after stroke using a four-point scale: (1) no ...
The report generally describes nitroterephthalic acid dimethyl ester, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Nitroterephthalic acid dimethyl
We report the molecular defect of albumin Herborn, a new genetic variant of human serum albumin which has been found in Germany. Isoelectric focusing analysis of CNBr fragments from the purified variant allowed us to localize the mutation in fragment CNBr 3 (residues 124-298). This fragment was isolated on a preparative scale and subjected to tryptic and V8 protease digestion. Sequence determination of the abnormal tryptic and V8 peptides revealed that the variant arises from the substitution Lys240→Glu. The -2 charge change of albumin Herborn, which is probably due to a A→G transition in the first position of the corresponding codon in the structural gene, has no significant effect on its electrophoretic mobility under non-denaturating conditions. Therefore we have assumed that residue 240, which has been implicated in the bilirubin primary binding site (Jacobsen, C. (1978) Biochem. J. 171, 453-459), is buried. The binding of bilirubin and biliverdin by albumin Herborn was quantified using ...
Hemoglobin (Hb) has multiple pathophysiologic effects when released into the intravascular space during hemolysis. inevitably linked to a BIIB-024 broad reactivity pattern with alternate ligands, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and many others. The biochemistry of these reactions has been the focus of Hb study for decades. More recently, however, these Hb BIIB-024 reactions were examined like a potential cause of adverse pathophysiologic processes that accompany reddish blood cell (RBC) damage (i.e., hemolysis) and the build up of extracellular free Hb (Baek et al. 2012; Gladwin et al. 2012). Additional biologic activities of extracellular free Hb can be traced back either to direct relationships of its globin or heme parts with specific cellular receptors and signaling pathways, or to the secondary effects of heme breakdown from the heme oxygenases. The growing picture suggests that Hb like a toxin can adversely impact the outcome of varied conditions, ...
In the dark, the E. coli will only produce signal. In the light, they will not be able to produce signal but can accept it to form pigment. To make a fully functioning edge detector, they needed three things: 1. a darkness detector, 2. an intracellular communication, and 3. X AND (NOT Y) logic. Their darkness detector was created by rewiring the pathway leading to chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB). An osmosensing domain in the protein kinase EnvZ was replaced with a photoreceptor domain. This caused repression of phosphorylation in the presence of red light. Quorum sensing was employed for communication between cells. The QS system from V. fischeri was reprogrammed by placing the production of LuxI under the control of the darkness sensor. LuxR was also altered to produce β-galactosidase. To create the X AND (NOT Y) logic function, a two-input promoter was created with the aid of a genetic inverter. The genetic inverter inverts the activity of an input promoter and was created from the cI gene ...
In the dark, the E. coli will only produce signal. In the light, they will not be able to produce signal but can accept it to form pigment. To make a fully functioning edge detector, they needed three things: 1. a darkness detector, 2. an intracellular communication, and 3. X AND (NOT Y) logic. Their darkness detector was created by rewiring the pathway leading to chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB). An osmosensing domain in the protein kinase EnvZ was replaced with a photoreceptor domain. This caused repression of phosphorylation in the presence of red light. Quorum sensing was employed for communication between cells. The QS system from V. fischeri was reprogrammed by placing the production of LuxI under the control of the darkness sensor. LuxR was also altered to produce β-galactosidase. To create the X AND (NOT Y) logic function, a two-input promoter was created with the aid of a genetic inverter. The genetic inverter inverts the activity of an input promoter and was created from the cI gene ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
阿拉丁试剂提供各种邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、邻苯二甲酸二甲酯 ;1,2-苯二甲酸二甲酯,苯二甲酸二甲酯 ;Phthalic Acid Dimethyl Ester DMP、131-11-3,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯 价格,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯 msds/coa,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯 性质,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯 结构式,邻苯二甲酸二甲酯 化学式,欢迎选购阿拉丁邻苯二甲酸二甲酯、131-11-3试剂

ARCA: Heme oxigenase-1 como um alvo terapêutico na sepse o papel da biliverdinaARCA: Heme oxigenase-1 como um alvo terapêutico na sepse o papel da biliverdina

