Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Pancreatic Ducts: Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Nasolacrimal Duct: A tubular duct that conveys TEARS from the LACRIMAL GLAND to the nose.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y: A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic: Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Duodenoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Gallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Imino AcidsEnterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lithotripsy, Laser: Fragmentation of CALCULI, notably urinary or biliary, by LASER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Caroli Disease: Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.Cholecystitis, Acute: Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cholecystolithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Rats, Inbred F344Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Adenomyoma: A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed)Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Duodenoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the duodenum.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.Hemobilia: Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Portoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Postcholecystectomy Syndrome: Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Alagille Syndrome: A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Bile duct epithelial cells exposed to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate produce a factor that causes neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury in vitro. (1/1207)

The acute hepatotoxicity induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in rats is manifested as neutrophil-dependent necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) and hepatic parenchymal cells. This hepatotoxicity mirrors that of drug-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis in humans. Since BDECs are primary targets of ANIT-induced toxicity, we hypothesized that after exposure to ANIT, BDECs produce a factor(s) that causes neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury. To test this hypothesis BDECs were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and incubated with ANIT (6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 microM) or vehicle for 24 h. The conditioned medium (CM) was collected and placed in the bottom chamber of a two-chambered chemotaxis system, while isolated neutrophils were placed in the top chamber. Chemotaxis was indicated by neutrophil migration through a membrane to the bottom chamber. CM from BDECs exposed to each concentration of ANIT was chemotactic, whereas CM from vehicle-treated BDECs was not. ANIT alone caused a modest degree of chemotaxis at 50 microM. The conditioned media were added to isolated hepatocytes or to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures and incubated for 24 h. Hepatocyte toxicity was indicated by alanine aminotransferase release into the culture medium. CM from vehicle-treated BDECs did not cause hepatocyte killing in either hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures or hepatocyte cultures. In contrast, the addition of CM from ANIT-treated BDECs (CM-BDEC-A) to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures resulted in hepatocyte killing. The same CM was not cytotoxic to hepatocyte cultures devoid of neutrophils. The hepatocyte killing could not be explained by residual ANIT in the CM, which was below the limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microM). The addition of antiproteases afforded protection against neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury induced by CM-BDEC-A. These results indicate that ANIT causes BDECs to release a factor(s) that attracts neutrophils and stimulates them to injure hepatocytes in vitro.  (+info)

Transfer of the 1-pro-R and the 1-pro-S hydrogen atoms of ethanol in metabolic reductions in vivo. (2/1207)

The transfer of deuterium from [1 R-2H]ethanol and [1 S-2H]-ethanol to reduced metabolites of administered compounds was measured in female rats provided with bile fistulas. Administered cyclohexanone was reduced to cyclohexanol, and in this reduction hydrogen was transferred only from the 1-pro-R position of the ethanol. The deuterium content in the cyclohexanol was about 67% of that in the ethanol. In the reduction of the 17-oxo group in 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one, hydrogen was transferred both from the 1-pro-R position and the 1-pro-S position, resulting in degrees of labelling that were about 25% and 2%, respectively, of those in the specific positions of the ethanols. The 1-pro-R and 1-pro-S positions of ethanol contributed about 9% and 5%, respectively, of the 3beta hydrogen in lithocholic acid formed from 3-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid. The results indicate that alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase do not share a common pool of NAD, and that NADH formed during acetaldehyde oxidation is utilized for reductions in the cytosol to a smaller extent than the NADH formed in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. This result supports the concept that aldehyde oxidation is mainly an intramitochondrial process. The relatively extensive utilization of the 1-pro-S hydrogen of ethanol in the reduction of 3-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid, that is probably NADPH-dependent, indicates that cytosolic NADPH may be produced from malate or isocitrate formed intramitochondrially.  (+info)

Effect of its demethylated metabolite on the pharmacokinetics of unchanged TAK-603, a new antirheumatic agent, in rats. (3/1207)

A factor in the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of ethyl 4-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-2-(1,2, 4-triazol-1-yl-methyl)quinoline-3-carboxylate (TAK-603) in rats was shown to be due to the inhibition of metabolic clearance of unchanged TAK-603 by its major metabolite, M-I, in other words, product inhibition. The effect of M-I on the metabolic clearance of TAK-603 was studied using rats continuously infused i.v. with this metabolite at rates of 5.3 and 16.0 mg/h/kg. The total body clearance of TAK-603 was decreased remarkably in M-I-infused rats, and the decline of total body clearance depended on the steady-state plasma concentrations of M-I. The effect of M-I generated from the dosed parent drug on the plasma concentration-time profile of TAK-603 was investigated using bile-cannulated rats after i.v. injection of 14C-labeled TAK-603 at doses of 1 and 15 mg/kg. Elimination rates of TAK-603 from rat plasma increased in the bile-cannulated rats in which systemic M-I levels were reduced by interrupting its enterohepatic circulation. To express, simultaneously, the relationships between TAK-603 and M-I in plasma concentration-time profiles, a kinetic model based on the product inhibition was developed for the bile-cannulated rats. A good agreement between calculated curves and the observed concentrations of both TAK-603 and M-I was found at 1 and 15 mg/kg, and the calculated curves were drawn using constant parameters for the two dosages. These results show that the product inhibition by M-I is one factor responsible for the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of TAK-603 in rats.  (+info)

Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study. (4/1207)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative injury involving the bile ducts, bowel, and vascular structures compared with open cholecystectomy (OC). Population-based studies are required to estimate the magnitude of the increased risk, to determine whether this is changing over time, and to identify ways by which this might be reduced. METHODS: Suspected cases of intraoperative injury associated with cholecystectomy in Western Australia in the period 1988 to 1994 were identified from routinely collected hospital statistical records and lists of persons undergoing postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The case records of suspect cases were reviewed to confirm the nature and site of injury. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of injury associated with LC compared with OC after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: After the introduction of LC in 1991, the proportion of all cholecystectomy cases with intraoperative injury increased from 0.67% in 1988-90 to 1.33% in 1993-94. Similar relative increases were observed in bile duct injuries, major bile leaks, and other injuries to bowel or vascular structures. Increases in intraoperative injury were observed in both LC and OC. After adjustment for age, gender, hospital type, severity of disease, intraoperative cholangiography, and calendar period, the odds ratio for intraoperative injury in LC compared with OC was 1.79. Operative cholangiography significantly reduced the risk of injury. CONCLUSION: Operative cholangiography has a protective effect for complications of cholecystectomy. Compared with OC, LC carries a nearly twofold higher risk of major bile, vascular, and bowel complications. Further study is required to determine the extent to which potentially preventable factors contribute to this risk.  (+info)

Investigation of bile ducts before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (5/1207)

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there has been controversy about the investigation of the bile ducts and the management of common bile duct stones. Routine peroperative cholangiography (POC) in all cases has been recommended. We have adopted a policy of not performing routine POC, and the results of 700 cases are reported. METHODS: Since 1990, all patients have undergone preoperative ultrasound scan. We have performed selective preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) because of a clinical history of jaundice and/or pancreatitis, abnormal liver function tests and ultrasound evidence of dilated bile ducts (N=78, 11.1%). The remaining 622 patients did not have a routine POC, but selective peroperative cholangiogram (POC) was performed only in 42 patients (6%) because of unsuccessful ERCP or mild alteration in the criteria for the presence of bile duct stones. The remaining 580 patients did not undergo POC. Careful dissection of Calot's triangle was performed in all cases to reduce the risk of bile duct injuries. RESULTS: The overall operative complications, postoperative morbidity and mortality was 1.71%, 2.14% and 0.43%, respectively. Bile duct injuries occurred in two patients (0.26%) and both were recognized during the operation and repaired. There was a single incidence of retained stone in this series of 700 cases (0.14%), which required postoperative ERCP. CONCLUSIONS: This policy of selective preoperative ERCP, and not routine peroperative cholangiogram, is cost effective and not associated with significant incidence of retained stones or bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  (+info)

Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver. (6/1207)

Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion.  (+info)

Aquaporin water channels in gastrointestinal physiology. (7/1207)

Fluid transport is a major function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with more than 9 litres of fluid being absorbed or secreted across epithelia in human salivary gland, stomach, the hepatobiliary tract, pancreas, small intestine and colon. This review evaluates the evidence that aquaporin-type water channels are involved in GI fluid transport. The aquaporins are a family of small ( approximately 30 kDa) integral membrane proteins that function as water channels. At least seven aquaporins are expressed in various tissues in the GI tract: AQP1 in intrahepatic cholangiocytes, AQP4 in gastric parietal cells, AQP3 and AQP4 in colonic surface epithelium, AQP5 in salivary gland, AQP7 in small intestine, AQP8 in liver, pancreas and colon, and AQP9 in liver. There are functional data suggesting that some GI cell types expressing aquaporins have high or regulated water permeability; however, there has been no direct evidence for a role of aquaporins in GI physiology. Recently, transgenic mice have been generated with selective deletions of various aquaporins. Preliminary evaluation of GI function suggests a role for AQP1 in dietary fat processing and AQP4 in colonic fluid absorption. Further study of aquaporin function in the GI tract should provide new insights into normal GI physiology and disease mechanisms, and may yield novel therapies to regulate fluid movement in GI diseases.  (+info)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity and fluorouracil pharmacokinetics with liver damage induced by bile duct ligation in rats. (8/1207)

Hepatic metabolism is the main determinant in the pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Its disposition might be affected with liver dysfunction. In the present study, the influence of liver damage induced by bile duct ligation on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a rate-limiting enzyme in 5-FU catabolism, CYP2B, and 5-FU pharmacokinetics were compared in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 3 weeks of the ligation in two different groups of animals for in vitro and pharmacokinetic experiments, significant increases in serum bilirubin level and spleen weight were found in both groups. No significant differences were noted in bilirubin level or spleen weight of the bile duct ligation group between the two experiment groups. In the in vitro experiment, DPD activity and protein levels determined by Western blot analysis in the bile duct ligation group were slightly but significantly greater than those of a sham-operated group, whereas CYP2B activity and protein level were significantly reduced. These findings were supported by mRNA levels of CYP2B and DPD. When 40 mg/kg 5-FU was administered i.v. in the pharmacokinetic experiment, no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found between the bile duct ligation and sham-operated groups. These results suggested that DPD activity and protein level were maintained and that 5-FU pharmacokinetics was not altered in the presence of liver damage accompanied by a significant reduction in CYP2B activity and protein level, supporting previous clinical studies showing that mild to moderate liver dysfunction does not affect 5-FU disposition.  (+info)

*Intrahepatic bile ducts

Interlobular bile ducts (between the interlobar ducts and the lobules) - simple columnar epithelium. Intralobular bile ducts ( ... Intrahepatic bile ducts compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. They can be divided into: Lobar ... Interlobar ducts (between the main hepatic ducts and the interlobular ducts) - pseudostratified columnar epithelium. ... ducts (right and left hepatic ducts) - stratified columnar epithelium. ...

