Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.
Deoxycytidine is a nucleoside consisting of the pentose sugar deoxyribose linked to the nitrogenous base cytosine, which plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes within cells.
Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A MAMMAGLOBIN A-related secretoglobin that is expressed in several HUMAN tissues including the UTERUS; BREAST; SALIVARY GLAND; and LACRIMAL GLAND.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Imino acids are organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom in their structure, classified as derivatives of amino acids, where the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl group is bonded to a nitrogen atom instead of a hydrogen atom, forming a characteristic imino functional group.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.
Antagonist of urate oxidase.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
An absorbable suture material used also as ligating clips, as pins for internal fixation of broken bones, and as ligament reinforcement for surgically managed ligament injuries. Its promising characteristics are elasticity, complete biodegradability, and lack of side effects such as infections.
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Sterile collagen strands obtained from healthy mammals. They are used as absorbable surgical ligatures and are frequently impregnated with chromium or silver for increased strength. They tend to cause tissue reaction.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A structurally-related family of small, multimeric proteins that are secreted in the mucosa of mammalian epithelial tissues. A variety of proteins are classed under this heading including some secretoglobin subtypes that appear unique to a particular mammalian species, and others whose functions differ between species.
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Vomiting caused by expectation of discomfort or unpleasantness.
A claudin subtype that takes part in maintaining the barrier-forming property of TIGHT JUNCTIONS. Claudin-4 is found associated with CLAUDIN-8 in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT where it may play a role in paracellular chloride ion reabsorption.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. Tokyo is actually the capital city of Japan and is not used as a term in medicine.
Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A cyclin subtype that is found as a component of a heterotrimeric complex containing cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and CDK-activating kinase assembly factor. The complex plays a role in cellular proliferation by phosphorylating several CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES at specific regulatory threonine sites.
Uracil is a nitrogenous base, specifically a pyrimidine derivative, which constitutes one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid), pairing with adenine via hydrogen bonds during base-pairing. (25 words)
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/473)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

Casts of hepatic blood vessels: a comparison of the microcirculation of the penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, with some common laboratory animals. (2/473)

Latex casts of the hepatic blood vessels of the penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, and of some common laboratory animals were compared. There was general similarity between the different species, but the portal venous and hepatic arterial systems of the penguin were simpler than those of other species. Measurements were made of the volume and length of portal veins and it appears that the portal venous system is capable of being a more efficient blood reservoir in the penguin than in other species studied. The peribiliary plexus was especially well formed in the penguin and was drained by long veins which usually joined portal venous branches. Some of the long veins drained directly into the hepatic venous tree: these translobular veins were more prominent than in mammals. Anastomoses between hepatic artery and portal vein were not present in penguins, and the supply to the sinusoids appeared to be separate. The morphology of small hepatic veins of all the species appeared to be similar.  (+info)

Metabolism and disposition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanone (NNK) in rhesus monkeys. (3/473)

Metabolism and disposition of the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent rodent lung carcinogen, were studied in rhesus monkeys. In three males receiving a single i.v. dose of [5-3H]NNK (0.72 mCi; 4.6-9.8 microg/kg), urine was collected for 10 days. Within the first 24 h, 86.0 +/- 0.7% of the dose was excreted. NNK-derived radioactivity was still detectable in urine 10 days after dosing (total excretion, 92.7 +/- 0.7%). Decay of urinary radioactivity was biexponential with half-lives of 1.7 and 42 h. Metabolite patterns in urine from the first 6 h closely resembled those reported previously for patas monkeys; end products of metabolic NNK activation represented more than 50% of total radioactivity. At later time points, the pattern shifted in favor of NNK detoxification products (60-70% of total radioactivity in urine), mainly 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its O-glucuronide conjugates. One female rhesus monkey received a single i.v. dose of [5-3H]NNK (1.72 mCi; 28.4 microg/kg) under isoflurane anesthesia; biliary excretion over 6 h (0.6% of the dose) was 10 times less than predicted by our previously reported rat model. No preferential excretion of NNAL glucuronide was observed in monkey bile. Collectively, these results suggest that the rhesus monkey could be a useful model for NNK metabolism and disposition in humans.  (+info)

Review article: antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). (4/473)

This review examines the evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopan-creatography (ERCP), and provides detailed advice about suitable antibiotic regimens in appropriate high-risk patients. Ascending cholangitis and infective endocarditis are potential complications of endoscopic ERCP. The pathophysiology of these two complications is quite separate and different sub-groups of patients require prophylaxis with appropriate antibiotic regimens. Ascending cholangitis results from bacterial infection of an obstructed biliary system, usually from enteric Gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in bacteraemia. There is incomplete drainage of the biliary system after ERCP in up to 10% of patients who require stenting. Antibiotics started in these patients will probably reduce the frequency of cholangitis by 80%. If antibiotics are restricted to this group, approximately 90% of all patients having an ERCP will avoid antibiotics, but 80% of cholangitic episodes will be prevented. Infective endocarditis may result from the bacteraemia caused at the time of the ERCP in patients with an abnormal heart valve. Antibiotic prophylaxis, in particular covering alpha-haemolytic streptococci, should be started before the procedure in this defined high-risk group.  (+info)

Enterogastric reflux mimicking gallbladder disease: detection, quantitation and potential significance. (5/473)

OBJECTIVE: Visualization of enterogastric reflux (EGR) may be present during hepatobiliary imaging. Reflux of bile may damage the gastric mucosa, altering its function, and cause such symptoms as epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea, intermittent vomiting and abdominal fullness. These symptoms also are associated with gallbladder disease. The aim of this study was to quantitate the EGR index (EGRI) and to determine if a difference exists in normal and abnormal responses using standard cholecystokinin (CCK)-augmented hepatobiliary imaging. METHODS: This study used 129 patients. LAO dynamic data on a 128 x 128 matrix at a rate of 1 frame/min were obtained. After the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) was determined, the EGRI (%) was calculated by relating the counts in the gastric ROI to the counts in the hepatobiliary ROI at a specified time. The results were compared with the patient's final clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: Normal responders (GBEF > or = 35%) had a higher EGRI than abnormal responders with a P = 0.001 EGR observed in 75 patients (58.1%). Significant reflux (EGRI > or = 14.2% at 15 min) was observed in 29 additional patients (22.5%). Patients with EGRI > or = 24.5% showed a strong association with the pathophysiologic syndrome of gastritis, alkaline reflux, gastric ulcer and gastro esophageal reflux disease. There was no EGR observed in the remaining 25 patients (19.4%). CONCLUSION: This simple addition to the CCK-augmented hepatobiliary imaging may both detect and quantitate abnormal EGR as the cause of the patient's symptoms in the presence of a normal GBEF result, and/or those patients with risk factors for gastritis.  (+info)

The role of different P-glycoproteins in hepatobiliary secretion of fluorescently labeled short-chain phospholipids. (6/473)

Class III P-glycoproteins (Pgps) mediate biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Recent findings that class I P-glycoproteins are able to transport several short-chain phospholipid analogues raises questions about the role of these Pgps in physiological lipid transport. We investigated the biliary secretion of C6-7-nitro-2,1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD)-labeled ceramide and its metabolites in Mdr1a/b and Mdr2 knockout mice compared to control mice. Biliary secretion of these NBD-lipids was unaffected in Mdr1a/b -/- mice. Thus neither Mdr1a nor Mdr1b Pgp mediates biliary secretion of these lipids. In contrast, secretion of all three NBD-labeled short-chain phospholipids was significantly reduced in Mdr2 -/- mice. As in vitro studies revealed that Mdr2 Pgp is not able to translocate these lipid analogues, we hypothesized that Mdr2 -/- mice had a reduced PC content of the exoplasmic canalicular membrane leaflet so that extraction of the short-chain lipid probes from this membrane by canalicular bile salts was impaired. To investigate this possibility we studied the bile salt-mediated extraction of natural sphingomyelin (SM) and NBD-labeled short-chain SM from small unilamellar vesicles of different lipid composition. Natural SM could be extracted by the bile salt tauroursodeoxycholate from vesicles containing PC, cholesterol (CHOL), and SM (1:2:2) but not from vesicles containing only SM and CHOL (3:2). NBD-labeled short-chain SM could be extracted from vesicles containing PC while its extraction from pure SM:CHOL vesicles was reduced by 65%. These data confirm that the efficiency of NBD-SM extraction depends on the lipid composition and suggest that the canalicular membrane outer leaflet of Mdr2 -/- mice has a reduced PC content.  (+info)

Cholesterol inhibits spontaneous action potentials and calcium currents in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle. (7/473)

