Biliary Tract Diseases
Biliary Tract Neoplasms
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
Respiratory Tract Infections
Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Digestive System Diseases
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Ampulla of Vater
Common Bile Duct
Rational sequence of tests for pancreatic function. (1/513)Of 144 patients with suspected pancreatic disease in whom a 75Se-selenomethionine scan was performed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) was successful in 108 (75%). The final diagnosis is known in 100 patients and has been compared with scan and ERP findings. A normal scan reliably indicated a normal pancreas, but the scan was falsely abnormal in 30%. ERP distinguished between carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis in 84% of cases but was falsely normal in five patients with pancreatic disease. In extrahepatic biliary disease both tests tended to give falsely abnormal results. A sequence of tests to provide a rapid and reliable assessment of pancreatic function should be a radio-isotope scan, followed by ERP if the results of the scan are abnormal, and a Lundh test if the scan is abnormal but the findings on ERP are normal. (+info)
Spontaneous perforation of common bile duct in infants. (2/513)Two infants with spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct are described. One presented with mild jaundice, dark urine, acholic stools, and hydroceles, the other with bilateral inguinal hernia. In both the diagnosis was unsuspected until bile-stained ascites was discovered. Both eventually developed bile-staining of the scrotum. Neither was acutely ill. The 131I-Rose Bengal faecal excretion test showed reduced faecal excretion at 8% and 12% of the injected dose with 16-5 and 17%/dl of the dose being recovered in the ascitic fluid 48 hours after intravenous injection. The ascitic:plasma ratio of isotope at that time was 32:1 and 28:1. Operative cholangiography in both showed a perforation at the junction of the cystic duct and common bile duct with no contrast entering the duodenum. Cholecystenterostomy using a Roux-en-Y loop of jejunum produced a rapid sustained recovery and is suggested as the treatment of choice. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in infancy since early surgical correction is necessary. (+info)
Idiopathic bile acid catharsis. (3/513)In the course of extensive routine screening for bile acid malabsorption a few patients were detected in whom chronic diarrhoea was apparently induced by excess bile acid loss which was neither associated with demonstrable conventional ileopathy nor with any other disorder allied to diarrhoea. In three patients subjected to scrutiny the results obtained were in harmony with a concept of idiopathic bile acid catharsis. Ingestion of cholestyramine was followed by immediate relief, but the diarrhoea recurred whenever this treatment was withdrawn. It it suggested that idiopathic bile acid catharsis should be suspected in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea and especially in those with a diagnosis of irritable colon with diarrhoea. (+info)
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an academic hospital: evaluation of changes in perioperative outcomes. (4/513)OBJECTIVE: Evaluate changes in perioperative outcomes over an 82-month period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single attending surgeon in an academic hospital. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1025 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from September 1992 to February 1997 was compared to the initial 600 patients from May 1990 to August 1992. Statistical analysis included Chi square with Yates correction and Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: Over the 82-month period there were no significant differences in the overall conversion rate to open cholecystectomy (p=0.26), intraoperative complications (p = 0.81), postoperative complications (p = 0.054) or mortality rates (p=0.66). There were 3 (0.5%) bile duct injuries in the initial 600 patients and only 1 (0.1%) in the group of 1025 patients (p=0.065). There was an increase (p<0.001) in laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis and biliary dyskinesia and an increase (p<0.001) in the percentage of cases performed overall and for acute cholecystitis by the surgery residents over the last 54 months. Despite this, the conversion rates to open cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis decreased (p < 0.001) over the last 54 months. Additionally, more patients (p < 0.001) were discharged on the day of surgery in the most recent group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely by surgery residents under the direct supervision of an experienced laparoscopist without significant changes in perioperative outcomes. Despite an increased percentage of cases being performed for acute cholecystitis over the last 54 months, conversion rates to open cholecystectomy and biliary tract injury rates have decreased, and the perioperative morbidity has remained the same. (+info)
Implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for surgical residency training. (5/513)BACKGROUND: Widespread adoption of minimal access techniques forced a generation of abdominal surgeons to re-learn many standard abdominal procedures. This threatened to reduce the pool of suitable "training" operations for surgical residents. METHODS: Operator grade, duration of operation, acute/elective operation, conversion rate, complications, and postoperative stay were recorded prospectively on all laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) since 1992. This data was evaluated to determine how the introduction of LC affected residents' training. RESULTS: The percentage of LCs performed by residents increased progressively to reach 58%. Operating time was longer for trainee surgeons, particularly for acute cases (145+/-50 minutes vs 111+/-54 minutes, p<0.05); however, conversion rate, incidence of complications, and postoperative stay were no different. CONCLUSIONS: LC can be performed by surgical trainees with similar complication rates and outcomes as those of qualified surgeons. Once institutional experience has accumulated, this procedure can be integrated into residency training. (+info)