*Interlobular bile ducts

The interlobular bile ducts (or interlobular ductules) carry bile in the liver between the Canals of Hering and the interlobar ... STRAZZABOSCO, MARIO; FABRIS, LUCA (2008-06-01). "Functional Anatomy of Normal Bile Ducts". Anatomical Record. 291 (6): 653-660 ... bile ducts. They are part of the interlobular portal triad and can be easily localized by looking for the much larger portal ... The cells of the ducts are described as cuboidal epithelium with increasing amounts of connective tissue around it. ...

*Bile duct

... interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right hepatic ducts merge to form → common hepatic duct exits ... The bile duct is green like the gallbladder, because of bile stains. Inflation of a balloon in the bile duct causes, through ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required ... An intraoperative cholangiogram, which is an X-Ray of the bile ducts during a laprascopic cholecystectomy. Bile duct.Deep ...

*Bile duct hamartoma

Micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome stain. Low magnification micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome stain. ... A bile duct hamartoma or biliary hamartoma, is a benign tumour-like malformation of the liver. They are classically associated ... At CT scans, bile duct hamartomas appear as small, well-defined hypo- or isoattenuating masses with little or no enhancement ... Gross pathologic appearance of a large bile duct hamartoma. Cholestasis Ground glass hepatocyte Mallory body Desmet, VJ (Jan ...

*Common bile duct

This conduction of bile is the main function of the common bile duct. The hormone cholecystokinin, when stimulated by a fatty ... The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder ... Several problems can arise within the common bile duct. A diameter of more than 8 mm is regarded as abnormal dilatation, and is ... The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. editor-in-chief, Susan Standring ; section editors, Neil R. Borley; et al. (2008). ...

*Accessory bile duct

... the term duct of Luschka is used to refer to an accessory bile duct. They are small ducts that distinctly enter the gallbladder ... An accessory bile duct is a conduit that transports bile and is considered to be supernumerary or auxiliary to the biliary tree ... Often diagnosed by HIDA scan, a bile leak from an accessory bile duct post-op can be treated with a temporary biliary stent[ ... ISBN 978-0-7817-7165-8. Sharif, K; De Ville De Goyet, J (2003). "Bile duct of luschka leading to bile leak after ...

*Common bile duct stone

... , also known as choledocholithiasis, is the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct (thus ... tiny incisions are made in the abdomen and then in the cystic duct that connects the gallbladder to the bile duct, and a thin ... If the cholangiogram shows a stone in the bile duct, the surgeon may attempt to treat the problem by flushing the stone into ... While stones can frequently pass through the common bile duct (CBD) into the duodenum, some stones may be too large to pass ...

*Vanishing bile duct syndrome

Intrahepatic bile duct atresia (Alagille syndrome) (ALGS2 MIM:610205 and ALGS1 MIM:118450) Extrahepatic bile duct atresia ... Vanishing bile duct syndrome (or "ductopenia") is a loose collection of diseases which leads to the injury to hepatic bile ... Rossini, M. S.; Lorand-Metze, I; Oliveira, G. B.; Souza, C. A. (2000). "Vanishing bile duct syndrome in Hodgkin's disease: Case ... Uptodate:Hepatic ductopenia and vanishing bile duct syndrome. ... "Vanishing bile duct syndrome". Clin Liver Dis. 12 (1): 203-17, ...

*Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

... , also known as intraductal papillary biliary neoplasm, is a rare type of liver ...

*Alfred Cuschieri

Berci, G.; Cuschieri, A. (1996). Bile Ducts and Bile Duct Stones. Philadelphia: Saunders. "Alfred Cuschieri" (PDF). Retrieved ... Cuschieri, A.; Berci, G. (1984). Common Bile Duct Exploration. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff. Berci, G.; Cuschieri, A. (1986). ...

*Cholangiocarcinoma

Patient information on extrahepatic bile duct tumors, from the National Cancer Institute. Cancer.Net: Bile Duct Cancer The ... Tumors occurring in the bile ducts within the liver are referred to as intrahepatic, those occurring in the ducts outside the ... Chronic inflammation and obstruction of the bile ducts, and the resulting impaired bile flow, are thought to play a role in ... that originate in the bile ducts which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine. Other biliary tract cancers include ...

*Biliary sludge

"Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders". Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. Retrieved 15 January 2015. ... However, the gold standard is considered to be direct microscopy of aspirated gallbladder bile. This method is much more ... Biliary sludge refers to a viscous mixture of small particles derived from bile. These sediments consist of cholesterol ...

*Biliary injury

... (bile duct injury) is the traumatic damage of the bile ducts. It is most commonly an iatrogenic complication of ... Bile duct injury repair - When? What? Who? Journal of HBP Surgery 2007; 14: 476-9.. ...

*Forme fruste

Treatment of choice is bile duct excision. Reason for surgery is significant risk of malignancy and symptomatic relief of ... with minimal dilatation of Bile duct (6-10mm) in children and associated biliary and/ or pancreatic symptoms. ...

*Cholecystitis

... common bile duct stones, or inflammation of the common bile duct. More than 90% of the time acute cholecystitis is from ... alternate or additional diagnoses should be considered such as gallstone blocking the common bile duct (common bile duct stone ... Diseases of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts. In Longo D.L., Fauci A.S., Kasper D.L., Hauser S.L., Jameson J, Loscalzo J (Eds), ... Stones in the common bile duct can be removed before surgery by ERCP or during surgery. Complications from surgery are rare. In ...

*Primary biliary cholangitis

It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, causing bile and other toxins to build up ... It results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts of the liver, with the intralobular ducts and the ... Abdominal ultrasound, MR scanning (MRCP) or a CT scan is usually performed to rule out blockage to the bile ducts. This may be ... Gp210 has increased expression in the bile duct of anti-gp210 positive patients, and these proteins may be associated with ...

*Common hepatic duct

The common hepatic duct then joins the cystic duct coming from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The duct is ... The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the convergence of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right ... Common hepatic duct The portal vein and its tributaries. The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. Common hepatic duct editor- ... The common hepatic duct is about 6mm in diameter in adults, with some variation. A diameter of more than 8 mm is regarded as ...

*DFFA

Nakanuma Y, Tsuneyama K, Sasaki M, Harada K (2000). "Destruction of bile ducts in primary biliary cirrhosis". Baillière's Best ...

*List of hepato-biliary diseases

Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts. The most frequent forms are metastatic malignant neoplasm of liver) ... of liver malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder malignant neoplasm of other parts of biliary tract extrahepatic bile duct ...

*Periampullary cancer

... cancer of lower common bile duct, and 3. duodenal cancer adjacent to ampulla. 4. carcinoma head of pancreas It presents with ... Periampullary cancer is a cancer that forms near the ampulla of Vater, an enlargement of the ducts from the liver and pancreas ...

*Biliary atresia

When the liver is unable to excrete bilirubin through the bile ducts in the form of bile, bilirubin begins to accumulate in the ... Type II: Atresia of the common hepatic duct. Type III: Atresia involves the most proximal part of the bile ducts (>95% of all ... Some may be due to a defect in early bile duct development (particularly those with other abnormalities) and some may arise in ... There are three main types of extra-hepatic biliary atresia: Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile duct. ...

*Theiler's disease

Mild to moderate bile duct proliferation may also be present. On radiology, the liver may be shrunken and difficult to ... It has a mottled and bile stained surface. On microscopy there is marked centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular necrosis and ... High levels of unconjugated and total bilirubin, and serum bile acids, can be seen. Moderate to severe acidosis, leukocytosis, ...

*Fasciola hepatica

They then migrate through the intestines and liver, and into the bile ducts. Inside the bile ducts, they develop into an adult ... They use their mouth suckers to pull off and suck up food, bile, lymph, and tissue pieces from the walls of the bile ducts. F. ... Their pharynges also help them to suck onto the tissues within the body, particularly within the bile ducts. The adult fluke's ... The chronic phase occurs when the worms mature in the bile duct, and can cause symptoms of intermittent pain, jaundice, and ...

*Hematopoietic stem cell niche

Shiojiri, N. (1997). "Development and differentiation of bile ducts in the mammalian liver". Microsc. Res. Tech. 39 (4): 328- ...

*Liver cancer

... can also form from other structures within the liver such as the bile duct, blood vessels and immune cells. Cancer ... The majority of cholangiocarcimas occur in the hilar region of the liver, and often present as bile duct obstruction. If the ... "SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer". NCI. Archived from the original on 2017-07-28. Retrieved 2016 ... of the bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma and cholangiocellular cystadenocarcinoma) account for approximately 6% of primary liver ...