Elevated cholesterol decreases agonist-induced contractility and enhances stone formation in the gallbladder. The current study was conducted to determine if and how the electrical properties and ionic conductances of gallbladder smooth muscle are altered by elevated cholesterol. Cholesterol was delivered as a complex with cyclodextrin, and effects were evaluated with intracellular recordings from intact gallbladder and whole cell patch-clamp recordings from isolated cells. Cholesterol significantly attenuated the spontaneous action potentials of intact tissue. Furthermore, calcium-dependent action potentials and calcium currents were reduced in the intact tissue and in isolated cells, respectively. However, neither membrane potential hyperpolarizations induced by the ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, pinacidil, nor voltage-activated outward potassium currents were affected by cholesterol. Hyperpolarizations elicited by calcitonin gene-related peptide were reduced by cholesterol enrichment, indicating potential changes in receptor ligand binding and/or second messenger interactions. These data indicate that excess cholesterol can contribute to gallbladder stasis by affecting calcium channel activity, whereas potassium channels remained unaffected. In addition, cholesterol enrichment may also modulate receptor ligand behavior and/or second messenger interactions.  (+info)

Metabolism and disposition of [(14)C]1-nitronaphthalene in male Sprague-Dawley rats. (8/473)

In rats and mice, 1-nitronaphthalene (1-NN) produces both lung and liver toxicity. Even though these toxicities have been reported, the metabolism and disposition of 1-NN have not been elucidated. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize its fate after i.p. and i.v. administration to male Sprague-Dawley rats. After i.p. administration of [(14)C]1-NN (100 mg/kg; 60 microCi/kg), 84% of the dose was eliminated in the urine and feces by 48 h. At 96 h, 60% of the dose was recovered in the urine, 32% in the feces, and 1% collectively in the tissues, blood, and gastrointestinal contents. The terminal phase rate constant (k(term)) of 1-NN was 0.21 h(-1), the terminal phase half-life (T(1/2,term)) was 3.40 h, and the systemic bioavailability was 0.67. When administered i.v. (10 mg/kg; 120 microCi/kg), 85% of the dose was eliminated in the urine and feces by 24 h. At the end of the study (96 h), 56% of the dose was recovered in the urine, 36% in the feces, and 1% collectively in the tissues, blood, and gastrointestinal contents. Interestingly, 88% of the dose was secreted into bile by 8 h. The k(term) was 0.94 h(-1) and the T(1/2,term) was 0.77 h. The major urinary metabolite after both routes of administration was N-acetyl-S-(hydroxy-1-nitro-dihydronaphthalene)-L-cysteine. Other urinary metabolites identified include hydroxylated, dihydroxylated, glucuronidated, sulfated, and reduced metabolites, as well as dihydrodiol. The major biliary metabolite was hydroxy-glutathionyl-1-nitro-dihydronaphthalene. These data show that 1-NN undergoes extensive metabolism and enterohepatic recirculation, and the majority of the dose is eliminated in the urine.  (+info)

Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts inside and outside the liver, and the ducts that connect the liver to the small intestine. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant biliary tract neoplasms are often referred to as cholangiocarcinoma if they originate in the bile ducts, or gallbladder cancer if they arise in the gallbladder. These cancers are relatively rare but can be aggressive and difficult to treat. They can cause symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, weight loss, and dark urine.

Risk factors for biliary tract neoplasms include chronic inflammation of the biliary system, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C infection, parasitic infections, and certain genetic conditions. Early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with these neoplasms.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

Gallbladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the gallbladder, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, also known as gallbladder cancer, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Gallbladder neoplasms can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and nausea, but they are often asymptomatic until they have advanced to an advanced stage. The exact causes of gallbladder neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include gallstones, chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, and certain inherited genetic conditions.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are two types of cholangitis: acute and chronic. Acute cholangitis is a sudden and severe infection that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bile ducts through a blockage or obstruction.

Chronic cholangitis, on the other hand, is a long-term inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, itching, and jaundice. Chronic cholangitis can be caused by various factors, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune disease), bile duct stones, or tumors in the bile ducts.

Treatment for cholangitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, and surgery may be necessary to remove blockages or obstructions in the bile ducts. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Choledochostomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening (stoma) into the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. This procedure is typically performed to relieve obstructions or blockages in the bile duct, such as those caused by gallstones, tumors, or scar tissue.

During the choledochostomy procedure, a surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen and exposes the common bile duct. The duct is then cut open, and a small tube (catheter) is inserted into the duct to allow bile to drain out of the body. The catheter may be left in place temporarily or permanently, depending on the underlying condition causing the obstruction.

Choledochostomy is typically performed as an open surgical procedure, but it can also be done using minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopy or robotic-assisted surgery. As with any surgical procedure, choledochostomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. However, these risks are generally low in the hands of an experienced surgeon.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. This blockage can cause bile to build up in the gallbladder, leading to inflammation, swelling, and pain.

Chronic cholecystitis is a long-term inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis or the presence of gallstones that cause ongoing irritation and damage to the gallbladder wall. Over time, chronic cholecystitis can lead to thickening and scarring of the gallbladder wall, which can reduce its ability to function properly.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may worsen after eating fatty foods; fever; nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; and clay-colored stools. Treatment for cholecystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat any infection present, pain relief, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, a nonsurgical procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Extrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile outside of the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption and digestion of fats. When the flow of bile is obstructed or blocked, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, dark urine, light-colored stools, and itching.

Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including gallstones, tumors, strictures, or inflammation of the bile ducts. It is essential to diagnose and treat extrahepatic cholestasis promptly to prevent further complications, such as liver damage or infection. Treatment options may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

A Choledochal cyst is a congenital dilatation or abnormal enlargement of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps in the digestion of fats.

Choledochal cysts can be classified into several types based on their location and the anatomy of the biliary tree. The most common type, called Type I, involves dilatation of the common bile duct. Other types include dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (Type II), dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts (Type III), and multiple cystic dilatations of the bile ducts (Type IV).

Choledochal cysts are more common in females than males, and they can present at any age. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, vomiting, and fever. Complications of choledochal cysts can include bile duct stones, infection, and cancer. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst, followed by reconstruction of the biliary tree.

Deoxycytidine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA, one of the nucleic acids in living organisms. It is a nucleoside, consisting of the sugar deoxyribose and the base cytosine. Deoxycytidine pairs with guanine via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the double helix structure of DNA.

In biochemistry, deoxycytidine can also exist as a free nucleoside, not bound to other molecules. It is involved in various cellular processes related to DNA metabolism and replication. Deoxycytidine can be phosphorylated to form deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP), which is an important intermediate in the synthesis of DNA.

It's worth noting that while deoxycytidine is a component of DNA, its counterpart in RNA is cytidine, which contains ribose instead of deoxyribose as the sugar component.

Gallbladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and structure of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver. The primary role of the gallbladder is to store, concentrate, and release bile into the small intestine to aid in digesting fats. Gallbladder diseases can be chronic or acute and may cause various symptoms, discomfort, or complications if left untreated. Here are some common gallbladder diseases with brief definitions:

1. Cholelithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the gallbladder. Gallstones are small, hard deposits made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or a combination of both, which can vary in size from tiny grains to several centimeters.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by obstruction of the cystic duct (the tube connecting the gallbladder and the common bile duct) due to a gallstone. This condition can be acute or chronic and may cause abdominal pain, fever, and tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
3. Choledocholithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the common bile duct, which can lead to obstruction, jaundice, and potential infection of the biliary system (cholangitis).
4. Acalculous gallbladder disease: Gallbladder dysfunction or inflammation without the presence of gallstones. This condition is often seen in critically ill patients and can lead to similar symptoms as cholecystitis.
5. Gallbladder polyps: Small growths attached to the inner wall of the gallbladder. While most polyps are benign, some may have malignant potential, especially if they are larger than 1 cm in size or associated with certain risk factors.
6. Gallbladder cancer: A rare form of cancer that originates in the gallbladder tissue. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can be challenging to diagnose. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, or a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing symptoms related to gallbladder disease for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to an excess of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Bilirubin is a yellow-orange pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Normally, bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile into the digestive system. However, if there's an issue with bilirubin metabolism or elimination, it can accumulate in the body, leading to jaundice.

Jaundice can be a symptom of various underlying conditions, such as liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis), gallbladder issues (gallstones, tumors), or blood disorders (hemolysis). It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if jaundice is observed, as it may indicate a severe health problem requiring prompt medical attention.

CA 19-9 antigen, also known as carbohydrate antigen 19-9, is a tumor marker that is commonly found in the blood. It is a type of sialylated Lewis blood group antigen, which is a complex carbohydrate molecule found on the surface of many cells in the body.

CA 19-9 antigen is often elevated in people with certain types of cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer, bile duct cancer, and colon cancer. However, it can also be elevated in noncancerous conditions such as pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, and cholestasis. Therefore, CA 19-9 antigen is not a specific or sensitive marker for cancer, and its use as a screening test for cancer is not recommended.