A prospective study of the causes of notably raised aspartate aminotransferase of liver origin. (6/513)BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To ascertain the causes of raised aspartate aminotransferase (AST) presumed to be of hepatic origin in two hospitals and the local community served by a centralised biochemistry laboratory. METHODS: From June 1996 to February 1997 all patients with AST greater than 400 U/l were identified by the biochemistry laboratory; the patients' clinical records were studied to determine the diagnosis, the clinical outcome, and whether the raised AST and its significance had been noted. RESULTS: A total of 137 patients with a hepatic cause for the raised AST were found. The cause of the raised AST was hepatic ischaemia/hypoxia in 68, pancreatobiliary disease in 33, primary hepatocellular disease in 23, hepatic malignancy in five, and hepatic haematoma in one. In seven patients the diagnosis was unclear. The overall mortality was high (22%) with the highest mortality in the hepatic ischaemia group (37%). The recording and interpretation of the causes of raised AST was poor with only 48% having the correct diagnosis. In 38% the raised AST was apparently not noticed by the attending clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The commonest cause of a hepatitis like biochemical picture was hepatic hypoxia (50%) followed by pancreatobiliary disease (24%). Drug induced hepatic necrosis (8.8%) was uncommon and viral hepatitis was rare (3.6%). AST concentrations returned towards normal most rapidly in patients with hepatic hypoxia and calculous biliary obstruction. Hepatitis, viral or otherwise, is an uncommon cause of a typical hepatitic biochemical result in this community. (+info)
Screening of newborn infants for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease with tandem mass spectrometry. (7/513)OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of screening for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia by using tandem mass spectrometry to measure conjugated bile acids in dried blood spots obtained from newborn infants at 7-10 days of age for the Guthrie test. SETTING: Three tertiary referral clinics and regional neonatal screening laboratories. DESIGN: Unused blood spots from the Guthrie test were retrieved for infants presenting with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and from the two cards stored on either side of each card from an index child. Concentrations of conjugated bile acids measured by tandem mass spectrometry in the two groups were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Concentrations of glycodihydroxycholanoates, glycotrihydroxycholanoates, taurodihydroxycholanoates, and taurotrihydroxycholanoates. Receiver operator curves were plotted to determine which parameter (or combination of parameters) would best predict the cases of cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia. The sensitivity and specificity at a selection of cut off values for each bile acid species and for total bile acid concentrations for the detection of the two conditions were calculated. RESULTS: 218 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease were eligible for inclusion in the study. Two children without a final diagnosis and five who presented at <14 days of age were excluded. Usable blood spots were obtained from 177 index children and 708 comparison children. Mean concentrations of all four bile acid species were significantly raised in children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia compared with the unaffected children (P<0.0001). Of 177 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 104 (59%) had a total bile acid concentration >33 micromol/l (97.5th centile value for comparison group). Of the 61 with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 47 (77%) had total bile acid concentrations >33 micromol/l. Taurotrihydroxycholanoate and total bile acid concentrations were the best predictors of both conditions. For all cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, a cut off level of total bile acid concentration of 30 micromol/l gave a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 96%, while the corresponding values for extrahepatic biliary atresia were 79% and 96%. CONCLUSION: Most children who present with extrahepatic biliary atresia and other forms of cholestatic hepatobiliary disease have significantly raised concentrations of conjugated bile acids as measured by tandem mass spectrometry at the time when samples are taken for the Guthrie test. Unfortunately the separation between the concentrations in these infants and those in the general population is not sufficient to make mass screening for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease a feasible option with this method alone. (+info)
Functional disorders of the biliary tract and pancreas. (8/513)The term "dysfunction" defines the motor disorders of the gall bladder and the sphincter of Oddi (SO) without note of the potential etiologic factors for the difficulty to differentiate purely functional alterations from subtle structural changes. Dysfunction of the gall bladder and/or SO produces similar patterns of biliopancreatic pain and SO dysfunction may occur in the presence of the gall bladder. The symptom-based diagnostic criteria of gall bladder and SO dysfunction are episodes of severe steady pain located in the epigastrium and right upper abdominal quadrant which last at least 30 minutes. Gall bladder and SO dysfunctions can cause significant clinical symptoms but do not explain many instances of biliopancreatic type of pain. The syndrome of functional abdominal pain should be differentiated from gall bladder and SO dysfunction. In the diagnostic workup, invasive investigations should be performed only in the presence of compelling clinical evidence and after non-invasive testing has yielded negative findings. Gall bladder dysfunction is suspected when laboratory, ultrasonographic, and microscopic bile examination have excluded the presence of gallstones and other structural abnormalities. The finding of decreased gall bladder emptying at cholecystokinin-cholescintigraphy is the only objective characteristic of gall bladder dysfunction. Symptomatic manifestation of SO dysfunction may be accompanied by features of biliary obstruction (biliary-type SO dysfunction) or significant elevation of pancreatic enzymes and pancreatitis (pancreatic-type SO dysfunction). Biliary-type SO dysfunction occurs more frequently in postcholecystectomy patients who are categorized into three types. Types I and II, but not type III, have biochemical and cholangiographic features of biliary obstruction. Pancreatic-type SO dysfunction is less well classified into types. When non-invasive investigations and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopanreatography show no structural abnormality, manometry of both biliary and pancreatic sphincter may be considered. (+info)
There are several types of biliary tract diseases, including:
1. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain and blockages.
