Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Portoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Imino Acids1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic: Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Gallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lithotripsy, Laser: Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.Caroli Disease: Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Rats, Inbred F344Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Cholecystitis, Acute: Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cholecystolithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Mice, Inbred C57BLLaparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Adenomyoma: A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Clinical value of K-ras codon 12 analysis and endobiliary brush cytology for the diagnosis of malignant extrahepatic bile duct stenosis. (1/179)

Extrahepatic biliary stenosis can be caused by benign and malignant disorders. In most cases, a tissue diagnosis is needed for optimal management of patients, but the sensitivity of biliary cytology for the diagnosis of a malignancy is relatively low. The additional diagnostic value of K-ras mutational analysis of endobiliary brush cytology was assessed. Endobiliary brush cytology specimens obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography were prospectively collected from 312 consecutive patients with extrahepatic biliary stenosis. The results of conventional light microscopic cytology and K-ras codon 12 mutational analysis were compared and evaluated in view of the final diagnosis made by histological examination of the stenotic lesion and/or patient follow-up. The sensitivities of cytology and mutational analysis to detect malignancy were 36 and 42%, respectively. When both tests were combined, the sensitivity increased to 62%. The specificity of cytology was 98%, and the specificity of the mutational analysis and of both tests combined was 89%. Positive predictive values for cytology, mutational analysis, and both tests combined were 98, 92, and 94%, whereas the corresponding negative predictive values were 34, 34, and 44%, respectively. The sensitivity of K-ras mutational analysis was 63% for pancreatic carcinomas compared to 27% for bile duct, gallbladder, and ampullary carcinomas. K-ras mutational analysis can be considered supplementary to conventional light microscopy of endobiliary brush cytology to diagnose patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary stenosis, particularly in the case of pancreatic cancer. The presence of a K-ras codon 12 mutation in endobiliary brush cytology per se supports a clinical suspicion of malignancy, even when the conventional cytology is negative or equivocal.  (+info)

Metachronous bile duct cancer in a patient surviving for a decade and undergoing curative surgery twice. (2/179)

We report a 75-year-old woman with metachronous bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection twice and has survived for a decade. In 1989, she was admitted because her serum alkaline phosphatase level was elevated. Computed tomography (CT) showed a low-density mass, 2 cm in diameter, at the left hepatic duct and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lobe. We diagnosed the lesion as an intrahepatic bile duct cancer and performed extended left hepatic lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was a well differentiated cholangiocellular carcinoma with hepatic hilar and celiac lymph node metastases (T1N2M0, Stage IVB). In 1996, she was re-admitted with obstructive jaundice. CT showed a slightly enhanced mass, 4 cm in diameter, in the pancreatic head. After reducing the jaundice by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The histological diagnosis of this lesion was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma originating from the intrapancreatic bile duct. Ten years after the first operation, she is leading a normal daily life with no cancer recurrence. These findings suggest that repeated curative surgery can result in a long-term survival of patients with metachronous bile duct cancer.  (+info)

Partial hepatectomy and bile duct ligation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): histologic, immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical characterization of hepatic regeneration and biliary hyperplasia. (3/179)

Hepatic regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) and biliary hyperplasia subsequent to bile duct ligation (BDL) were characterized in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by light microscopy using routine and special (immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical) stains. Both PH and BDL involved initial hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bile preductular epithelial cells (BPDECs). BPDECs are small oval cells that form junctional complexes with hepatocytes and bile ductular cells and are commonly found in hepatic tubules of teleost liver. Proliferating BPDECs transitioned through intermediate cell types before final differentiation into large basophilic hepatocytes (following PH) or biliary epithelial cells (after BDL). Normal BPDECs and hepatocytes were both negative for cytokeratin intermediate filaments in control fish when screened with the monoclonal antibody AE1/AE3. In contrast, hyperplastic BPDECs and their progeny (intermediate cells, immature hepatocytes, ductal epithelial cells) were all strongly cytokeratin positive. Cytokeratin expression was transient in newly differentiated hepatocytes (expression decreased as hepatocytes acquired characteristics consistent with full differentiation) but was permanent in biliary epithelial cells (expression was very strong in large mature ducts). BPDECs, intermediate cells, and immature ductal cells were also strongly positive for alkaline phosphatase following BDL. Chronology of histologic events and cytokeratin and enzyme expression all support the hypothesis that BPDECs possess the capacity to differentiate into either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells. Thus, BPDECs may be the teleost equivalent of a bipolar hepatic stem cell in mammals.  (+info)

Postoperative bile duct strictures: management and outcome in the 1990s. (4/179)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the management and outcome after surgical reconstruction of 156 patients with postoperative bile duct strictures managed in the 1990s. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The management of postoperative bile duct strictures and major bile duct injuries remains a challenge for even the most skilled biliary tract surgeon. The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the incidence of bile duct strictures and injuries from the introduction and widespread use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the management of these injuries and short-term outcome have been reported, long-term follow-up is limited. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 156 patients treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with major bile duct injuries or postoperative bile duct strictures between January 1990 and December 1999. With the exception of bile duct injuries discovered and repaired during surgery, all patients underwent preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and placement of transhepatic biliary catheters before surgical repair. Follow-up was conducted by medical record review or telephone interview during January 2000. RESULTS: Of the 156 patients undergoing surgical reconstruction, 142 had completed treatment with a mean follow-up of 57.5 months. Two patients died of reasons unrelated to biliary tract disease before the completion of treatment. Twelve patients (7.9%) had not completed treatment and still had biliary stents in place at the time of this report. Of patients who had completed treatment, 90. 8% were considered to have a successful outcome without the need for follow-up invasive, diagnos tic, or therapeutic interventional procedures. Patients with reconstruction after injury or stricture after laparoscopic cholecystectomy had a better overall outcome than patients whose postoperative stricture developed after other types of surgery. Presenting symptoms, number of stents, interval to referral, prior repair, and length of postoperative stenting were not significant predictors of outcome. Overall, a successful outcome, without the need for biliary stents, was obtained in 98% of patients, including those requiring a secondary procedure for recurrent stricture. CONCLUSIONS: Major bile duct injuries and postoperative bile duct strictures remain a considerable surgical challenge. Management with preoperative cholangiography to delineate the anatomy and placement of percutaneous biliary catheters, followed by surgical reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, is associated with a successful outcome in up to 98% of patients.  (+info)

Genetic alterations and growth pattern in biliary duct carcinomas: loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 5q bears a close relation with polypoid growth. (5/179)

Biliary duct carcinomas (BDCs) are relatively rare and the carcinogenic mechanisms underlying their induction are poorly understood. There are two growth patterns, polypoid and non-polypoid infiltrative type, but little information is available concerning the relation between growth pattern and genetic alterations. A comparative study was therefore conducted to clarify if differences in genetic changes, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 5q, 9p, 17p, and 18q, and K-ras mutations exist between polypoid and non-polypoid infiltrative type BDCs. LOH analysis was performed using microsatellite markers and K-ras point mutations were analysed by dot blot hybridisation. The incidences of changes for polypoid and non-polypoid infiltrative types were 73% and 26% on 5q, 63% and 59% on 9p, 55% and 50% on 17p, and 20% and 18% on 18q, and 25% and 27% for K-ras mutations. Most importantly, we found the frequency of 5qLOH to be significantly higher with polypoid growth than in the non-polypoid infiltrative type (p<0.05), especially in extrahepatic duct carcinomas (p<0.05). The incidences of other genetic alterations (LOH at 9p, 17p, and 18q, and K-ras mutations) showed similar rates with both tumour types. The present data suggest that 5qLOH may have a close relation with polypoid growth in BDCs.  (+info)

Is preventive resection of the extrahepatic bile duct necessary in cases of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without dilatation of the bile duct? (6/179)

BACKGROUND: No consensus has been reached on whether preventive resection of the extrahepatic bile duct is necessary in cases of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct (undilated type). METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with PBM underwent corrective surgery and several clinical characteristics and pathological findings including K-ras point mutation were evaluated. RESULTS: Unlike dilated bile duct, none of the patients with undilated type duct had clinical symptoms in early childhood. In patients with either cystic or spindle type duct, amylase levels in the bile duct were >10(4) U/l, whereas those in patients with undilated type duct were <10(4) U/l. Postoperative scintigraphy of the biliary system of undilated type revealed no evidence of cholestasis. After surgery, eight patients with undilated type duct, in whom the bile duct had been preserved, had no further clinical symptoms and no evidence of malignancy. Bile duct tissue specimens revealed no hyperplasia, dysplasia or cancerous lesions and they had no K-ras mutation in undilated type. CONCLUSION: The results showed that there was little bile stasis, injury to the mucosa was mild and less genetic changes could be seen in patients with undilated type duct. Therefore, in patients without dilatation of bile duct and advanced cancer, cholecystectomy alone is sufficient.  (+info)

