Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic: A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Caroli Disease: Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Imino AcidsPortal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Gallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic: Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Lithotripsy, Laser: Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Alagille Syndrome: A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).Rats, Inbred F344Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Portoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Cholecystitis, Acute: Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.Mice, Inbred C57BLPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hemobilia: Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6: A onecut transcription factor that regulates expression of GENES involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the PANCREAS and LIVER.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Cholecystolithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.

Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. (1/1066)

Hilar cholangiocarcinoma can obstruct hepatic ducts and involve the portal veins. Both biliary stasis and decrease in portal venous flow are known to reduce 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) accumulation. The specific relationship between these pathological conditions due to hilar cholangiocarcinomas and 99mTc-GSA accumulation has never been clarified. METHODS: Sixteen patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas who underwent 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy were reviewed. The relationship between significant decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation and lobar biliary stasis, or decrease in the portal venous flow, was evaluated. Average counts of region of interest placed in both right and left lobes were compared in the same transaxial SPECT section. Count ratios of right and left lobes were calculated. RESULTS: Significant lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation was observed in 6 of the 16 patients. Ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in all these 6 patients, whereas ipsilateral portal venous stenosis or obstruction was seen in only 1 of the other 10 patients. Symmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 13 patients, and asymmetric bile duct dilatation was seen in 3. Lobar decrease in 99mTc-GSA accumulation correlated well with decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow (P < 0.0005). The count ratio was significantly reduced when unilateral portal venous flow decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Using 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy, we can predict lobar decrease in ipsilateral portal venous flow and monitor hepatic functional lateralities in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinomas.  (+info)

ANIT-induced disruption of biliary function in rat hepatocyte couplets. (2/1066)

alpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) induces intrahepatic cholestasis in rats, involving damage to biliary epithelial cells; our study aims to investigate whether disruption of biliary function in hepatocytes can contribute to early stages of ANIT-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Isolated rat hepatocyte couplets were used to investigate biliary function in vitro by canalicular vacuolar accumulation (cVA) of a fluorescent bile acid analogue, cholyl-lysyl-fluorescein (CLF), within the canalicular vacuole between the two cells. After a 2-h exposure to ANIT, there was a concentration-dependent inhibition of cVA (cVA-IC50; 25 microM), but no cytotoxicity (LDH leakage or [ATP] decline) within this ANIT concentration range. There was no loss of cellular [GSH] at low ANIT concentrations, but, at 50 microM ANIT, a small but significant loss of [GSH] had occurred. Diethylmaleate (DEM) partially depleted cellular [GSH], but addition of 10 microM ANIT had no further effect on GSH depletion. Reduction in cVA was seen in DEM-treated cells; addition of ANIT to these cells reduced cVA further, but the magnitude of this further reduction was no greater than that caused by ANIT alone, indicating that glutathione depletion does not enhance the effect of ANIT. F-actin distribution (by phalloidin-FITC staining) showed an increased frequency of morphological change in the canalicular vacuoles but only a small, non-significant (0.05 < p < 0.1) increase in proportion of the F-actin in the region of the pericanalicular web. The results are in accord with a disruption of hepatocyte canalicular secretion within two h in vitro, at low, non-cytotoxic concentrations of ANIT, and the possible involvement of a thiocabamoyl-GSH conjugate of ANIT (GS-ANIT) in this effect.  (+info)

Lymph node metastasis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (3/1066)

BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis is a significant prognostic factor in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This study was aimed at investigating lymph node metastasis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and to examine whether the extent of metastasis affects outcomes after surgery. METHODS: From 1980 through 1996, 70 patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma underwent hepatectomy, with a 50% curative resection rate. Lymph node dissection was performed in 51 patients, and the presence of lymph node metastasis was examined microscopically. The metastatic nodes were divided into groups N1, N2 or N3 using the classification proposed by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients had lymph node metastasis. Metastasis was to N1 nodes in 10 patients, to N2 nodes in nine patients and to N3 nodes in four patients. Nineteen patients had metastatic nodes in the hepatoduodenal ligament, which was the most common metastatic site regardless of tumor location. The five-year survival rate in patients with lymph node metastasis (0%) was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than that in patients without lymph node metastasis (51 %); however, five-year survival rates did not differ between patients with metastases to N1, N2 and N3 nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Lymph nodes in the hepatoduodenal ligament may be sentinel nodes for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and outcomes after surgery for patients with lymph node metastasis are poor regardless of the sites of nodal metastasis.  (+info)

Promoting effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone on rat glandular stomach carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. (4/1066)

The modifying effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a mutagenic by-product in chlorinated water, on the development of glandular stomach cancers were investigated in Wistar rats. A total of 120 males, 6 weeks of age, were divided into six groups. After initiation with 100 ppm N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) solution and 5% NaCl diet for 8 weeks, 30 rats each in groups 1-3 were given MX in the drinking water at concentrations of 30, 10, or 0 ppm for the following 57 weeks. Ten animals each in groups 4-6 were administered the MX without prior carcinogen exposure. There were no statistical significant differences in final body weights between the groups. The incidences and multiplicities of adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the initiated 30 ppm MX group than those in the MNNG/NaCl group. The incidences of atypical hyperplasias in the glandular stomachs were also significantly increased (P < 0.05 or 0.01) by the MX treatments. With their multiplicity, the effects were clearly dose dependent. Interestingly, the 30 ppm MX alone itself induced atypical hyperplasias in the pylorus, although the incidences and severity were low. Moreover, MX showed a tendency to enhance the development of intrahepatic cholangiocellular tumors and thyroid follicular cell tumors in the MNNG-treated animals. The results of the present study thus indicate that MX exerts promoting effects when given during the postinitiation phase of two-stage glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats.  (+info)

Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver. (5/1066)

Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion.  (+info)

Expression of p73, a novel protein related to the p53 tumour suppressor p53, and apoptosis in cholangiocellular carcinoma of the liver. (6/1066)

p73, the first homologue of the tumour suppressor protein p53, was recently discovered on chromosome 1p36 and has been shown to induce apoptosis in a p53-like manner. The present study was performed with the aim of investigating the expression of p53, its new homologue p73 and the occurrence of apoptosis in cholangiocellular carcinoma. Protein levels of p73 were examined in 41 patients with curatively (R0-) resected cholangiocellular carcinomas with an antiserum, raised against a peptide in the N-terminal domain of p73. The incidence of mutations in the p53 gene was analysed by direct sequencing and also immunohistochemically. Apoptotic cell death was assessed using in-situ end-labelling (ISEL) technique in combination with morphological criteria. The results obtained were correlated with patient survival. Immunostaining of p73 protein was detected in 17/41 carcinomas examined (41%). The immunoreactivity was confined to the cell nucleus. In 15/41 patients (37%), mutations of the p53 gene were observed. Eleven out of these 15 patients stained also positive for p73. In contrast, out of 26 patients without any detectable p53 mutation, only six exhibited p73 immunostaining. We failed to observe a correlation between p73 expression or p53 and apoptosis within a given tumour. Survival analysis including the parameters stage and grade of disease, p73 and p53, and also apoptosis, showed that tumour stage and grade as well as p53 and p73 were significantly related to prognosis. In Cox regression survival analysis, however, only extent of primary tumour and lymph node status had an independent prognostic impact. Our results with a high prevalence of p73 within tumours harbouring mutated p53 gene suggest that p73 could compensate for p53 function. We failed to establish p73 or p53 as independent prognostic factors in cholangiocellular carcinoma of the liver.  (+info)

Intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma: CT features in 18 pathologically proven cases. (7/1066)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphological features of 18 pathologically proven intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (IHPCC) cases in computerized tomography (CT) image. METHODS: All 18 patients had CT, using Picker I.Q.T/C and taking pre-contrast continuous 10-mm sections throughout the liver and post-contrast continuous 10-mm sections throughout the focuses. RESULTS: The disease was characterized in CT image by the following: all focuses were found in the periphery of the liver and shown as a lobulated or fused hypodense space-occupying mass; there were one or more divergent or confluent, circular or irregular cystic areas with much lower density, in the majority. All focuses could be enhanced slightly and most revealed a dim edge. Dilated bile ducts around the focus were found frequently; the dilated bile ducts especially seemed to encircle the focus (33.3%, 6/18). This phenomenon were referred to as "encysted sign of dilated bile ducts". CONCLUSIONS: CT scanning should be one of the most important investigative methods for IHPCC due to the disease characteristics identified in CT image, especially "encysted sign of dilated bile ducts" which possesses specificity in diagnosing the disease.  (+info)

Long-lasting sonographic and histopathological findings in cured clonorchiasis of rabbits. (8/1066)

To ascertain residual sonographic and histopathological findings of clonorchiasis after treatment, the present study evaluated sonographic findings in rabbits which were infected with 500 metacercariae of C. sinensis every 6 months for 18 months after treatment with praziquantel. The sonographic findings were analyzed in terms of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and periductal echogenicity, and histopathological findings were observed after the last sonographic examination. Compared with the sonographic findings before treatment, dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts became mild to some degree in four of the seven cases and increased periductal echogenicity resolved in four of them. The histopathological specimens after 18 months showed that periductal inflammation has almost resolved but moderate dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts and mucosal hyperplasia persisted. The periductal fibrosis minimally resolved. The long-lasting sonographic findings in cured clonorchiasis make sonography less specific.  (+info)