2. Cholangitis: An infection of the bile ducts that can cause fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
3. Biliary cirrhosis: Scarring of the liver and bile ducts that can lead to liver failure.
4. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas that can cause abdominal pain and digestive problems.
5. Cancer of the biliary tract: Cancer that affects the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts.
Biliary tract diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and liver function tests.
Treatment for biliary tract diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to dissolve gallstones or treat infections. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the gallbladder or repair damaged bile ducts.
Prevention is key in avoiding biliary tract diseases, and this includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, managing risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption, and getting regular medical check-ups. Early detection and treatment of biliary tract diseases can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the biliary tract, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
There are several types of biliary tract neoplasms, including:
1. Cholangiocarcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts. It can occur in the liver or outside the liver.
2. Gallbladder cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the gallbladder and is relatively rare.
3. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer, which means it originates in the liver rather than spreading from another part of the body.
4. Bile duct cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine.
Biliary tract neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), weight loss, fatigue, and itching. These symptoms can be non-specific and may resemble those of other conditions, making diagnosis challenging.
Diagnosis of biliary tract neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, and PET scans, as well as biopsies to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for biliary tract neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It can occur at any age but is more common in adults over 40 years old. Women are more likely to develop cholelithiasis than men, especially during pregnancy or after childbirth.
The symptoms of cholelithiasis can vary depending on the size and location of the gallstones. Some people may not experience any symptoms at all, while others may have:
* Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side of the abdomen
* Nausea and vomiting
* Shaking or chills
* Loss of appetite
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
If left untreated, cholelithiasis can lead to complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholangitis), infection of the bile ducts (biliary sepsis), or blockage of the common bile duct. These complications can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.
The diagnosis of cholelithiasis is usually made through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and blood tests to check for signs of inflammation and liver function. Treatment options for cholelithiasis include:
* Watchful waiting: If the gallstones are small and not causing any symptoms, doctors may recommend monitoring the condition without immediate treatment.
* Medications: Oral medications such as bile salts or ursodiol can dissolve small gallstones and relieve symptoms.
* Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder through small incisions.
* Open cholecystectomy: An open surgery to remove the gallbladder, usually performed when the gallstones are large or there are other complications.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of cholelithiasis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Cholecystitis can be acute or chronic. Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed suddenly, usually due to a blockage in the bile ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Chronic cholecystitis is a long-standing inflammation of the gallbladder that can lead to scarring and thickening of the gallbladder wall.
The causes of cholecystitis include:
1. Gallstones: The most common cause of cholecystitis is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. These stones can block the bile ducts and cause inflammation.
2. Infection: Bacterial infection can spread to the gallbladder from other parts of the body, causing cholecystitis.
3. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas can spread to the gallbladder and cause cholecystitis.
4. Incomplete emptying of the gallbladder: If the gallbladder does not empty properly, bile can become stagnant and cause inflammation.
5. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to developing cholecystitis due to genetic factors.
Symptoms of cholecystitis may include:
1. Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side of the abdomen
2. Nausea and vomiting
4. Loss of appetite
5. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
6. Tea-colored urine
7. Pale or clay-colored stools
If you suspect that you or someone else may have cholecystitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider can diagnose cholecystitis based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment for cholecystitis usually involves antibiotics to clear up any infection, and in severe cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder may be necessary.
Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or other substances found in bile. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including:
* Abdominal pain (often in the upper right abdomen)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Tea-colored urine
* Pale or clay-colored stools
Gallstones can be classified into several types based on their composition, size, and location. The most common types are:
* Cholesterol gallstones: These are the most common type of gallstone and are usually yellow or green in color. They are made of cholesterol and other substances found in bile.
* Pigment gallstones: These stones are made of bilirubin, a yellow pigment found in bile. They are often smaller than cholesterol gallstones and may be more difficult to detect.
* Mixed gallstones: These stones are a combination of cholesterol and pigment gallstones.
Gallstones can cause a variety of complications, including:
* Gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis)
* Infection of the bile ducts (choledochalitis)
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Blockage of the common bile duct, which can cause jaundice and infection.