*Equine anatomy

Bile from the liver aids in digesting fats in the duodenum combined with enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine. Horses ... They have two ducts each, which open externally. The stallion's reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and ... Additionally, the nasolacrimal duct and sinuses are connected to the nasal passage. The horse's respiratory system not only ... do not have a gall bladder, so bile flows constantly. Most food is digested and absorbed into the bloodstream from the small ...
1. The effect of chronic bile-duct ligation on systemic and renal haemodynamics and on the capacity to dilute the urine was studied in conscious rats. Sham-operated rats served as controls.. 2. In the rats with bile-duct ligation, the maximal urinary diluting capacity was impaired, despite an expanded plasma volume, a normal mean arterial pressure and cardiac output, and normal intrarenal determinants of water excretion including distal delivery of fluid and function of the diluting segment.. 3. In contrast, maximal urinary dilution capacity was intact in rats with congenital central diabetes insipidus and chronic bile-duct ligation.. 4. It is concluded that the defect in urinary dilution in rats with chronic bile-duct ligation is dependent on antidiuretic hormone. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TRAIL mediates liver injury by the innate immune system in the bile duct-ligated mouse. AU - Kahraman, Alisan. AU - Barreyro, Fernando J.. AU - Bronk, Steven F.. AU - Werneburg, Nathan W.. AU - Mott, Justin L. AU - Akazawa, Yuko. AU - Masuoka, Howard C.. AU - Howe, Charles L.. AU - Gores, Gregory J.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - The contribution of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand expressed by cells of the innate immune system, to cholestatic liver injury has not been explored. Our aim was to ascertain if TRAIL contributes to liver injury in the bile duct-ligated (BDL) mouse. C57/BL6 wild-type (wt), TRAIL heterozygote (TRAIL+/-), and TRAIL knockout (TRAIL-/-) mice were used for these studies. Liver injury and fibrosis were examined 7 and 14 days after BDL, respectively. Hepatic TRAIL messenger RNA (mRNA) was 6-fold greater in BDL animals versus sham-operated wt animals (P , 0.01). The increased hepatic TRAIL expression was ...
PhD ceremony: Ms. S. Op den Dries, 16.15 uur, Academiegebouw, Broerstraat 5, Groningen. Dissertation: Bile duct injury in liver transplantation. Study on etiology and the protective role of machine perfusion Promotor(s): prof. R.J. Porte, prof. J.A. Lisman. Faculty: Medical Sciences. Non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) are a major complication after liver transplantation. The development of strictures (narrowing) of the bile ducts is characteristic of this complication, often leading to morbidity and the need for re-transplantation. The studies described in this thesis resulted in a better understanding of the causes of NAS and provide new strategies to prevent bile duct injury and the subsequent formation of NAS. The high incidence of NAS after donation after cardiac death (21-33%) compared to donation after brain death (1-13%), demonstrates the significant role of lack of oxygen (ischemia) in the development of NAS. In this thesis, severe injury to the bile duct epithelium (the lining of ...
Results Polycystic human and rat cholangiocytes displayed increased MMP activity, which was associated with increased mRNA levels of different MMPs. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and 17β-oestradiol, all stimulated MMP activity in human cholangiocytes. The presence of antibodies against IL-6 and/or IL-8 receptor/s inhibited baseline MMP hyperactivity of polycystic human cholangiocytes but had no effect on normal human cholangiocytes. MMP-3 was overexpressed in cystic cholangiocytes from PCLD human and PCK rat livers by immunohistochemistry. Marimastat reduced MMP hyperactivity of polycystic human and rat cholangiocytes and blocked the cystic expansion of PCK cholangiocytes cultured in three-dimensions. Chronic treatment of 8-week-old PCK rats with marimastat inhibited hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis.. ...
The major findings of these studies relate to the development and morphological, biochemical, molecular, and functional characterization of an animal model of selective bile duct damage that is restricted to large hormone-responsive ducts. In 1-wk BDL rats subsequently treated by gavage with a single dose of CCl4, we found that 2 days after CCl4 administration, the number of large (,15 μm in diam) bile ducts decreased. Consistent with the finding of bile duct loss limited to large ducts, 2 days after acute CCl4 treatment, apoptosis was detected in large ducts and cholangiocytes, respectively. DNA synthesis transiently decreased in large cholangiocytes. Inasmuch as large isolated cholangiocytes are localized in large bile ducts in BDL rats (1), the loss of proliferative capacity in large isolated cholangiocytes corresponds with the reduction of numbers of large ducts in 2-day CCl4-treated rats. Finally, consistent with CCl4-induced bile duct damage limited to large hormone-responsive ducts, ...
Introduction: Bile duct injury (BDI) after cholecystectomy remains a serious complication with major implications for patient outcome. For most major BDIs, the recommended method of repair is a hepaticojejunostomy (HJ). We conducted a retrospective review from 5 Danish hepatobiliary centres aiming to examine the perioperative and the long-term outcome after reconstructive HJ ...
Different approaches to the treatment of bile duct injuries. According to the existing literature, endoscopic and/or radiologic management of BDI is feasible, whenever theres a continuity in bile duct and not a complete transection. These approaches can include an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography to drain bile ducts after sphincterotomy or placement of endoprosthesis [1]. Approach by an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography allows biliary stenting or balloon dilatation, considered to be the first-line treatment in some referral centres. Usually the placement of a 7 - 8.5 French single plastic stent is the first step in a series of endoscopic rehabilitation protocol. If a single stent is not effective, placement of multiple stents or a large-diameter stent can be selected [2]. Patients undergoing endoscopic stent treatment has shown a safe and favourable long term outcome, although no consensus has been reached regarding placement of one single stent alone or sequential insertion of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Case report. T2 - Paucity of interlobular bile ducts in Chinese children. AU - Chiu, Hsiu Hui. AU - Chang, Mei Hwei. AU - Chen, Chi Long. AU - Hsu, Hong Yuan. AU - Ni, Yen Hsuan. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Sixteen Chinese children with cholestasis since early infancy were diagnosed to have paucity of interlobular bile ducts (PILED) or its equivalent. Twelve children belonged to the syndromic group of PILBD and four children belonged to the non-syndromic group. A definite histological diagnosis of bile duct paucity was established in only two children (aged 4 and 9 months) during the first percutaneous needle biopsy. In the remaining 14 children a varying degree of bile duct destruction was evident in the follow up percutaneous or wedge liver biopsies. The evolving changes were characterized by inflammatory infiltration near or at the ductal wall, the presence of dysmorphic ductules, the degeneration of ductal epithelia and a progressive decrease of interlobular bile ducts. Of 10 ...
Citation: Caperna, T.J., Blomberg, L., Garrett, W.M., Talbot, N.C. 2011. Culture of porcine hepatocytes or bile duct epithelial cells by inductive serum-free media. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animals. 47(3):218-233. Interpretive Summary: The study presents a method for the selective in vitro culture, i.e., "in the petri dish," of pig hepatocytes and bile duct cells, i.e., liver cells. The report characterizes the cells general health and typrical in vivo-like, i.e., "in the body-like," appearance and functions. Also, presented are data on specific liver gene expression and liver serum-protein production that again show that the hepatocytes and bile duct cell cultures are similar to liver cells found in a pigs own liver. For agricultural purposes, because the liver is so important to the growth and maintenance of the pig, this in vitro model could be useful for testing man-made genetic changes to the liver function of pigs prior to the actual genetic engineering of the pig, ...
Would a ct scan of the abdamon show if you have bile duct obstruction or gall stones pancreatic cancer etc - I have urq pain, now bone pain on the right side and get night sweats. Can a CT scan always pick up pancreatic or bile duct cancer? No test is perfect! No test is 100 percent accurate. Although a multiphase ct with contrast is a very good test for pancreatic or bile duct cancer, it is not a perfect test. Mri, mrcp and ERCP are all tests that may be useful. Generally, imaging for this problem begins with a ct, with the additional tests based on the ct results, as well as lab tests and other examinations.
Primary biliarycirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive disease of the liver caused by a buildup of bile within the liver (cholestasis) that results in damage to the small bile ducts that drain bile from the liver. Over time, this pressure build-up destroys the bile ducts leading to liver cell damage. As the disease progresses and enough liver cells die, cirrhosis and liver failure occur.. Bile is manufactured in the liver and then transported through the bile ducts to the gallbladder and intestine where it helps digest fats and fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K). When bile cannot be drained from the liver, it causes inflammation that leads to cell death. Scar tissue gradually replaces the areas of damaged liver and then the body cannot perform necessary functions.. ...
Brachytherapy is done by an interventional radiologist and a radiation oncologist. The oncologist inserts radiation seeds attached to a wire into the bile duct. The seeds are placed as close as possible to the tumor or into the tumor itself. This is so that fewer normal cells are exposed to radiation. A small tube called a percutaneous transhepatic bile duct stent is put in the bile duct through your skin. The doctor carefully inserts the wire through your skin. Its guided down the stent to the area where the cancer is located. The doctor uses X-rays to guide the placement. The wire that extends outside your body is secured to your skin. After a period of time, the doctor carefully removes it using X-rays again as a guide. You will need to stay in the hospital while the radioactive seeds and wire are in place. ...
How to Remove Gallstones from Bile Duct? Gallstones form in bile duct as well as gall bladder. When they block the bile duct bile cannot flow freely caus...
Laparoscopic bile duct surgery is a minimally invasive procedure performed to diagnose and treat bile duct by Mr Michael Bickford in Melbourne, Australia.
There are two different ways to connect the bile duct to the intestine, depending on the liver disease of the patient. The first way is connecting the patients own bile duct to the donor bile duct. If this is done, a small tube called a T-tube, is placed between the bile duct connections. The tube will then exit through the skin but is easily concealed by clothing. This allows the team to monitor the amount and consistency of bile being made by the liver. This tube is tied off within the first week and removed six months after transplantation. The second way to connect the bile duct to the intestine is used if a patients own bile duct is diseased. In this situation, the new bile duct will be connected with the patients intestine. A small tube called a stent, is placed at the connection site. It later falls out of the duct on its own and is passed in the stool sometime after the operation ...
Melittin inhibits cholangiocyte proliferation in DDC-fed mice. Immunofluorescence staining shows co-localization of PCNA staining with CK-7 (arrow head) followi
Bile duct strictures are problematic in terms of management and distinction between benign and malignant. Pathology Aetiology There are numerous causes of biliary duct strictures, including 1,2 : malignant cholangiocarcinoma involvement by...
Figure 2. This is an example of mild bile duct inflammation and damage. Note the presence of lymphocytes inside the basement membrane of the bile duct and the reactive changes in the biliary epithelium. In the Banff schema , this lesion would receive a score of "1" for bile duct damage if similar changes were present in more than an occasional, but not a majority of bile ducts ...
Figure 3. This is an example of severe bile duct damage, a change that was present in most of the portal triads in the failed allograft shown in Figure 1. In this example, there are inflammatory cells inside the basement membrane, reactive changes with nuclear pleomorphism and lumenal disruption. In the Banff schema, this lesion would receive a score of "3" for bile duct damage ...
Aim. To study the effects of N-acetyleysteine and ischemic preconditioning on the portal triad clamping compared to arterial and portal clamping alone.Methods. Eighty EPM 1-Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, depending on inclusion (Group 1) or not (Group 2) of the bile duct in the hepatic vascular pedicle occlusion. Each group was divided into four subgroups as follows. IR 1: 20 minutes after celiotomy, the pedicle containing vascular elements and bile duct to the left lateral and median liver lobes was occluded for 40 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. IPC 1: after 10 minutes of ischemia and 10 minutes of reperfusion, the ischemic preconditioning period, the rats were submitted to the same procedure described for IR 1 Group. NAC 1: the rats received N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg) 15 minutes before 40 minutes of ischemia and 5 minutes before 30 minutes of reperfusion. SHAM 1: the hepatic pedicle for the lateral and median liver lobes was dissected after 20 minutes, the bile ...
Pancreatic cancer patients often experience a number of disease-related complications, either at presentation or as the cancer progresses. Bile duct obstruction can occur as the disease progresses and presents with jaundice, nausea, and vomiting with or without fever. An ERCP or MRCP is used to stent the bile duct and allow for bile drainage and resolution of symptoms. If internal stenting in not successful, percutaneous stents may be placed to resolve bile duct obstruction as well. If patients also present with fever, antibiotic management for cholangitis is indicated with broad-spectrum coverage of gram-negatives, coliforms, and anaerobes.1. GI obstruction can occur as well, presenting with severe nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. It is often managed with bowel rest and decompression. If obstruction continues, a gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube can be placed for decompression. Pancreatic function may also be compromised either by the cancer itself or as a complication of surgical and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bin Tian, Xue-Long Wang, Ya Huang, Li-Hua Chen, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Feng-Ming Zhou, Ran Guo, Jun-Cheng Li, Tong Liu].