Libbrecht, Louis ; Desmet, Valeer ; Roskams, Tania. Stages of normal and aberrant intrahepatic bile duct development in a mixed hepatoblastoma.. In: Histopathology, Vol. 42, no.6, p. 618-20 (2003 ...
Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells were isolated from the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and from normal livers and established in primary culture. The in vitro expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, HLA class I, and HLA class II on biliary epithelial cells was studied in response to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (0-500 U/ml), interferon-gamma (0-500 U/ml), and interleukin-1 (0-5 U/ml) by immunohistochemical staining and a semiquantitative scoring system validated by spectrophotometry and previously validated by laser confocal microscopy. The non-stimulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and HLA class II was higher on cells derived from the primary biliary cirrhosis liver than on cells from normal liver, a difference not seen with HLA class I expression. A statistically significant increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was seen with all three cytokines in cells derived from both primary biliary cirrhosis and normal liver. ...
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
INTRODUCTION: The liver is a multi-purposeful organ, susceptible to injury. Following acute injury, cells such as hepatocytes, regenerate, while latent hepatic progenitor cell (HPC) become active after chronic liver injury. Some studies suggest Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) may activate HPCs similarly to embryonic liver stem cells. In addition, Notch signaling is critical in bile duct development and injury. With progenitor cell transplantation as an alternative to tissue transplantation, we hypothesize that FGF and Notch signaling pathways induce proliferation of HPC after chronic liver injury.; MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild-type mice were fed either regular or 0.1% 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl dihydrocollidine (DDC) chow to induce injury. Transgenic, dominant-negative RosartTA;tet(o)sFGFR2b+/- mice were given doxycycline 2 days prior and throughout DDC injury. mRNA and immunostaining of FGF and Notch receptors and ligands were performed. Cells isolated from transgenic mice were fluoresecently sorted ...
in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2014, March), 77(1), 16. Aim: Results of donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT) are impaired by ischemic bile duct lesions caused by procurement warm ischemia. Donor age is a risk factor in deceased ... [more ▼]. Aim: Results of donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT) are impaired by ischemic bile duct lesions caused by procurement warm ischemia. Donor age is a risk factor in deceased donor LT, and particularly in DCD-LT. At the authors institute, age is not an absolute exclusion criterion to discard DCD liver grafts, controlled DCD donors receive comfort therapy before withdrawal, and cold ischemia is minimized. The aim of the present study was to report on the results of the first 10 years of this experience, and particularly on graft survival and the rate of post-transplant biliary complications, according to DCD donor age. Methods: The authors retrospectively studied a consecutive series of 70 DCD-LT ...
Background:. Alcohol consumption is one of the most important known causes of human cancer after tobacco smoking.. Aim:. This study aims to estimate cancer incidence attributable to alcohol use in Brazil. The proportion of cancer cases that could be attributable to alcohol exposure was estimated for lip; oral cavity; nasopharynx and other pharynx; larynx; esophagus; colorectum; female breast; and liver and intrahepatic bile ducts. Methods:. The proportion of exposed cases and the association between alcohol and cancer was based on data made available by the Cancer Hospital Registries. The cancer incidence was obtained from the estimates produced by GLOBOCAN. We multiplied population aetiologic fraction (PAF) by the number of cases for each type of cancer by sex group and summed them. This study was approved by the Brazilian National Cancer Institute Ethics Committee.. Results:. In 2012 there were 437,592 new cancer cases in Brazil. Of these, alcohol drinking was responsible for 5.2% of all new ...
Lung scarring can be a highly dangerous condition and is usually caused by inhaling dangerous chemicals or by infections. Lung scarring is generally defined by which area of the lung is injured, with the perihilar area, which is the major entrance for the major veins and arteries of the lungs, being the most common.
CoCC shows a variable histological morphology depending on the extent of the associated ICC/HCC components. Such an inherent histological heterogeneity potentially complicates the pathologic diagnosis of CoCC. Komuta et al. proposed that CoCC is defined as when the proportion of CoCC accounts for more than 90% of the entire tumor [8]. According to this strict definition, CoCC with a significant proportion of ICC or HCC components may be considered to be an ordinary ICC or HCC, respectively [4]. The authors also reported immunohistochemical findings of a positive EMA at the apical membrane [6, 8, 9], positive NCAM (a marker of hepatic progenitor cells), and negative S100P (a marker of intrahepatic large bile ducts) [8]. As described, we made an incorrect initial diagnosis of ordinary ICC in the present patient, primarily because a lack of knowledge of CoCC led us not to consider the possibility of CoCC. There may be a concern that pathological diagnosis of the recurrent lesions treated with RFA ...
Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary ducts, until recently, has been infrequently recognized. Three patients with this anomaly have been tre
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. T2 - Outcome after liver transplantation. AU - Maganty, Kishore. AU - Levi, David. AU - Moon, Jang. AU - Bejarano, Pablo A.. AU - Arosemena, Leopoldo. AU - Tzakis, Andreas. AU - Martin, Paul. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Background: Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a rare hepatobiliary malignancy incorporating components derived from both hepatocyte and intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. The natural history, treatment, and prognosis of this distinct cancer differ from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and are not completely understood. There is considerable controversy about the classification, treatment, and survival, which in turn is related to the rarity of the condition. Treatment options include surgical resection and the prognosis is believed to be better than CC but worse than HCC alone. Methods: We report a single-center liver ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuropeptide Y inhibits cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and invasion. AU - DeMorrow, Sharon. AU - Onori, Paolo. AU - Venter, Julie. AU - Invernizzi, Pietro. AU - Frampton, Gabriel. AU - White, Mellanie. AU - Franchitto, Antonio. AU - Kopriva, Shelley. AU - Bernuzzi, Francesca. AU - Francis, Heather. AU - Coufal, Monique. AU - Glaser, Shannon. AU - Fava, Giammarco. AU - Meng, Fanyin. AU - Alvaro, Domenico. AU - Carpino, Guido. AU - Gaudio, Eugenio. AU - Alpini, Gianfranco. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - No information exists on the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cholangiocarcinoma growth. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and secretion of NPY and its subsequent effects on cholangiocarcinoma growth and invasion. Cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and nonmalignant cholangiocytes were used to assess NPY mRNA expression and protein secretion. NPY expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in human liver biopsies. Cell proliferation and migration were evaluated in vitro by MTS ...
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the liver is extremely rare. To our knowledge, only 16 cases of pure LELC or LELC with ordinary adenocarcinoma arising in the hepatobiliary tract have been reported in the English literature.1-7 Most of these tumours (68%, 11/16) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by EBV-encoded small non-polyadenylated RNA (EBER-1) in situ hybridisation.1-6 However, association of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma bearing an intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with EBV infection has not been reported. We were the first to present two cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration from Southern China, an area that is well known for and has a high-incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, showing EBV infection, but one case of LELC was associated with EBV infection as well. ...
The original observations of this study relate to inflammation, NO production, DNA damage, and inhibition of DNA repair as related mechanisms for the development and/or progression of cholangiocarcinoma. Our results directly demonstrate the following: (a) human cholangiocarcinomas express the iNOS protein; (b) proinflammatory cytokines stimulate iNOS message and protein expression and the production of NO in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines; (c) the magnitude of NO produced is sufficient to cause single-stranded, double-stranded, and oxidative DNA lesions in the malignant cell lines; and (d) stimulated NO generation is associated with impaired global DNA repair activity in the cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. These data suggest that NO generated in response to inflammation may initiate malignant transformation of biliary epithelia and/or promote progression of established cholangiocarcinoma. Each of these observations is discussed in greater detail below.. iNOS expression with NO generation has been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The impact of portal vein resection on outcomes for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. T2 - A multi-institutional analysis of 305 cases. AU - De Jong, Mechteld C.. AU - Marques, Hugo. AU - Clary, Bryan M.. AU - Bauer, Todd W.. AU - Marsh, J. Wallis. AU - Ribero, Dario. AU - Majno, Pietro. AU - Hatzaras, Ioannis. AU - Walters, Dustin M.. AU - Barbas, Andrew S.. AU - Mega, Raquel. AU - Schulick, Richard D.. AU - Choti, Michael A.. AU - Geller, David A.. AU - Barroso, Eduardo. AU - Mentha, Gilles. AU - Capussotti, Lorenzo. AU - Pawlik, Timothy M.. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - BACKGROUND. Surgical strategy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma often includes hepatectomy, but the role of portal vein resection (PVR) remains controversial. In this study, the authors sought to identify factors associated with outcome after surgical management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and examined the impact of PVR on survival. METHODS: Three hundred five patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for hilar ...
Surgical resection remains the mainstay of curative treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Prognosis after surgery is unsatisfactory despite improvements in treatment and post-operative clinical management. Despite developments in the molecular profiling of ICC, the preoperative prediction of prognosis remains a challenge. This study aimed to identify clinical prognostic indicators by investigating the molecular profiles of ICC and evaluating the preoperative imaging data of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). A retrospective analysis was performed on 50 consecutive patients with ICC who underwent curative hepatectomy after 18F-FDG-PET examination. To evaluate the molecular profiles of ICC, KRAS mutation status was assessed in resected specimens. For the assessment of glucose uptake, we observed the expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) by immunohistochemistry. The data of 18F-FDG-PET were re-evaluated as follows: maximum standardized uptake value,