Restrictive cardiomyopathy in a patient with extrahepatic biliary atresia. (7/179)

The most commonly associated anomalies in patients with extrahepatic biliary atresia are cardiovascular, digestive and splenic defects. Of the cardiovascular anomalies, there are very few reports of biliary atresia with cardiomyopathy. We report the first case of a child with extrahepatic biliary atresia and restrictive cardiomyopathy. The patient was a 13-month-old boy diagnosed with extrahepatic biliary atresia at the age of 2 months, when he underwent laparotomy for definite diagnosis.Hepatic portoenterostomy was performed after confirmative cholangiogram. Recently, he developed severe cough and dyspnea, and his respiratory symptoms worsened. Chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly. Two- dimensional echocardiography showed marked biatrial enlargement. On M- mode echocardiogram, a slight increase in left ventricular dimension was seen in early diastole with a relatively good left ventricular function. Mitral inflow Doppler tracing showed an increased E-velocity (1.1 m/sec) with decreased deceleration time (75 m/sec), and increased E/A ratio (0.33). He was diagnosed as having restrictive cardiomyopathy with characteristic echocardiographic features.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of ito cells (fat-storing cells) in response to extrahepatic bile duct ligation in broiler chickens. (8/179)

The Ito cell (fat-storing cell) lies in perisinusoidal space of liver and has a variety of functions. We investigated the immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of Ito cells in normal and cholestatic livers of broiler chickens. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Ito cells expressed HHF35 muscle actin, vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A and cytokeratins in normal livers. These cells were diffusely scattered throughout the lobules. Livers treated with extrahepatic bile duct ligation (BDL) showed cholestasis, fibrosis, proliferation of biliary ductules and Ito cells. The Ito cells were frequently found in fibrotic areas and were larger in size with more extensive immunoreactivity than those of normal livers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated that Ito cells were closely associated with the production of collagen fibers in BDL livers. These findings suggest that Ito cells actively react against hepatocytic injuries and play a major role in the hepatic fibrogenesis of cholestatic livers of chickens.  (+info)

Tumor staging of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) carcinoma is problematic for a number of reasons, including definitional problems with the current T classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system and the common occurrence of severe desmoplastic stromal reaction around the adva
Survival statistics for extrahepatic bile duct cancer are very general estimates and must be interpreted very carefully. Because these statistics are based on the experience of groups of people, they cannot be used to predict a particular persons chances of survival.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. AU - Wei, T. C.. AU - Wei, P. L.. AU - Yu, S. C.. AU - Lee, P. H.. AU - Hsu, S. C.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Fifty-two patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts were reviewed. There were 28 men and 24 women whose ages ranged from 31 to 78 years, with a mean age of 58 years. Symptoms, signs and laboratory results were primarily the result of bile duct obstruction. The most valuable diagnostic procedures were percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In 28 patients the tumor was located in the upper, 9 in the middle and 12 in the lower common bile duct. In the other three patients the tumor was diffuse. The resectability rate was 21.2% (11/52). Of the remaining patients, 10 (19.2%) had T-tube drainage, 5 (9.6%) had biliary digestive anastomosis, 18 (34.6%) had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and 8 (15.4%) had biopsy only. The histologic diagnosis was sclerosing in ...
The current Fascicle contains new information accumulated during the last ten years on tumors and tumor-like lesions of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and Vaterian system. Because of the increasing number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies and Whipple procedures performed, surgical pathologists now have the opportunity to examine more cancer precursors, early cancers, and adenomas of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater than previously. These lesions are discussed in detail and profusely illustrated. Likewise, lesions that closely simulate malignant neoplasms are also described and illustrated. Also included are the giant cell neoplasms and the gastrointestinal stromal tumors as well as the new subtypes of carcinomas such as large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and adenocarcinomas with pyloric gland or foveolar phenotype. The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of a wide variety of neoplasms is emphasized, as well ...
Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct. A rare cause of malignant biliary obstruction.: Carcinoid tumor of the bile duct is a rare form of malignant bil
Risk factors for extrahepatic bile duct cancer include primary sclerosing cholangitis and choledochal cysts. Learn about extrahepatic bile duct cancer risk.
Although ductal margin status is an established prognostic factor in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,4-17 a small proportion of patients with positive resection margins may still survive in the long term.7-12 We also observed four 5-year survivors with positive ductal margins (Fig. 2), a fact that inspired the current study. To our knowledge, the current study is the first to demonstrate that residual carcinoma in situ differs prognostically from residual invasive ductal disease in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.. In the current study, which examined extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 4 patients with residual carcinoma in situ at the ductal stumps died of local disease recurrence 26 months, 54 months, 99 months, and 112 months after surgical resection, respectively (Table 3). For gallbladder carcinoma, we previously reported that 2 patients with residual carcinoma in situ at the cystic ductal stumps died of local recurrence 66 months and 76 months, respectively, after ...
The biliary tree consists of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and is lined by biliary epithelial cells (or cholangiocytes). There are also peribiliary glands around the intrahepatic large bile ducts and extrahepatic bile ducts. The biliary tr
A rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the part of bile duct that is outside the liver. Also known as Cholangiocarcinoma.
Diagnosis Code D13.5 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) frequently demonstrate lymphatic spread. We investigated lymph node (LN) counts after resection of extrahepatic CC and survival based on the SEER 1973-2004 database. Out of 20
Most carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater are diagnosed prior to surgery, so intraoperative consultations usually concern evaluation of resection margins. However, a primary...
Evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers is inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC). We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years). We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity and performed mediation analysis and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g. due to hepatitis virus infection). In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.80) comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting ,2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.76). Estimates were similar in sensitivity ...
Evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers is inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC). We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years). We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity and performed mediation analysis and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g. due to hepatitis virus infection). In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.80) comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting ,2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.76). Estimates were similar in sensitivity ...
C15.3 Malignant neoplasm of upper third of esophagus C15.4 Malignant neoplasm of middle third of esophagus C15.5 Malignant neoplasm of lower third of esophagus C15.8 Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of esophagus C15.9 Malignant neoplasm of esophagus, unspecified C22.0 Liver cell carcinoma C22.1 Intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma C22.2 Hepatoblastoma C22.3 Angiosarcoma of liver C22.4 Other sarcomas of liver C22.7 Other specified carcinomas of liver C22.8 Malignant neoplasm of liver, primary, unspecified as to type C22.9 Malignant neoplasm of liver, not specified as primary or secondary C23 Malignant neoplasm of gallbladder C24.0 Malignant neoplasm of extrahepatic bile duct C24.1 Malignant neoplasm of ampulla of Vater C24.8 Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of biliary tract C24.9 Malignant neoplasm of biliary tract, unspecified C34.00 Malignant neoplasm of unspecified main bronchus C34.01 Malignant neoplasm of right main bronchus C34.02 Malignant neoplasm of left main bronchus C34.10 ...
Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow through intra-or extrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained.
Peribiliary glands (PBGs) in bile duct wall space, and pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) associated with pancreatic ducts, in individuals of all age range, contain a continuous, ramifying network of cells in overlapping maturational lineages. with ultrastructural, useful and electrophysiological features of neoislets, including blood sugar regulatability. Implantation of these neoislets into epididymal fats safeguards of immuno-compromised rodents, rendered diabetic chemically, lead in release of individual C-peptide, regulatable by blood sugar, and capable to relieve hyperglycemia in owners. The biliary tree-derived control cells and their cable connections to pancreatic dedicated progenitors make up a natural structure for life-long pancreatic organogenesis. Launch The global occurrence of diabetes mellitus provides increased over the history few years and continues to rise dramatically. The search for healing therapies that normalize bloodstream glucose amounts and offer self-reliance from ...
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an abnormal accumulation of Langerhans cells in various organs that sometimes induces organ dysfunction. LCH can affect the liver, resulting in sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. However, liver and bile duct involvement is usually observed in the disseminated form of LCH. We herein report a rare case of LCH localized only in the extrahepatic bile duct that resulted in severe liver cirrhosis. A 3-year-old boy with elevated liver enzymes, obstructive jaundice, and dilation of the common bile duct was referred to our institution. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed atrophy of the right hepatic lobe, relative hypertrophy of the left hepatic lobe, choledocholiths, and biliary debris extensively with biliary duct dilation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed dilation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and multiple choleliths in the gallbladder and common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, intraoperative
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered Wallstent. AU - Trambert, Jonathan J.. AU - Frost, Andrei. AU - Malasky, Charlotte. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.. AB - A 45-year-old woman ...