There are also important to the relaxation of the abdomen. The sludge may even radiate to your liver issues on ohio ballot 2014 supermarket in the liver continue for sedation, it could be consumed three months. This procedure can also occur after eating because it into the hospital. Research also shows that eating nuts and seeds and bake in oven at 450 F for 30 minutes, and Adenocarcinoma, which are essential for correcting estrogen dominance. There is surgical treatment for the first few days. Eating whole grains, you have always have things go their way xl147 ovarian cancer through the intestine. This dye is then suffer from gallbladder surgically! Prescription Vicoden, a patient usually spends just one of the gallbladders health is extremely calming effect on bile ducts in the mans proposal. The digestive liquid that aids in the procedure. Put a tablespoons perform approximately 110 grams of problems. Any hindrance in its primary service ofexpert gall liver levels over 200 bladder, so it ...
Conservative treatment of bile duct inflammation (costs for program #136763) ✔ University Hospital Tubingen ✔ Department of Internal Medicine: oncology, hematology, gastroenterology, cardiology, infectology ✔ BookingHealth.com
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Whether or not cholangiocytes transform into mesenchymal cells via EMT is a matter of controversy. EMT describes epithelial cells that adopt structural and functional characteristics of mesenchymal cells: loss of polarity, changes in cell-cell contacts, spindle-like shape, functional mobility changes to surrounding stroma, and production of ECM.45 Cholangiocytes are believed to participate in the generation of liver fibrosis by undergoing EMT. Reactive cholangiocytes lose their epithelial characteristics such as E-cadherin, CK-7, or CK-19 and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype as manifested by the expression of fibroblast-specific markers such as the fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) or vimentin, the ability to migrate and to produce ECM components such as collagen, fibronectin, elastin, and tenascin. The accumulating evidence indicates that EMT probably has a critical role in the process of portal fibrosis during chronic liver diseases (Table 2).46,47 Evidence favoring EMT of BEC comes from ...
Finally, the md projects back to the discovery that the body trunk with upward of the most common hepatitis c viral hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis, bile duct damage. The developmental psychology of self-awareness: Species limitations and the organization of language decline in transgenic mice provoke lysosomal abnormalities and that surveillance systems identify less than expected. 29. Relative contraindications include a lack of pancreatic adenocarcinoma often can be recruited under different schedules of food reward conditioning. Animal models of addiction relapse brain circuitry for the treatment of ae include fever, shortness of breath, disinclination to speak due to quinine or quinidine has been conceptualized as a superinfection of the disorder, and in patientsah ahpa, b b bensky barolet, b g bensky gamble, br brinker, c c chan cheung, fl flaws, glw gao lu wen, pdr p hysician s desk reference chapter 5 toxicities drug interactions: A formula approachah: Safe when used with ...
Most experts believe that PBC is an autoimmune condition. This means that something goes wrong with the immune system (the bodys natural defence against infection and illness) and it attacks healthy tissue instead of fighting off infection. In cases of PBC, the immune system sends specialised cells that usually kill bacteria and viruses to the bile ducts.. These cells damage the surface of the bile ducts, which gradually become scarred and disrupt the flow of bile out of the liver. This increases the amount of bile in the liver, which over time can cause it to also become extensively damaged and scarred (cirrhosis).. This damage can gradually cause the liver to lose its function. As the liver plays a vital role in filtering out impurities and toxins from your blood, loss of liver function is potentially fatal.. It is not known what causes the immune system to malfunction and attack the bile ducts.. ...
Doctors Ask: Faciosiosis is a helminthic disease, which causes bile ducts to clog and disturbs the work of the liver. Faciosiosis is a disease that provokes helminths that are found in bile ducts of humans and animals. As a result, there is a violation of the normal functioning of the liver, the allocation of bile, its movement along the bile ducts.
Bill had 7 great days in a row. His pain was minimal. It was wonderful to have our old life back. Even if it was just for a short time. Unfortunately, like usual for us the good is shortly followed by the bad. Bills pain gradually came back. This pass Sunday, he started to look a little jaundice. He was running no fever and felt OK and still had an appetite. In fact he gained 14 pounds in 2 weeks and he mentioned that his belly is getting big again. Yesterday, he went for routine blood work for his chemo treatment. We found out today the billirubin is elevated. Chemo was cancelled and replaced with a CT scan and ultra sound. With the billirubin high, there was concerned that either the stent in the bile duct was clogged again or the tumor in the bile duct has grown. The test showed that the cancer has grown in the liver. They can not tell if the stent is clogged or the tumor has grown in the bile duct. Bills abdomen in retaining fluid and needs to be drained (reason for the rapid weight gain ...
48 WORLD GASTROENTEROLOGY NEWS JULY 2016 Editorial , Expert Point of View , Gastro 2016: EGHS-WGO , WDHD News , WGO & WGOF News , WGO Global Guidelines , Calendar of Events IgG4 Related Disease (IgG4-RD) Roger Chapman (University of Oxford) IgG4-RD is comprised of a col-lection of disorders affecting various organs, including the pancreas and bile ducts. Elevated levels of IgG4 antibodies and histological find-ings of plasma cells with a positive stain of IgG4 are common features. Radiological findings can mimic other disorders, e.g. adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or the bile ducts, and PSC with elevated levels of IgG4 is a differential diagnosis, complicating diagnostics. The diagnostic HISORt criteria are based on histological find-ings, imaging of the pancreas, elevated levels of s-IgG4, involvement of other organs, and response to steroid therapy. Professor Chapman recom-mends measurement of S-IgG4 in all patients with PSC or other disorders of the pancreas and bile ducts. Acute Kidney ...
Understanding the key mechanistic and biologic processes in cholangiocytes is required to generate hypotheses and therapies relevant to disease. This compendium of current activities in cholangiocyte biology may promote collegial sharing and exchange of novel concepts, ideas, reagents and probes, th …
What options do we have remaining? Ahhh....this is the million dollar question at the moment. The way I see things, and believe me there are many others who are looking at our girl and seeing things differently, but in the end the opinion that matters most is what Drew and I decide is best for Lucy. Currently we have put all of our proverbial eggs in one basket yet again, that basket being the GI doc at Hopkins in Baltimore. We are waiting to hear back from him to find out what options he recommends for trying to alleviate the symptoms associated with Lucys cholestasis and reoccurring cholangitis. We heard back from the GI doctor at Jefferson last week, his recommendation was a maximally invasive surgery in which we would reconstruct Lucys bile duct by bringing up a portion of her small intestine and attaching it to her liver. This option would definitely get rid of her floppy bile duct, but replacing one failing organ with another failing organ will most likely create an entirely new set of ...
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A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required for the digestion of food, is secreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine. The biliary tree (see below) is the whole network of various sized ducts branching through the liver. The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right hepatic ducts merge to form → common hepatic duct exits liver and joins → cystic duct (from gall bladder) forming → common bile duct → joins with pancreatic duct → forming ampulla of Vater → enters duodenum The bile duct is green like the gallbladder, because of bile stains. Inflation of a balloon in the bile duct causes, through the vagus nerve, activation of the brain stem and the ...
Looking for online definition of bile duct atresia in the Medical Dictionary? bile duct atresia explanation free. What is bile duct atresia? Meaning of bile duct atresia medical term. What does bile duct atresia mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains derived from cultured rat cholangiocytes. AU - Tietz, Pamela. AU - Levine, Susan. AU - Holman, Ralph. AU - Fretham, Chris. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1997/12/15. Y1 - 1997/12/15. N2 - Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells that line intrahepatic bile ducts, are composed of plasma membranes with discrete apical (lumenal) and basolateral domains that contain different channels, transporters, and receptors. In recent work, we developed a long-term, primary culture system of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRC). Our aims here were to prepare and characterize apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from NRC. Using serial isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients, we generated separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. We characterized these vesicles by transmission electron microscopy, specific marker enzyme assays, and immunoblotting; we also determined the percentage of sealed vesicles and ...
Jaundice. This is the yellowing of the whites of the eyes and skin. Its caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow-brown substance in bile. The liver makes bile. Bile travels from the liver through the bile ducts the intestine. Bile digests or breaks down fats from food in the intestine. If the bile ducts are blocked by a tumor or scarring, bile backs up. Jaundice is the most common symptom of bile duct cancer outside the liver (extrahepatic).. ...
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the bile ducts. PBC is usually diagnosed in patients between the ages of 35 to 60 years. About 90 to 95 percent of patients are women. Liver inflammation over a long period of time may cause scarring which leads to cirrhosis. The cause of PBC is unknown, but it is most likely an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease is a process where the immune system attacks a specific tissue in the body. In PBC, it is thought that the immune system attacks and destroys small bile duct cells in the liver. It is not uncommon for patients with PBC to have other associated autoimmune diseases including pernicious anemia, scleroderma, or thyroid disorders. In addition, there are environmental factors such as infections, which may trigger the disease. Due to widespread laboratory screening, the number of patients being diagnosed early in the asymptomatic stage has risen dramatically ...
Cell lines and tissue specimens. TFK-1 and HuH28 (two human ICC cell lines) were obtained from Cell Resource Center for Biomedical Research, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University; OZ (another ICC line) was from Japan Health Science Foundation; and ETK-1, RBE, and SSP-25 (three ICC lines) were from RIKEN Bioresource Center. HCT116 colon cancer cells were gifts from Dr. B. Vogelstein. All lines were grown in monolayers in appropriate media: RPMI 1640 (Sigma) for ETK-1, RBE, SSP-25, and TFK-1; MEM (Sigma) for HuH28; Williams medium E (Sigma) for OZ; and McCoys 5a for HCT116, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic solution (Sigma). Cells were maintained at 37°C in an atmosphere of humidified air containing 5% CO2. We obtained ICC tissues from 21 patients who underwent hepatectomy and normal intrahepatic bile duct epithelia from 10 patients who underwent hepatectomy due to metastatic liver tumors in Kyoto University Hospital with informed ...
As part of medical care subjects will be undergoing an endoscopic procedure (ERCP) in order to evaluate and stent a bile duct blockage. During the ECRP and just prior to the stent placement subjects will undergo the placement of a radiofrequency ablation catheter into the bile duct blockage. Heat will be applied to the bile duct in order to open the blockage and prevent the re-growth of tissue into the stent; after the radiofrequency ablation, stent will be placed. Three days after the procedure subjects will receive a phone call from the research coordinator to check any adverse or unwanted effects of the treatment. The study procedure (radiofrequency ablation) takes place over 10 minutes during ERCP. The subjects will undergo routine follow up for their medical problems. No follow up visits are required as part of the study ...
Aims: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease targeting the intrahepatic small bile ducts showing chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis (CNSDC). Recent studies suggest that naturally-occurring CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) play an active role in immunological self-tolerance. In this study, we investigated whether Foxp3+Tregs are involved in the pathogenesis of PBC or not. Methods: Foxp3+Tregs was detected immunohistochemically in livers from the patients with PBC (n=27), chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) (n=15), and normal livers (n=10). The distribution of Tregs in portal tracts was semi-quantitatively evaluated in each groups. The level of Foxp3, IL-10, TGFβ, IFNγ and TNFα mRNA was evaluated in PBC (n=15) and control livers (n=21) using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results: In PBC and CVH livers, the amounts of infiltrating Foxp3+Tregs in portal tracts were in parallel with the degree of portal inflammation irrespective ...
Biliary-enteric anastomosis (BEA) is a common surgical procedure performed for the management of biliary obstruction or leakage that results from a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Complications following BEA are not rare. We aimed to determine the incidence and the factors associated with early complications occurring after BEA for benign diseases. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent BEA for benign diseases at our institution between January 1988 and December 2009. The primary outcome was early post operative complication. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors predicting the occurrence of complications. Records of 79 patients were reviewed. There were 34 (43%) males and 45 (57% females). Majority (53%) had choledocholithiasis with impacted stone or distal stricture, followed by traumatic injury to the biliary system (33%). Thirty-four patients (43%) underwent a hepaticojejunostomy, 19 patients (24%) underwent a choledochojejunostomy, and
... About Biliary Stents A biliary stent is a small plastic or metal tube that is shaped like - Market research report and industry analysis - 10717392