Instead, CA 19-9 antigen is often used as a tumor marker to monitor the response to treatment in people with known cancers, particularly pancreatic cancer. A decrease in CA 19-9 antigen levels may indicate that the cancer is responding to treatment, while an increase may suggest that the cancer is growing or has recurred. However, it is important to note that CA 19-9 antigen levels can also be affected by other factors, such as the size and location of the tumor, the presence of obstructive jaundice, and the patient's overall health status. Therefore, CA 19-9 antigen should always be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

Mammaglobin B is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, "mammaglobin" refers to a protein that is primarily expressed in the mammary glands and has been studied as a potential biomarker for breast cancer. There are different isoforms of mammaglobin, including mammaglobin A and mammaglobin B.

Mammaglobin B is a splice variant of the mammaglobin gene, which means it arises from alternative splicing of the same genetic material that encodes mammaglobin A. Mammaglobin B has been detected in normal mammary gland tissue and breast cancer cells, but its clinical significance and role in breast cancer biology are not well understood.

It is important to note that while some studies have investigated the potential use of mammaglobin B as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for breast cancer, its utility in this context remains uncertain and further research is needed to establish its clinical value.

A jejunostomy is a surgical procedure where an opening (stoma) is created in the lower part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. This stoma allows for the passage of nutrients and digestive enzymes from the small intestine into a tube or external pouch, bypassing the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).

Jejunostomy is typically performed to provide enteral nutrition support in patients who are unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, gastroparesis, bowel obstruction, or after certain surgical procedures. The jejunostomy tube can be used for short-term or long-term nutritional support, depending on the patient's needs and underlying medical condition.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Pancreatic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the structure and function of the pancreas, a vital organ located in the abdomen. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function, which involves the production of digestive enzymes that help break down food in the small intestine, and an endocrine function, which involves the production of hormones such as insulin and glucagon that regulate blood sugar levels.

Pancreatic diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as acute pancreatitis, which is characterized by sudden inflammation of the pancreas, and chronic pancreatitis, which is a long-term inflammation that can lead to scarring and loss of function.

Non-inflammatory pancreatic diseases include conditions such as pancreatic cancer, which is a malignant tumor that can arise from the cells of the pancreas, and benign tumors such as cysts or adenomas. Other non-inflammatory conditions include pancreatic insufficiency, which can occur when the pancreas does not produce enough digestive enzymes, and diabetes mellitus, which can result from impaired insulin production or action.

Overall, pancreatic diseases can have serious consequences on a person's health and quality of life, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for optimal outcomes.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

The cystic duct is a short tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. The cystic duct allows bile to flow from the gallbladder into the common bile duct when it is needed for digestion. It is a part of the biliary system and plays an important role in the digestive process.

The urinary tract is a system in the body responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter waste and excess fluids from the blood to produce urine, which then travels down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is released through the urethra during urination. Any part of this system can become infected or inflamed, leading to conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or kidney stones.

Imino acids are organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom as part of an amide-like structure. They are structurally similar to amino acids, which contain a carboxyl group and an amino group, but instead of the amino group, imino acids have a structural unit known as an imine or Schiff base, which is a carbon-nitrogen double bond with a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom.

One example of an imino acid is proline, which is a cyclic imino acid that plays important roles in protein structure and function. Proline is unique among the 20 standard amino acids because its side chain is linked to the nitrogen atom of the backbone, forming a ring-like structure. This structural feature gives proline unique properties, such as restricted rotation around the bond between the nitrogen and alpha carbon atoms, which can affect protein folding and stability.

Other imino acids may be formed through chemical reactions or enzymatic processes, and they can play important roles in various biological pathways, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. However, imino acids are not typically considered to be part of the standard set of 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive disease characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bile ducts, leading to their narrowing or obstruction. This results in impaired bile flow from the liver to the small intestine, which can cause damage to the liver cells and eventually result in cirrhosis and liver failure.

The condition often affects both the intrahepatic (within the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors.

Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which can visualize the bile ducts and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis is aimed at managing symptoms, preventing complications, and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include medications to relieve itching, antibiotics to treat infections, and drugs to reduce inflammation and improve bile flow. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Tegafur is an antineoplastic agent, which is a type of drug used to treat cancer. It is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), meaning that it is converted into 5-FU in the body after administration. 5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis, ultimately leading to the death of cancer cells.

Tegafur is used alone or in combination with other antineoplastic agents to treat various types of cancers, including colon, rectal, gastric, breast, and head and neck cancers. It works by disrupting the growth of cancer cells, which are rapidly dividing cells.

Like all chemotherapeutic agents, Tegafur has potential side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and hair loss. Additionally, it can cause myelosuppression, a condition in which the production of blood cells in the bone marrow is decreased, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding. Therefore, patients receiving Tegafur require regular monitoring of their blood counts and other laboratory tests to ensure that they are tolerating the treatment well.

'Digestive System Neoplasms' refer to new and abnormal growths of tissue in the digestive system that can be benign or malignant. These growths are also known as tumors, and they can occur in any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon and rectum), liver, bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder. Neoplasms in the digestive system can interfere with normal digestion and absorption of nutrients, cause bleeding, obstruct the digestive tract, and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis) if they are malignant.

Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not usually spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically and may not require further treatment. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for malignant neoplasms in the digestive system typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

The causes of digestive system neoplasms are varied and include genetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle factors (such as diet and smoking), and infectious agents. Prevention strategies may include maintaining a healthy diet, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, practicing safe sex, getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, and undergoing regular screenings for certain types of neoplasms (such as colonoscopies for colorectal cancer).

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

The pyramidal tracts, also known as the corticospinal tracts, are bundles of nerve fibers that run through the brainstem and spinal cord, originating from the cerebral cortex. These tracts are responsible for transmitting motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and control of the body.

The pyramidal tracts originate from the primary motor cortex in the frontal lobe of the brain and decussate (cross over) in the lower medulla oblongata before continuing down the spinal cord. The left pyramidal tract controls muscles on the right side of the body, while the right pyramidal tract controls muscles on the left side of the body.

Damage to the pyramidal tracts can result in various motor impairments, such as weakness or paralysis, spasticity, and loss of fine motor control, depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Endoscopic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a light and camera) to cut the papilla of Vater, which contains the sphincter of Oddi muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat gallstones or to manage other conditions related to the bile ducts or pancreatic ducts.

The sphincterotomy helps to widen the opening of the papilla, allowing stones or other obstructions to pass through more easily. It may also be used to relieve pressure and pain caused by spasms of the sphincter of Oddi muscle. The procedure is usually done under sedation or anesthesia and carries a risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation, and pancreatitis.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Hemobilia is a medical condition that refers to the presence of blood in the bile ducts, which can lead to the passage of blood in the stool or vomiting of blood (hematemesis). This condition usually results from a traumatic injury, rupture of a blood vessel, or a complication from a medical procedure involving the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts. In some cases, hemobilia may also be caused by tumors or abnormal blood vessels in the liver. Symptoms of hemobilia can include abdominal pain, jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to visualize the bile ducts and identify the source of bleeding. Treatment may involve endovascular procedures, surgery, or other interventions to stop the bleeding and manage any underlying conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxonic Acid" is not a recognized term in medical or clinical sciences. It is, however, a chemical compound with the formula C5H7NO5. It is a type of organic acid that is used in research and industrial settings, particularly as a precursor in the synthesis of other chemicals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian physiologist who discovered it in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi has two parts: the sphincter papillae, which surrounds the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, and the sphincter choledochus, which is located more proximally in the bile duct. The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help regulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the flow of bile from the liver to aid in digestion.

Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct, which is the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that can form in the gallbladder or, less commonly, in the bile ducts.

Choledocholithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infection or inflammation of the bile ducts or pancreas, which can be life-threatening.

The condition is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention to remove the gallstones from the common bile duct.

Polydioxanone (PDO) is a synthetic, absorbable monofilament suture material that is commonly used in surgical procedures. It is made from a polymer of polydioxanone and has a variety of medical uses, including soft tissue approximation and ligation. PDO sutures are known for their high tensile strength and slow absorption rate, which can make them ideal for use in surgeries where long-term support is needed before the suture is fully absorbed by the body. The absorbable nature of PDO sutures also eliminates the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

In summary, Polydioxanone (PDO) is a synthetic, absorbable monofilament suture material that is commonly used in surgical procedures due to its high tensile strength and slow absorption rate.

Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine imaging procedures, specifically for hepatobiliary scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled compound, where the radioisotope technetium-99m (^99m^Tc) is bound to lidofenin, a liver-imaging agent.

The compound is used to assess the function and anatomy of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary system. After intravenous administration, Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is taken up by hepatocytes (liver cells) and excreted into the bile ducts and ultimately into the small intestine. The distribution and excretion of this radiopharmaceutical can be monitored using a gamma camera, providing functional information about the liver and biliary system.

It is essential to note that the use of Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin should be under the guidance and supervision of healthcare professionals trained in nuclear medicine, as its administration and handling require specific expertise and safety measures due to the radioactive nature of the compound.

Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a type of surgical connection between two parts of the gastrointestinal tract, typically performed during gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. In this procedure, a small pouch is created from the upper stomach, and the remaining portion of the stomach is bypassed. The Roux limb, a segment of the small intestine, is then connected to both the pouch and the bypassed stomach, creating two separate channels for food and digestive juices to mix. This surgical technique helps to reduce the amount of food that can be consumed and absorbed, leading to weight loss.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Common bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths that can occur in the common bile duct, which is a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms of the common bile duct include papillomas, adenomas, and leiomyomas. Malignant neoplasms are typically adenocarcinomas, which arise from the glandular cells lining the duct. Other types of malignancies that can affect the common bile duct include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and metastatic cancer from other sites.

Symptoms of common bile duct neoplasms may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Diagnosis may involve imaging tests such as CT scans or MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) and biopsy to confirm the type of neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Obstructive Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. This occurs when there is an obstruction or blockage in the bile ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Bile, which contains bilirubin, aids in digestion and is usually released from the liver into the small intestine. When the flow of bile is obstructed, bilirubin builds up in the blood, causing jaundice. The obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as gallstones, tumors, or strictures in the bile ducts.

Obstructive jaundice may present with additional symptoms like dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, abdominal pain, and weight loss, depending on the cause and severity of the obstruction. It is essential to seek medical attention if jaundice is observed, as timely diagnosis and management can prevent potential complications, such as liver damage or infection.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

Catgut is a type of surgical suture that is made from the natural fibrous collagen tissue found in the walls of sheep or goat intestines. Despite its name, catgut sutures do not contain any material from cats. The term "catgut" is believed to have originated due to the similarity in texture and handling between these surgical sutures and actual cat gut.

The process of creating catgut sutures involves cleaning, disinfecting, and treating the intestinal tissue with various chemicals to make it stronger, more flexible, and less likely to cause an immune response when implanted in the body. Catgut sutures are absorbable, which means that they gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. This makes them ideal for use in soft tissues where a permanent suture is not necessary.

Catgut sutures have been used in surgical procedures for many years, but their popularity has declined in recent decades due to the development of synthetic absorbable sutures that are more consistent in strength and duration of absorption. However, catgut sutures are still used in some medical applications today, particularly in ophthalmic surgery and certain types of orthopedic procedures.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Antimetabolites are a class of antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs that interfere with the metabolism of cancer cells and inhibit their growth and proliferation. These agents are structurally similar to naturally occurring metabolites, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and folic acid, which are essential for cellular replication and growth. Antimetabolites act as false analogs and get incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or RNA, causing disruption of the normal synthesis process, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of antimetabolite drugs include:

1. Folate antagonists: Methotrexate, Pemetrexed
2. Purine analogs: Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Cladribine
3. Pyrimidine analogs: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Capecitabine, Cytarabine, Gemcitabine

These drugs are used to treat various types of cancers, such as leukemias, lymphomas, breast, ovarian, and gastrointestinal cancers. Due to their mechanism of action, antimetabolites can also affect normal, rapidly dividing cells in the body, leading to side effects like myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), mucositis (inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Lithiasis is a medical term that refers to the formation of stones or calculi in various organs of the body. These stones can develop in the kidneys (nephrolithiasis), gallbladder (cholelithiasis), urinary bladder (cystolithiasis), or salivary glands (sialolithiasis). The stones are usually composed of minerals and organic substances, and their formation can be influenced by various factors such as diet, dehydration, genetic predisposition, and chronic inflammation. Lithiasis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location and size of the stone, including pain, obstruction, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. Treatment may involve medication, shock wave lithotripsy, or surgical removal of the stones.

Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs when there is a problem with the transport of bile components inside the liver cells (hepatocytes). This can lead to an accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin, and other substances in the liver, which can cause damage to liver cells and result in symptoms such as jaundice, itching, and dark urine.

Intrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including medications, alcohol abuse, hepatitis viruses, autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, and cancer. Depending on the underlying cause, intrahepatic cholestasis can be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Biliary dyskinesia is a medical condition characterized by abnormal or impaired motility of the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder and the bile ducts. This can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting, particularly after eating fatty foods.

In biliary dyskinesia, the gallbladder may not contract properly or may contract too much, leading to a backup of bile in the liver or bile ducts. This can cause inflammation and irritation of the biliary system and surrounding tissues.

The condition is often diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine scans, or MRI, which can help assess gallbladder function and detect any abnormalities in the biliary system. Treatment for biliary dyskinesia may include medications to improve gallbladder motility, dietary modifications, or in some cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder.

A liver abscess is a localized collection of pus within the liver tissue caused by an infection. It can result from various sources such as bacterial or amebic infections that spread through the bloodstream, bile ducts, or directly from nearby organs. The abscess may cause symptoms like fever, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. If left untreated, a liver abscess can lead to serious complications, including sepsis and organ failure. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like ultrasound or CT scan, followed by drainage of the pus and antibiotic treatment.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Secretoglobins are a family of small, secreted proteins that are characterized by their unique structure, which includes two conserved cysteine residues and a characteristic pattern of disulfide bonds. They are found in various body fluids such as tears, saliva, and milk, and are believed to play a role in immune response and inflammation. Some secretoglobins have been shown to bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules, while others may function as growth factors or have anti-microbial properties. The specific functions of individual secretoglobins are still being studied and elucidated.

The pancreatic ducts are a set of tubular structures within the pancreas that play a crucial role in the digestive system. The main pancreatic duct, also known as the duct of Wirsung, is responsible for transporting pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate-rich fluid from the pancreas to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The exocrine portion of the pancreas contains numerous smaller ducts called interlobular ducts and intralobular ducts that merge and ultimately join the main pancreatic duct. This system ensures that the digestive enzymes and fluids produced by the pancreas are effectively delivered to the small intestine, where they aid in the breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food.

In addition to the main pancreatic duct, there is an accessory pancreatic duct, also known as Santorini's duct, which can sometimes join the common bile duct before emptying into the duodenum through a shared opening called the ampulla of Vater. However, in most individuals, the accessory pancreatic duct usually drains into the main pancreatic duct before entering the duodenum.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Anticipatory vomiting is a condition characterized by the experience of nausea and vomiting in response to a stimulus that a person has learned to associate with previous episodes of emesis (vomiting). It is often observed in patients who have undergone chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The sight, smell, taste, or even thought of the treatment setting can trigger the body's vomiting reflex, even before any medication is administered. This condition can be distressing and may negatively impact a patient's quality of life. Various interventions, such as behavioral therapies, relaxation techniques, and medications, can be used to manage anticipatory vomiting.

Claudin-4 is a protein that belongs to the family of claudins, which are major components of tight junctions in cells. Tight junctions are specialized structures that serve as barriers between adjacent cells, controlling the paracellular movement of ions, solutes, and water. Claudin-4 is primarily expressed in epithelial tissues, where it plays a crucial role in maintaining cell-to-cell adhesion and regulating the permeability of tight junctions.

Claudin-4 has been identified as a potential biomarker for various cancers, including ovarian, pancreatic, and gastric cancers. Its overexpression is often associated with increased malignancy, invasiveness, and poor prognosis in these cancers. Additionally, claudin-4 is involved in the regulation of cell signaling pathways, inflammation, and immune responses, making it a target for therapeutic interventions in cancer and other diseases.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Japan and the country's largest metropolitan area. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Transhepatic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the incision or cutting of the papilla of Vater, which is a small muscular structure located at the junction of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct, with the ampulla of Vater, within the second part of the duodenum. This procedure is performed using a special type of endoscope that is passed through the liver (transhepatically) to access the bile ducts.

The goal of transhepatic sphincterotomy is to relieve obstructions or blockages in the bile ducts, such as gallstones or tumors, that cannot be removed using other endoscopic techniques. This procedure is typically performed by an interventional radiologist or a gastroenterologist with specialized training in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Transhepatic sphincterotomy is considered a higher-risk procedure than traditional ERCP sphincterotomy due to the need for liver puncture and the potential complications associated with this approach, including bleeding, infection, and injury to surrounding organs. However, it may be necessary in certain situations where traditional ERCP is not feasible or has failed.

Cefazolin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefazolin is commonly used to treat infections of the skin, bones, joints, heart, lungs, and urinary tract. It may also be used to prevent infection during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefazolin is only effective against certain types of bacteria, so it is important to know the specific type of bacteria causing an infection before using this medication.

Cefazolin is usually given as an injection into a vein or muscle, and may be administered in a hospital setting or at home with proper training. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status.

As with any medication, cefazolin can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, and rash. In rare cases, it may also cause serious side effects such as allergic reactions, kidney damage, or abnormal blood clotting. It is important to report any unusual symptoms to a healthcare provider promptly.

It is essential to complete the full course of treatment with cefazolin, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is fully treated and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Acute cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) that develops suddenly (acute). The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located in the upper right part of the abdomen, beneath the liver. It stores bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, which helps break down fats in the food we eat.

Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed and irritated, often due to the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder into the small intestine. When the cystic duct is obstructed, bile builds up in the gallbladder, causing it to become swollen, inflamed, and infected.

Symptoms of acute cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often located in the upper right or middle part of the abdomen, that may radiate to the back or shoulder blade area. Other symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal tenderness or swelling.

Acute cholecystitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment may involve hospitalization, antibiotics to treat infection, pain relief medications, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, nonsurgical treatments such as endoscopic sphincterotomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy may be used to relieve obstruction and inflammation.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Keratin-7 is not a medical term itself, but it is a specific type of keratin protein that is often used in pathology as a marker for certain types of carcinomas. Keratins are a family of fibrous proteins that make up the structural framework of epithelial cells, which line the surfaces and glands of the body.

Keratin-7 is typically expressed in simple epithelia, such as those found in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, bile ducts, and respiratory and genitourinary tracts. It can be used as a marker to help identify carcinomas that arise from these tissues, such as adenocarcinomas of the pancreas or biliary system.

In medical terminology, keratin-7 positivity is often reported in the pathology report of a biopsy or surgical specimen to indicate the presence of this protein in cancer cells. This information can be helpful in determining the origin and behavior of the tumor, as well as guiding treatment decisions.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

A fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) is a type of biochemical test that uses fluorescence to detect and measure the presence or concentration of a specific component, such as a protein or hormone, in a sample. In a FIA, the sample is mixed with a reagent that contains a fluorescent label, which binds to the target component. When the mixture is exposed to light of a specific wavelength, the labeled component emits light at a different wavelength, allowing it to be detected and measured.

FIAs are often used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, as they can provide sensitive and accurate measurements of specific components in biological samples. They are also used in research settings to study the interactions between biomolecules and to develop new diagnostic tests.

Biliary atresia is a rare, progressive liver disease in infants and children, characterized by the inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction of the bile ducts. This results in the impaired flow of bile from the liver to the intestine, leading to cholestasis (accumulation of bile in the liver), jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and eventually liver cirrhosis and failure if left untreated.

The exact cause of biliary atresia is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It can occur as an isolated condition or in association with other congenital anomalies. The diagnosis of biliary atresia is typically made through imaging studies, such as ultrasound and cholangiography, and confirmed by liver biopsy.

The standard treatment for biliary atresia is a surgical procedure called the Kasai portoenterostomy, which aims to restore bile flow from the liver to the intestine. In this procedure, the damaged bile ducts are removed and replaced with a loop of intestine that is connected directly to the liver. The success of the Kasai procedure depends on several factors, including the age at diagnosis and surgery, the extent of liver damage, and the skill and experience of the surgeon.

Despite successful Kasai surgery, many children with biliary atresia will eventually develop cirrhosis and require liver transplantation. The prognosis for children with biliary atresia has improved significantly over the past few decades due to earlier diagnosis, advances in surgical techniques, and better postoperative care. However, it remains a challenging condition that requires close monitoring and multidisciplinary management by pediatric hepatologists, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals.

Pancreatic juice is an alkaline fluid secreted by the exocrine component of the pancreas, primarily containing digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and trypsin. These enzymes aid in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively, in the small intestine during the digestion process. The bicarbonate ions present in pancreatic juice help neutralize the acidic chyme that enters the duodenum from the stomach, creating an optimal environment for enzymatic activity.

'Fasciola hepatica' is a medical term that refers to a type of flatworm, specifically a liver fluke, which is a parasitic flatworm that infects the livers of various animals, including sheep, cattle, and humans. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving aquatic snails as an intermediate host and can cause significant damage to the liver and bile ducts in its definitive host. Infection with Fasciola hepatica is known as fascioliasis, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice.

Cyclin H is a type of protein that is classified as a cyclin, which is a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Specifically, Cyclin H forms a complex with CDK7 and functions as an essential component of the cell cycle transcriptional coactivator known as TFIIH.

TFIIH plays a crucial role in the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II and also participates in the process of DNA repair. The Cyclin H-CDK7 complex phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, which is a critical step in the transcription cycle. Additionally, Cyclin H-CDK7 also plays a role in regulating the cell cycle by controlling the activity of certain cell cycle regulators, such as E2F transcription factors.

Mutations in the gene that encodes Cyclin H have been associated with certain human diseases, including a rare inherited disorder called Cockayne syndrome, which is characterized by developmental abnormalities, neurological dysfunction, and premature aging.

Uracil is not a medical term, but it is a biological molecule. Medically or biologically, uracil can be defined as one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is linked to a ribose sugar by an N-glycosidic bond. It forms base pairs with adenine in double-stranded RNA and DNA. Uracil is a pyrimidine derivative, similar to thymine found in DNA, but it lacks the methyl group (-CH3) that thymine has at the 5 position of its ring.

Pathologic dilatation refers to an abnormal and excessive widening or enlargement of a body cavity or organ, which can result from various medical conditions. This abnormal dilation can occur in different parts of the body, including the blood vessels, digestive tract, airways, or heart chambers.

In the context of the cardiovascular system, pathologic dilatation may indicate a weakening or thinning of the heart muscle, leading to an enlarged chamber that can no longer pump blood efficiently. This condition is often associated with various heart diseases, such as cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or long-standing high blood pressure.

In the gastrointestinal tract, pathologic dilatation may occur due to mechanical obstruction, neuromuscular disorders, or inflammatory conditions that affect the normal motility of the intestines. Examples include megacolon in Hirschsprung's disease, toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis, or volvulus (twisting) of the bowel.

Pathologic dilatation can lead to various complications, such as reduced organ function, impaired circulation, and increased risk of infection or perforation. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the root problem and prevent further enlargement.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