Treatment for gallstones usually involves surgery to remove the gallbladder, although in some cases, medications may be used to dissolve small stones. In severe cases, emergency surgery may be necessary to treat complications such as inflammation or infection.
The term "extrahepatic" refers to the fact that the obstruction occurs outside of the liver, as opposed to intrahepatic cholestasis, which occurs within the liver. Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including gallstones, pancreatitis, and cancer.
Treatment for extrahepatic cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the obstruction. In some cases, this may involve surgery to remove the blockage or other procedures such as stent placement or biliary bypass surgery. Medications such as bile salts and ursodeoxycholic acid may also be used to help improve liver function and reduce symptoms.
In summary, extrahepatic cholestasis is a type of bile duct obstruction that occurs outside of the liver, leading to bile buildup in the bloodstream and potentially causing a range of symptoms. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the obstruction.
There are several types of cholestasis, including:
1. Obstructive cholestasis: This occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing freely from the liver.
2. Metabolic cholestasis: This is caused by a problem with the metabolism of bile acids in the liver.
3. Inflammatory cholestasis: This occurs when there is inflammation in the liver, which can cause scarring and impair bile flow.
4. Idiopathic cholestasis: This type of cholestasis has no identifiable cause.
Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve bile flow, dissolve gallstones, or reduce inflammation. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications of cholestasis.
There are several causes of pancreatitis, including:
1. Gallstones: These can block the pancreatic duct, causing inflammation.
2. Alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol use can damage the pancreas and lead to inflammation.
3. High triglycerides: Elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood can cause pancreatitis.
4. Infections: Viral or bacterial infections can infect the pancreas and cause inflammation.
5. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to pancreatitis due to inherited genetic mutations.
6. Pancreatic trauma: Physical injury to the pancreas can cause inflammation.
7. Certain medications: Some medications, such as certain antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause pancreatitis as a side effect.
Symptoms of pancreatitis may include:
1. Abdominal pain
2. Nausea and vomiting
4. Diarrhea or bloating
5. Weight loss
6. Loss of appetite
Treatment for pancreatitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and address any complications. Treatment options may include:
1. Pain management: Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids may be used to manage abdominal pain.
2. Fluid replacement: Intravenous fluids may be given to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
3. Antibiotics: If the pancreatitis is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
4. Nutritional support: Patients with pancreatitis may require nutritional support to ensure they are getting enough calories and nutrients.
5. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy: In some cases, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy may be necessary to help the body digest food.
6. Surgery: In severe cases of pancreatitis, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair damaged blood vessels.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent abdominal pain or other symptoms of pancreatitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:
1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
Types of Gallbladder Neoplasms:
1. Adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the gallbladder wall and can become malignant over time if left untreated.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare and aggressive malignant tumor that arises in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
3. Gallbladder cancer: A general term used to describe any type of cancer that develops in the gallbladder, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and other rare types.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetics: A family history of gallbladder disease or certain genetic conditions can increase the risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms.
2. Chronic inflammation: Long-standing inflammation in the gallbladder, such as that caused by gallstones or chronic bile duct obstruction, can increase the risk of developing cancer.
3. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms.
4. Age: The risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
1. Abdominal pain: Pain in the upper right abdomen is a common symptom of gallbladder neoplasms.
2. Jaundice: Yellowing of the skin and eyes can occur if the cancer blocks the bile ducts.
3. Weight loss: Unexplained weight loss can be a symptom of some types of gallbladder neoplasms.
4. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak can be a symptom of some types of gallbladder neoplasms.
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
1. Surgery: Surgery is the primary treatment for gallbladder neoplasms. The type of surgery depends on the stage and location of the cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery to treat advanced or aggressive cancers.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used in combination with surgery to treat advanced or aggressive cancers.
4. Watchful waiting: For early-stage cancers, a wait-and-watch approach may be taken, where the patient is monitored regularly with imaging tests to see if the cancer progresses.
The prognosis for gallbladder neoplasms depends on the stage and location of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis. For early-stage cancers, the 5-year survival rate is high, while for advanced cancers, the prognosis is poor.
1. Bile duct injury: During surgery, there is a risk of damaging the bile ducts, which can lead to complications such as bile leakage or bleeding.
2. Infection: There is a risk of infection after surgery, which can be serious and may require hospitalization.
3. Pancreatitis: Gallbladder cancer can cause inflammation of the pancreas, leading to pancreatitis.
4. Jaundice: Cancer of the gallbladder can block the bile ducts, leading to jaundice and other complications.
5. Spread of cancer: Gallbladder cancer can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lymph nodes, which can reduce the chances of a cure.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the urinary tract, including the bladder, kidneys, ureters, and urethra. They can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can affect people of all ages.
2. Overactive bladder (OAB): This is a condition in which the bladder muscles contract too often, causing urinary frequency, urgency, and sometimes incontinence.