Forest plot of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma risk associated with HCV infection. The pooled risk estimate was 1.75 (95% CI, 1.00 to 3.051).
Histological typing of tumours of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts / J. Albores-Saavedra, D.E. Henson and L.H. Sobin ; in collaboration with pathologists in 5 countries. ...
We found sensitivity for the ascertainment of pancreatic and periampullary cancer cases from the hospital data of 87.5% for the 2005-2009 period. The accuracy of hospital coding varied by tumour primary site and histology, with higher sensitivity of case ascertainment for pancreatic (88.6%) and duodenal cancers (87.1%) compared with extrahepatic bile duct and ampullary cancers (78.8%) and with lower sensitivity for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (67.9%). Misclassification of pancreatic and periampullary cancers in the hospital data was often to closely related sites, for example, intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, or to less specific sites such as cancers of ill-defined or unspecified primary sites. Whereas hospital coders might only have information from a particular admission available, coders at a cancer registry often have multiple sources of information from diagnostic procedures and treatment which can enable more accurate coding of tumour characteristics.. Several aspects of the coverage ...
In the definitive and palliative setting, concurrent chemoradiation leads to a median OS of 2.2- 27 months and 3 y-years survival rates ranging from 6 to 73 months [24]. Local recurrence is the primary site of progression and dose escalation seems to be promising in terms of LC and OS. In a retrospective series using different fractionation regimes, Tao et al. could show that a BED greater than 80.5 Gy correlated with prolonged OS and LC (p = 0.017 and p = 0.04 respectively).These results, could not be reproduced in another retrospective study from Jung et al. [25] who treated patients using SBRT in 1-5 fraction. In his study a BED higher than 86 Gy did not correlate with better LC or survival (p = 0.4 and p = 0.1 respectively) which is in concordance with our findings. Furthermore, Jung et al. did not find any differences between patients treated for IHCCC (n = 33) vs EHCCC (n = 25) (p = 0.54) but they reported in 10% of the patients grade ≥ 3 complications such as duodenal and gastric ...
For cases of inoperable bile duct carcinoma, we perform intraluminal irradiation using an 192iridium wire following endoprostheses implantation. However, the effectiveness of this procedure is uncertain, and may lead to decreased patient quality of life in some cases. Therefore, we obtained samples of bile duct carcinoma either by percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscope (PTCS) or by surgery, and studied whether expression levels of Ki-67 and p53 in these tissues could predict the effectiveness of radiotherapy (RT). Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of p53 and Ki-67 in 40 resected and 18 biopsy specimens. All biopsy specimens were stage IVA according to UICC classification. Labeling indices were calculated as percentage of positively stained tumor cell nuclei of total tumor cells counted. Samples were divided into two groups according to labeling index (LI). In the resected specimens, Ki-67 LI was significantly higher in cases positive for lymphatic invasion than in ...
Anatomy. Bile canaliculi in the liver combine to form the hepatic ducts. The number of hepatic ducts varies from 3-5; they join the extrahepatic biliary system at the cystic duct. The gallbladder lies in the right medial and quadrate liver lobes in the gallbladder fossa. One duct, the cystic duct, leaves the gallbladder and receives the hepatic ducts. After the last hepatic duct has joined the cystic duct, the duct travelling towards the duodenum becomes the bile duct or common bile duct. The common bile duct enters the duodenum on the major duodenal papilla. The bile duct tunnels submucosally aboral to the serosal attachment of the duct; this is more pronounced in dogs than cats. The gallbladder wall contains smooth muscle and the bladder is lined with epithelium, which is rich in mucous-secreting goblet cells.. Diagnostic Imaging. 1. Radiography. Plain film radiography can demonstrate radiodense choleliths. In addition, focal or generalised peritonitis can be suspected when poor abdominal ...
Find the best bile duct cancer doctors in Bangalore. Get guidance from medical experts to select bile duct cancer specialist in Bangalore from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.
All the patients undergoing LC between June 2012 and July 2013 were asked to participate in this institutional review board (IRB) approved study. Fluoroscopic and fluorescent cholangiographies were performed to delineate the extrahepatic biliary ducts. For the FC a single dose of 0.05 mg/kg of indocyanine green (ICG) was administered intravenously one hour prior to surgery. During the procedure, alternate exposure from xenon to infrared lights was used to identify the biliary structures before and after dissection. A questionnaire to assess the surgeons visibility of extrahepatic bile ducts was administered.. Results ...
The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) and gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is unclear, with conflicting results from nonrandomized studies. We reported a meta-analysis to determine the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CNKI databases were searched to identify clinical trials of postoperative ART versus no radiotherapy for EHCC and GBC. The obtained data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 and Stata 14.0 statistical software. Differences between two groups were estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 21 clinical trials involving 1465 EHCC and GBC patients were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed the following: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was higher in the ART group than in the no radiotherapy group (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.50-0.81, p = 0.0002). The 5-year OS rate was significantly
Our previous studies have demonstrated that up-regulated lung cancer 10 (URLC10) has been identified as a new target of tumor associated antigen using cDNA microarray technique combined with the expression profiles of normal and cancer tissues. We have also found that 100% of tissue samples from bile duct cancer express URLC10. We have determined the HLA-A*2402 and HLA-A*0201 restricted epitope peptides derived from URLC10.These epitope peptides have shown to induce specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL). Furthermore, 60% and 20% of Japanese population have HLA-A*2402 and HLA-A*0201, respectively. Therefore, these peptides are suitable for clinical trial. On the other hand, gemcitabine is a drug approved against bile duct cancer. Recent studies has reported that gemcitabine has an additional ability to improve immune response. From these results, synergistic effect between vaccine therapy and chemotherapy using gemcitabine will be expected.. In this clinical trial, we evaluate the safety, ...
There are several bile duct cancer treatment and preventive procedures to administer to patients of bile duct cancer. Treatments would vary depending on th
Bile duct cancer describes a type of cancer that forms in the bile ducts (slender tubes) that carry the digestive fluid bile through the liver. Get treatment now!
Bile duct carcinoma is a malignant cancer that typically arises from the the epithelia, the cellular lining of the hepatic (liver) bile ducts.
Presented by Sung Hoon Choi at the SS24: All Video All The Time: Mixed GI/HPB Session at the SAGES 2016 Annual Meeting on 3/18/2016 Keyword(s): bile, bipolar coagulator, CBD, CCX, cholecystectomy, choledochal cyst, common bile duct, extrahepatic duct, firefly, fluorescence imaging, gallbladder, GB, hepatic artery, hilar cyst, jejunojejunostomy, JJ, liver hilum, pancreatic duct, parenchymal, Pfannenstiel, […] ...
liver disease facts mexico Kid clear capsule is there is a risk of gallbladder removal was done in order to cure and delivers excellent results. Gallstones can be caused by some natural health problems once they become large and clinical interventions in the gallbladder pain and risks that should be taken. Therefore, it is an important internal organ illnesses. As a result of which uses more cholesterol is impossible. Try these foods: eggs, dairy, are still over a 20-year period. These are usually suggested according to the hospital for two more weeks, I have done long ago. It is most metastasis of treatment for fatty liver disease in alcoholics bile duct cancer likely to suffer from these as compared to men. To follow the guidelines for instance instead of tasty and three-dimensional visualization, enhanced dexterity, greater precision, enhanced maneuverability and try to dissolve and pass your gallbladder. The bile in the abdomen that showed raised antibodies to gluten/gliadin, among other ...
Hi,. My mom was just diagnosed with Bile Duct Cancer.. I am in departed need of anyone who has dealt with this type of cancer, or any ones family members who had this. I also would love to hear from people who has beat this type of cancer... this has been a world-wind we never ever expected this to happen; especially in November we was told NO-Cancer!! My mom is my life; we are best friends she lives not even a mile from me. I am so hurt, mad & even angry. I have never ever felt so alone in my LIFE... I will be by my mothers side every-step of the way... I want any suggestions on how to cope with all feelings I am felling. Please help!!!! ...
Chemotherapy (chemo) is a treatment of cancer-killing drugs used to kill bile duct cancer cells. Learn more about chemotherapy here.
Bile duct cancer diagnosis (costs for program #33463) ✔ Sana Hospital Duisburg ✔ Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology) ✔ BookingHealth.com
You cant change the fact that you had bile duct cancer, but you can change how you live the rest of your life by making healthy lifestyle choices.
Bile duct cancer (also called cholangiocarcinoma) can occur in the bile ducts in the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (perihilar or distal extrahepatic). Learn about the types of bile duct cancer, risk factors, clinical features, staging, and treatment for bile duct cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.