Few studies have evaluated the risk of cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to estimate incidence rates of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its major subtypes in a nationwide cohort of parous women and to assess their associations with chronic HBV infection. We conducted a cohort study including 1,782,401 pregnant Taiwanese women whose HBV serostatus was obtained from the National Hepatitis B Vaccination Registry. Newly diagnosed ICCs and NHLs were ascertained through data linkage with the National Cancer Registry. Risks of ICC and NHL were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. After a mean of 6.91 years of follow-up, there were 18 cases of ICC and 192 cases of NHL, including 99 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Incidence rates of ICC were 0.09 and 0.43 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, among women who were hepatitis B surface antigen ...
The aim of this study was to compare the enhancement pattern of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). 40 pathologically proven ICC lesions in 40 patients were evaluated retrospectively with both CEUS and CECT. The enhancement level and pattern in the dynamic phases on both CEUS and CECT were analysed. The diagnostic results of CEUS and CECT before pathological examination were also recorded. During arterial phases, the number of lesions that appeared as (i) peripheral irregular rim-like hyperenhancement, (ii) diffuse heterogeneous hyperenhancement, (iii) diffuse homogeneous hyperenhancement and (iv) diffuse heterogeneous hypoenhancement were 19 (47.5%), 9 (22.5%), 5 (12.5%) and 7 (17.5%), respectively, on CEUS, and 22 (55.0%), 3 (7.5%), 2 (5.0%) and 13 (32.5%), respectively, on CECT (p = 0.125). In the portal phase, the number of lesions showing hyperenhancement and hypoenhancement were 1 (2.5%) and ...
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive, highly lethal tumors and lacks of effective chemo and targeted therapies. Cell lines and animal models, even partially reflecting tumor characteristics, have limits to study ICC biology and drug response. In this work, we created and characterized a novel ICC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of Italian origin. Seventeen primary ICC tumors derived from Italian patients were implanted into NOD (Non-Obese Diabetic)/Shi-SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice. To verify if the original tumor characteristics were maintained in PDX, immunohistochemical (cytokeratin 7, 17, 19, and epithelial membrane antigen) molecular (gene and microRNA expression profiling) and genetic analyses (comparative genomic hybridization array, and mutational analysis of the kinase domain of EGFR coding sequence, from exons 18 to 21, exons 2 to 4 of K-RAS, exons 2 to 4 of N-RAS, exons 9 and 20 of PI3KCA, and exon 15 of B-RAF) were performed after tumor stabilization.
Postoperative Mortality after Liver Resection for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Development of a Risk Score and Importance of Biliary Drainage of the Future Liver Remnant.
The purpose of this project is to evaluate the role of gadoxetate (Eovist) enhanced dual-energy CT in better evaluating perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, by exploiting the combination of the physiologic behavior of gadoxetate in liver tissue combined with the advantageous mass attenuation coefficient of Gadolinium achievable through dual energy technique. This combination of unique CT imaging sensitivity, high resolution and differential enhancement potentially allows improved visualization and detection of tumor relative to enhancing surrounding hepatic parenchyma and ductal anatomy in the hepatobiliary phase, due to the biliary excretion of the agent.. Cholangiocarcinoma is a hepatic adenocarcinoma that arises from the bile duct epithelium and is the second most prevalent liver cancer after hepatocellular carcinoma. The hilar intrahepatic variety of cholangiocarcinoma can present as an infiltrative, exophytic, or polypoid lesion. Most extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas are infiltrative, causing a ...
Cholangiocarcinomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from a number of cells of origin along the biliary tree. Although most cases in Western countries are sporadic, large population-based studies have identified a number of risk factors. This review summarises the evidence behind reported risk factors and current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma, with a focus on inflammation and cholestasis as the driving forces in cholangiocarcinoma development. Cholestatic liver diseases (e.g. primary sclerosing cholangitis and fibropolycystic liver diseases), liver cirrhosis, and biliary stone disease all increase the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Certain bacterial, viral or parasitic infections such as hepatitis B and C and liver flukes also increase cholangiocarcinoma risk. Other risk factors include inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis), toxins (e.g. alcohol and tobacco), metabolic conditions (diabetes, obesity and non
MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / mortality. Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adenoma, Liver Cell / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / mortality. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / mortality. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ...
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), cancer of the bile duct, is the first cause of cancer death of the people in the northeast of Thailand. The incidence of CCA in this region is highest not only in the country but in the world. CCA is a slow growing but highly metastatic tumor. At present, there is no standard chemotherapy or effective treatment for CCA. Most of the patients have short survival after diagnosis. Strong evidences from in vitro, animal and clinical studies indicate that vitamin D can prevent and control growth of cancer. Our preclinical studies in CCA cell lines, animal and patient tissue culture indicate that vitamin D effectively reduce growth of CCA. Supplementation of vitamin D to chemotherapeutic drugs enhance drug toxicity and better response. At present, there are several clinical trials in USA on supplementation of vitamin D or its analogs to cancer patients. The side effect or toxicity of using vitamin D supplementation is low, some patients had stable disease and some had good ...
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common liver cancer and it is associated with a poor prognosis. CCA can be divided into intrahepatic, hilar and distal. Despite the subtype, the median survival is 12-24 months without treatment. Liver transplantation (LT) is worldwide recognized as a curative option for hepatocellular carcinoma. On the other hand, the initial results for LT for CCA were very poor mainly due to a lack of adequate patient selection. In the last two decades, improvement has been made in the management of unresectable hilar CCA, and the results of LT after neoadjuvant chemoradiation have been shown to be promising ...
Histamine regulates functions via four receptors (HRH1, HRH2, HRH3, and HRH4). The d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)/Ca2+/protein kinase C (PKC)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates cholangiocarcinoma growth. We evaluated the role of HRH3 in the regulation of cholangiocarcinoma growth. Expression of HRH3 in intrahepatic and extrahepatic cell lines, normal cholangiocytes, and human tissue arrays was measured. In Mz-ChA-1 cells stimulated with (R)-(α)-(−)-methylhistamine dihydrobromide (RAMH), we measured (a) cell growth, (b) IP3 and cyclic AMP levels, and (c) phosphorylation of PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms. Localization of PKCα was visualized by immunofluorescence in cell smears and immunoblotting for PKCα in cytosol and membrane fractions. Following knockdown of PKCα, Mz-ChA-1 cells were stimulated with RAMH before evaluating cell growth and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 phosphorylation. In vivo experiments were done in BALB/c ...
Background: iCCA is the 2nd most common liver malignancy and with a poor patient prognosis. The ABC-02 study established gemcitabine+cisplatin (gem-cis) as the standard of care (SOC) in 1st line (1L) systemic chemotherapy (CT). The objective was to examine the treatment (tx) patterns and time trends in the tx received by patients (pts) with iCCA in the United States before and after ABC-02 study was published. Methods: Retrospective data from the Optum Research Database, which included commercial and Medicare Advantage health plan members between January 1, 2006 and June 30, 2018, were used. Eligible pts were aged ≥ 18 years; had ≥ 2 nondiagnostic claims of primary iCCA diagnosis (International Classification of Disease [ICD]-9: 155.1 or ICD-10: C22.1) in the identification period (July 01, 2006-March 31, 2018); and had 6 months continuous enrollment prior to and ≥ 3 months follow-up (or less due to death) from the date of first diagnosis. Tx patterns in the periods before and after ABC-02 ...
In the west, the exact cause of cholangiocarcinoma is unclear. It is likely that this cancer arises due to a combination of factors, including other illnesses that cause chronic damage to the liver and/or bile ducts, certain toxins and possibly a small genetic predisposition, although it is not believed to be a directly inherited disease. Although most cases of cholangiocarcinoma are in people over 60 years of age, it appears to be increasing across all age groups including younger people. The cause of this ongoing rise is currently unknown.. In Southeast Asia, especially Thailand, which has the worlds highest incidence of cholangiocarcinoma, associated risk factors include eating raw fish infected with liver fluke and chronic typhoid, neither of which occurs in the western world.. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Maiko Terada, Kenichi Horisawa, Shizuka Miura, Yasuo Takashima, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Sayaka Sekiya, Kanae Matsuda-Ito, Atsushi Suzuki].
A110 Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant tumor of the bile duct epithelium, is one of the major of cancers in Northeast Thailand. This disease is difficult to diagnose and has a high mortality rate, thus posing an important public health problem in this region. Generally, cancer arises from dysregulation of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. c-Met, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, and its ligand, HGF, regulate diverse biological responses including proliferation, migration and invasion, key features of metastatic cancer. Overexpression of c-Met has frequently been found in cholangiocarcinoma especially of well-differentiated type suggesting the role of c-Met in cholangiocarcinogenesis. In this study the role of HGF in invasiveness of cholangiocarcinoma was investigated using the human CCA cell line, KKU-213, in which c- Met expression is high when compare to immortalized cholangiocyte, H-69. Activation of c-Met by HGF induced KKU-213 cell proliferation, invasion and motility. ...
The biliary tree consists of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and is lined by biliary epithelial cells (or cholangiocytes). There are also peribiliary glands around the intrahepatic large bile ducts and extrahepatic bile ducts. The biliary tr