3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): This is an enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause urinary symptoms such as difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine.
4. Kidney stones: These are small, hard mineral deposits that form in the kidneys and can cause severe pain and discomfort.
5. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): This is a type of cancer that affects the kidneys and can be treated with surgery, ablation, or targeted therapy.
6. Urinary incontinence: This is the loss of bladder control, resulting in involuntary urination. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including weakened pelvic muscles, nerve damage, and overactive bladder.
7. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): This is a chronic condition characterized by recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder and pelvic area, often accompanied by urinary frequency and urgency.
8. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological conditions such as spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and spina bifida can affect the nerves that control the bladder and urinary sphincters, leading to urinary incontinence or retention.
9. Prostate issues: Enlarged prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer can all impact urinary function, leading to symptoms such as difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, frequent urination, and weak urine stream.
10. Obstetric trauma: Injuries during childbirth, such as a tear in the pelvic floor muscles or nerve damage, can lead to urinary incontinence or other bladder dysfunction.
It's important to note that some of these conditions may be treatable with medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes, while others may have more long-term implications for urinary function and overall health. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The common types of RTIs include:
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.
RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
The exact cause of cholangiocarcinoma is not known, but there are several risk factors that have been linked to the development of the disease. These include:
1. Chronic inflammation of the bile ducts (cholangitis)
2. Infection with certain viruses, such as hepatitis B and C
3. Genetic conditions, such as inherited syndromes that affect the liver and bile ducts
4. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as thorium dioxide
5. Obesity and metabolic disorders
The symptoms of cholangiocarcinoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include:
1. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
2. Itching all over the body
4. Loss of appetite
5. Abdominal pain and swelling
6. Weight loss
7. Nausea and vomiting
If cholangiocarcinoma is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis. These may include:
1. Imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans
2. Blood tests to check for certain liver enzymes and bilirubin levels
3. Endoscopic ultrasound to examine the bile ducts
4. Biopsy to collect a sample of tissue from the suspected tumor
Treatment for cholangiocarcinoma depends on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment, and may involve removing the tumor and a portion of the bile ducts. In more advanced cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to relieve symptoms.
It's important for patients with cholangiocarcinoma to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan and to monitor their condition regularly. With prompt and appropriate treatment, some patients with cholangiocarcinoma may experience long-term survival and a good quality of life.
Bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Types of Bile Duct Neoplasms:
There are several types of bile duct neoplasms, including:
1. Bile duct adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the bile ducts.
2. Bile duct carcinoma: A malignant tumor that grows in the bile ducts and can spread to other parts of the body.
3. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare type of bile duct cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts.
4. Gallbladder cancer: A type of cancer that occurs in the gallbladder, which is a small organ located under the liver that stores bile.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of bile duct neoplasms is not known, but there are several risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing these tumors, including:
1. Age: Bile duct neoplasms are more common in people over the age of 50.
2. Gender: Women are more likely to develop bile duct neoplasms than men.
3. Family history: People with a family history of bile duct cancer or other liver diseases may be at increased risk.
4. Previous exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as thorium, has been linked to an increased risk of developing bile duct neoplasms.
The symptoms of bile duct neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:
1. Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain or discomfort
6. Weight loss
7. Itching all over the body
8. Dark urine
9. Pale stools
Diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests and biopsy. The following tests may be used to diagnose bile duct neoplasms:
1. Ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the liver and bile ducts.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This imaging test uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the liver and bile ducts.
4. Endoscopic ultrasound: This test involves inserting an endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a small ultrasound probe) into the bile ducts through the mouth or stomach to obtain images and samples of the bile ducts.
5. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed during an endoscopic ultrasound or during surgery to remove the tumor. The sample is then examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of bile duct neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and the patient's preferences. The following are some common treatment options for bile duct neoplasms:
1. Surgery: Surgery may be performed to remove the tumor or a portion of the bile duct. This may involve a Whipple procedure (a surgical procedure to remove the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, and a portion of the bile duct), a bile duct resection, or a liver transplant.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used before or after surgery to shrink the tumor and kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells that cannot be removed by surgery or to relieve symptoms such as pain or blockage of the bile duct.
4. Stent placement: A stent may be placed in the bile duct to help keep it open and improve blood flow to the liver.
5. Ablation therapy: Ablation therapy may be used to destroy cancer cells by freezing or heating them with a probe inserted through an endoscope.
6. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy may be used to treat certain types of bile duct cancer, such as cholangiocarcinoma, by targeting specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of the cancer cells.
7. Clinical trials: Clinical trials are research studies that evaluate new treatments for bile duct neoplasms. These may be an option for patients who have not responded to other treatments or who have advanced cancer.