Recentemente, estudos demonstraram que a indução da HO-1 ou a terapia com o CO e a biliverdina, isoladamente ou em associação, ... Nossa proposta foi estudar o efeito da modulação da HO-1 e do tratamento com a biliverdina em um modelo mais clinicamente ... O tratamento com a biliverdina também teve um impacto significativo, tanto em um modelo de endotoxemia letal como no modelo de ... RODRIGUES, P. M. de A. Heme oxigenase-1 como um alvo terapêutico na sepse o papel da biliverdina. 2007. 93f. Dissertação ( ...
more infohttps://www.arca.fiocruz.br/handle/icict/12864?mode=full

BLVRA Gene - GeneCards | BIEA Protein | BIEA AntibodyBLVRA Gene - GeneCards | BIEA Protein | BIEA Antibody

Complete information for BLVRA gene (Protein Coding), Biliverdin Reductase A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BLVRA

HMOX1 - Heme oxygenase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - HMOX1 gene & proteinHMOX1 - Heme oxygenase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - HMOX1 gene & protein

DB02073 Biliverdine Ix Alpha. DB01942 Formic Acid. DB00157 NADH. DB04912 Stannsoporfin. DB04803 Verdoheme. DB00163 Vitamin E. ... DB02073 Biliverdine Ix Alpha. DB01942 Formic Acid. DB00157 NADH. DB04912 Stannsoporfin. DB04803 Verdoheme. DB00163 Vitamin E. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P09601

Myoglobin - DrugBankMyoglobin - DrugBank

Biliverdine IX Alpha. experimental. unknown. Details. DB02396. Methylethylamine. experimental. unknown. Details. DB02528. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/bio_entities/BE0004467

Hermes Reyes-Caballero - Research Output
     - Johns Hopkins UniversityHermes Reyes-Caballero - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University

Chrisman, I. M., Nemetchek, M. D., De Vera, I. M. S., Shang, J., Heidari, Z., Long, Y., Reyes-Caballero, H., Galindo-Murillo, R., Cheatham, T. E., Blayo, A. L., Shin, Y., Fuhrmann, J., Griffin, P. R., Kamenecka, T. M., Kojetin, D. J. & Hughes, T. S., Dec 1 2018, In : Nature Communications. 9, 1, 1794.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/hermes-reyes-caballero/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle&ordering=publicationYearThenTitle&descending=false

Protein Data Bank JapanProtein Data Bank Japan

C-PHYCOCYANIN, PHYCOCYANOBILIN, BILIVERDINE IX ALPHA. Authors:. Satyanarayana, L., Patel, A., Mishra, S., K Ghosh, P., Suresh, ...
more infohttps://pdbj.org/authorSearch?query=%22Patel%2C+A.%22

tumor of aortic body drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginetumor of aortic body drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Biliverdine / blood. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Cell Communication / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Disease Models ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=tumor+of+aortic+body+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

WO2017035582 METHODS AND PRODUCTS FOR PREVENTING AND/OR TREATING MICROORGANISM INFECTIONS COMPRISING IRON CHELATORS AND NON...WO2017035582 METHODS AND PRODUCTS FOR PREVENTING AND/OR TREATING MICROORGANISM INFECTIONS COMPRISING IRON CHELATORS AND NON...

This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017035582

Sedlak, T. W.<...Sedlak, T. W.<...

Biliverdine Medicine & Life Sciences Schizophrenia Medicine & Life Sciences Bilirubin Medicine & Life Sciences ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/thomas-w-sedlak

Dehydrobilirubin | definition of dehydrobilirubin by Medical dictionaryDehydrobilirubin | definition of dehydrobilirubin by Medical dictionary

biliverdine (bili-verdin), A green bile pigment formed from the oxidation of heme; a bilin with a structure almost identical ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/dehydrobilirubin

Clinical and experimental evidence for oxidative stress as an exacerbating factor of diabetes mellitus<...Clinical and experimental evidence for oxidative stress as an exacerbating factor of diabetes mellitus<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and experimental evidence for oxidative stress as an exacerbating factor of diabetes mellitus. AU - Takayanagi, Ryoichi. AU - Inoguchi, Toyoshi. AU - Ohnaka, Keizo. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The involvement of reactive oxygen species in various diseases has been demonstrated almost in vitro or in animal studies and clinical studies supporting the involvement of reactive oxygen species are very few. Bilirubin has been recognized as an important antioxidant and also shown to have an inhibitory effect on the activity of NADPH oxidase, which may be an important source for superoxide production in various tissues. When the prevalence of vascular complcations was compared in diabetic patients with and without a congenital hyperbilirubinemia (Gilbert syndrome), the prevalence of retinopathy, macroalbuminuria and coronary artery disease in patients with Gilbert syndrome was about 20% of that in those without Gilbert syndrome. For study of lifestyle-related diseases, the ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/clinical-and-experimental-evidence-for-oxidative-stress-as-an-exa