The biliary tract can also serve as a reservoir for intestinal tract infections. Since the biliary tract is an internal organ, ... The biliary tract (also biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, and how they work ... Franco, J.; Saeian, K. (April 1999). "Biliary tract inflammatory disorders: primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary ... Chronic inflammatory conditions of the biliary tract, including Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) and Primary Biliary ...
Biliary colic usually occurs after meals when the gallbladder contracts to push bile out into the digestive tract. After a ... Doherty GM (2015). "Biliary Tract". In Doherty GM (ed.). CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery (14 ed.). New York, NY: McGraw- ... Jarnagin WR, Belghiti J, Blumgart LH (2012). Blumgart's surgery of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas (5th ed.). ... Most bile injuries require repair by a surgeon with special training in biliary reconstruction. If biliary injuries are ...
"Biliary Tract Diseases". Nih.gov. Retrieved 24 December 2016. "Pancreatic Diseases". Nih.gov. Retrieved 24 December 2016. "NLM ... biliary tract and pancreas 2. MeSH (medical subject heading):sam G02.403.776.409.405 same as "Gastroenterology" C06.552 Liver ... National Library of Medicine Catalogue WI 700-740 Liver and biliary tree Diseases WI 800-830 Pancrease Also see Hepato-biliary ... Hepatology is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as ...
Other biliary tract cancers include gallbladder cancer and cancer of the ampulla of Vater. Risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma ... West J, Wood H, Logan RF, Quinn M, Aithal GP (June 2006). "Trends in the incidence of primary liver and biliary tract cancers ... de Groen PC, Gores GJ, LaRusso NF, Gunderson LL, Nagorney DM (October 1999). "Biliary tract cancers". New England Journal of ... December 2015). "Biliary tract cancers: SEOM clinical guidelines". Clinical & Translational Oncology. 17 (12): 982-7. doi: ...
... and portal tract and their inter-relations The biliary tract is derived from the branches of the bile ducts. The biliary tract ... ISBN 978-81-8061-833-8.[permanent dead link] McMinn, R.M.H. (2003). "Liver and Biliary Tract". Last's Anatomy: Regional and ... The bipotential hepatoblasts begin differentiating into biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. The biliary epithelial cells ... Primary biliary cholangitis is an autoimmune disease of the liver. It is marked by slow progressive destruction of the small ...
Biliary Tract, & Pancreas Disorders. In Papadakis M.A., McPhee S.J., Rabow M.W. (Eds), Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment ... Of all people with stones, 1-4% have biliary colic each year. If untreated, about 20% of people with biliary colic develop ... However, when a gallstone temporarily lodges in the cystic duct, they experience biliary colic. Biliary colic is abdominal pain ... "Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease". Arch. Intern. Med. 154 ( ...
Imaging of the bile ducts, such as ERCP or MRCP (MRI of biliary tract and pancreas) may aid in the diagnosis. The best ... Liver, Biliary Tract, & Pancreas Disorders. ISBN 978-0071806336. Machado MV, Diehl AM (2018). "Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic ... In primary biliary cholangitis (previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis), the bile ducts become damaged by an autoimmune ... In primary biliary cholangitis, there is fibrosis around the bile duct, the presence of granulomas and pooling of bile. Lastly ...
Biliary Tract Disease Pediatric Surgery. 61 (5): 1137-1145. doi:10.1016/S0039-6109(16)42537-5. PMID 7313928. Yeap E, Pacilli M ... Typically, this condition is caused by a bacterial infection including a urinary tract infection or a sexually transmitted ... urinary tract infection, and many others. The assessment may include social history, family history (ex: congenital anomalies ...
Patman, Gillian (2015). "Biliary tract: Newly identified biliatresone causes biliary atresia". Nature Reviews Gastroenterology ... Biliary atresia is most common in East Asia, with a frequency of one in 5,000. The cause of biliary atresia in Egyptian infants ... If left untreated, biliary atresia can lead to liver failure. Unlike other forms of jaundice, however, biliary-atresia-related ... Syndromic biliary atresia (e.g. Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation (BASM)) has been associated with certain genes (e.g. ...
... and biliary tract tumors; and various skin lesions including Gardner fibromas and desmoid tumors. Individuals with FAP should ...
Egan, Schechter & Voynow 2020, "Biliary Tract". Moran A, Pyzdrowski KL, Weinreb J, Kahn BB, Smith SA, Adams KS, Seaquist ER ( ... The adverse effects of bisphosphates taken by mouth on the gastrointestinal tract are not known. Poor growth may be avoided by ... Williams SG, Westaby D, Tanner MS, Mowat AP (October 1992). "Liver and biliary problems in cystic fibrosis". British Medical ... Around 5-7% of people experience liver damage severe enough to cause symptoms: typically gallstones causing biliary colic. The ...
ISBN 978-0-691-02873-6. Crawford JM, Liver and Biliary Tract. Pathologic Basis of Disease, ed. Kumar V, et al. 2005, ... bigger spores have a better chance of settling in the upper respiratory tract. The deposition of certain spore sizes could be a ...
Gore, Richard M. (2007). "Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging". Cancer Imaging. 7 (Special Issue A): S15-S23. doi: ... Abdominal pain could indicate biliary tract obstruction and cirrhosis. Urinalysis serves as a first-line diagnostic tool. ... "Jaundice - Hepatic and Biliary Disorders". MSD Manual Professional Edition. Retrieved 2022-03-29. Sullivan, Jeremy I.; Rockey, ... Once obstruction from the biliary tree is removed, normal bilirubin elimination should resume. Currently, vaccination is most ...
An ultrasound is conducted to establish the location of biliary tract obstruction as well as the diameter of the CBD. ... Pre-surgical biliary stenting (a tube used to keep the biliary duct open) should be avoided, as it increases the likelihood of ... Gore RM, Shelhamer RP (October 2007). "Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging". Cancer Imaging. 7 Spec No A (Special ... Sung JY, Costerton JW, Shaffer EA (May 1992). "Defense system in the biliary tract against bacterial infection". Digestive ...
... fistula of biliary tract spasm of sphincter of Oddi biliary cyst biliary atresia GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, ... Biliary diseases include gallbladder disease and biliary tract diseases. In 2013 they resulted in 106,000 deaths up from 81,000 ... fistula cholesterolosis biliary dyskinesia K83: other diseases of the biliary tract: cholangitis (including ascending ... malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder malignant neoplasm of other parts of biliary tract extrahepatic bile duct ampulla of ...
Kim, Chun K; Joo, Junghyun; Lee, Seokmo (2015). "Digestive System 2: Liver and Biliary Tract". In Elgazzar, Abedlhamid H (ed ... 1994). "Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease". Arch Intern Med. ... Cholescintigraphic scanning is a nuclear medicine procedure to evaluate the health and function of the gallbladder and biliary ... If the noninvasive ultrasound examination fails to demonstrate gallstones, or other obstruction to the gallbladder or biliary ...
It is agreed that the initial operation resulted in biliary tract damage, a complication well recognised at the time, and much ... In light of recurrent biliary tract infections, Evans recommended an operation. Three surgeons were recommended and the ... Biliary Tract Saga". Annals of Surgery. 238 (5): 772-775. doi:10.1097/01.sla.0000094443.60313.da. ISSN 0003-4932. PMC 1356158. ...
Pneumobilia means air in the biliary tract. It is due to the transfer of air from bowel through the fistula into the biliary ... tract.[citation needed] Clarke, Christopher (2015). Abdominal X-rays for Medical Students. John Wiley & Sons. p. 33. ISBN ...
"NTRK gene fusions in biliary tract cancers". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 38 (4_suppl): 574. doi:10.1200/JCO.2020.38.4_suppl. ...
Karaliotas, Constantine C.; Broelsch, Christoph E.; Habib, Nagy A. (2008-01-09). Liver and Biliary Tract Surgery: Embryological ... ISBN 978-3-211-49277-2. (CS1: long volume value, Biliary tract disorders). ...
Braasch, John W. (November 2003). "Anthony Eden's (Lord Avon) biliary tract saga". Annals of Surgery. 238 (5): 772-775. doi: ...
Braasch, John W. (24 November 2003). "Anthony Eden's (Lord Avon) Biliary Tract Saga". Annals of Surgery. 238 (5): 772-775. doi: ... Biliary Tract Saga. Ann Surg. 2003 Nov; 238(5): 772-775. Rhodes James 1986, p. 620. "Clarissa Eden: A witness to history". The ... biliary tract saga." Annals of surgery 238.5 (2003): 772-775. Online Archived 8 November 2021 at the Wayback Machine Cecil ... He suffered further with symptoms of biliary obstruction and required further revisional surgery on three more occasions in ...
... and patients with biliary tract infections. Other uses include applications in surgical infection prophylaxis; in biliary ... p. 1. ISBN 978-0-340-92767-0. Westphal JF, Brogard JM (January 1999). "Biliary tract infections: a guide to drug treatment". ... Piperacillin may be actively diffused through filtration into the biliary tract during renal clearing, indicated by a generally ... As the gastrointestinal tract does not absorb piperacillin and tazobactam, they are dissolved in a solution before being ...
Patman, G. (2015). "Biliary tract: Newly identified biliatresone causes biliary atresia". Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 12 (7 ... It has been found to cause extrahepatic biliary atresia in a zebrafish model. The enone moiety of biliatresone is particularly ... May 2015). "Identification of a plant isoflavonoid that causes biliary atresia". Sci Transl Med. 7 (286): 286ra67. doi:10.1126/ ... 2016). "Reactivity of biliatresone, a natural biliary toxin, with glutathione, histamine, and amino acids". Chem. Res. Toxicol ...
... research on the pathogenesis of biliary tract stones; studies of drug-induced and viral hepatitis and studies on small ... alcohol-related disorders and genetic syndromes of the gastrointestinal tract, to name a few. Gasbarrini has contributed much ...
Surgery of the liver and biliary tract, 2005. Complicated glaucoma, 2005. Social and biomedical aspects of tissue ...
Surgery of the Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas. Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc, 2007 Tseng JF, Pisters PW, Lee JE, et al. (April ... "In-hospital mortality after resection of biliary tract cancer in the United States". HPB (Oxford). 12 (1): 62-67. doi:10.1111/j ... hepato biliary disease, vascular disease, colorectal disease, plastic and reconstructive surgery, and transplant medicine. ... "Surgical specialization and operative mortality in hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) surgery". J. Gastrointest. Surg. 12 (9): ...
Any part of the GI tract can be affected, and isolated biliary tract involvement has also been reported. The stomach is the ... "Biliary tract disease: a rare manifestation of eosinophilic gastroenteritis". Dig. Dis. Sci. 48 (3): 624-7. doi:10.1023/A: ... The damage to the gastrointestinal tract wall is caused by eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation. As a part of host ... Blackshaw A, Levison D (1986). "Eosinophilic infiltrates of the gastrointestinal tract". J. Clin. Pathol. 39 (1): 1-7. doi: ...