RSV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including:
* Runny nose
* Decreased appetite
* Apnea (pauses in breathing)
* Blue-tinged skin and lips (cyanosis)
* Inflammation of the lower respiratory tract (bronchiolitis)
In severe cases, RSV infections can lead to hospitalization and may require oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation. In rare cases, RSV infections can be life-threatening, particularly in premature babies and infants with underlying medical conditions.
There is no specific treatment for RSV infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the infection, such as providing hydration and nutrition, administering oxygen therapy, and monitoring vital signs.
Prevention measures for RSV infections include:
* Frequent handwashing, especially after contact with an infected person or their secretions
* Avoiding close contact with anyone who has RSV infection
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are showing symptoms of RSV infection
* Practicing good hygiene, such as avoiding sharing utensils or personal items with anyone who is infected
There is currently no vaccine available to protect against RSV infections, but researchers are working on developing one.
Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits such as constipation or diarrhea.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause chronic inflammation in the digestive tract.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): This is a condition where stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that can cause pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the wall of the colon, which can become inflamed and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
6. Constipation: This is a common condition where the stool is hard and difficult to pass, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as poor diet, dehydration, or certain medications.
7. Diabetes: This is a chronic condition that affects how the body regulates blood sugar levels, which can also affect the digestive system and cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Celiac Disease: This is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system reacts to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye, causing inflammation and damage to the small intestine.
9. Lipidosis: This is a condition where there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the body, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
10. Sarcoidosis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect various organs in the body, including the digestive system, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
It's important to note that this list is not exhaustive and there are many other conditions that can cause abdominal pain. If you are experiencing persistent or severe abdominal pain, it's important to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and receive proper treatment.
Types of Cholangitis:
There are two types of cholangitis:
1. Acute cholangitis: This type of cholangitis occurs suddenly and is usually caused by a blockage in the bile ducts, such as a gallstone or a tumor.
2. Chronic cholangitis: This type of cholangitis develops gradually over time and can be caused by recurring inflammation or scarring of the bile ducts.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The most common cause of cholangitis is a blockage in the bile ducts, which allows bacteria to grow and multiply, leading to infection. Other causes include:
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Trauma to the abdomen
* Inflammatory bowel disease
The symptoms of cholangitis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
* Nausea and vomiting
Cholangitis is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans or endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests to determine the presence of infection. A liver biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
The treatment of cholangitis depends on the cause and severity of the infection, but may include:
* Antibiotics to treat bacterial or fungal infections
* Supportive care, such as fluids and nutrition, to manage symptoms
* Surgical drainage of the bile ducts to relieve blockages
* Endoscopic therapy, such as stent placement or laser lithotripsy, to remove gallstones or other obstructions
* Liver transplantation in severe cases
The prognosis for cholangitis depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying cause. If treated promptly and effectively, the prognosis is generally good. However, if left untreated or if there are complications, the prognosis can be poor.
Preventing cholangitis involves managing any underlying conditions that may increase the risk of infection, such as gallstones or liver disease. Other preventive measures include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause cholangitis
* Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or liver disease
Cholangitis can lead to several complications, including:
* Bile duct damage, which can lead to bile leaking into the abdomen and causing an infection called peritonitis
* Spread of the infection to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or lungs
* Sepsis, a severe and life-threatening reaction to the infection
* Organ failure, particularly liver and kidney failure
It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of cholangitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Exocrine disorders affect the pancreas' ability to produce digestive enzymes, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and malnutrition. The most common exocrine disorder is chronic pancreatitis, which is inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to permanent damage and scarring. Other exocrine disorders include acute pancreatitis, pancreatic insufficiency, and pancreatic cancer.
Endocrine disorders affect the pancreas' ability to produce hormones, leading to symptoms such as diabetes, hypoglycemia, and Cushing's syndrome. The most common endocrine disorder is diabetes mellitus, which is caused by a deficiency of insulin production or insulin resistance. Other endocrine disorders include hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and pancreatic polypeptide-secreting tumors.
Pancreatic diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Treatment options for pancreatic diseases vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for improving outcomes in patients with pancreatic diseases.
Some of the most common types of pancreatic diseases include:
1. Diabetes mellitus: a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels.
2. Chronic pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to permanent damage and scarring.
3. Acute pancreatitis: sudden and severe inflammation of the pancreas, often caused by gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption.
4. Pancreatic cancer: a malignancy that can arise in the pancreas and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs): tumors that arise in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms.
6. Pancreatic polypeptide-secreting tumors: rare tumors that produce excessive amounts of pancreatic polypeptide, leading to hypoglycemia and other symptoms.
7. Glucagonoma: a rare tumor that produces excessive amounts of glucagon, leading to high blood sugar levels and other symptoms.
8. Insulinoma: a rare tumor that produces excessive amounts of insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels and other symptoms.