BACKGROUND Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a rare condition which typically occurs in males between 50 and 70 years of age, and presents with symptoms related to biliary obstruction including jaundice, pruritus, and dark urine. Other common symptoms at presentation include abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. CASE REPORT We present a case of a 67-year-old female initially presenting with chest pain at rest, found to have a lung nodule on diagnostic imaging at the time of admission. On further imaging, a 9 cm liver lesion was incidentally discovered, initially suspicious for hepatocellular carcinoma on imaging, with initial biopsy staining CK7 positive, and CK20 negative ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Papavee Samatiwat, Auemduan Prawan, Laddawan Senggunprai, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan].
In the transverse image, the common bile duct (red arrowheads) is anterior to the portal vein (PV) and the gallbladder (red arrow) is also visualized.. Exam Begin with the patient in the left posterior oblique position. Patient may also be placed in the supine position. Obtain longitudinal and transverse views of right and left lobe of liver and include longitudinal images of liver/diaphragm interface. Measure intrahepatic bile duct, common hepatic duct (CHD), and CBD as far distal as possible. Acquire longitudinal view of bile duct in pancreatic head and take measurement. Document patency in portal veins, hepatic veins, and hepatic artery. Sonographic Findings: 1) Shotgun sign intrahepatic biliary ducts (IHBD) become tortuous and their diameter exceeds 2 mm or exceeds 40% of the diameter of the adjacent PV. Color Doppler is used to confirm the absence of blood flow in the enlarged biliary tubes.. ...
Cholangiocellular Carcinoma in Dogs Bile duct carcinoma is a malignant cancer that typically arises from the the epithelia, the cellular lining of the hepatic (
Looking for biliary system? Find out information about biliary system. The complex of canaliculi, or microscopic bile ducts, that empty into the larger intrahepatic bile ducts Explanation of biliary system
Discussion This is the first study that demonstrates the effects of glyphosate on cholangiocarcinoma cells, and provides a better understanding of the possible mechanisms related to its effects. The low concentrations of glyphosate tested in this study are relevant to the range of levels that have been reported in the environment and detected in humans (Acquavella et al., 2004; Bai and Ogbourne, 2016; Kongtip et al., 2017). Previous studies have reported that E2 induces cell proliferation in an ERα expressing CCA, HuH28 cell line (Alvaro et al., 2006). It was reported that E2 also induced the expression levels of several proteins, including ERα, VEGF, VEGFR, IGF-1, and IGF-1R, as well as downstream signaling proteins associated to cell proliferation. In this study, we found that 10−11 to 10−5 M of glyphosate and E2 induced cell proliferation in HuCCA-1 cells under estrogen withdrawal conditions and the inductive effects were inhibited by ER antagonists. This study also demonstrated the ...
Case History-A 60 yr old woman presenting with abnormal liver blood tests.Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease in which the biliary epithelial cells lining the small intrahepatic bile ducts are the target for immune-mediated damage leading to progressive ductopenia. The cause is unknown, but presumed to be autoimmune....
ABSTRACT: Beaked whales are among the least known group of cetaceans, and information regarding their pathology and parasitology are especially scarce. We describe a case of significant parasitism by a trematode found in the liver of an adult male Hubbs beaked whale Mesoplodon carlhubbsi that stranded in Hokkaido, Japan. Post-mortem examinations revealed a localised area of discolouration restricted to the hilar region of the left hepatic lobe, where spindle-shaped trematodes occupied the dilated and hypertrophic bile ducts. Histologically, the intrahepatic bile ducts were characterised by adenomatous hyperplasia with goblet cell metaplasia of the biliary epithelium. Findings in the adjacent hepatic parenchyma included pseudocarcinomatous ductular reactions obliterating hepatocytes, a histomorphology not previously reported in marine mammals. Morphological identification of the trematode corresponded to Oschmarinella macrorchis, which has only been reported once in a Stejnegers beaked whale M. ...
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease of presumed autoimmune etiology, characterised by the destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts and the eventual development of cirrhosis and liver failure. Its progression may be influenced by immunosuppression. Glucocorticosteroids are potent immunosuppressive agents, but they are associated with significant adverse effects, including osteoporosis.. OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of glucocorticosteroids versus placebo or no intervention for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Controlled Trials Register,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the full text of the identified studies were searched until June 2004. The search strategy included terms for primary biliary cirrhosis and glucocorticosteroids (including the names of frequently used preparations). Previous research groups and manufacturers were ...
Giant cystic lesion is seen at location of common bile duct. Enlarged gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation also is noted secondary to compression effect of giant cyst. There is no evidence of stone or visible enhancing mass at distal of common bile duct.. ...
The major objective of this R21 application is to demonstrate the feasibility of using an emerging biophotonics technology - partial-wave spectroscopic microscopy (PWS) for the diagnosis and surveillance of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). CCA is a primary malignancy in bile duct epithelium. Although it is a rare cancer, the global incidence of this cancer is on the rise. It is a deadly disease with a median survival of months. However, significant improvements in survival rates are possible when the cancer is diagnosed at an early localized stage. Current imaging techniques suffer from either low sensitivity and sometimes lead to significant complications such as pancreatitis and cholangitis. The histopathological confirmation is notoriously difficult, with a suboptimal sensitivity of 9% up to 67% even when the advanced molecular techniques (e.g., fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)) were applied. These low rates are in large part due to the challenges of identifying malignant cells with ...
Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome are rare congenital disorders of the intrahepatic bile ducts. They are both characterized by dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary tree.
Background Autoantibodies to the human being muscarinic acetylcholine receptor from the M3 type (hmAchR M3) have already been suggested to try out an etiopathogenic part in Sj?grens symptoms. but none from the 5 healthful controls. Antibodies from the IgM type werent found to become affected. Conclusions For the very first time, our data demonstrate the current presence of autoantibodies towards the hmAchR M3 in PBC individuals. These findings may donate to the knowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease. Further studies need to concentrate on the features of hmAchR M3 autoantibodies in PBC individuals. Background Major biliary cirrhosis (PBC) can be an autoimmune liver organ disease seen as a chronic progressive damage of the tiny intrahepatic bile ducts [1-4]. Its etiopathogenesis remains unclear, although (i) hereditary disposition, (ii) microorganisms, (iii) apoptotic Mouse monoclonal to ETV4 procedures, aswell as (iv) environmental elements have been recommended to become of relevance ...
KAWAGUCHI Takumi , KAJI Ryohei , HORIUCHI Hiroyuki , SHIRONO Tomotake , ISHIDA Yusuke , OKABE Yoshinobu , ITOU Minoru , MITSUYAMA Keiichi , AKIBA Jun , NAKASHIMA Osamu , YANO Hirohisa , KAGE Masayoshi , HARADA Masaru , SAKISAKA Shotaro , SATA Michio Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology 41(12), 1253-1259, 2011-12-01 Ichushi Web References (20) ...
Background: Cholangiocarcinoma remains to be a challenging case to diagnose and manage as it usually presents in advanced stage and survival rate remains dismal despite the medical breakthroughs. It is usually classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal tumor which can lead to bile duct obstruction causing sluggish flow of bile through the biliary tract and promoting increased absorption of bilirubin, bile acids and bile salts into systemic circulation accounting for the occurrence of jaundice, dark-colored urine and generalized pruritus. It usually becomes symptomatic when the tumor has significantly obstructed the biliary drainage causing painless jaundice and deranged liver function with cholestatic pattern. Jaundice occurs in 90% of the cases when the tumor has obstructed the biliary drainage system. A markedly dilated gallbladder as initial presenting feature in the absence of other typical obstructive clinical manifestations of an advanced stage of the cholangiocarcinoma is rare ...
Corrigendum to Survival after resection of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma-development and external validation of a prognostic nomogram [Ann Oncol 26, (2015) 1930-1935] doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdv279 Article ...
|.. ۞ These murine CCAs bear histologic and genetic features of human intrahepatic CCA inducible nitric oxide synthase of uvomorulin (prosta-glandin-endo-peroxide synthase 2, NCAM; 116930) to COX-2, (Cyclo-oxygenase-2) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 [?] ۞ expression PTGS2. This mechanism restrained both oxidant stress and platelet G0 phase activation. Mice lacking Cox2 (Ptgs2, allergen-induced by dexamethasone or anti-Ifng (Interferon)…
Slug is an E-cadherin repressor and a suppressor of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and it has recently been demonstrated that Slug plays an important role in controlling apoptosis. In this study, we examined whether Slugs ability to silence expression suppresses the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells and/or sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents through induction of apoptosis. We targeted the Slug gene using siRNA (Slug siRNA) via full Slug cDNA plasmid (Slug cDNA) transfection of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Slug siRNA, cisplatin, or Slug siRNA in combination with cisplatin, were used to treat cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Slug, PUMA, and E-cadherin protein. TUNEL, Annexin V Staining, and cell cycle analysis were used to detect apoptosis. A nude mice subcutaneous xenograft model of QBC939 cells was used to assess the effect of Slug silencing and/or cisplatin on tumor growth. Immunohistochemical staining was used
Figure 3: MRCP showing multiple cystic dilations of bilateral intrahepatic ducts with signal voids seen in left duct suggestive of calculi, (white arrows). This is a typical picture of Carolis disease with bilateral intrahepatic cystic dilatations with normal extrahepatic ducts.. Answer. Carolis disease with hepatolithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma.. Discussion. Carolis disease (CD) is a rare autosomal recessive, hereditary disorder of the intrahepatic bile ducts due to a ductal plate malformation. In CD, the large and proximal intrahepatic bile ducts are affected and they correspond to the type V bile duct cyst as incorporated by Todani et al. The patient may present with cholangitis or manifestations of portal hypertension (if associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis). Hepatolithiasis and choledocholithiasis is common.1 It is associated with both repeated episodes of cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Dysplasia of the biliary epithelium generated by bile stasis and chronic inflammation ...