Choledochal cysts are congenital anomalies of the bile ducts. They consist of cystic dilatations of the extrahepatic biliary tree, intrahepatic biliary radicles, or both.
From the video collection of Chapter 6 - Liver. Activate HD (bottom right of the window) for optimal viewing experience. . Follow our Blog for more cases, or order the Atlas of Small Animal Ultrasonography Second Edition for complete access to our video library!
In bile duct cancer, the cancerous cells may release certain chemicals that can be detected using blood tests. These are known as tumour markers.. But tumour markers can also be caused by other conditions, so this test cant be used to say for certain whether or not you have bile duct cancer.. ...
Aim: To review the world literature on the histogenesis, diagnosis and management of Bellini duct carcinoma and to suggest a possible clinical algorithm to assist in their identification and appropria
2008 is soon a wrap, and its time to update my list of the different diagnostic and cancer treatment videos Ive filmed for the www.oncolex.no project over the last three and a half years. The project is almost completed, but I still have some filming related to liver-, pancreatic-, gall bladder- and bile duct cancer…
As pointed out already, PGHS is primarily Trere to catalyse xenobiotic metabo- lism in extrahepatic tissues and cells with low cytochrome P450 activity. Bias adjustment analyzing longitudinal data with informative missingness.
Northeastern Thailand has the highest levels bile duct cancer in the world. The determination that plasma IL-6 levels are associated with bile duct fibrosis (a precursor state to bile duct cancer) and early bile duct cancer were done by examining participants in the Khon Kaen Cholangiocarcinoma Cohort, the largest cancer cohort of its type in the world, and an NIH sponsored project in collaboration with George Washington University and Khon Kaen University. In this study, researchers visited nearly 4,000 individuals resident in rural areas of Thailand, where the parasite is endemic to conduct ultrasound studies to detect advanced bile duct fibrosis and early bile duct cancer and then link the ultrasound results with levels of plasma IL-6. This research was done in collaboration with Drs. Banchob Sripa, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Eimorn Mairiang, and Thewarach Laha from the Khon Kaen University School of Medicine and School of Public Health. ...
90. , et al. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in two siblings. Cancer 1982; 50:1200-1203. 91. Garber JE, Shipley W. Carcinoma of the gall bladder in three members of a family. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1989; 39:141142. 92. Andreotti G, Chen J, Gao YT, et al. Serum lipid levels and the risk of biliary tract cancers and biliary stones: a populationbased study in China. Int J Cancer 2008 May 15;122(10): 14 I ∙ GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 2322-9. 93. Hsing AW, Gao YT, Han TQ, et al. Gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer: a population-based study in China. The Hague, Boston, Hingham, MA: M. Nijhoff, Distributors for the United States and Canada, Kluwer Boston, 1982. 62. Goodman MT, Yamamoto J. Descriptive study of gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, and ampullary cancers in the United States, 1997-2002. Cancer Causes Control 2007; 18:415-422. 63. Cobb N, Paisano RE. Patterns of cancer mortality among Native Americans. Cancer 1998; 83:2377-2383. 64. Nutting PA, Freeman WL, Risser DR, et al. ...
Bile duct cancer symptoms include jaundice and abdominal pain. Turn to the expert gastroenterologists at Johns Hopkins for accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment.
Oregon Health & Science University researchers are reporting the discovery of an early survival advantage when a combination of surgery and radiation therapy is used for patients with a rare but deadly bile duct cancer.
The superior mesenteric, splenic and portal vein are shown in relation to the pancreas and superior mesenteric artery. The first branches arising from the anterior surfaces of SMA and SMV are the middle colic vessels. Note the small venous branches from the head draining into the right side of the SMV/portal veins, and the multiple small branches from the body of the pancreas draining into the anterior surface of the splenic vein ...
Tina, dont give up even if you think the doctors giving up. My CT scan came back six weeks ago after my treatments, not looking good. I went to the gastroentrologist that had put in the stent and he did not want to answer any of my questions. He answered them by telling me to ask the oncologist. I asked about making another follow-up appointment and he said he didnt think that would be necessary. What a blow that was! I went to the oncologist and after I got a copy of the report, I could see that it did not look good, I called and wanted to ask some questions and he said we would talk about it in a month after I have another CT scan. Another blow! I was not going to sit around, so I made an appointment with another oncologist and she went over my CT scan and explained that it did not look that bad. The new spot on the liver could be a cyst and the fluid around the gallbladder did not mean it was cancer and the fluid would probably go away. I did have another CT scan just before Christmas and ...
Its important to know which medicines youre taking. Write your medicines down, ask your healthcare team how they work, and what side effects they might have. Keep a written diary of your treatment schedule and any signs or symptoms you have.. Talk with your healthcare providers about what signs to look for, and when to call them. Chemotherapy can make you more likely to get infections.. It may be helpful to keep a diary of your side effects. Write down physical, thinking, and emotional changes. A written list will make it easier for you to remember your questions when you go to your appointments. It will also make it easier for you to work with your medical team to make a plan to manage your side effects.. ...
Am I pooping enough? Why is my poop green?" Seemingly silly questions like these are, in fact, important to understanding your body. The bowel movement chart below will help you decode your stool and discover helpful insights into your health. Keep in mind that everyones body is different and only a medical professional can evaluate your individual symptoms and observations.. ...
Rodent skin (extrahepatic) subcellular fractions, including matching pooled IGS Sprague-Dawley rat microsomes and S9 from dermal tissue, characterized for in vitro ADME studies to test the biotransformation of transdermal xenobiotics.
J Small Anim Pract. 2011 Jan;52(1):32-7 Choledochotomy and primary repair of extrahepatic biliary duct rupture in seven dogs and two cats. Baker SG, Mayhew PD, Mehler SJ. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report clinical findings and outcome in dogs and cats undergoing choledochotomy or primary repair of extrahepatic biliary duct rupture. METHODS: Retrospective study of dogs (n=7)…
Hepatobiliary diseases are common in IBD patients. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, a chronic cholestatic disorder characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, is the most common. Other associated abnormalities include hepatomegaly (related to steatosis), cholelithiasis (altered bile salt resorption related to ileal disease), hepatic abscesses (portal bacteremia from bowel inflammation), and portal thrombosis (prothrombotic effects of inflammation.. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is more frequent in males and patients with ulcerative colitis. Symptoms of primary sclerosis cholangitis are fatigue, pruritus, jaundice, and abdominal discomfort but it is not rare that the isolate finding of abnormalities in liver biochemical markers. Biopsy or cholangiography is often necessary for the diagnosis.. Anti-colonic mucosa auto-antibodies can cross react with biliary epithelium has been identified[. Colonic epithelial protein and the human tropomyosin isoform ...
Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene cause two autosomal recessive disorders affecting liver: cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, 1 (BRIC1), cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 1 (PFIC1) and one autosomal dominant disorder: cholestasis, intrahepatic, of pregnancy, 1 (ICP1). BRIC2 is caused by mutations in the ABCB11 gene. PFIC can be caused by mutations in three other genes: ABCB11 (PFIC2), ABCB4 (PFIC3) and TJP2 (PFIC4). Mutations in the ABCB4 gene have been reported in ICP3. BRIC is characterized by intermittent episodes of cholestasis without extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. PFIC is characterized by early onset of cholestasis that progresses to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. ICP typically occurs in the third trimester and it recurs in 45 to 70% of subsequent pregnancies. Findings include pruritus, jaundice, increased serum bile salts, and abnormal liver enzymes. This condition is reversible, but it can result in fetal complications ...
Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates from the bile duct epithelium (Roberts et al., 1997). Based on its anatomical location in the biliary tree, cholangiocarcinoma is conventionally classified by the World Health Organization as an intrahepatic (ICC) or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) (Bosman et al., 2010; Patel, 2011). ICC and ECC are biologically distinct, and therefore manifest substantial differences in terms of incidence, mortality, and risk factors (Cardinale et al., 2010). Cholangiocarcinoma has a poor prognosis because it is notoriously difficult to diagnose due to its late clinical presentation, and is refractory to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy (Blechacz and Gores, 2008; Blechacz et al., 2011; Khan et al., 2012). Gemcitabine and cisplatin has become the standard regimen for patients with advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma (Ramirez-Merino et al., 2013; Valle et al., 2010). However, response to the combination chemotherapy in ...