9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1: an inherited disorder characterized by multiple endocrine tumors, including those in the pancreas.
10. Familial pancreatico-ductal adenocarcinoma (FPDA): an inherited disorder characterized by a high risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
These are just some of the possible causes of pancreatic disease, and there may be others not listed here. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.
Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.
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- A biliary tract biopsy is the removal of small amounts of cells and fluids from the duodenum, bile ducts, pancreas, or pancreatic duct. (medlineplus.gov)
- Wyatt JI, Haugk B. Liver, biliary system and pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
- The program is two years in duration with a focus on the evaluation and treatment of a broad spectrum of benign and malignant diseases of the liver, pancreas and biliary tract with an inclusion of clinical and translational research. (ohsu.edu)
- Graduates complete the program with substantial knowledge in the pathophysiology of liver, pancreas and biliary tract diseases, including metastatic cancer to the liver and pancreas. (ohsu.edu)
- Expertise in clinical decision making and technical aspects in liver resection, complex biliary reconstruction, pancreas resection, liver transplantation, and minimally invasive liver and pancreatic surgery and techniques of liver tumor ablation. (ohsu.edu)
- Dr. Rocha's clinical practice encompasses all aspects of benign and malignant disease of the liver, bile ducts and pancreas. (ohsu.edu)
- The NIDDK is implementing this plan to improve overall health by addressing diseases of the liver, biliary tract, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial isolates from liver and fecal samples from 10 patients with this condition and 7 healthy carriers originated from the gastrointestinal tract of patients, we showed identical serotypes and genotypes with the same concomitantly tested all liver aspirate, saliva, nasal swab, virulence. (cdc.gov)
- From gastroesophageal reflux to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we use the most advanced tools and techniques to diagnose and treat all conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. (chsbuffalo.org)
- Endoscopy is a procedure that uses a lighted, flexible tool called an endoscope to see the inside of the upper gastrointestinal tract. (chsbuffalo.org)
- Greater Transplant-free Survival in Patients Receiving Obeticholic Acid for Primary Biliary Cholangitis in a Clinical Trial Setting Compared to Real-World External Controls. (amedeo.com)
- The association between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been known for decades, but mechanisms of gut-liver crosstalk are incompletely understood. (nature.com)
- These include a bile duct disease called primary sclerosing cholangitis , bile duct stones or cysts, and exposure to certain chemical toxins used in manufacturing. (medlineplus.gov)
- Biliary atresia is the most common liver disease that requires transplantation. (chp.edu)
- A new study elevates our understanding of how the immune system regulates the pathogenesis of biliary atresia through a powerful single-cell approach. (nature.com)
- Biliary atresia (BA) is the result of a process of unknown etiology which can occur as an isolated lesion or in association with several congenital abnormalities and remains the main indications of liver transplantation among infants. (scirp.org)
- One of the malformations associated with biliary atresia is Situs inversus totalis , which is a rare congenital abnormality found in 10% - 20% of infants with biliary atresia and presents an incidence varying from 1:5000 to 1:20,000. (scirp.org)
- This case report aims to present an extremely rare case of a patient with Situs inversus associated with biliary atresia, polysplenia and abscence of inferior vena cava that underwent liver transplantation. (scirp.org)
- Case Report: A 10-month-old boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of cirrhosis, due to biliary atresia. (scirp.org)
- Biliary atresia (BA) is the result of a process of unknown etiology which leads to the complete obstruction or disappearance of part or all of the bile ducts in young infants. (scirp.org)
- In 1959, Kasai and Suzuki reported that infants with biliary atresia could be submitted to a hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) in order to improve their prognosis. (scirp.org)
- For more information, see the Medscape Drugs & Diseases article Acute Cholecystitis and Biliary Colic . (medscape.com)
- This procedure can diagnose and treat several gastrointestinal conditions, including pancreatic and liver disease, gastrointestinal cancer, and gastrointestinal bleeding. (chsbuffalo.org)
- identifying and removing the nematode effusion at the time the examinations to any endemic areas, our hypothesis is a from the duodenal, biliary or pancreatic were made. (who.int)
- To each sample, new approaches to the management of creatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, 200 µL of AL buffer were added and various gastroduodenal disorders . (who.int)
- Other risk factors that have been studied include long-term infection with viral hepatitis B or C, scarring of the liver (cirrhosis), and chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
- A normal result means there are no signs of cancer, disease, or infection in the biopsy sample. (medlineplus.gov)
- Supportive medical care should include restoration of hemodynamic stability and antibiotic coverage for gram-negative enteric flora and anaerobes if biliary tract infection is suspected. (medscape.com)
- These results do not rule out the possibility of Helicobacter infection as a contributing agent or cofactor in the development of biliary diseases. (who.int)