BACKGROUND Surgery is the only curative therapy for patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). Combined portal vein resection (PVR) could achieve negative resection margins in HCCA patients with portal vein invasion. This systematic review aimed to analysis the efficiency of combined PVR for HCCA. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and clinical trial registries were searched through April 2015. Risk ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS The analysis included 21 retrospective studies, altogether involving 2403 patients (patients with PVR, n=637; patients without PVR, n=1766). Patients with PVR were likely to have more advanced HCCA (lymphatic invasion: RR=1.14, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28; perineural invasion: RR=1.31, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.63) and suffered less curative resections (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99). Postoperative morbidity was similar between patients with or without PVR (RR=1.06, 95% CI 0.94
Although the incidence of hepatolithiasis is decreasing as the pattern of gallstone disease changes in Asia, the prevalence of hepatolithiasis is persistently high, especially in Far Eastern countries. Hepatolithiasis is an established risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and chronic proliferat …
TRAIL in Combination with Subtoxic 5-FU Effectively Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells Novel cancer therapy;TRAIL/Apo2L;non-conventional anti-cancer therapy;apoptosis; In the past decade, the incidence and mortality rates of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have been increasing worldwide. The relatively low responsiveness of CCA to conventional chemotherapy leads to poor overall survival. Recently, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) has emerged as the most promising anti-cancer therapeutic agent since it is able to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of TRAIL in CCA cell lines (M213, M214 and KKU100) compared with the immortal biliary cell line, MMNK1, either alone or in combination with a subtoxic dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We found that recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) was a potential agent which significantly inhibited cell
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains derived from cultured rat cholangiocytes. AU - Tietz, Pamela. AU - Levine, Susan. AU - Holman, Ralph. AU - Fretham, Chris. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line intrahepatic bile ducts, are composed of plasma membranes with discrete apical (lumenal) and basolateral domains that contain different channels, transporters, and receptors. In recent work, we developed a long-term, primary culture system of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Our aims here were to prepare and characterize apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from NRC. Using serial isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients, we generated separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. We characterized these vesicles by transmission electron microscopy, specific marker enzyme assays, and immunoblotting; we also determined the percentage of sealed vesicles and ...
Expression of MUC1 was detected immunohistochemically in 38 (76%) of 50 cases of m-ICC (ductal type, 18; cytoplasmic type, 20; and negative type, 12). Seventy-five percent of patients with lymph node metastasis had the cytoplasmic type MUC1 expression. Lymph node dissection was performed in only 20 patients, but significant correlation was demonstrated between MUC1 expression and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0227). The location of MUC1 expression correlated with surgical outcome in m-ICC. Patients with the cytoplasmic type expression showed significantly lower survival rates. Univariate analysis revealed that MUC1 expression was a statistically significant risk factor affecting outcome in m-ICC (P = 0.0028). Furthermore, expression of MUC1 was found to be a statistically significant independent risk factor in multivariate analysis (P = 0.0063). ...
[504 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) - Pipeline Review,...
With the improved survival achieved in the 1980s it has become apparent that graft rejection is a major problem following liver transplantation [1]. Hyperacute rejection is uncommon, although syndromes of fulminant graft failure due to immunological mechanisms have been described. Acute cellular rejection occurs in approximately 70% of patients and usually responds to high-dose steroids. Between 10 and 15% develop chronic rejection, characterised by a progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts which is irreversible [2]. The principal targets of both acute and chronic liver allograft rejection are intrahepatic bile ducts and endothelium [2]. The increased ability of these cell types to express MHC antigens and adhesion molecules may be responsible for their involvement [2, 3] and may be enhanced by the release of proinflammatory cytokines associated with viral infection, particularly CMV [3]. Although the importance of HLA matching remains unknown patients transplanted with ABO incompatible
This podcast is part of the 2017 NSH Symposium/Convention Poster Podcast Series. The lead author of this poster is Ruth Fidler. For more information on the author and to view the abstract, visit The Block. view more ...
Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates from the bile duct epithelium (Roberts et al., 1997). Based on its anatomical location in the biliary tree, cholangiocarcinoma is conventionally classified by the World Health Organization as an intrahepatic (ICC) or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) (Bosman et al., 2010; Patel, 2011). ICC and ECC are biologically distinct, and therefore manifest substantial differences in terms of incidence, mortality, and risk factors (Cardinale et al., 2010). Cholangiocarcinoma has a poor prognosis because it is notoriously difficult to diagnose due to its late clinical presentation, and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy (Blechacz and Gores, 2008; Blechacz et al., 2011; Khan et al., 2012). Gemcitabine and cisplatin has become the standard regimen for patients with advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma (Ramirez-Merino et al., 2013; Valle et al., 2010). However, response to the combination chemotherapy in ...
Cancer of the bile duct (also called cholangiocarcinoma) is extremely rare. The true incidence of bile duct cancer is unknown, however, because establishing an accurate diagnosis is difficult. Traditionally, bile duct tumors located within the liver have been classified with hepatocellular carcinoma as primary liver...
Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) frequently demonstrate lymphatic spread. We investigated lymph node (LN) counts after resection of extrahepatic CC and survival based on the SEER 1973-2004 database. Out of 20
Find the best cholangiocarcinoma doctors in Kolkata. Get guidance from medical experts to select cholangiocarcinoma specialist in Kolkata from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is often treated the same way as hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common form of primary liver cancer that develops in the main type of liver cell.
Learn more about Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) from the National Cancer Institute at Siteman Cancer Center.
C15.3 Malignant neoplasm of upper third of esophagus C15.4 Malignant neoplasm of middle third of esophagus C15.5 Malignant neoplasm of lower third of esophagus C15.8 Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of esophagus C15.9 Malignant neoplasm of esophagus, unspecified C22.0 Liver cell carcinoma C22.1 Intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma C22.2 Hepatoblastoma C22.3 Angiosarcoma of liver C22.4 Other sarcomas of liver C22.7 Other specified carcinomas of liver C22.8 Malignant neoplasm of liver, primary, unspecified as to type C22.9 Malignant neoplasm of liver, not specified as primary or secondary C23 Malignant neoplasm of gallbladder C24.0 Malignant neoplasm of extrahepatic bile duct C24.1 Malignant neoplasm of ampulla of Vater C24.8 Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of biliary tract C24.9 Malignant neoplasm of biliary tract, unspecified C34.00 Malignant neoplasm of unspecified main bronchus C34.01 Malignant neoplasm of right main bronchus C34.02 Malignant neoplasm of left main bronchus C34.10 ...
My mother died of Cholangiocarcinoma. This is a very uncommon cancer of the bile duct. I have since that day, started this site. Not until today did I look up Cholangiocarcinoma specifically. What I just found astounds me... Was Mom taking a trial drug? A drug that wasnt even approved by the FDA? She…
UNLABELLED: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however, there are little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD), and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n=125), GBTC (n=137), or IBD (n=34). Using risk-set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs
Maffucci syndrome is characterized by the sporadic occurrence of multiple enchondromas together with multiple hemangiomas. Patients with Maffucci syndrome are at increased risk of developing different kinds of malignant tumors. We report on a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome together with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). Heterozygous somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/IDH2) genes are associated with a number of different tumor types (e.g. IHCC) and also with Maffucci syndrome. For IHCC, mutations in IDH1/IDH2 are associated with higher survival rates. IHCC tissue as well as normal liver tissue and peripheral blood were analyzed for IDH1/IDH2-mutations in our patient. In the tumor sample, we identified a recurrent somatic IDH1-mutation affecting Arg132, while in normal liver tissue and peripheral blood, no variants were detected, as expected. This case report presents the second patient in the literature exhibiting the features of Maffucci
Safety Profile. The most common treatment-related adverse events among all patients who received ivosidenib (including after crossover) included nausea (32.1%), diarrhea (28.8%), fatigue (23.7%), cough (19.2%), abdominal pain (18.6%), ascites (18.6%), decreased appetite (17.3%), anemia (16.0%), and vomiting (16.0%). Grade 3 adverse events were reported in 46% of patients treated with ivosidenib compared to 36% of patients treated with placebo. More of the placebo arm (8.5% vs. 5.8%) discontinued treatment due to toxicity, and ivosidenib was associated with better physical and emotional functioning on quality-of-life measures.. "These pivotal data demonstrate the clinical relevance and benefit of ivosidenib in patients with IDH1-mutated cholangiocarcinoma and establish the role for genomic testing in this rare cancer with a high unmet need," Dr. Abou-Alfa said. All patients with cholangiocarcinoma should be tested for the IDH1 mutation, he maintained.. FIGHT-202. FIGHT-202 was a global, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidentally detected polycystic kidney and Carolis disease. AU - Shetty, Shiran. AU - Pandey, Salil. AU - Leelakrishnan, Venkatakrishnan. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84890915765&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84890915765&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:84890915765. VL - 27. JO - Annals of Gastroenterology. JF - Annals of Gastroenterology. SN - 1108-7471. IS - 1. ER - ...