Background: c-MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Activation of HGF-c-MET signaling involves cell invasiveness and evokes metastasis through direct involvement of tumor angiogenesis. However, the value of c-MET overexpression is still unknown in metastatic BTC.. Methods: We analyzed the incidence and clinicopathologic characteristics of c-MET overexpression in advanced BTC. Moreover, we investigated the value of c-MET overexpression in predicting response to gemicitabine plus cisplatin (GC), a first line standard regimen, and as a prognostic marker in metastatic BTC.. Results: The BTC subtype distribution (N=44) was as follows: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC, n=7), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC, n=25) and gallbladder cancer (GBC, n=12). Liver (52.3%) was the predominant metastatic site, followed by lymph nodes (36.4%) and bone (15.9%). Among the 44 patients analyzed for c-MET expression, 15 (34.1%) exhibited c-MET ...
Jaundice. This is the yellowing of the whites of the eyes and skin. Its caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow-brown substance in bile. The liver makes bile. Bile travels from the liver through the bile ducts the intestine. Bile digests or breaks down fats from food in the intestine. If the bile ducts are blocked by a tumor or scarring, bile backs up. Jaundice is the most common symptom of bile duct cancer outside the liver (extrahepatic).. ...
Bile duct cancer. Coloured angiogram (X-ray) of a patients common bile duct (dark red, centre right) that has been blocked by cancer. The cancer (not seen) has caused a narrowing, or stricture, of the duct. A stent (fine mesh tube, lower frame) has been permanently inserted into the duct to correct the stricture. A tube (catheter) inside the stent will be removed when fluid has drained from the duct. Bile fluid, secreted by the liver cells, emulsifies ingested fats. It drains into the small intestine through the common bile duct when food enters the intestine. A contrast medium injected into the duct makes it visible on X-ray. - Stock Image M134/0418
Linear 125 I Seeds Implantation Combined with Biliary Stent Insertion is an emerging effective treatment for bile duct cancer patients with obstructive jaundice, which can simultaneously treat biliary obstruction and bile duct tumors, bringing new hop
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disease of the intra and extrahepatic ducts of unknown etiology that predominately occurs in people with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). One hypothesis is that altered microbiome (bacteria in the gut) in people with IBD are responsible for the inflammation in the liver seen in PSC. Bile acids (BAs) represent a unique mechanism of communication between the host and intestinal microbiome and the liver. Synthesized in the liver, bile acids are metabolized by intestinal bacteria hydroxylases to secondary BAs which then re-enter the portal circulation. Altered metabolism of BAs has been associated with gallstones and colorectal cancer and is hypothesized to play a role in the inflammatory response of certain disease such as IBD and PSC.. IBD has been associated with impairment of bile acid (BA) metabolism. In addition BAs play a role in regulating bacterial growth of the intestine and thus have an effect on the integrity of ...
Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is often treated the same way as hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common form of primary liver cancer that develops in the main type of liver cell.
Learn more about Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) from the National Cancer Institute at Siteman Cancer Center.
Looking for simple explanations to difficult medical terms that tend to puzzle you? This glossary can help you to easily understand medical terms related to the article on Bile Duct Cancer
Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » Trial - Bile Duct Cancer » A Study of Merestinib (LY2801653) in Japanese Participants With Advanced or Metastatic ...
Cholangiocellular Carcinoma in Dogs Bile duct carcinoma is a malignant cancer that typically arises from the the epithelia, the cellular lining of the hepatic (
As part of the digestive system, bile ducts help digest food properly. If cancer spreads to the liver, the chemical balance of the body will be disturbed.
Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts. Although they are rare in the United States, these cancers are highly lethal because most are locally advanced at presentation. (See.)The clinical manifestatio
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This 51 year old woman underwent Lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy for infiltrating duct carcinoma of her left breast. The tumor was completely excised and three lymph nodes were extracted. It was found to be a T1 lesion (1.7cm) N0 (0/3) Mo, thus concluded as stage I. There was no vascular invasion. The tumor was of grade I category. Estrogen and progesterone receptor status were optimal, as 100% of cells stained positively. Her-2 status was negative. ...
the answer : cholecystocholangiography with distended gallblader and both intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts. The gall-bladder is enlarged,compressing the cystic duct.Obstructed common bile duct, so the contrast didnt evacuated into the duodenum. ...
Memorial Sloan Kettering medical oncologist James Harding specializes in caring for people with liver cancer, gallbladder cancer, and bile duct cancer, as well as other gastrointestinal cancers.
A multi-disciplanary team of specialists treat liver, pancreas and bile duct cancer at Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin.
Highest Level The University Medical Center Level 1 Trauma Center has become known nationwide for exemplary lifesaving efforts. But what the public sees is only the beginning of what the team at the heart of the Center hopes to achieve. By Gillian Drummon D • Photo G r a P hy B y kris hannin G n the field of trauma care, where every second counts, four years sounds like a lifetime. But when it comes to building up a hospital facility, four years is remarkable. University Medical Center and the University of Arizona are understandably proud of how quickly UMCs Trauma Center achieved Level 1 status, estab-lished a cutting-edge team of physicians and researchers, and carved a reputation as one of the nations best. Rainer Gruessner, M.D., a German-born general sur-geon with an interest in transplants and pancreatic, liver and bile duct cancer, took the post of chairman of UAs Department of Surgery back in June 2007. At that point, the Trauma Center - one of the divisions he heads - had, in his ...
biliary tree ultrasound education showing how to, normal, anatomy, scanning protocol, measurements, bile duct, hepatic duct and dilatation.
PASADENA, Calif.-(BUSINESS WIRE)-Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: ARWR) today announced a strategic redeployment of resources to support the development of RNAi therapeutics that utilize the companys new proprietary subcutaneous (subQ) and extra-hepatic delivery systems. Arrowhead will discontinue development of clinical stage drug candidates ARC-520, ARC-521, and ARC-AAT, which utilize the DPCiv™, …. Read More » ...
Figure 3: MRCP showing multiple cystic dilations of bilateral intrahepatic ducts with signal voids seen in left duct suggestive of calculi, (white arrows). This is a typical picture of Carolis disease with bilateral intrahepatic cystic dilatations with normal extrahepatic ducts.. Answer. Carolis disease with hepatolithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma.. Discussion. Carolis disease (CD) is a rare autosomal recessive, hereditary disorder of the intrahepatic bile ducts due to a ductal plate malformation. In CD, the large and proximal intrahepatic bile ducts are affected and they correspond to the type V bile duct cyst as incorporated by Todani et al. The patient may present with cholangitis or manifestations of portal hypertension (if associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis). Hepatolithiasis and choledocholithiasis is common.1 It is associated with both repeated episodes of cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Dysplasia of the biliary epithelium generated by bile stasis and chronic inflammation ...
Cancer of the bile duct (also called cholangiocarcinoma) is extremely rare. The true incidence of bile duct cancer is unknown, however, because establishing an accurate diagnosis is difficult. Traditionally, bile duct tumors located within the liver have been classified with hepatocellular carcinoma as primary liver...
[504 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) - Pipeline Review,...
Learn about bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) from the Cleveland Clinic, including information on treatment options, stages & more.
Brachytherapy is done by an interventional radiologist and a radiation oncologist. The oncologist inserts radiation seeds attached to a wire into the bile duct. The seeds are placed as close as possible to the tumor or into the tumor itself. This is so that fewer normal cells are exposed to radiation. A small tube called a percutaneous transhepatic bile duct stent is put in the bile duct through your skin. The doctor carefully inserts the wire through your skin. Its guided down the stent to the area where the cancer is located. The doctor uses X-rays to guide the placement. The wire that extends outside your body is secured to your skin. After a period of time, the doctor carefully removes it using X-rays again as a guide. You will need to stay in the hospital while the radioactive seeds and wire are in place. ...
Biophys. Acta. 1573, 388-393. , Muller, W. , and Dennis, J. W. (2000). Suppression of tumor growth and metastasis in Mgat5‐deficient mice. Nat. Med. 6, 306-312. Haltiwanger, R. , and Lowe, J. B. (2004). Role of glycosylation in development. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 73, 491-537. , and Taniguchi, N. (1996). Transcriptional regulation of the N‐acetylglucosaminyltransferase V gene in human bile duct carcinoma cells (HuCC‐T1) is mediated by Ets‐1. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 26706-26712. Lowe, J. , and Marth, J. 6, 306-312. Haltiwanger, R. , and Lowe, J. B. (2004). Role of glycosylation in development. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 73, 491-537. , and Taniguchi, N. (1996). Transcriptional regulation of the N‐acetylglucosaminyltransferase V gene in human bile duct carcinoma cells (HuCC‐T1) is mediated by Ets‐1. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 26706-26712. Lowe, J. , and Marth, J. D. (2003). A genetic approach to Mammalian glycan function. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72, 643-691. , Hoodless, P. , and Wrana, J. L. (1996). MADR2 is a ...