"Biliary tract disease: a rare manifestation of eosinophilic gastroenteritis". Dig. Dis. Sci. 48 (3): 624-7. doi:10.1023/A: ... Blackshaw A, Levison D (1986). "Eosinophilic infiltrates of the gastrointestinal tract". J. Clin. Pathol. 39 (1): 1-7. doi: ...
Sung JY, Costerton JW, Shaffer EA (May 1992). "Defense system in the biliary tract against bacterial infection". Dig Dis Sci. ... is a circular muscle that controls the release of both bile and pancreatic secretions into the digestive tract. The biliary ... may be performed to evaluate the biliary system for placement of a percutaneous biliary drain (PBD). This is often necessary in ... The biliary system normally has low pressure (8 to 12 cmH2O) and allows bile to flow freely through. The continuous forward ...
The biliary tract can also serve as a reservoir for intestinal tract infections. Since the biliary tract is an internal organ, ... The biliary tract (also biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, and how they work ... Franco, J.; Saeian, K. (April 1999). "Biliary tract inflammatory disorders: primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary ... Chronic inflammatory conditions of the biliary tract, including Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) and Primary Biliary ...
Surgical resection Surgery is the only curative modality for biliary tract cancers; surgical resectability of disease should be ... Treatment protocols for biliary tract cancer are provided below, including surgery, adjuvant therapies, systemic therapies, and ... encoded search term (Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols) and Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols What to Read Next ... Palliative biliary drainage is often necessary in patients with advanced unresectable biliary tract carcinoma. ...
Introduction Procedures on the Biliary Tract - Codify by AAPC ... CPT® 47539, Under Introduction Procedures on the Biliary Tract ... CPT® 2016: Percutaneous Biliary Interventional Coding Part 2 New codes change the way you should report these procedures. For ... 2016 the biggest CPT coding changes affecting interventional radiology occur within the subspecialties of urinary biliary and ...
Surgical resection Surgery is the only curative modality for biliary tract cancers; surgical resectability of disease should be ... Treatment protocols for biliary tract cancer are provided below, including surgery, adjuvant therapies, systemic therapies, and ... encoded search term (Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols) and Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols What to Read Next ... Palliative biliary drainage is often necessary in patients with advanced unresectable biliary tract carcinoma. ...
ESMO E-Learning: Latest Advances in the Treatment of Biliary Tract Cancer. New E-Learning module by Prof Juan W Valle is now ... The term "biliary tract cancer" encompasses rare cancers with poor prognosis, late diagnosis, high inoperability rate and high ... In this E-Learning module, the author provides an overview of anatomical subgroups of biliary tract cancer, features the rarity ... To provide an overview of findings from large randomised clinical trials in adjuvant treatment of patients with biliary tract ...
The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum. This helps the body digest food. It also ... The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum. This helps the body digest food. It also ... Secretory functions of the alimentary tract. In: Hall JE, Hall ME ed. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 14th ed. ... The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum. This helps the body digest food. It also ...
Physicians and patients should be aware of potential for gallbladder or biliary diseases with GLP-1 agonists, especially in ... Gallbladder, Biliary Tract Events Increased With Liraglutide * 2001. FDA Panel Endorses Liraglutide as Obesity Treatment ... biliary disease (RR, 1.55; P = .02), and cholecystectomy (RR, 1.70; P , .001), but a nonsignificant increased rate of biliary ... biliary disease (21 trials), cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder, seven trials), and biliary cancer (12 trials ...
Entries Tagged Biliary Tract Tests. Reyes Syndrome. Aug.05, 2009 in Liver and Biliary Tract Tests Comments Off on Reyes ... Primary Biliary Cirrhosis. Aug.05, 2009 in Liver and Biliary Tract Tests Comments Off on Primary Biliary Cirrhosis ... Biliary Obstruction. Aug.05, 2009 in Liver and Biliary Tract Tests Comments Off on Biliary Obstruction ... Biliary Tract Tests, Cell Component Autoantibodies, Liver Tract Tests ...
Surgical resection Surgery is the only curative modality for biliary tract cancers; surgical resectability of disease should be ... Treatment protocols for biliary tract cancer are provided below, including surgery, adjuvant therapies, systemic therapies, and ... encoded search term (Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols) and Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols What to Read Next ... Palliative biliary drainage is often necessary in patients with advanced unresectable biliary tract carcinoma ...
Surgical resection Surgery is the only curative modality for biliary tract cancers; surgical resectability of disease should be ... Treatment protocols for biliary tract cancer are provided below, including surgery, adjuvant therapies, systemic therapies, and ... encoded search term (Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols) and Biliary Tract Cancer Treatment Protocols What to Read Next ... Palliative biliary drainage is often necessary in patients with advanced unresectable biliary tract carcinoma ...
Gallbladder and Biliary Tract and Liver and Gallbladder Disorders - Learn about from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version ... muscular storage sac that holds bile and is interconnected to the liver by ducts known as the biliary tract. (See also Overview ... the liver and gallbladder are interconnected by ducts known as the biliary tract, which drains into the first segment of the ... However, gallstones may block the flow of bile from the gallbladder, causing pain (biliary colic) or inflammation. They may ...
Liver and biliary disease : pathophysiology, diagnosis, management / Ralph Wright ... [et al.] by Wright, Ralph. ... Diseases of the liver and biliary system / Sheila Sherlock, James Dooley. by Sherlock, Sheila , Dooley, James. ...
"Adult Cholestatic and Biliary Tract Diseases", Non-Neoplastic Diseases of the Liver, Michael Torbenson, MD, Sanjay Kakar, MD, ...
Biliary tract. 3 (8.3). 2 (9.1). 20 (26.7). 0.25 (0.07-0.91). 0.035. 0.28 (0.06-1.28). 0.10. ... Respiratory tract. 3 (8.3). 4 (18.2). 12 (16.0). 0.48 (0.13-1.81). 0.28. 1.17 (0.34-4.06). 0.81. ... Urinary tract. 2 (5.6). 3 (13.6). 17 (22.7). 0.20 (0.04-0.92). 0.039. 0.54 (0.14-2.04). 0.36. ...
In addition, according to the fifth edition of the General Rules for Biliary Tract Cancer by the Japanese Society of Biliary ... Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery. Classification of biliary tract carcinoma. 5th ed. Tokyo: Kanehara; 2003. ... Surgical resection after downsizing chemotherapy for initially unresectable locally advanced biliary tract cancer: a ... such as endoscopic biliary drainage, surgical procedures, and chemotherapy, long-term outcomes remain unsatisfactory because of ...
Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Cancer * View other providers who treat Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Cancer ...
NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Biliary Tract Cancers, Version 2.2023. NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Biliary Tract Cancers, Version ... These Guidelines Insights focus on some of the recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Biliary Tract Cancers as well as the ... The NCCN Guidelines for Biliary Tract Cancers provide recommendations for the evaluation and comprehensive care of patients ... NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers were divided into 2 separate guidelines Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biliary Tract ...
The hepatic system includes the liver and biliary tract . The liver maintains stable conditions throughout the body. It plays ...
Pancreas and biliary tract (3). *. Pancreatitis. *. Portal hypertension. *. Small intestine. *. Stomach and duodenum (1) ...
biliary tract 646.7. *. bone and joint (lower limb) 648.7. *. cardiovascular 648.6. *. congenital 648.5. ... genitourinary tract (conditions classifiable to 590. , 595. , 597. , 599.0. , 614.0. -614.5. , 614.7. -614.9. , 615. ) 646.6. ... biliary problems 646.8. *. bone and joint disorders (conditions classifiable to 720. -724. or conditions affecting lower limbs ... genital organ or tract (conditions classifiable to 614.0. -614.5. , 614.7. -614.9. , 615. ) 646.6. ...
... is an aggressive biliary tract malignancy arising from the epithelial bile duct. The lack of early diagnostic biomarkers as ... CA19-9 and interleukin-6 differentiate biliary tract cancer from benign biliary strictures," British Journal of Cancer, vol. ... J. Harder, O. Waiz, F. Otto et al., "EGFR and HER2 expression in advanced biliary tract cancer," World Journal of ... M.-O. Riener, M. Bawohl, P.-A. Clavien, and W. Jochum, "Rare PIK3CA hotspot mutations in carcinomas of the biliary tract," ...
... of durvalumab plus chemotherapy showed a significant benefit vs chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced biliary tract ... of durvalumab plus chemotherapy showed a significant benefit vs chemotherapy alone for patients with advanced biliary tract ...
Gall bladder cancer can spread to biliary tract or mouth of small intestine. This cancer if affects the bile duct is also known ...
Categories: Biliary Tract Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 6 ...
There is limited evidence that exposure to straight metalworking fluids is associated with biliary tract cancer. The small ... Registry-based case-control studies of liver cancer and cancers of the biliary tract nested in a cohort of autoworkers exposed ... Results are presented for a registry-based study of hepatobiliary cancer (liver and biliary tract) nested in a cohort of ... and biliary tract cancer (N = 24) the risk was nonhomogeneous across the two categories. While liver cancer was not associated ...
Evaluation of the utility of infertile patient s: june 22, female genital tract, the american board of. Indeed, biliary tract ... Pain management - non-interventional, sarcoma, biliary tract, which is. ... Endometrial dating interpreting the best part in the dating the female genital tract, ny changes in a continuum does between ...
Biliary tract manipulation 119934002. *Brain manipulation 108115001. *Chiropractic manipulation 46947000. *Elevation 103720008 ...
  • The biliary tract (also biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gallstones can form within the gallbladder and get stuck within the biliary tract, leading to various diseases depending on the location of the stone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current consensus guidelines from the Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association recommend re-resection for patients with T1b, T2 or T3 gallbladder cancer that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen, unless this surgery is contraindicated because of advanced disease or poor performance status. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist was associated with a 37% increase in the relative risk of gallbladder or biliary disease compared with controls - especially when used at high doses, for a longer time, and for weight loss rather than type 2 diabetes - a new meta-analysis has found. (medscape.com)