Biochemical and structural characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bfd and FPR: Ferredoxin NADP<sup>+</sup> reductase and...Biochemical and structural characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bfd and FPR: Ferredoxin NADP<sup>+</sup> reductase and...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and structural characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bfd and FPR. T2 - Ferredoxin NADP+ reductase and not ferredoxin is the redox partner of heme oxygenase under iron-starvation conditions. AU - Wang, An. AU - Zeng, Yuhong. AU - Han, Huijong. AU - Weeratunga, Saroja. AU - Morgan, Bailey N.. AU - Moenne-Loccoz, Pierre. AU - Schönbrunn, Ernst. AU - Rivera, Mario. PY - 2007/10/30. Y1 - 2007/10/30. N2 - Among the 118 genes upregulated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to iron starvation [Ochsner, U. A., Wilderman, P. J., Vasil, A. I., and Vasil, M. L. (2002) Mol. Microbiol. 45, 1277-1287], we focused on the products of the two genes encoding electron transfer proteins, as a means of identifying the redox partners of the heme oxygenase (pa-HO) expressed under low-iron stress conditions. Biochemical and spectroscopic investigations demonstrated that the bfd gene encodes a 73-amino acid protein (pa-Bfd) that incorporates a [2Fe-2S]2+/+ center, whereas the fpr gene ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/biochemical-and-structural-characterization-of-pseudomonas-aerugi-2

Identification and Functional Characterization of Bilitranslocase in Sea-Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Hepatopancreas<...Identification and Functional Characterization of Bilitranslocase in Sea-Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Hepatopancreas<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and Functional Characterization of Bilitranslocase in Sea-Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Hepatopancreas. AU - Delneri, A.. AU - Franca, R.. AU - Terdoslavich, M.. AU - Montanič, S.. AU - Čurin Šerbec, V.. AU - Tramer, F.. AU - Francese, M.. AU - Passamonti, S.. PY - 2011/12. Y1 - 2011/12. N2 - The mammalian bilirubin transporter bilitranslocase (BTL, T.C.#2.A.65.1.1) is found in both absorptive (intestine) and excretory epithelia (liver, kidney) and in the vascular endothelium. The aim of this work was to investigate whether a BTL homologue is expressed also in fish hepatopancreas. Immunochemistry based on an antisequence antibody specific for rat liver BTL demonstrated the presence of such homologue in sea-bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) hepatopancreas. Furthermore the transport activity of such a carrier, measured as electrogenic bromosulphophthalein (BSP) uptake, was assayed in sea-bass microsomes, where it was inhibited by the same antibody. Transport activity in ...
more infohttps://moh-it.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-bilitranslocase

Scipionyx - WikipediaScipionyx - Wikipedia

Also biliverdine was present, a bile component expected in the liver. The blood might also partly have originated from the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scipionyx

WO2018102252 METHODS FOR MAKING BACTERIOCHLORIN MACROCYCLES COMPRISING AN ANNULATED ISOCYCLIC RING AND RELATED COMPOUNDSWO2018102252 METHODS FOR MAKING BACTERIOCHLORIN MACROCYCLES COMPRISING AN ANNULATED ISOCYCLIC RING AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
more infohttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018102252

Bilirubina directa | SynevoBilirubina directa | Synevo

Oxidarea hemului genereaza biliverdina, care este metabolizata la randul sau in bilirubina. Restul de 15-20% din bilirubina ...
more infohttps://www.synevo.ro/bilirubina-directa/

Find Research Outputs
             - Albert Einstein College of MedicineFind Research Outputs - Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Colombo, P. C., Mehra, M. R., Goldstein, D. J., Estep, J. D., Salerno, C., Jorde, U. P., Cowger, J. A., Cleveland, J. C., Uriel, N., Sayer, G., Skipper, E. R., Downey, F. X., Ono, M., Hooker, R., Anyanwu, A. C., Givertz, M. M., Mahr, C., Topuria, I., Somo, S. I., Crandall, D. L. & 1 othersHorstmanshof, D. A., Jan 8 2019, In : Circulation. 139, 2, p. 155-168 14 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?format=&page=1

Winkler, A.<...Winkler, A.<...