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Dr. Velimir A. Luketic, MD, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA (USA), commented: "PBC is a chronic progressive liver disease characterized by immune mediated destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts that if untreated progresses to end-stage liver disease and liver failure. A substantial number of patients do not benefit from the currently available therapies - UDCA or OCA - either because of lack of response or intolerable side effects. This represents a major unmet need for this population. In the literature, targeting PPAR receptors have shown to reduce the synthesis of bile acids and to improve detoxification of bile in the bile duct. In clinical trials, PPAR targeting drugs have shown significant decrease in ALP, and improved biochemical profiles and pruritus in PBC patients.". Sophie Mégnien, Chief Medical Officer of GENFIT, added: "We are excited to have this first randomized PBC patient in this ...
Over the past decade, it has become apparent that the human polybromo-1 protein (BAF180) has a critical role in cancer. BAF180 is known to be a driver mutation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, where it has been found to be mutated in approximately 40% of cases. Mutations have also been found in several other cancers, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and epithelioid sarcomas. BAF180 is the chromatin targeting subunit of the PBAF (Polybromo-associated BRG1-associated factor) chromatin remodeling complex, a role facilitated by its nine domains: six bromodomains, which recognize and bind to acetylated lysines on histones; two BAH (bromo-adjacent homology) domains, found to be critical for PCNA ubiquitination following DNA damage; and one HMG (high mobility group) box, the DNA binding component. Furthermore, proper expression of BAF180 has also been linked to cardiac development and cell cycle regulation. Despite these associations, the molecular level interactions of full-length BAF180 have yet
Exome sequencing reveals frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A, and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Jiao Y, Pawlik TM, Anders RA, Selaru FM, Streppel MM, Lucas DJ, Niknafs N, Guthrie VB, Maitra A, Argani P, Offerhaus GJA, Roa JC, Roberts LR, Gores GJ, Popescu I, Alexandrescu ST, Dima S, Fassan M, Simbolo M, Mafficini A, Capelli P, Lawlor RT, Ruzzenente A, Guglielmi A, TortoraG, de Braud F, Scarpa A, Jarnagin W, Klimstra D, Karchin R, Velculescu VE, Hruban RH, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Papadopoulos N, Wood LD. Nat Genet. 2013 Dec; 45(12):1470-3 ...
Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the impact of serum CA19-9 and CEA and their combination on survival among patients undergoing surgery for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Methods: Patients who underwent curative-intent resection of ICC between 1990 and 2016 were identified using a multi-institutional database. Patients were categorized into four groups based on combinations of serum CA19-9 and CEA (low vs. high). Factors associated with 1-year mortality after hepatectomy were examined. Results: Among 588 patients, 5-year OS was considerably better among patients with low CA19-9/low CEA (54.5%) compared with low CA19-9/high CEA (14.6%), high CA19-9/low CEA (10.0%), or high CA19-9/high CEA (0%) (P , 0.001). No difference in 1-year OS existed between patients who had either high CA19-9 (high CA19-9/low CEA: 70.4%) or high CEA levels (low CA19-9/high CEA: 72.5%) (P = 0.92). Although patients with the most favorable tumor marker profile (low CA19-9/low CEA) had the ...
Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts. Although they are rare in the United States, these cancers are highly lethal because most are locally advanced at presentation. (See.)The clinical manifestatio
barbie - Patient: Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer Patient Info: Newly diagnosed (has not begun treatment), Diagnosed: over 7 years ago, Female, Age: 65
Primary sclerosing cholangitis in a 16-year-old male. Severe narrowing of both right and left hepatic ducts without opacification of intrahepatic ducts. A guidewire is introduced into both hepatic ducts. A tapered hydrophilic balloon is fully inflated. Cholangiogram obtained immediately after dilatation shows visualization of irregular areas of stenosis and ectasia of intrahepatic ducts ...
While the pathologic mechanisms responsible for organ-specific tissue damage in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remain an enigma, it has been suggested that the pathology is mediated by autoreactive T cells infiltrating the intrahepatic bile ducts. Previously, we have documented that there is 100-fold enrichment in the frequency of CD4+ autoreactive T cells in the liver that are specific for peptides encoded by the E2 components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDC-E2). We have also recently characterized the first MHC class I-restricted epitope for PDC-E2, namely amino acid 159-167, a region very similar to the epitope recognized by MHC class II-restricted CD4+ cells and by autoantibodies. The effector functions of these PDC-E2159-167-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are not well understood. We have taken advantage of tetramer technology and report herein that there is tenfold increase in the frequency of PDC-E2159-167-specific CTLs in the liver as compared with the blood in ...
bhuiya, Complete Blood Count Abnormal, Weight Loss Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma of the Colon, Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
RADIOLOGY: PANCREAS: Case# 32846: PANCREATIC MASS, OCCLUDED SMV, PV. This is an 88-year-old female who presented with jaundice. A pancreatic head mass was seen on ultrasound. CT was done to further evaluate this mass. A large 10 cm x 7 cm heterogenous mass demonstrating both cystic and solid components appears to be arising from the pancreatic head. There is marked dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. The body and tail of the pancreas is atrophic. This pancreatic mass encases the SMA with irregularity and narrowing of the SMA consistent with invasion. The SMV and IMV are obliterated by the tumor mass. The portal vein is occluded as well. No definite hepatic metastases are identified, however, small areas of metastasis may be missed as there are breathing artifacts. This almost uniformly fatal cancer is the 4th most common malignant tumor accounting for 5% of cancer deaths in the United States. Symptoms are usually nonspecific and insidious such that the cancer is advanced by the time of
The major findings of these studies relate to the development and morphological, biochemical, molecular, and functional characterization of an animal model of selective bile duct damage that is restricted to large hormone-responsive ducts. In 1-wk BDL rats subsequently treated by gavage with a single dose of CCl4, we found that 2 days after CCl4 administration, the number of large (,15 μm in diam) bile ducts decreased. Consistent with the finding of bile duct loss limited to large ducts, 2 days after acute CCl4 treatment, apoptosis was detected in large ducts and cholangiocytes, respectively. DNA synthesis transiently decreased in large cholangiocytes. Inasmuch as large isolated cholangiocytes are localized in large bile ducts in BDL rats (1), the loss of proliferative capacity in large isolated cholangiocytes corresponds with the reduction of numbers of large ducts in 2-day CCl4-treated rats. Finally, consistent with CCl4-induced bile duct damage limited to large hormone-responsive ducts, ...
Endoscopic view of a choledochojejunal anastomosis in a patient who had a gastrointestinal bleed. A laparoscopic side-to-side choledochojejunostomy had been performed 2 months previously for an unresectable distal cholangiocarcinoma causing obstructive j ...
Hello all,. My father (aged 57) was recently diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma and they are not sure if it is operable. We have been offered a clinical trial regarding nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. Have any of you had any experiences using this cocktail? Or know any information regarding it? We would love to know your thoughts/opinions before we decide to move forward.. ...
... , Yawen Deng, Rihui Zhong, Xiaoying Xie, Xuxia Xiong, Jian He, Linhui Peng, Hua Zeng,
Learn about the TNM System, a standard system for describing the extent of a cancers growth in cases of cancer such as cholangiocarcinoma.
The Cholangiocarcinoma Foundation has created this important education campaign for the benefit of its constituency and the broader community. To that end, the Foundation encourages broad dissemination of these resources and materials. Promotion of the Mutations Matter campaign by third parties does not indicate endorsement by the Foundation of those third parties or any of their programs, activities or products.. ...
Learn more about Cholangiocarcinoma at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Cholangiocarcinoma at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, uses a magnet to examine the inside of your body, useful for diagnosing conditions like cholangiocarcinoma.
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Liver cancer. Gross clinical specimen of a sectioned human liver with a malignant (cancerous) tumour (neoplasm) of the bile duct. This is a rare cancer known as cholangiocarcinoma or cholangioma, found most often in patients from certain parts of Africa and Asia. Its cause is unknown. Symptoms of cholangiocarcinoma include jaundice & weight loss. - Stock Image M131/0431
Teaching Files with CT Medical Imaging and case studies on Anatomical Regions including Adrenal, Colon, Cardiac, Stomach, Pediatric, Spleen, Vascular, Kidney, Small Bowel, Liver, Chest | CTisus
Rats were fed N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM) at low or high concentrations for 6 or 12 weeks. Both NNM schedules resulted in development of hepatomas. During the early stages of hepatoma induction, liver histotoxic patterns depended only on the dose of carcinogen employed. Necrosis of hepatocytes and proliferation of small, oval-shaped cells occurred when high doses of NNM were applied. Parallel to the proliferation of oval-shaped cells, resurgence of alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) in rat sera was observed and production of this protein was confined to the oval-shaped cells as shown by immunoperoxidase staining. During proliferation of bile duct epithelium, induced by galactosamine injections, those cells could also stain for AFP, and proliferation of oval-shaped cells concomitant with intracellular AFP staining resulted from restitution of heavily damaged liver. At the stage of malignant conversion, distinct AFP-staining nodules were localized which consisted of neoplastic hepatocytes ...
Understanding the key mechanistic and biologic processes in cholangiocytes is required to generate hypotheses and therapies relevant to disease. This compendium of current activities in cholangiocyte biology may promote collegial sharing and exchange of novel concepts, ideas, reagents and probes, th …
Case Scenario Mrs. J., is a woman in her 40s with cholangiocarcinoma*, which is advanced. She has been admitted to the hospital with a new onset of back pain, nausea and vomiting. She has already undergone surgery and a course.