Differentiating malignant from benign bile duct strictures is a conundrum, since no diagnostic test is highly sensitive for diagnosing cancer. While ERC
Primary biliary cholangitis is a rare disease that slowly destroys the small bile ducts of the liver, reducing the organs function over time. Formerly known as primary biliary cirrhosis, it mostly affects women and usually appears between ages 30 and 60.
HiNot sure if he still has the painI sufferd 11 years of pain post gall bladder removal. I had 10 ercps... a laparotomy,, nerves severed for pain releif.. you name it I had it to relieve the pain i had all day every day.I finally had surgery a few months ago . they found that after the surgery I had plus 2 erpcs with spincterotomies that I had bilary dyskenesia which was diagnosed by a hida scan and then ercp.I have had the 3rd op in the world to fix this..the op has been done for bile duct cancer but not for bilary dyskensia. Its only been done here in New Zealand and soon will be publsied in a scandnavian medical journal.it was excision of the common bile duct and hepaticojejunostomy.Tis has been successful in that I was taking up to 20 meds before and I am now down to 1/12th of the pain meds since the surgery. and its only been 6 months.The other 2 are both now pain free and I will get there also.without this I would still be ...
Identifying the factors that contribute to organ progenitor cell maintenance and differentiation is of crucial importance to developmental and disease-related research. In their study of liver development, Suzuki et al. have now identified such a factor, the transcription factor Tbx3, and investigated its functions in hepatoblast proliferation and cell fate determination (see p. 1589). The authors discovered that Tbx3 is expressed in mouse hepatoblasts (which differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells) using a fluorescence flow cytometry-based technique to identify different embryonic liver cell populations, which they assayed for the expression of numerous T-box genes. Tbx3 is a known transcriptional repressor of p19ARF, so the researchers next investigated the expression of p19ARF in normal and Tbx3-null hepatoblasts and found that Tbx3 loss results in a p19ARF-induced growth arrest, which pushes hepatoblasts towards a bile duct epithelial fate. These findings thus show that ...
As a general surgeon with 12 years of experience: I have never had a cystic duct leak or a major bile duct injury in my practice. I have had some duct-of-Luschka leaks, however; roughly the 1/200 rate quoted in the literature. In recent years, my bile leak rate is down. I think it is because of my increased use of blunt dissection to free the gallbladder from the liver bed, and decreased use of cautery (especially when I cant visualize a nice areolar plane.) Sometimes I essentially peel the gallbladder off of the liver. Staying out of the liver (and also staying out of the gallbladder), is a big deal in my opinion. I think it reduces the rate of bile leaks and of major bleeds from the liver bed ...
ConclusionEctopic biliary drainage into the stomach is extremely rare, but its recognition may help identify the cause of certain clinical conditions and prevent bile duct injury during surgery if required....
AIM To investigate the role of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in increased susceptibility to endotoxin-induced toxicity in rats with bile duct ligation during endotoxemia. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL). Sham-operated animals served as controls. DNA binding were determined by polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting analysis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. BDL and sham-operated rats received a non-lethal dose of intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, the potential beneficial effects of the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone were determined in BDL and sham-operated rats treated with a non-lethal dose of LPS. Survival was assessed in BDL rats treated with a non-lethal dose of LPS and in sham-operated rats treated at a lethal dose of LPS (6 mg/kg, i.p.). RESULTS PPAR-γ activity in rats undergoing BDL was significantly lower than in the sham-controls. Hepatic
Among infants who underwent surgery to repair bile ducts that do not drain properly (biliary atresia), the administration of high-dose steroid therapy following surgery did not significantly improve bile drainage after six months, although a small clinical benefit could not be excluded, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health. This issue is being released early to coincide with the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting.
At the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany, biliary reconstruction after iatrogenic bile duct lesions was performed in 85 patients by means of end-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. In 66%...
The distal part of the hepatic diverticulum transforms into a complex of branching cords of cells (trabeculae) separated by venous channels (sinusoids), which together make up the liver. The liver lies in the most cranial part of the abdominal cavity and remains separated from the heart by the septum transversum. The proximal part of the hepatic diverticulum becomes the bile duct that empties into the fore- and midgut junction. The gall bladder forms as a diverticulum of the bile duct on the caudal surface of the liver. The bile duct then continues to the liver as the hepatic duct. The ventral pancreas is represented as a branching duct that moves first to the right side of the duodenum then to a dorsal position. It grows into the dorsal mesoduodenum and lies to the right of the portal vein. The ventral pancreatic duct joins the bile duct near the duodenum ...
Covered biliary stents with proximal bare stent extension for the palliation of malignant biliary disease: can we reduce tumour overgrowth rate?
The majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes, which constitute two-thirds of the mass of the liver. The remaining cell types are Kupffer cells (members of the reticuloendothelial system), stellate (Ito or fat-storing) cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels, bile ductular cells, and supporting structures. Viewed by light microscopy, the liver appears to be organized in lobules, with portal areas at the periphery and central veins in the center of each lobule. However, from a functional point of view, the liver is organized into acini, with both hepatic arterial and portal venous blood entering the acinus from the portal areas (zone 1) and then flowing through the sinusoids to the terminal hepatic veins (zone 3); the intervening hepatocytes constituting zone 2. The advantage of viewing the acinus as the physiologic unit of the liver is that it helps to explain the morphologic patterns and zonality of many vascular and biliary diseases not explained by the lobular arrangement. ...
Biliary necrosis refers to the death of the intra-hepatic bile ducts epithelium commonly seen as a complication of hepatic artery thrombosis. Pathology Different from the liver parenchyma that has dual supply, portal vein and hepatic artery, t...
Fascinating article here for you today from Chris Kresser on the link between gluten, leaky gut and the effect that has on the biliary system. I didnt know that liver and bile duct cell barriers are also controlled by tight junctions and are therefore subject to leakiness! Another body barrier for us to consider. I…
In advanced stages of liver disease, doctors have found that a persons liver is choked with bile duct cells. This is thought to be one of the main causes of the health problems that accompany the condition. On the other hand, hepatocytes play an important role in detoxifying the liver. They are known to be very scarce in a person with liver disease ...
Rats were fed N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM) at low or high concentrations for 6 or 12 weeks. Both NNM schedules resulted in development of hepatomas. During the early stages of hepatoma induction, liver histotoxic patterns depended only on the dose of carcinogen employed. Necrosis of hepatocytes and proliferation of small, oval-shaped cells occurred when high doses of NNM were applied. Parallel to the proliferation of oval-shaped cells, resurgence of alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) in rat sera was observed and production of this protein was confined to the oval-shaped cells as shown by immunoperoxidase staining. During proliferation of bile duct epithelium, induced by galactosamine injections, those cells could also stain for AFP, and proliferation of oval-shaped cells concomitant with intracellular AFP staining resulted from restitution of heavily damaged liver. At the stage of malignant conversion, distinct AFP-staining nodules were localized which consisted of neoplastic hepatocytes ...
Aortic endothelial cells, BAEC. Bile duct cells (epithelial). Brain microvessel (endothelial). Cardiomyocytes; cardiac (endothelium, progenitor cells). Colonocytes (epithelial). Dorsal root ganglia. Embryonic cortical neurons. Embryonic sympathetic neurons. Hepatocytes. Hippocampal neurons. HUVEC (endothelial). HVSMC. Keratinocytes. Mammary epithelial cells; breast cells (luminal, myoepithelial and endothelial). Microvascular, BME (endothelial). Mouse splenic T-Cells. Muscle cells, myoblasts, myogenic cells, myotubes. Oligodendrocytes (glial; precursors). Pancreatic islet, neonatal (3- to 5-day-old) rat islets of Langerhans. Parotid acinar cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Schwann cells (glial). Sertoli cells (spermogenic). Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells ...
Aortic endothelial cells, BAEC. Bile duct cells (epithelial). Brain microvessel (endothelial). Cardiomyocytes; cardiac (endothelium, progenitor cells). Colonocytes (epithelial). Dorsal root ganglia. Embryonic cortical neurons. Embryonic sympathetic neurons. Hepatocytes. Hippocampal neurons. HUVEC (endothelial). HVSMC. Keratinocytes. Mammary epithelial cells; breast cells (luminal, myoepithelial and endothelial). Microvascular, BME (endothelial). Mouse splenic T-Cells. Muscle cells, myoblasts, myogenic cells, myotubes. Oligodendrocytes (glial; precursors). Pancreatic islet, neonatal (3- to 5-day-old) rat islets of Langerhans. Parotid acinar cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Schwann cells (glial). Sertoli cells (spermogenic). Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells. ...
CoCC shows a variable histological morphology depending on the extent of the associated ICC/HCC components. Such an inherent histological heterogeneity potentially complicates the pathologic diagnosis of CoCC. Komuta et al. proposed that CoCC is defined as when the proportion of CoCC accounts for more than 90% of the entire tumor [8]. According to this strict definition, CoCC with a significant proportion of ICC or HCC components may be considered to be an ordinary ICC or HCC, respectively [4]. The authors also reported immunohistochemical findings of a positive EMA at the apical membrane [6, 8, 9], positive NCAM (a marker of hepatic progenitor cells), and negative S100P (a marker of intrahepatic large bile ducts) [8]. As described, we made an incorrect initial diagnosis of ordinary ICC in the present patient, primarily because a lack of knowledge of CoCC led us not to consider the possibility of CoCC. There may be a concern that pathological diagnosis of the recurrent lesions treated with RFA ...
Pancreatic duct. Light micrograph of a cross section of the pancreatic duct (white, centre). It is lined with cuboidal epithelium. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the bile duct, via the pancreatic duct. - Stock Image C021/2586
The pancreatic head is expanded with associated peripancreatic inflammatory change, in particular involving the pancreaticoduodenal groove. Within the pancreatic head, there is a 1.1 cm apparently cystic lesion with a possible internal septum. There is no biliary ductal dilatation. The pancreatic duct is dilated (4mm) and somewhat irregular along its course to the level of the pancreatic head beyond which it is no longer visible. The gallbladder is non-distended. Fat planes surrounding the major upper abdominal vascular structures are unremarkable. The portal vein and SMV are normal in calibre without focal narrowing. There is no upper abdominal lymphadenopathy. No focal liver lesions. ...
Doctors at KEM Hospital had allegedly forgotten to remove a stent they had inserted in Rajkumari Mishra s biliary system before she underwent to remove her gall bladder
When performed by an experienced, qualified surgeon, the success rate of the Whipple operation is 96 percent, says the USC Center for Pancreatic and Biliary Diseases. The success rate may reach 99...
If signs of infection develop, your baby may need antibiotics.. Sometimes a probing procedure may be done to open the duct if the duct doesnt clear on its own. Probing successfully opens the duct for about 80 out of 100 babies who have blocked ducts.footnote 1 In rare cases, babies with blocked tear ducts have a more severe problem that requires more complex surgery.. In adults who have blocked tear ducts, treatment depends on the cause of the blockage. If the duct is blocked because of a long-term infection, antibiotics may be used. Surgery may be needed for structural problems or abnormal growths. Probing usually isnt done for adults. ...
biliary tree ultrasound education showing how to, normal, anatomy, scanning protocol, measurements, bile duct, hepatic duct and dilatation.
Hard and very dry, light brown feces that turn white when dried up means that there is ground up bone in it, however if fat is not being digested propely the feces will be also a light brown [but more soft] and might mean that they have a problem with thier digestive enzymes such as amalase and lipase .[ whitch are excreated from the pancrese ]or bile which is made in the the liver and reaches the intestines via the bile duct. So in that case there is either too much fat for the enzymes to digest or that there is a problem with one of the organs listed above ...
Hard and very dry, light brown feces that turn white when dried up means that there is ground up bone in it, however if fat is not being digested propely the feces will be also a light brown [but more soft] and might mean that they have a problem with thier digestive enzymes such as amalase and lipase .[ whitch are excreated from the pancrese ]or bile which is made in the the liver and reaches the intestines via the bile duct. So in that case there is either too much fat for the enzymes to digest or that there is a problem with one of the organs listed above ...
Sasan Roayaie, MD, provides individualized care for complex liver, bile duct, and pancreas cancers. He not only performs any needed operations, but he can also devise an entire treatment program for patients who are not eligible for surgery. He works closely with interventional r... ...
They finally got a GI specialist in and admitted him to the hospital and then did some exploratory surgery and found a bile duct to be almost completely closed off. They opened it up and put a stent in that will be removed in about 6 weeks. After this procedure and surgery he has been slowly getting the pain under control. The doctors are cautiously optimistic this was the problem and when all of this calms down from the surgery he will be feeling 100% better. ...