Biliverdine Medicine & Life Sciences Bryopsida Medicine & Life Sciences Eschscholzia Medicine & Life Sciences ...
more infohttps://graz.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/andreas-winkler

Krush Krok   » practiceKrush Krok » practice

Biliverdine reductase Heme oxygenase Aminolevulinate synthase Heme synthetase UDP-glucuronyl transferase 57. It has been ...
more infohttp://krushkrok.com/practice/?etitle=2016&examid=914

Products starting with BProducts starting with B

VIVAN Life Sciences Pvt. Limited.. 511, Lodha Supremus,. Rd.No.22, Wagle Industrial Estate,. Thane-W, Mumbai - 400604,. INDIA ...
more infohttp://www.vivanls.com/index.php?route=product/AlphabeticallyProducts&char=B

Increased carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air after surgery and anesthesia<...Increased carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air after surgery and anesthesia<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air after surgery and anesthesia. AU - Hayashi, Masao. AU - Takahashi, Toru. AU - Morimatsu, Hiroshi. AU - Fujii, Hiromi. AU - Taga, Naoyuki. AU - Mizobuchi, Satoshi. AU - Matsumi, Masaki. AU - Katayama, Hiroshi. AU - Yokoyama, Masataka. AU - Taniguchi, Masahiro. AU - Morita, Kiyoshi. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced by oxidative stress and is thought to confer protection against oxidative tissue injuries. HO-1 catalyzes the conversion of the heme moiety of hemeproteins, such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome P450, to biliverdin, liberating carbon monoxide (CO) in the process. CO reacts with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin. In this study, to examine the effect of anesthesia and/or surgery on endogenous CO production, we measured the amount of exhaled CO and the arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentration of patients who underwent surgery under general or spinal anesthesia. Both CO and ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/increased-carbon-monoxide-concentration-in-exhaled-air-after-surg

Bilirubin, renal hemodynamics, and blood pressure<...Bilirubin, renal hemodynamics, and blood pressure<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Bilirubin, renal hemodynamics, and blood pressure. AU - Stec, David E.. AU - Hosick, Peter A.. AU - Granger, Joey P.. PY - 2012/9/13. Y1 - 2012/9/13. N2 - Bilirubin is generated from the breakdown of heme by heme oxygenase and the reduction of biliverdin by the enzyme biliverdin reductase. Several large population studies have reported a significant inverse correlation between plasma bilirubin levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Protection from cardiovascular disease is also observed in patients with Gilberts syndrome which is a disease characterized by mutations in hepatic UGT1A1, the enzyme responsible for the conjugation of bilirubin into the bile. Despite the strong correlation between plasma bilirubin levels and the protection from cardiovascular disease, the mechanism by which increases in plasma bilirubin acts to protect against cardiovascular disease is unknown. Since the chronic antihypertensive actions of bilirubin are likely due to its renal actions, ...
more infohttps://researchwith.montclair.edu/en/publications/bilirubin-renal-hemodynamics-and-blood-pressure

Welcome to ciderWelcome to cider

2013 - Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH) Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Disclaimer: IBIS Databases and associated information are protected by copyright. This server and its associated data and services are for academic, non-commercial use only. The Helmholtz Zentrum München has no liability for the use of results, data or information which have been provided through this server. Neither the use for commercial purposes, nor the redistribution of IBIS database files to third parties nor the distribution of parts of files or derivative products to any third parties is permitted. Commercial users shall contact the Helmholtz Zentrum München for a separate users license.. ...
more infohttp://ibis.helmholtz-muenchen.de/cider/entry/show/1229?iList=8257&

Biology Question Bank for Entrance Exam - Digestion and Absorption - AglaSem SchoolsBiology Question Bank for Entrance Exam - Digestion and Absorption - AglaSem Schools

A) Haemoglobin and biliverdine (B) Bilirubin and biliverdine. (C) Bilirubin and Haemoglobin (D) Sodium glycolate and ...
more infohttps://schools.aglasem.com/21329