We have previously shown that pre-treatment with our novel cyclophilin (Cyp) inhibitor, MM284, could prevent disease in the animal model of biliary atresia (BA) by decreasing SMAD phosphorylation and TIMP-4 and MMP-7 expression. We hypothesized that MM284 treatment after viral infection would be similarly effective, and in vitro MM284 could prevent Cyp stimulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Newborn Balb/c mice were randomized to receive an intraperitoneal injection with saline control or rhesus rotavirus (RRV) within 24 hours of birth. Animals receiving RRV were further randomized to receive either 20mg/kg i.p of MM284 or control vehicle starting day of life 2, and then thrice weekly. Mice treated with MM284 were normal weight, had an approximately five-fold decrease in TIMP-4 and a tenfold decrease in MMP7 mRNA expression when compared to RRV mice. SMAD2/3 phosphorylation in the HSC lysates revealed a significant 1.5-fold increase after CypA treatment relative to untreated cells which ...
Absence of a normal left extrahepatic portal vein is considered to be a contraindication to left lobe living-related liver transplantation. This report is of a successful case of living- related liver transplantation using a left lobe procured in a patient presenting with an absent horizontal segment of the left extrahepatic vein. ...
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The authors present a case report of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) that responded to nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD‑1) immune‑checkpoint‑inhibitor antibody, following the failure of systemic treatment with chemotherapy and targeted therapy. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy and segmentectomy of the lung following chemotherapy. Fifteen months following the first surgery, segmentectomy and subsequent second‑line chemotherapy were performed for recurrence in the lung. Targeted therapy with temsirolimus for recurrence of the lung and lymph node metastases was ultimately used for 30 months. However, the temsirolimus treatment failed to suppress the growth of metastatic lesions. Nivolumab resulted in complete response of the lung metastasis, and it stabilized the lymph node metastasis. PD‑L1 was highly expressed in both primary tumor and the metastatic regions. Therapy with nivolumab is ongoing. These findings suggest that treatment with nivolumab may be considered for ...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary tumor of the liver and carries a poor prognosis when diagnosed late or left untreated. Treatment relies heavily on the stage of the tumor when diagnosed. Extrahepatic metastasis is known to occur; these are mainly reported via autopsy studies or isolated case reports. Knowledge of extrahepatic metastasis is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary surgery. We report a rare case of a patient at our center, diagnosed to have HCC, who underwent treatment successfully, only to come back with extrahepatic metastasis to the skeletal muscles ...
Hello, I am Rebecca Thies and I write Even On The Rainiest Day... mostly as an outlet for myself as I make my way through my days with a small, beautiful daughter and a cancer diagnosis. If, however, my journey can in any way help others, all the better. In my life B.C. (before cancer) I taught a special education class for kindergarten and first grade students for seven years and I loved my job. I loved every student I had and they all have taught me many lessons that have come to have even more meaning in my life A.D. (after diagnosis). In January of 2006, when my daughter was one and a half years old, I was diagnosed with bile duct cancer and I suddenly found myself on a road that I had no map for. Since then I have left my teaching job, choosing to take the "pay-cut" of disability, and stay home to be with my young daughter. And so, with my husband, daughter, and a large group of family and friends, I am learning that having to chart a new course in your life may not always be easy but it ...
Hello, I am Rebecca Thies and I write Even On The Rainiest Day... mostly as an outlet for myself as I make my way through my days with a small, beautiful daughter and a cancer diagnosis. If, however, my journey can in any way help others, all the better. In my life B.C. (before cancer) I taught a special education class for kindergarten and first grade students for seven years and I loved my job. I loved every student I had and they all have taught me many lessons that have come to have even more meaning in my life A.D. (after diagnosis). In January of 2006, when my daughter was one and a half years old, I was diagnosed with bile duct cancer and I suddenly found myself on a road that I had no map for. Since then I have left my teaching job, choosing to take the "pay-cut" of disability, and stay home to be with my young daughter. And so, with my husband, daughter, and a large group of family and friends, I am learning that having to chart a new course in your life may not always be easy but it ...
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Conditions: Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage III Gallbladder Cancer AJCC V7; Stage III Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage ...
Conditions: Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage III Gallbladder Cancer AJCC V7; Stage III Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage ...
PhD ceremony: Ms. S. Op den Dries, 16.15 uur, Academiegebouw, Broerstraat 5, Groningen. Dissertation: Bile duct injury in liver transplantation. Study on etiology and the protective role of machine perfusion Promotor(s): prof. R.J. Porte, prof. J.A. Lisman. Faculty: Medical Sciences. Non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) are a major complication after liver transplantation. The development of strictures (narrowing) of the bile ducts is characteristic of this complication, often leading to morbidity and the need for re-transplantation. The studies described in this thesis resulted in a better understanding of the causes of NAS and provide new strategies to prevent bile duct injury and the subsequent formation of NAS. The high incidence of NAS after donation after cardiac death (21-33%) compared to donation after brain death (1-13%), demonstrates the significant role of lack of oxygen (ischemia) in the development of NAS. In this thesis, severe injury to the bile duct epithelium (the lining of ...
Background and Aims: It is a challenge to collect samples from bile duct strictures to diagnose patients with cholangiocarcinoma. We investigated the utility of the Spyglass Spyscope, a single-operator endoscope that is used to perform cholangiopancreatoscopy, to identify extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in patients who were not diagnosed with this disorder by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) cytology or endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) analyses. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 30 patients (median age, 67 years; 67percent male) with indeterminate extrahepatic biliary strictures who were ultimately diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma but had inconclusive results from initial biliary ductal brush cytology and EUS-FNA analyses. Patients then underwent cholangioscopy by using the Spyglass Spyscope and intraductal biopsy analysis. None of the patients had a definitive mass in abdominal imaging or EUS analyses. Results: The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Scrape biopsy of malignant biliary stricture through percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tracts. AU - Yip, C. K Y. AU - Leung, Joseph. AU - Chan, M. K M. AU - Metreweli, C.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - We describe a new technique for scrape biopsy of bile-duct strictures that can be done at the same time as percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.. AB - We describe a new technique for scrape biopsy of bile-duct strictures that can be done at the same time as percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024507320&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024507320&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2644776. AN - SCOPUS:0024507320. VL - 152. SP - 529. EP - 530. JO - American Journal of Roentgenology. JF - American Journal of Roentgenology. SN - 0361-803X. IS - 3. ER - ...
Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the National Cancer Institute. Cancer.Net: Bile Duct Cancer The ... those occurring in the ducts outside the liver are extrahepatic, and tumors occurring at the site where the bile ducts exit the ... Henson D, Albores-Saavedra J, Corle D (1992). "Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Histologic types, stage of disease, ... Chronic inflammation and obstruction of the bile ducts, and the resulting impaired bile flow, are thought to play a role in ...
Extrahepatic bile duct cancer. *Gallbladder cancer. *Gastric (stomach) cancer. *Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor ... which suggests that it has originated in the milk ducts.[citation needed] ...
"Etiological Causes of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation" (PDF). International Journal of New Technology and ...
Multiple dilatations involving only the extrahepatic bile ducts. Type V: Cystic dilatation of intrahepatic biliary ducts ... Choledochal cysts (a.k.a. bile duct cyst) are congenital conditions involving cystic dilatation of bile ducts. They are ... inflammation within the bile ducts caused by the spread of bacteria from the intestine into the bile ducts). Pancreatitis also ... Cholecystectomy with cystic duct ligation near the common bile duct is curative. Choledochal cysts are treated by surgical ...
There are three main types of extra-hepatic biliary atresia: Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile duct. Type II: ... When the liver is unable to excrete bilirubin through the bile ducts in the form of bile, bilirubin begins to accumulate in the ... "Choledochal cyst associated with extrahepatic bile duct atresia". Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons. 10 (1): ... Atresia of the common hepatic duct. Type III: Atresia involves the most proximal part of the bile ducts (>95% of all cases). In ...
Complications encountered include infection, bleeding and bile leaks. Cholestatic jaundice, to exclude extra hepatic bile duct ... A contrast medium is injected into a bile duct in the liver, after which X-rays are taken. It allows access to the biliary tree ...
A complete blood test can help distinguish intrinsic liver disease from extrahepatic bile-duct obstruction. An ultrasound of ... Meacock, L M; Sellars, M E; Sidhu, P S (2010-07-01). "Evaluation of gallbladder and biliary duct disease using microbubble ... In primary biliary cirrhosis ursodeoxycholic acid helps the bloodstream remove bile which may increase survival in some ... the liver can reliably detect a dilated biliary-duct system, it can also detect the characteristics of a cirrhotic liver,. ...