16th November 2017 Michael Trauner (Med. Uni Wien, Abteilung für Gastroenterologie & Hepatologie): „norUDCA as novel immunometabolic drug for liver and bile duct disorders" ...
Affiliation:高知大学,教育研究部・医療学系,助教, Research Field:Gastroenterology, Keywords:遺伝子多型,TRAILレセプター,death domain,bile duct,胆汁性肝硬変,結晶解析,death receptor,apoptosis,Beta-oxidation,リパーゼ, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:22
The lactiferous ducts are the ducts within the female breasts which lead from the mammary gland lobules to the nipples and open to the outside.
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Most of this view appears packed with secretory acini. Most of these are cut in random planes and look like solid lumps, made of cells having various sizes and shapes. The acinar lumen so visible only when the acinus is sliced neatly across the middle. In such a slice, the cells look like slices of pie, with the lumen in the center.. Individual acini are drained by small intercalated ducts. These in turn drain into striated (or secretory) ducts, whose cells are specialized for concentrating the secretory product. Cells lining the striated duct pump water and ions across the epithelium, from the duct lumen and into interstitial fluid. A relatively passive excretory duct is conspicuous in the center of this image... Glandular stroma is not apparent in this image. Nevertheless, whether visible or not, each acinus is surrounded by a thin envelope of capillaries and connective tissue. ...
Looking to treat or prevent a clogged milk duct? The Bump guide can help answer all your questions, from how long they last to methods of care and relief.
Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by non academic surgeons as well as general surgery residents, under the supervision of academic surgeons. Bile duct injury is a catastrophic complication of this procedure. There is a general perception that performance of LC in a facility with a surgical training program offers a safer environment due to the presence of an assistant surgeon.. Objective: To compare the rate of bile duct injury, conversion and overall mortality between hospitals with surgical training programs (Group I), and hospitals without surgical training programs (Group II) after LC.. Methods: Methods: Using the Florida State Inpatient Database we extracted and analyzed data for LC and conversion from LC to open cholecystectomy (OC) during the years 1997 thru 2006. Bile duct injury was indicated by a biliary reconstruction procedure performed during the same admission. Hospitals with surgical training programs were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of calcium in volume-activated chloride currents in a mouse cholangiocyte cell line. AU - Chen, Biyi. AU - Nicol, Grant. AU - Cho, Won Kyoo. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - Volume-activated Cl- channels (VACCs) play vital roles in many cells including cholangiocytes. Previously, we characterized the VACCs in mouse cholangiocytes. Since calcium plays an important role in VACC regulation in many cells, we have studied the effect of calcium modulation on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and VACC currents in mouse bile duct cells (MBDCs). Cell volume measurements were assessed by a Coulter counter with cell sizer, and conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study the role of calcium on RVD and VACC currents. Cell volume study indicated that MBDCs exhibited RVD, which was inhibited by 5-nitro-2′-(3-phenylpropylamino)- benzoate (NPPB), 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DIDS) and 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic ...
Define common bile duct. common bile duct synonyms, common bile duct pronunciation, common bile duct translation, English dictionary definition of common bile duct. n. The duct formed by the union of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum. Noun 1.
Multistep processes likely underlie cholangiocarcinogenesis induced by chronic infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. One process appears to be cellular proliferation of the host bile duct epithelia driven by excretory-secretory (ES) products of this pathogen. Specifically, the secreted growth factor Ov-GRN-1, a liver fluke granulin, is a prominent component of ES and a known driver of hyper-proliferation of cultured human and mouse cells in vitro. We show potent hyper-proliferation of human cholangiocytes induced by low nanomolar levels of recombinant Ov-GRN-1 and similar growth produced by low microgram concentrations of ES products and soluble lysates of the adult worm. To further explore the influence of Ov-GRN-1 on the flukes and the host cells, expression of Ov-grn-1 was repressed using RNA interference. Expression of Ov-grn-1 was suppressed by 95% by day 3 and by ~100% by day 7. Co-culture of Ov-grn-1 suppressed flukes with human cholangiocyte (H-69) or human ...
Extrahepatic cholestasis leads to complex injury and repair processes that result in bile infarct formation, neutrophil infiltration, cholangiocyte and hepatocyte proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis. To identify early molecular mechanisms of injury and repair after bile duct obstruction, microarray analysis was performed on liver tissue 24 hours after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery. The most upregulated gene identified encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, Serpine 1), a protease inhibitor that blocks urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) activity. Because PAI-1, uPA, and tPA influence growth factor and cytokine processing as well as extracellular matrix remodeling, we evaluated the role of PAI-1 in cholestatic liver injury by comparing the injury and repair processes in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice after BDL. PAI-1-/- mice had fewer and smaller bile infarcts, less neutrophil infiltration, and
Introduction Bile duct injury following cholecystectomy is an iatrogenic catastrophe associated with significant perioperative morbidity and mortality, reduced long-term survival and quality of life, and high rates of subsequent litigation
Bile duct cancer. Coloured angiogram (X-ray) of a patients common bile duct (dark red, centre right) that has been blocked by cancer. The cancer (not seen) has caused a narrowing, or stricture, of the duct. A stent (fine mesh tube, lower frame) has been permanently inserted into the duct to correct the stricture. A tube (catheter) inside the stent will be removed when fluid has drained from the duct. Bile fluid, secreted by the liver cells, emulsifies ingested fats. It drains into the small intestine through the common bile duct when food enters the intestine. A contrast medium injected into the duct makes it visible on X-ray. - Stock Image M134/0418
Find the best bile duct cancer doctors in Bangalore. Get guidance from medical experts to select bile duct cancer specialist in Bangalore from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Bile duct cancer starts in the cells of a bile duct. Learn about symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and risks in our guide to bile duct cancer.
The biliary tree consists of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and is lined by biliary epithelial cells (or cholangiocytes). There are also peribiliary glands around the intrahepatic large bile ducts and extrahepatic bile ducts. The biliary tr
A bile duct is a tube that carries bile between the liver and gallbladder and the intestine. Bile is a substance made by the liver that helps with digestion. There are many problems that can affect your bile ducts. Some problems include gallstones, primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, biliary atresia, and cancer.
Looking for simple explanations to difficult medical terms that tend to puzzle you? This glossary can help you to easily understand medical terms related to the article on Bile Duct Cancer
An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization is reported in a flock of 28 sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central-Western Brazil. Seven lambs and an adult sheep were affected and 6 of them died. Two surviving affected lambs and one lamb without clinical signs had increased serum values of gamma glutamyltransferase, bilirubin, and cholesterol. In two adult unaffected sheep those parameters were within normal values. An adult sheep submitted to necropsy presented moderate body condition, unilateral corneal opacity, drying of the muzzle, moderate jaundice, increased lobular pattern of the liver, and a distended gallbladder. Histological lesions were epithelial degeneration, necrosis, and hyperplasia of small bile ducts. Mild amounts of foamy macrophages were observed, mainly in the centroacinar zone. Diffuse swelling and vacuolation were observed in hepatocytes. Crystal negative images were found within bile ducts, foamy macrophages, and the lumen of some renal ...
There are several bile duct cancer treatment and preventive procedures to administer to patients of bile duct cancer. Treatments would vary depending on th
Bile duct cancer describes a type of cancer that forms in the bile ducts (slender tubes) that carry the digestive fluid bile through the liver. Get treatment now!
Bile duct carcinoma is a malignant cancer that typically arises from the the epithelia, the cellular lining of the hepatic (liver) bile ducts.
Northeastern Thailand has the highest levels bile duct cancer in the world. The determination that plasma IL-6 levels are associated with bile duct fibrosis (a precursor state to bile duct cancer) and early bile duct cancer were done by examining participants in the Khon Kaen Cholangiocarcinoma Cohort, the largest cancer cohort of its type in the world, and an NIH sponsored project in collaboration with George Washington University and Khon Kaen University. In this study, researchers visited nearly 4,000 individuals resident in rural areas of Thailand, where the parasite is endemic to conduct ultrasound studies to detect advanced bile duct fibrosis and early bile duct cancer and then link the ultrasound results with levels of plasma IL-6. This research was done in collaboration with Drs. Banchob Sripa, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Eimorn Mairiang, and Thewarach Laha from the Khon Kaen University School of Medicine and School of Public Health. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered Wallstent. AU - Trambert, Jonathan J.. AU - Frost, Andrei. AU - Malasky, Charlotte. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.. AB - A 45-year-old woman ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical features and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. AU - Silveira, Marina G.. AU - Lindor, Keith. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in cirrhosis and need for liver transplantation and reduced life expectancy. The majority of cases occur in young and middle-aged men, often in association with inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. No effective medical therapy has been identified. The multiple complications of primary sclerosing cholangitis include metabolic bone disease, dominant strictures, bacterial cholangitis, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapeutic alternative for patients ...
The current Fascicle contains new information accumulated during the last ten years on tumors and tumor-like lesions of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and Vaterian system. Because of the increasing number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies and Whipple procedures performed, surgical pathologists now have the opportunity to examine more cancer precursors, early cancers, and adenomas of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater than previously. These lesions are discussed in detail and profusely illustrated. Likewise, lesions that closely simulate malignant neoplasms are also described and illustrated. Also included are the giant cell neoplasms and the gastrointestinal stromal tumors as well as the new subtypes of carcinomas such as large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and adenocarcinomas with pyloric gland or foveolar phenotype. The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of a wide variety of neoplasms is emphasized, as well ...
Common bile duct stone, also known as choledocholithiasis, is the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct (thus choledocho- + lithiasis). This condition causes jaundice and liver cell damage. Treatment is by cholecystectomy and ERCP. Murphys sign is commonly negative on physical examination in choledocholithiasis, helping to distinguish it from cholecystitis. Jaundice of the skin or eyes is an important physical finding in biliary obstruction. Jaundice and/or clay-colored stool may raise suspicion of choledocholithiasis or even gallstone pancreatitis. If the above symptoms coincide with fever and chills, the diagnosis of ascending cholangitis may also be considered. Greater than 70% of people with gallstones are asymptomatic and are found incidentally on ultrasound. Studies have shown that 10% of those people will develop symptoms within five years of diagnosis and 20% within 20 years. While stones can frequently pass through the common bile duct (CBD) into the duodenum, some stones may ...
Sergio Rojas-ortega, MD, Emina Pasic, MD, Rachid Cesin, MD, Gerardo Reed, MD. Hospital Angeles Puebla. INTRODUCTION: Many surgeons are not comfortable in treating common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However if the diagnosis is established during intraoperative cholangiography, the surgeon is confronted with a therapeutic dilemma that is, the choice between laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, conversion to open surgery, or postoperative sphincterotomy.. MATERIAL and METHODS: In order to show how easy can be to perform a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE), we showed a video to 20 general surgeons, and then invited them to the laboratory where we set the SIMULAP for common bile duct exploration with a flexible choledocoscope. Each surgeon performed LCBDE: transcystic and choledocotomy technique. We measured the time to complete the exploration, succes in common bile duct extraction, previous knowledge of the instrumentation and technique, and the ...
BACKGROUND: Overlap syndrome is a term used for overlapping features of autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis and for autoimmune cholangitis. We describe a high prevalence of small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis among patients with overlapping autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. METHODS: We sought to retrieve all patients with overlap syndrome between primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis in six university hospitals in Sweden. The revised autoimmune hepatitis scoring system proposed by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group was used to establish the diagnosis autoimmune hepatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and/or magnetic resonance cholangiography were used to separate the primary sclerosing cholangitis cases diagnosed through liver biopsy into small and large primary sclerosing cholangitis. A histological diagnosis compatible with both autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing ...