- 3 ]. Although not common in devel- cultures from abdominal drainage spec- and penetrate the biliary ducts or the oped countries, ascariasis infection is imens were negative. (who.int)
- Ninety patients had metastatic disease at presentation. (who.int)
- The OHSU AHPBA-certified hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) surgery fellowship program is designed to draw from the multidisciplinary strengths of faculty members in abdominal organ transplant/hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgery, surgical oncology, and general surgery. (ohsu.edu)
- Abdominal ultrasound and Doppler scan showed the liver in the left upper quadrant as well as signs of chronic liver disease. (scirp.org)
- Compared with rates for United States white males, deaths within the cohort from all causes were lower than expected as was overall cancer mortality and mortality due to lung and colon cancer, cardiovascular disease, and heart disease. (cdc.gov)
- When compared with ethnic specific referents, the mortality from lung cancer within the cohort was increased as was mortality from ischemic heart disease. (cdc.gov)
- Its liver cirrhosis, underlying malignancy the samples were centrifuged at 8000 relevance to human disease, specifically or familial hypercholesterolaemia were rpm for 10 min. (who.int)
- EUS - guided choledocho-duodenostomy using lumen apposing stent versus ERCP with covered metallic stents in patients with unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. (amedeo.com)
- Gastrointestinal investigated K. pneumoniae isolates from healthy carriers that were genetically similar to liver abscess isolates to Tract and Pyogenic assess whether colonization of virulent K. pneumoniae occurs in these persons, which could subsequently lead to Liver Abscess development of liver abscess. (cdc.gov)
- His mother was the donor and the graft, segment III, was positioned in the left upper quadrant associated with a Y en Roux reconstruction of the biliary tract. (scirp.org)
- Disease status: Patients with refractory solid tumors including patients with NF1 and MPNST must have evaluable disease, patients with leukemia must have measurable or evaluable disease at the time of enrollment, which may include any evidence of disease including minimal residual disease detected by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
- Not only are our gastroenterologists focused on determining the most effective treatment for these conditions, but they are also dedicated to the early detection and prevention of a range of diseases, including certain cancers. (chsbuffalo.org)
- Significant elevations in mortality rates were seen for cancers of the liver, biliary tract, and gallbladder in the workers compared with expected rates. (cdc.gov)
- Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O-2)) that were used for tabulation of Diagnostic subgroups are presented for 15 cancers, as defined by the major types of sarcoma, and for mesotheliomas. (who.int)
- 1998), which the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD- also provides a computer software for creating the subgroups from O). This generally excludes terminology based upon special case listings. (who.int)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
- Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by lymphocytic infiltration into lachrymal and salivary glands, leading to a significant decrease in tear and saliva secretion. (bmj.com)
- 8 A number of studies have described the effect of sex hormones on the female predisposition of autoimmune diseases, including SS. (bmj.com)
- 10 disease terms (MeSH) has been reported with ATP8B1 gene. (cdc.gov)
- A biliary tract biopsy can determine if a tumor started in the liver or spread from another location. (medlineplus.gov)
- Below is a list of liver diseases that may lead to liver transplantation . (chp.edu)
Bile duct disease1
- Bile duct disease is disease that affects any of the ducts of the biliary tract, which are involved in collection and transportation of bile. (nature.com)
- 16 Symptoms of SS are similar to those of chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) caused by the chimeric condition after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). (bmj.com)
- The supernatant was to peptic ulcer disease, gastritis and gastric excluded from the study. (who.int)
- ABSTRACT Earlier reports on the detection of Helicobacter DNA in the gallbladder tissue of patients with biliary diseases have shown discordant results. (who.int)
- Here, the authors show a colitis-triggered protective circuit suppressing cholestatic liver disease which encourages multi-organ treatment strategies for PSC. (nature.com)
- The Gut Microbial Bile Acid Modulation and its Relevance to Digestive Health and Diseases. (amedeo.com)
- As director of the Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, I am responsible for oversight of all Division activities, which cover programs in basic and clinical research as well as training and career development. (nih.gov)
- I served as chairman of the National Commission on Digestive Diseases. (nih.gov)
- The Commission developed a long-range research plan for digestive diseases entitled "Opportunities and Challenges in Digestive Diseases Research: Recommendations of the National Commission on Digestive Diseases. (nih.gov)
- This research plan guides the NIH and scientific and lay communities as they pursue important research avenues for combating digestive diseases. (nih.gov)
- As part of the research plan, the Commission assessed the state of the science in digestive diseases and the related NIH research portfolio, with a view toward identifying areas of research challenge and opportunity. (nih.gov)
- The combined diseases and Helicobacter species have supernatants were incubated at 70 ºC been suggested as a cause of hepatobiliary Data collection for 10 min then 300 µL ethanol were diseases in some animals . (who.int)