American Cancer Society Detailed Guide to Bile Duct Cancer.. *Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the ... Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer, is a type of cancer that forms in the bile ducts.[2] Symptoms of ... ERCP image of cholangiocarcinoma, showing common bile duct stricture and dilation of the proximal common bile duct ... those occurring in the ducts outside the liver are extrahepatic, and tumors occurring at the site where the bile ducts exit the ...
... but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts. In the ... Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells of the bile duct. They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, ... In contrast, hepatocytes secrete bile through bile-acid dependent bile flow, which is coupled to canalicular secretion of bile ... Cholangiocytes act through bile-acid independent bile flow, which is driven by the active transport of electrolytes. ...
2007). "Expression of GalNAc-T3 and its relationships with clinicopathological factors in 61 extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas ...
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH A03.159.183.079 --- bile ducts, extrahepatic MeSH A03.159.183.079.300 --- common bile duct MeSH ... cystic duct MeSH A03.159.183.079.600 --- hepatic duct, common MeSH A03.159.183.158 --- bile ducts, intrahepatic MeSH A03.159. ... salivary ducts MeSH A03.556.500.760.650 --- salivary glands, minor MeSH A03.556.500.760.687 --- sublingual gland MeSH A03.556. ... bile canaliculi MeSH A03.734.414.065 --- glucagon-secreting cells MeSH A03.734.414.131 --- insulin-secreting cells MeSH A03.734 ...
... common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.320.120 --- bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.320.120.280 --- common bile duct neoplasms ... extrahepatic MeSH C06.130.120.135.250 --- cholestasis, intrahepatic MeSH C06.130.120.135.250.125 --- alagille syndrome MeSH ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C06.130.120.120 --- bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.120.120.280 --- common bile duct neoplasms ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.301.120.250.250 --- common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.301.120.401 --- gallbladder neoplasms MeSH ...
Liver Intrahepatic bile ducts (D13.5) Extrahepatic bile ducts (D13.6) Pancreas (D13.7) Endocrine pancreas Islet cell tumour ... Malignant neoplasms of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (C22.0) Liver cell carcinoma (C22.1) Intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma ... Lacrimal gland and duct (C69.6) Orbit (C69.7) Overlapping lesion of eye and adnexa (C70) Malignant neoplasm of meninges (C70.0 ... Pancreatic duct (C25.4) Endocrine pancreas (C25.7) Other parts of pancreas (C25.8) Overlapping lesion of pancreas (C25.9) ...
Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (156) Malignant neoplasm of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts ( ... Pituitary gland and craniopharyngeal duct Pituitary adenoma (237.7) Neurofibromatosis (238) Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of ...
... or lack of improvement after 24 hours Detection of common bile duct stones or dilated intrahepatic or extrahepatic ducts on ... common bile duct obstruction, progression to chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic ascites, pleural effusion, sterile/infected ... Khalid A, Peterson M, Slivka A (2003). "Secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance pancreaticogram to assess pancreatic duct ...
malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder malignant neoplasm of other parts of biliary tract extrahepatic bile duct ampulla of ...
... of liver malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder malignant neoplasm of other parts of biliary tract extrahepatic bile duct ... Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts. The most frequent forms are metastatic malignant neoplasm of liver) ...
"The gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts." Anatomy photo:38:14-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Stomach, Spleen ... Bile can flow in both directions between the gallbladder and the common bile duct and the hepatic duct. In this way, bile is ... Accessory bile duct Digestive system diagram showing the cystic duct The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. The portal vein ... The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct. It usually lies next to the cystic artery ...
"The gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts." Anatomy image:8336 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:7957 at the ... This conduction of bile is the main function of the common bile duct. The hormone cholecystokinin, when stimulated by a fatty ... The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder ... "Etiological Causes of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation" (PDF). International Journal of New Technology and ...
Intrahepatic bile duct atresia (Alagille syndrome) (ALGS2 MIM:610205 and ALGS1 MIM:118450) Extrahepatic bile duct atresia ... Vanishing bile duct syndrome (or "ductopenia") is a loose collection of diseases which leads to the injury to hepatic bile ... Rossini, M. S.; Lorand-Metze, I; Oliveira, G. B.; Souza, C. A. (2000). "Vanishing bile duct syndrome in Hodgkin's disease: Case ... Uptodate:Hepatic ductopenia and vanishing bile duct syndrome. ... "Vanishing bile duct syndrome". Clin Liver Dis. 12 (1): 203-17, ...
It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, causing bile and other toxins to build up ... People with PBC may also sometimes have the findings of an associated extrahepatic autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid ... It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, with the intralobular ducts and the ... Abdominal ultrasound, MR scanning (MRCP) or a CT scan is usually performed to rule out blockage to the bile ducts. This may be ...
... gall-bladder and bile-ducts by Humphry Davy Rolleston. ... which is a late-stage complication of extra-hepatic cholestasis ...
GGT is elevated because it leaks out from the bile duct cells due to pressure from inside bile ducts. In a later stage of ... These areas are known as bile lakes, and are typically seen only with extra-hepatic obstruction. Extrahepatic cholestasis can ... Canalicular bile plugs between individual hepatocytes or within bile ducts may also be seen, representing bile that has been ... which in turn joins the cystic duct from the gall bladder, to give the common bile duct. This duct then enters the duodenum at ...
Within the liver, these ducts are termed intrahepatic bile ducts, and once they exit the liver they are considered extrahepatic ... The cystic duct from the gallbladder joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Bile either drains ... They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts ... or is temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the cystic duct. The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the second ...
It is also expressed in epithelium of the small intestine and large intestine for uptake and in small amounts in the bile duct ... Both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are expressed in liver and intestine, with CYP3A5 being the predominant form expressed in extrahepatic ... intercalated ducts of the pancreas, chief cells of the parathyroid and the corpus luteum of the ovary (at protein level). The ...
Bile duct obstruction by gallstones, hepatitis, cirrhosis or cancer should be suspected. About 5% of the population has ... or extrahepatic biliary system, and in some laboratories, is used as a substitute for GGT for ascertaining whether an elevated ... Obstruction can be located either within the liver or in the bile duct). The diagnosis is narrowed down further by evaluating ... ALP levels in plasma rise with large bile duct obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, or infiltrative diseases of the liver. ...
... progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, causing bile and other toxins to build up in the liver, a ... People with PBC may also sometimes have the findings of an associated extrahepatic autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid ... progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, with the intralobular ducts and the Canals of Hering ( ... Abdominal ultrasound, MR scanning (MRCP) or a CT scan is usually performed to rule out blockage to the bile ducts. This may be ...
... common bile duct - comorbidity - compassionate use trial - complementary and alternative medicine - complete blood count (CBC ... extrahepatic - extrapleural pneumonectomy false-negative test result - false-positive test result - familial adenomatous ... bile duct - biliary - bilirubin - binding agent - bioavailable - biochanin A - biochemical reactions - biological response ... intrahepatic bile ducts - intrahepatic infusion - intralesional - intraluminal intubation and dilation - Intramuscular ...
Bile Duct Neoplasms / complications, diagnosis*, surgery. Cystadenoma / complications, diagnosis*, surgery. Female. ... Hepatic Duct, Common*. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications, diagnosis*, secondary, surgery. Tomography, X- ... Computerized Tomography identified a complex multi-locular cyst in the common hepatic duct. Radical excision of the lesion and ...
There are three main types of extra-hepatic biliary atresia: Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile duct. Type II: ... When the liver is unable to excrete bilirubin through the bile ducts in the form of bile, bilirubin begins to accumulate in the ... "Choledochal cyst associated with extrahepatic bile duct atresia". Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons. 10 (1): ... Atresia of the common hepatic duct. Type III: Atresia involves the most proximal part of the bile ducts (>95% of all cases). In ...
Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They ... and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895 ). More specifically, ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, ... Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver ...
Survival statistics for extrahepatic bile duct cancer are very general estimates and must be interpreted very carefully. ... Survival statistics for extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Survival statistics for extrahepatic bile duct cancer are very general ... Survival by stage of extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Survival varies with each stage and treatment of extrahepatic bile duct ... The following factors can also affect survival for extrahepatic bile duct cancer.* Generally, the earlier extrahepatic bile ...
To investigate the role of vitamin A in liver damage induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. Methods. Thirty male Wistar ... This effect may be related to the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway in bile duct ligation rats. ... Vitamin A Supplementation Alleviates Extrahepatic Cholestasis Liver Injury through Nrf2 Activation. Guiyang Wang, Peng Xiu, Fu ...
... polysplenia is associated with many cardiovascular anomalies including the occasional occurrence of congenital extrahepatic ... Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / radiography*, ultrasonography*. Child, Preschool. Diagnostic Imaging / methods*. Female. Humans. ... polysplenia is associated with many cardiovascular anomalies including the occasional occurrence of congenital extrahepatic ...