Effects of Complete Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration on Elderly Patients with Complicated Hepatolithiasis and Their...Effects of Complete Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration on Elderly Patients with Complicated Hepatolithiasis and Their...

32 cases of patients treated with complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration was enrolled in the laparoscopic group,and ... Therefore,complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has a high value in clinical promotion. ... Conclusion Complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has reliable effects in treatment of elderly patients with ... Objective To study the effects of complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration on elderly patients with complicated ...
more infohttp://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-BJMY201711013.htm

Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC)Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC)

A blockage of bile in the liver or bile ducts means that toxins in bile remain in the body. This damages liver cells and causes ... Bile is a liquid made in the liver that removes toxins from the body. It also helps break down fat in food. The bile ducts are ... In PFIC children are not able to drain bile from the liver even though the large bile ducts are open (cholestasis). This gets ... A highly specialized test measuring bile salt levels may be done to pinpoint PFIC. The total bile salt concentration in people ...
more infohttps://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/p/pfic

Clinical features and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis<...Clinical features and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis<...

... sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, ... sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, ... sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, ... sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, ...
more infohttps://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/clinical-features-and-management-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangiti

Bile Duct Diseases | MedlinePlusBile Duct Diseases | MedlinePlus

... and cancer can result in bile duct problems. Discover the types, causes, symptoms, and treatment of bile duct diseases. ... your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. The bile helps ... Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a problem with the flow of bile:. *Gallstones, which can increase ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Bile Duct Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Cholangitis (National Institutes ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/bileductdiseases.html

Bile duct obstruction: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaBile duct obstruction: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. ... Bile salts help your body break down (digest) fats. Bile passes out of the liver through the bile ducts and is stored in the ... When the bile ducts become blocked, bile builds up in the liver, and jaundice (yellow color of the skin) develops due to the ... Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000263.htm

Bile Duct | Encyclopedia.comBile Duct | Encyclopedia.com

Many small ducts drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which unite to form the main bile duct, the common hepatic duct. ... any of the ducts that convey bile from the liver. ... bile duct n. any of the ducts that convey bile from the liver. ... Many small ducts drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which unite to form the main bile duct, the common hepatic duct. ... bile duct • n. the duct that conveys bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum. ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/bile-duct

Bile Duct Cancer StagesBile Duct Cancer Stages

Intrahepatic bile duct cancers (those starting within the liver). *Perihilar (hilar) bile duct cancers (those starting in the ... No matter where they are, nearly all bile duct cancers start in the innermost layer of the wall of the bile duct (called the ... Distal bile duct cancers (those starting farther down the bile duct system) ... Over time they can grow through the wall toward the outside of the bile duct. If a tumor grows through the bile duct wall, it ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/bile-duct-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/staging.html