Conditions: Adenocarcinoma; Adenocystic Carcinoma; Anal Cancer; Appendix Cancer; Brain Tumor; Glioblastoma; Astrocytoma; Bile Duct Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma; Bladder Cancer; Bone Cancer; Synovial Sarcoma; Chondrosarcoma; Liposarcoma; Sarcoma, Kaposi; Sarcoma,Soft Tissue; Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; CNS Cancer; Brain Stem Neoplasms; Breast Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Rectal Cancer; Colon Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Esophagus Cancer; Cancer of Colon; Pancreatic Cancer; Cancer of Pancreas; Testis Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Kidney Cancer; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Parotid Tumor; Larynx Cancer; Tongue Cancer; Pharynx Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Multiple Myeloma; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Cancer; Neuroendocrine Tumors; Mesothelioma; Thyroid Cancer; Parathyroid Neoplasms; Adrenal Cancer; Small Bowel Cancer; Stomach Cancer; ...
Forest plot of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma risk associated with HCV infection. The pooled risk estimate was 1.75 (95% CI, 1.00 to 3.051).
Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts. The most frequent forms are metastatic malignant neoplasm of liver) ... of liver malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder malignant neoplasm of other parts of biliary tract extrahepatic bile duct ...
"SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer". NCI. Archived from the original on 2017-07-28. Retrieved 2016 ... Liver cancer can also form from other structures within the liver such as the bile duct, blood vessels and immune cells. Cancer ... The majority of cholangiocarcimas occur in the hilar region of the liver, and often present as bile duct obstruction. If the ... of the bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma and cholangiocellular cystadenocarcinoma) account for approximately 6% of primary liver ...
"Etiological Causes of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation" (PDF). International Journal of New Technology and ...
... involving saccular or fusiform dilatation of a portion or entire common bile duct (CBD) with normal intrahepatic duct. Type II ... Choledochal cysts (a.k.a. bile duct cyst) are congenital conditions involving cystic dilatation of bile ducts. They are ... inflammation within the bile ducts caused by the spread of bacteria from the intestine into the bile ducts). Pancreatitis also ... Multiple dilatations involving only the extrahepatic bile ducts. Type V: Cystic dilatation of intrahepatic biliary ducts ...
"The role of notch signaling in the development of intrahepatic bile ducts". Gastroenterology. 127 (6): 1775-1786. doi:10.1053/j ... When Hes1 expression is low, hepatocytes form normally, but bile ducts are completely absent. This phenotype resembles Alagille ...
Liver abscesses may be seen even without dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. While normally asymptomatic most pathological ... This parasite lives in the liver of humans, and is found mainly in the common bile duct and gall bladder, feeding on bile. ... It takes 1-2 day for migration into the bile ducts. They start feeding on the bile secreted from the liver, and gradually grow ... Recent studies have proved that it is definite cancer-causing agent in the liver (carcinoma) and bile duct (CCA). For this ...
This species had produced megaloschizonts in the intrahepatic bile ducts and portal veins. The presence of these ...
"Jagged1 in the portal vein mesenchyme regulates intrahepatic bile duct development: insights into Alagille syndrome". ...
When the intrahepatic bile duct wall has protrusions, it is clearly seen as central dots or a linear streak. Caroli disease is ... bile ducts due to ectasia. Using an ultrasound, tubular dilation of the bile ducts can be seen. On a CT scan, Caroli disease ... He described it as "nonobstructive saccular or fusiform multifocal segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts"; ... 2007). "Bile duct cyst type V (Caroli's disease): surgical strategy and results". HPB (Oxford). 9 (4): 281-4. doi:10.1080/ ...
Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common bile ... The intercalated ducts drain into larger ducts within the lobule, and finally interlobular ducts. The ducts are lined by a ... Two ducts, the main pancreatic duct and a smaller accessory pancreatic duct, run through the body of the pancreas, joining with ... forming the main pancreatic duct. The duct of the dorsal bud regresses, leaving the main pancreatic duct.[10] ...
Where formation of stones are not strictly in gallbladder, hence not fibrotic, but in the intrahepatic bile ducts). To ... Double gallstones with one falling and blocking the common bile duct (responsible for jaundice) and one at the cystic duct ( ... The exceptions to the law are stones that dislodge and acutely block the duct distally to the hepatic/cystic duct junction: ... in the case of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis complicated by calcium bilirubinate stone dislodging to the common bile duct ...
... and reduced numbers of intrahepatic bile ducts progresses to live cirrhosis. Showed mild interstitial fibrosis and amyloid ...
ALP levels in plasma rise with large bile duct obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, or infiltrative diseases of the liver. ... Bile duct obstruction by gallstones, hepatitis, cirrhosis or cancer should be suspected. About 5% of the population has ... Obstruction can be located either within the liver or in the bile duct). The diagnosis is narrowed down further by evaluating ... 3. Posthepatic: Obstruction of the bile ducts is reflected as deficiencies in bilirubin excretion. ( ...
Obstruction of the bile ducts by gallstones (choledocholithiasis), primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver damage (intrahepatic ... The absence of bile secretion can cause the feces to turn gray or pale. Other features of fat malabsorption may also occur such ... Possible causes include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, with poor digestion from lack of lipases, loss of bile salts, which ...
Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common bile ... Bile canaliculi ,, Canals of Hering ,, intrahepatic bile ductule (in portal tracts / triads) ,, interlobular bile ducts ,, left ... Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is ... Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is ...
Tumors occurring in the bile ducts within the liver are referred to as intrahepatic, those occurring in the ducts outside the ... Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the National Cancer Institute. Cancer.Net: Bile Duct Cancer The ... Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (those arising from the bile ducts within the liver) are usually treated with partial ... Chronic inflammation and obstruction of the bile ducts, and the resulting impaired bile flow, are thought to play a role in ...
... a freshwater catfish Malignant neoplasms of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts ICD-10 code Centre Municipal Airport FAA LID. ...
Tumors occurring in the bile ducts within the liver are referred to as intrahepatic, those occurring in the ducts outside the ... Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is a type of cancer that forms in the bile ducts.[2] Symptoms of ... American Cancer Society Detailed Guide to Bile Duct Cancer.. *Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the ... ERCP image of cholangiocarcinoma, showing common bile duct stricture and dilation of the proximal common bile duct ...
... cystic duct MeSH A03.159.183.079.600 --- hepatic duct, common MeSH A03.159.183.158 --- bile ducts, intrahepatic MeSH A03.159. ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH A03.159.183.079 --- bile ducts, extrahepatic MeSH A03.159.183.079.300 --- common bile duct MeSH ... salivary ducts MeSH A03.556.500.760.650 --- salivary glands, minor MeSH A03.556.500.760.687 --- sublingual gland MeSH A03.556. ... bile canaliculi MeSH A03.734.414.065 --- glucagon-secreting cells MeSH A03.734.414.131 --- insulin-secreting cells MeSH A03.734 ...
... is seen due to portal hypertension caused by compression of portal veins by the proximate sclerosed intrahepatic bile ducts, ... The resulting scarring of the bile ducts obstructs the flow of bile, which further perpetuates bile duct and liver injury. ... The bile duct scarring which occurs in PSC narrows the ducts of the biliary tree and impedes the flow of bile to the intestines ... infection within the bile ducts) can be seen due to impaired drainage of the bile ducts, which increases the risk of infection ...
... common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.320.120 --- bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.320.120.280 --- common bile duct neoplasms ... intrahepatic MeSH C06.130.120.135.250.125 --- alagille syndrome MeSH C06.130.120.135.250.250 --- liver cirrhosis, biliary MeSH ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C06.130.120.120 --- bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.120.120.280 --- common bile duct neoplasms ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.301.120.250.250 --- common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.301.120.401 --- gallbladder neoplasms MeSH ...
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, bile duct paucity, Alagille syndrome, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, and other ... Cystic fibrosis Dubin-Johnson Syndrome Rotor syndrome Drugs Total parenteral nutrition Idiopathic Biliary atresia or bile duct ...
It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, causing bile and other toxins to build up ... with the intralobular ducts and the Canals of Hering (intrahepatic ductules) being affected early in the disease. This ... Abdominal ultrasound, MR scanning (MRCP) or a CT scan is usually performed to rule out blockage to the bile ducts. This may be ... Gp210 has increased expression in the bile duct of anti-gp210 positive patients, and these proteins may be associated with ...
... intrahepatic - intrahepatic bile ducts - intrahepatic infusion - intralesional - intraluminal intubation and dilation - ... common bile duct - comorbidity - compassionate use trial - complementary and alternative medicine - complete blood count (CBC ... bile duct - biliary - bilirubin - binding agent - bioavailable - biochanin A - biochemical reactions - biological response ... pancreatic duct - pancreatic enzyme - pancreatic juice - pancreatitis - PAP, same as Pap smear - Pap smear - Pap test, same as ...
Malignant neoplasms of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (C22.0) Liver cell carcinoma (C22.1) Intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma ... Liver Intrahepatic bile ducts (D13.5) Extrahepatic bile ducts (D13.6) Pancreas (D13.7) Endocrine pancreas Islet cell tumour ... Lacrimal gland and duct (C69.6) Orbit (C69.7) Overlapping lesion of eye and adnexa (C70) Malignant neoplasm of meninges (C70.0 ... Pancreatic duct (C25.4) Endocrine pancreas (C25.7) Other parts of pancreas (C25.8) Overlapping lesion of pancreas (C25.9) ...
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS]. *Distal splenorenal shunt procedure. Gallbladder, bile duct. * ... including the gallbladder and bile ducts. The image produced by this type of medical imaging, called a cholescintigram, is also ... where it is excreted into the bile ducts and stored by the gallbladder[1] until released into the duodenum. ... If the gallbladder is not visualized within 4 hours after the injection, this indicates either cholecystitis or cystic duct ...
... involving saccular or fusiform dilatation of a portion or entire common bile duct (CBD) with normal intrahepatic duct. Type II ... Choledochal cysts (a.k.a. bile duct cyst) are congenital conditions involving cystic dilatation of bile ducts. They are ... inflammation within the bile ducts caused by the spread of bacteria from the intestine into the bile ducts). Pancreatitis also ... Multiple dilatations involving only the extrahepatic bile ducts. Type V: Cystic dilatation of intrahepatic biliary ducts ...