  • The results "indicate that physicians and patients should be concerned about the risks of gallbladder or biliary diseases with using GLP-1 agonists," study authors Liyun He and colleagues from Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China, summarize. (medscape.com)
  • However, "the overall absolute risk increase for gallbladder and biliary disease with use of GLP-1 receptor agonists was small (an additional 27 cases per 10,000 persons treated per year)," they note. (medscape.com)
  • Future trials [of drugs in this class] should prespecify gallbladder and biliary diseases as potential adverse events, and fully test for and report on these outcomes," they urge. (medscape.com)
  • The association between GLP-1 agonists and gallbladder or biliary disease is controversial, the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • To investigate this, the researchers identified 76 randomized controlled trials of GLP-1 agonists in 103,371 patients that had data for the following safety outcomes: cholelithiasis (gallstones, 61 trials), cholecystitis (inflamed gallbladder, 53 trials), biliary disease (21 trials), cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder, seven trials), and biliary cancer (12 trials). (medscape.com)
  • Limitations of the meta-analysis include that the individual studies were not designed to evaluate the risk of gallbladder or biliary diseases associated with GLP-1 agonists. (medscape.com)
  • The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped, muscular storage sac that holds bile and is interconnected to the liver by ducts known as the biliary tract. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overview of the Liver and Gallbladder Located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, the liver and gallbladder are interconnected by ducts known as the biliary tract, which drains into the first segment of the small intestine. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, gallstones may block the flow of bile from the gallbladder, causing pain (biliary colic) or inflammation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The NCCN Guidelines for Biliary Tract Cancers provide recommendations for the evaluation and comprehensive care of patients with gallbladder cancer , intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma , and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma . (bvsalud.org)
  • T. R Gadacz, "Anatomy, Embryology, Anomalies and Physiology of the Gallbladder and Biliary Ducts," In: G. D. Zuidema and C. J. Yeo, Eds. (scirp.org)
  • ABSTRACT Earlier reports on the detection of Helicobacter DNA in the gallbladder tissue of patients with biliary diseases have shown discordant results. (who.int)
  • Results are presented for a registry-based study of hepatobiliary cancer (liver and biliary tract) nested in a cohort of workers from three automobile manufacturing plants with potential exposure to metalworking fluid s. (cdc.gov)
  • The term "biliary tract cancer" encompasses rare cancers with poor prognosis, late diagnosis, high inoperability rate and high relapse rate. (esmo.org)
  • NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Biliary Tract Cancers, Version 2.2023. (bvsalud.org)
  • In 2023, the NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers were divided into 2 separate guidelines Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biliary Tract Cancers . (bvsalud.org)
  • These Guidelines Insights focus on some of the recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Biliary Tract Cancers as well as the newly published section on principles of molecular testing . (bvsalud.org)
  • Registry-based case-control studies of liver cancer and cancers of the biliary tract nested in a cohort of autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluid s. (cdc.gov)
  • Liraglutide "has drawn the most attention" about this risk, and a post-hoc analysis of the LEADER trial found a significantly increased risk of acute biliary obstruction with liraglutide versus placebo. (medscape.com)
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis is an uncommon type of biliary obstruction that should be briefly mentioned. (med-life.net)
  • Do not take if you have a biliary tract obstruction or are taking a steroidal anti-inflammatory such as prednisone. (prohealth.com)
  • Chronic inflammatory conditions of the biliary tract, including Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC), can lead to hardening of the ducts in the biliary tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Original research is organized by clinical and basic-translational content, as well as by alimentary tract, liver, pancreas, and biliary content. (eurekalert.org)
  • J. Yu, M. A. Turner, A. S. Fulcher and R. A. Halvorsen, "Congenital Anomalies and Normal Variants of the Pancreaticobiliary Tract and the Pancreas in Adults: Part 1, Biliary Tract," American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 187, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1536-1543. (scirp.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Biliary tract diseases. (who.int)
  • Diseases of the liver and biliary system / Sheila Sherlock, James Dooley. (who.int)
  • These results do not rule out the possibility of Helicobacter infection as a contributing agent or cofactor in the development of biliary diseases. (who.int)
  • The system is usually referred to as the biliary tract or system, and can include the use of the term "hepatobiliary" when used to refer just to the liver and bile ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name biliary tract is used to refer to all of the ducts, structures and organs involved in the production, storage and secretion of bile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urinary tract infections were not commonly caused by NFE (n=1), and no episodes of IE were caused by NFE. (lu.se)
  • Biliary tract focus is common in NFE bacteraemia whereas IE and urinary tract focus are uncommon. (lu.se)
  • Buscopan 10 mg Tablets are indicated for the relief of spasm of the genito- urinary tract or gastro- intestinal tract and for the symptomatic relief of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. (janusinfo.se)
  • Surgical resection includes cholecystectomy, en bloc hepatic resection (typically of segments IVb and V), and lymphadenectomy with or without bile duct excision, depending on the location of the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, such as endoscopic biliary drainage, surgical procedures, and chemotherapy, long-term outcomes remain unsatisfactory because of high rates of disease recurrence. (springer.com)
  • M. Lamah and G. H. Dickson, "Congenital Anatomical Abnormalities of the Extrahepatic Biliary Duct: A Personal Audit," Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, Vol. 21, No. 5, 1999, pp. 325-327. (scirp.org)
  • Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is not currently a standard option for patients with biliary tract cancer. (medscape.com)
  • In this E-Learning module, the author provides an overview of anatomical subgroups of biliary tract cancer, features the rarity but increasing incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, contextualizes the findings from the clinical trials in the adjuvant setting and from recent trials in advanced disease, elaborates molecular subgroups and matched treatments in selected sub-populations, and tackles the future research agenda. (esmo.org)
  • The author underlines that anatomical subgroups of biliary tract cancer remain relevant for surgery and loco-regional therapies. (esmo.org)
  • This module nicely demonstrates recent developments in targeted treatments for advanced biliary tract cancer illustrated by the dissection and shift from anatomical to molecular subgrouping. (esmo.org)
  • Besides explaining targeted treatment options for IDH1 , FGFR , BRAF V600E, HER2 , and KRAS aberrations, the author also elaborates the results from trials with PD1 blockade in biliary tract cancer with mismatch-repair deficiency, combination of immune checkpoint inhibitor and chemotherapy, issues around liquid biopsy, and provides a treatment algorithm from the recently published clinical practice guideline. (esmo.org)
  • Gall bladder cancer can spread to biliary tract or mouth of small intestine. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • However, when the cases were stratified into liver cancer (N = 39) and biliary tract cancer (N = 24) the risk was nonhomogeneous across the two categories. (cdc.gov)
  • While liver cancer was not associated with exposure to metalworking fluid s, the results suggested a possible excess risk of biliary tract cancer with more than 1.0 mg/m3-years of exposure to straight metalworking fluid s [ OR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9-7.6], as well as any exposure to chlorinated paraffins (OR 3.9, 95% CI 0.9-17). (cdc.gov)
  • There is limited evidence that exposure to straight metalworking fluid s is associated with biliary tract cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the biliary tract is an internal organ, it has no somatic nerve supply, and biliary colic due to infection and inflammation of the biliary tract is not a somatic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biliary tract refers to the path by which bile is secreted by the liver then transported to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A structure common to most members of the mammal family, the biliary tract is often referred to as a tree because it begins with many small branches that end in the common bile duct, sometimes referred to as the trunk of the biliary tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholecystectomy is the most common digestive tract surgery performed worldwide and injury to the bile duct lead s to both acute and chronic sequelae. (scirp.org)
  • The incidence of bile duct injury is increased in the presence of severe inflammation and is compounded by congenital abnormalities of the biliary tract. (scirp.org)
  • Concomitant treatment with dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide may result in diminution of the effects of both drugs on the gastrointestinal tract. (janusinfo.se)
  • The biliary tract can also serve as a reservoir for intestinal tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common foci of infection were biliary tract infections (n=17) followed by gastrointestinal infections (n=7). (lu.se)
  • Antimitochondrial antibodies are found in 80%-100% of biliary cirrhosis patients and may aid in the diagnosis of this uncommon disease. (med-life.net)
  • Levels are useful in following the course of patients with established diagnosis of pancreatic and biliary ductal carcinoma. (codemap.com)
  • Regardless, at this stage the tumor mass has invaded the major biliary tracts. (nethealthbook.com)
  • The study authors also note that few of the trials reported biliary-related events. (medscape.com)
  • The end product is precisely set in a way that preserves and protects the curcumin from the harsh environment of the stomach, dissolves at the point of absorption in the GI tract, and helps the free form of curcumin cross into the blood stream and target tissues. (prohealth.com)
  • Evaluation of the utility of infertile patient s: june 22, female genital tract, the american board of. (newwoodworker.com)
  • The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT ® ) code 47539 as maintained by American Medical Association, is a medical procedural code under the range - Introduction Procedures on the Biliary Tract. (aapc.com)
  • Endometrial dating interpreting the best part in the dating the female genital tract, ny changes in a continuum does between two methods of. (newwoodworker.com)