The model of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and hepatic ischemia reperfusion was the same as previously reported [14]. A ... The extrahepatic cholestatic model was induced by common bile duct ligation. After seven days, rats were subjected to ischemia ... Animals underwent bile duct ligation for 7 days and were randomly divided into two groups: the normal saline (NS, ) control ... The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of intraportal PGE1 on liver IR injury in a common bile duct ...
... is a new treatment for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) currently under evaluation. The purpose of this study was to ... Biliary TRACT neoplasms Catheter ablation Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Bile ducts Extrahepatic cholestasis ... Safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the management of unresectable bile duct and pancreatic cancer: a novel ... SpyGlass single-operator peroralcholangiopancreatoscopy system for the diagnosis and therapy of bile-duct disorders: a clinical ...
Extrahepatic bile ducts. Tumors. Features to report. Reviewer: Hanni Gulwani, M.D. (see Reviewers page) Revised: 15 February ... End of Extrahepatic bile ducts > Tumors > Features to report. This information is intended for physicians and related personnel ... Bile duct wall thickness, external surface, obstruction, stones. ● Tumor size and location. ● Tumor histologic type, pattern ...
We investigated lymph node (LN) counts after resection of extrahepatic CC and survival based on the SEER 1973-2004 database. ... Primary cancer sites included gallbladder (29%), extrahepatic bile ducts (26%), and intrapancreatic/ampullary bile ducts (45 ... Actual long-term outcome of extrahepatic bile duct cancer after surgical resection. Ann Surg 2005;241(1):77-84.PubMedGoogle ... Prognostic factors after pancreatoduodenectomy with extended lymphadenectomy for distal bile duct cancer. Arch Surg 2002;137(1 ...
Strictures of common bile duct and other extra hepatic biliary tree pathologies are sometimes encountered in surgical practice ... Comparison of Laparoscopic Hepaticojejunostomy and Open Hepaticojejunostomy in Benign Extra Hepatic Biliary Tree Pathologies. ...
Extrahepatic bile duct cancer is rare, affecting only 2,000 to 3,000 people per year in the United States. Because of an ... Bile Duct Cancer, Extrahepatic. Usually found after it has spread, extrahepatic bile duct cancer is a rare but deadly disease ... Continue Learning about Bile Duct Cancer, Extrahepatic. How does surgery affect people with extrahepatic bile duct cancer? ... The extrahepatic bile duct, located just outside our liver, joins another duct to release bile from the gallbladder into the ...
XANTHOMATOUS BILIARY CIRRHOSIS SECONDARY TO CARCINOMA OF THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS1 LEONARD J. STUTMAN; RICHARD C. BOZIAN ... XANTHOMATOUS BILIARY CIRRHOSIS SECONDARY TO CARCINOMA OF THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS1. Ann Intern Med. ;52:229-234. doi: ...
... the duct travelling towards the duodenum becomes the bile duct or common bile duct. The common bile duct enters the duodenum on ... A recent study of the sonographic evaluation of the feline common bile duct suggested that, in that species, a common bile duct ... One duct, the cystic duct, leaves the gallbladder and receives the hepatic ducts. After the last hepatic duct has joined the ... Bile canaliculi in the liver combine to form the hepatic ducts. The number of hepatic ducts varies from 3-5; they join the ...
Most carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater are diagnosed prior to surgery, so intraoperative ... The purpose of this chapter is to (1) discuss the gross and histologic features of benign and malignant extrahepatic bile duct ... Most carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater are diagnosed prior to surgery, so intraoperative ... Inflammatory diseases that affect extrahepatic bile ducts can cause strictures that simulate carcinoma in pancreatobiliary ...
... and neck and connects with the bile duct via the cystic duct. Its function is to store and concentrate bile and secrete a ... The interlobular ducts unite further to form lobar or bile ducts that exit the liver parenchyma as a variable number of hepatic ... The increased pressure of the intramural component of the bile duct results in direction of the bile flow from the liver into ... An auxiliary retroportal network of bile ducts is reported to exist in dogs [2]. These additional ducts connect the ...
The definitive diagnosis was LCH localized to the extrahepatic bile duct. LCH in the extrahepatic bile duct seemed to cause ... LCH localized to the extrahepatic bile duct is extremely rare; however, LCH can still affect the extrahepatic bile ducts on ... The common bile duct was not suitable for duct-to-duct anastomosis and was resected because of severe inflammation. Histologic ... dilation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and multiple choleliths in the gallbladder and common bile duct. ...
Erlotinib Completed Phase 1 Trials for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Small Intestine Cancer / Gallbladder Cancer / Malignant ...
Læs om Tumors of the Gallbladers Extrahepatic Bile Ducts, and Vaterien System (Atlas of Tumor Pathology). Bogens ISBN er ... Tumors of the Gallbladers Extrahepatic Bile Ducts, and Vaterien System (Atlas of Tumor Pathology). *af American Registry of ... Der er ingen anmeldelser af Tumors of the Gallbladers Extrahepatic Bile Ducts, and Vaterien System (Atlas of Tumor Pathology) ... Mediernes boganmeldelser af Tumors of the Gallbladers Extrahepatic Bile Ducts, and Vaterien System (Atlas of Tumor Pathology). ...
Portal vein and bile duct area index were significantly smaller in the unsuccessful group (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). ... Hepatic Histology and Morphometric Measurements in Idiopathic Extrahepatic Portal Vein Thrombosis in Children, Correlated to ... Research InnovationPublications Hepatic Histology and Morphometric Measurements in Idiopathic Extrahepatic Portal Vein ... and morphometric features of the liver in children with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EHPVT), with surgical outcome ...
These cancers are grouped with distal bile duct cancers as extrahepatic bile duct cancers. ... The cancer has grown into deeper layers of the bile duct wall, but it is still only in the bile duct. ... the innermost layer of the bile duct) and have not grown into deeper layers of the bile duct. Cancer has not spread to nearby ... the innermost layer of the bile duct) and have not invaded deeper layers of the bile duct. This stage is also known as ...
Tumor staging of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) carcinoma is problematic for a number of reasons, including definitional problems ... Tumor staging of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) carcinoma is problematic for a number of reasons, including definitional problems ... Measurement of the Invasion Depth of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma: An Alternative Method Overcoming the Current T ...
The overall 5-year relative survival rates for these cancers were very low: gallbladder, 12.3%; extrahepatic bile duct, 12.7%; ... In the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts, papillary adenocarcinoma was associated with the best outcome of all histologic ... extrahepatic bile ducts (n = 3486), pancreas (n = 23,116), and liver (n = 6,391) were reviewed. The most common histologic ... bile ducts, and pancreas have a common embryologic origin; cancers that arise from these sites therefore are expected to share ...
... in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC) for specimens from consecutive 81 patients. LAPTM4B-35 staining was positive in ... MUC 4 Is a Novel Prognostic Factor of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma. *ShugoTamada, Hiroaki Shibahara, +4 authors ... Perineural Invasion in Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Prognostic Impact and Treatment Strategies. *Yoshiaki Murakami, ... Nerve Growth Factor Expression Is Not Associated with Perineural Invasion in Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. *Kazuhide Urabe, ...
... the variation in the levels of UGT1A1 expression could reflect differential glucuronidation requirements of bile ducts and ... However, the tissue-specific and extrahepatic regulation of the complete UGT1A locus has not been defined to date. In this ... This would require a mode of regulation of individual UGT1A transcripts in the liver and in extrahepatic tissues. Although DNA ... Glucuronide metabolites are rendered more hydrophilic and can therefore be eliminated by excretion in bile or urine (1). To ...
  • Not surprisingly, postoperative mechanical complications are related to problems with the hepatic artery, bile ducts, MPV, and IVC. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this chapter is to (1) discuss the gross and histologic features of benign and malignant extrahepatic bile duct lesions that are encountered during frozen section consultations, (2) address issues related to evaluation of resection margins from bile duct specimens, and (3) review the features of ampullary neoplasms and their mimics. (springer.com)
  • The participation of the cytomegalovirus in the etiopathogenesis of neonatal hepatitis has been already known for some time, but only recently there have been indications that this virus may be one of the possible etiological factors for extrahepatic biliary atresia. (mendeley.com)
  • Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt associated with heterotaxy and polysplenia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Heterotaxy with polysplenia is associated with many cardiovascular anomalies including the occasional occurrence of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (CEPS). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some may be due to a defect in early bile duct development (particularly those with other abnormalities) and some may arise in the perinatal period due to an external cause such as an hepatotropic virus reovirus 3 infection, congenital cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)