Bile duct injury as a major cause of stenosis and occlusion in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: comparative ... The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt procedure for variceal bleeding. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 165-171.. * ... TIPS Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts. New York: Igaku-Shoin, 1996: 55-64.. *Web of Science® Times Cited: 77 ... TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) and surgical therapy. Gastroenterol Clin N Am 2000; 29: 387-421.. * ...
Interlobular bile ducts (between the interlobar ducts and the lobules) - simple columnar epithelium. Intralobular bile ducts ( ... Intrahepatic bile ducts compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. They can be divided into: Lobar ... Interlobar ducts (between the main hepatic ducts and the interlobular ducts) - pseudostratified columnar epithelium. ... ducts (right and left hepatic ducts) - stratified columnar epithelium. ...
Sherlock S (1987) The syndrome of disappearing intrahepatic bile ducts. Lancet 29: 493-496Google Scholar ... Bile Duct Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Hepatic Duct Sclerosing Cholangitis These keywords were ... 2006) Intrahepatic Bile Ducts. In: MR Cholangiopancreatography. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/3- ... 1992) Mechnisms of major bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ann Surg 215: 196-202PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer, United States-2006-2015. USCS data brief, no 5. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease ... Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer, United States-2006-2015. *Cancers Associated with Human Papillomavirus, United States- ... From 2006 to 2015, the incidence rate for liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer increased by 32%, and the mortality rate ... In 2015, 32,908 new liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer cases and 25,760 deaths were reported in the United States. ...
Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - tumor. Miscellaneous. Grossing. Reviewers: Deepali Jain, M.D. (see Reviewers page) Revised: ... End of Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - tumor > Miscellaneous > Grossing. This information is intended for physicians and ...
Primary follicular lymphoma of extrahepatic bile duct End of Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - tumor > Leukemia / lymphoma > ... Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - tumor. Leukemia / lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma. Reviewers: Deepali Jain, M.D. (see ...
Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - tumor. Other malignancies. Kaposi s sarcoma (KS). Reviewers: Deepali Jain, M.D. (see ... End of Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - tumor > Other malignancies > Kaposi s sarcoma (KS). This information is intended for ...
Immunohistochemistry revealed low levels of TGF-beta 1 in normal intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. In contrast, the bile duct ... These pathogenic responses were induced in rats by common bile duct ligation. Bile duct cell replication, measured by the ... termination of the bile duct epithelial cell proliferative response and the induction of fibrogenesis after common bile duct ... during intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis. ... Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology*. *Common Bile Duct/surgery ...
Secondary malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile duct. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code ... C22 Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts* C22.0 Liver cell carcinoma ... secondary malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile duct (. ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code C78.7 ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and MHC antigens on human intrahepatic bile duct cells: effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ... Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and MHC antigens on human intrahepatic bile duct cells: effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ... Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells were isolated from the livers of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and from ... a part in the pathogenesis of immune mediated disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis in which immune mediated bile duct ...
Start fundraising to fight Liver And Intrahepatic Bile Duct in Bellair-Meadowbrook Terrace today. No technical skill required, ... 2013 it is estimated that 22,720 men will be diagnosed with Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct. Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct ... 2013 it is estimated that 7,921 women will be diagnosed with Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct. Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct ... Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Risks In A Lifetime Based on rates from 2008-2010, 0.86% of men and women born today will be ...
In this procedure, a lot of mucus was seen within the common bile duct and left intrahepatic bile duct. No bile duct stones ... Unenhanced nodules were seen within the left intrahepatic bile duct. Ultrasonography revealed intrahepatic and extrahepatic ... Abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan showed intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation with liver atrophy of ... Laparoscopic Anatomical Left Hepatectomy for Intrahepatic Bile Duct Papillary Mucinous Cystadenoma With Intraoperative Vascular ...
Intrahepatic Bile Duct Tumours The most common tumour of the intrahepatic bile ducts is intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. A much ... Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. Bile duct tumours occur within the liver and in the extrahepatic bile ducts. They are ... If there is occlusion of the large bile ducts then cholangitis may occur. Occlusion of the common bile duct leads to jaundice ... Intrahepatic Bile Duct Tumours Welcome » Basic Topics » Pathology » H: Gastrointestinal Malignancy » Hepatic Cancer » ...
Intrahepatic bile ducts[edit]. AJCC 7th Edition (2009) Note: New staging category beginning with the 7th edition. In prior ... N1 - regional lymph node metastasis (along the cystic duct, common bile duct, hepatic artery, and portal vein) ... Right liver (segments 5-8) - hilar (common bile duct, hepatic artery, portal vein, and cystic duct), periduodenal, ... Extrahepatic bile ducts[edit]. Current staging[edit]. AJCC 7th Edition (2009) For the 7th Edition staging, there are now ...
... by using a combination of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and direct ... peroral cholangioscopy. This video demonstrates the successful removal of intrahepatic… ... A 50-year-old gentleman presented with multiple left intrahepatic duct (LIHD) and common bile duct (CBD) stones. At ERCP, ... Successful removal of intrahepatic bile duct stones. On December 26, 2014. February 4, 2015. By giejournalIn VideoGIE ...
Intrahepatic Bile Ducts. * Intrahepatic Bile Ducts Pages 56-127 * Extrahepatic Bile Duct. * Extrahepatic Bile Duct ... Bile Ducts Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Pancreatic Duct Tumor diagnosis imaging Authors and affiliations. *Lieven Van Hoe*1 ...
Find the survival rates for bile duct cancer here. ... Survival rates of bile duct cancer are based on outcomes of ... They are divided into intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct cancers.. Intrahepatic bile duct cancers (those starting within ... Extrahepatic bile duct cancers (those starting outside the liver). (This includes both perihilar and distal bile duct cancers.) ... 5-year relative survival rates for bile duct cancer. These numbers are based on people diagnosed with cancers of the bile duct ...
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A bile duct is a tube that carries bile (fluid made by the liver that helps digest fat) between the liver and gallbladder and ... Bile duct cancer is cancer that forms in a bile duct. ... Study offers new hope for patients with intrahepatic ... Bile Duct Cancer Prognosis. Read More Causes of Bile Duct Cancer. Read More Bile Duct Cancer - Cholangiocarcinoma. Read More ... Bile Duct Cancer. Test for Bile Duct Cancer Bile duct cancer is identified, diagnosed, and staged with the help of tests that ...
Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts, number of deaths, by sex, Categories: Cancer mortality ... Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts Deaths(#), Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts. ... Indicator full name: Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts, number of deaths, by sex ... Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts, number of deaths, female (Line chart) ...
Abdominal Injuries , Bile Ducts , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Bile , Child , Child Abuse , Child , Common Bile Duct , ... Bile Duct Stricture and Intrahepatic Cystic Formation after Abdominal Injury due to Child Abuse: A Case Report ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Wounds, Nonpenetrating / Bile / Bile Ducts / Humans / Male / ... Bile Duct Stricture and Intrahepatic Cystic Formation after Abdominal Injury due to Child ...
Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ... Bile Duct Neoplasms / genetics. Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ... Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts ... Adenoma, Bile Duct / diagnosis. Adenoma, Bile Duct / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, ...
Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. Resectable Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer. Treatment of resectable intrahepatic bile duct cancer ... Intrahepatic bile duct cancer: This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts inside the liver. Only a small number of bile duct ... Anatomy of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Intrahepatic bile ducts are a network of small tubes that carry bile inside the liver. ... Removal of the bile duct: A surgical procedure to remove part of the bile duct if the tumor is small and in the bile duct only ...
Tumors of The Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts. Lee, Randall G Lee, Randall G Less ...
  • The cause of these complications may be related to either abnormal flow of bile within the ducts or the presence of gallstones Direct hyperbilirubinemia They were classified into 5 types by Todani in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aflatoxin damaged liver cells and bile duct cells are removed by neutrophil elastase and by involvement of immune system mediators such as CCL-2 or MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), TGF-beta, endothelin (ET), and nitric oxide (NO). Among these, TGF-beta is the most important pro-fibrogenic cytokine that can be seen in progressive cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choledochal cysts are treated by surgical excision of the cyst with the formation of a roux-en-Y anastomosis hepaticojujenostomy/ choledochojujenostomy to the biliary duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some may be due to a defect in early bile duct development (particularly those with other abnormalities) and some may arise in the perinatal period due to an external cause such as an hepatotropic virus reovirus 3 infection, congenital cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
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