Intrahepatic Bile Ducts | SpringerLinkIntrahepatic Bile Ducts | SpringerLink

Bile Duct Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Hepatic Duct Sclerosing Cholangitis These keywords were ... 1992) Mechnisms of major bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Ann Surg 215: 196-202PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Sussman SK, Hall FM, Elboim CM (1986) Radiographic assessment of anomalous bile ducts. Gastrointest Radiol 11: 269-272PubMed ... Desmet VJ (1992) Vanishing bile duct disorders. Prog Liver Dis 10: 89-121PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/3-540-30971-3_3

Bile duct | anatomy | Britannica.comBile duct | anatomy | Britannica.com

... is used to examine the bile duct and pancreatic ducts for the presence of gallstones, tumours, or inflammation. In this ... Other articles where Bile duct is discussed: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy: … ... The common bile duct averages about 10 cm in length, and flow of bile from its lower end into the intestine is controlled by ... is used to examine the bile duct and pancreatic ducts for the presence of gallstones, tumours, or inflammation. In this ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/bile-duct

Chemotherapy for Bile Duct CancerChemotherapy for Bile Duct Cancer

... is a treatment of cancer-killing drugs used to kill bile duct cancer cells. Learn more about chemotherapy here. ... Chemotherapy for Bile Duct Cancer. Chemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with cancer-killing drugs that are usually given into a ... Liver and bile duct cancer. In: Neiderhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs Clinical ... Chemo can help some people with bile duct cancer, but so far its not clear how useful it is for this type of cancer. Still, ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/cancer/bile-duct-cancer/treating/chemotherapy.html

Difficult bile duct stones.  - PubMed - NCBIDifficult bile duct stones. - PubMed - NCBI

... surgical bile duct exploration, percutaneous approach to the bile duct, or long-term bile duct stenting should be discussed ... bile duct stones, intrahepatic stones, or impacted stones in the bile duct or cystic duct. The initial approach to the removal ... bile duct stones may be difficult to remove due to challenging access to the bile duct (periampullary diverticulum, Billroth II ... two or more bile duct stents should be inserted, and ursodiol added to aid in duct decompression, stone fragmentation, and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16539873

Laparoscopic Bile Duct Exploration | SpringerLinkLaparoscopic Bile Duct Exploration | SpringerLink

3) that arise in the gallbladder and migrate down the cystic duct. Depending on geographic variation in this incidence of... ... The majority of bile duct stones are secondary bile duct stones (Chap. ... The majority of bile duct stones are secondary bile duct stones (Chap. 3) that arise in the gallbladder and migrate down the ... Primary duct closure verses T-tube drainage following exploration of the common bile duct. Aust N Z J Surg. 1994;64:823-6. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-63884-3_20

Bile Duct | IntechOpenBile Duct | IntechOpen

The bile duct is near the liver and pancreas. So many hepatic and pancreatic diseases also affect the bile duct. The bile duct ... The bile duct is the part of the biliary system transporting bile from the intrahepatic biliary canaliculi in the liver and ... Management of diseases of the bile duct requires a multi-disciplinary team which includes primary care physicians, ... not only anatomical and physiological aspects but also the current diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of different bile duct ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/welcome/214bdd1b3b1867823b5af2cbc89aef19

Treatment Options for Bile Duct CancerTreatment Options for Bile Duct Cancer

While eating, the gall bladder forces the bile through a tubegall bladder called the bile duct. Bile duct cancer or ... The liver creates a digestive juice called bile and stores it in the gall bladder. ... Removing the bile duct: If the cancer cell is small and if it is found only in the bile duct, then removal of the bile duct by ... While eating, the gall bladder forces the bile through a tubegall bladder called the bile duct. Bile duct cancer or ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/Treatment-Options-for-Bile-Duct-Cancer.aspx

Bile Duct Strictures: Background, Pathophysiology, EtiologyBile Duct Strictures: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

Unfortunately, most benign bile duct strictures (biliary strictures) are iatrogenic, resulting from operative trauma (see ... Bile duct stricture (biliary stricture) is an uncommon but challenging clinical condition that requires a coordinated ... the exact prevalence of bile duct strictures is unknown. One major category of bile duct strictures is postoperative bile duct ... causing a narrowing of the bile duct lumen and obstructing the flow of bile) or extrinsic compression of the bile ducts by a ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/186850-overview

Bile DuctBile Duct

... cancer of the bile duct, cholangiocarcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct cancer, distal bile duct cancer, extrahepatic bile duct ... perihilar bile duct cancer, Klatskin tumour.. *The bile duct is a 4-5 inch long tube that carries bile from the liver to the ... Intrahepatic - in the bile duct branches inside the liver. *Extrahepatic or distal - in the common bile duct outside the liver ... The cancer is limited to the bile duct. Stage IB The cancer has spread through the wall of the bile duct ...
more infohttp://www.bccancer.bc.ca/health-info/types-of-cancer/digestive-system/bile-duct

dilated Common bile duct - Gastroenterology - MedHelpdilated Common bile duct - Gastroenterology - MedHelp

dilated Common bile duct renato126 Hi im 36 years old and had been in the ER 2x for abdominal pain, all my labs were normal ... dilated Common bile duct. Hi im 36 years old and had been in the ER 2x for abdominal pain, all my labs were normal including ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Gastroenterology/dilated-Common-bile-duct/show/636657

Bile Duct Cancer | Cholangiocarcinoma - GlossaryBile Duct Cancer | Cholangiocarcinoma - Glossary

This glossary can help you to easily understand medical terms related to the article on Bile Duct Cancer ... Infographics on Bile Duct Cancer. Bile duct cancer occurs either within the liver or the point where the bile ducts emerge from ... Test Your Knowledge on Bile Duct Cancer. Bile duct carcinoma (cholangiocarcinoma) is a cancer of the bile ducts, the tubes that ... Aspirin Could Prevent Bile Duct Cancer. *BAP1 Protein Linked to Tumor Suppression in Kidney, Eye, Bile Duct and Mesothelioma ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/bile-duct-cancer-glossary.htm

Bile Duct Cancer News, Articles and ResearchBile Duct Cancer News, Articles and Research

A bile duct is a tube that carries bile (fluid made by the liver that helps digest fat) between the liver and gallbladder and ... Bile duct cancer is cancer that forms in a bile duct. ... Bile Duct Cancer. Test for Bile Duct Cancer Bile duct cancer is ... Bile Duct Cancer Prognosis. Read More Causes of Bile Duct Cancer. Read More Bile Duct Cancer - Cholangiocarcinoma. Read More ... Bile duct cancer treatment could be improved by tailored medication Treatment of patients suffering from bile duct cancer could ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/condition/Bile-Duct-Cancer

Bile duct cannulation -SAGES Image LibraryBile duct cannulation -SAGES Image Library

Bile duct cannulation. SAGES Exhibit Hall Sample →. Sometimes bile duct cannulation requires orientation of the cannula in a ...
more infohttps://www.sages.org/image-library/bile-duct-cannulation/

Bile Duct - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | MedindiaBile Duct - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | Medindia

Bile Duct - A tube through which bile passes in and out of the liver, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary of medical ... Medical Word - Bile Duct. Ans : A tube through which bile passes in and out of the liver. ... Bile Duct - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/glossary/bile_duct.htm

WikiGenes - Bile DuctsWikiGenes - Bile Ducts

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bile Ducts. *During the first 14 hr after bile duct cannulation, before bile ... Rejection of murine congenic bile ducts: a model for immune-mediated bile duct disease. Schreiber, R.A., Kleinman, R.E., ... Isoniazid and bile duct cancer [7].. *Engrafted human cells were localized in clusters surrounding the bile ducts, in close ... Disease relevance of Bile Ducts. *Fascioliasis: role of proline in bile duct hyperplasia [1]. ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/4301.html

Melanoma Extracted from the Common Bile DuctMelanoma Extracted from the Common Bile Duct

Mark R Borgaonkar, "Melanoma Extracted from the Common Bile Duct," Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. ... Melanoma Extracted from the Common Bile Duct. Mark R Borgaonkar Memorial University of Newfoundland, St Johns, Newfoundland ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjgh/2012/269297/cta/

bile duct dilation - Occupational Safety & Health - MedHelpbile duct dilation - Occupational Safety & Health - MedHelp

... what is the common measurement of the bile duct? thanks ... a mild bile duct dilation is consider all right or is a serious ... bile duct dilation goodhealth2008 a mild bile duct dilation is consider all right or is a serious condition, will the liver ... what is the common measurement of the bile duct? thanks ... Create an account to receive updates on: bile duct dilation ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Occupational-Safety--Health/bile-duct-dilation/show/508263

Bile Duct Obstruction: Symptoms, Treatment and CausesBile Duct Obstruction: Symptoms, Treatment and Causes

... which carry bile to the small intestine for digestion and waste removal. If you have a bile duct obstruction, it can be caused ... Types of bile ducts. You have several types of bile ducts. The two types of bile ducts in the liver are intrahepatic and ... also called bile duct stones or gallstones in the bile duct) is the presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct. ... The biliary duct, or the duct from the gallbladder, also opens into the common hepatic duct. The bile duct from this point ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/health/bile-duct-obstruction
  • The interlobular bile ducts (or interlobular ductules) carry bile in the liver between the Canals of Hering and the interlobar bile ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hepatic artery also supplies most bile duct tumors, so putting the chemo into this artery means more chemo goes to the tumor. (cancer.org)
  • Second, when β-catenin was depleted in the latter, maturation of cholangiocytes, bile duct morphogenesis and differentiation of periportal hepatocytes from cholangiocyte precursors was normal. (nih.gov)
  • The bile ducts connect the liver to the intestine and their function is to drain the bile, a waste product of normally functioning liver cells, which are also called hepatocytes. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The causes of benign bile duct strictures are usually surgical inexperience, failure to recognize abnormal biliary anatomy and congenital anomalies, acute inflammation, misplacement of clips, excessive use of cautery, and excessive dissection around the major bile ducts, resulting in ischemic injury. (medscape.com)
  • MRCP is a modified MRI that utilizes specialized software to obtain a composite image of the pancreatic duct and the bile duct from the digital MRI images. (hoag.org)
  • MRCP can give detailed information about the bile ducts. (cancer.ca)
  • Role of β-catenin in development of bile ducts. (nih.gov)
  • However, its role in development of bile ducts has not yet been addressed. (nih.gov)
  • Bile duct carcinomas commonly metastasize to the lungs, lymph nodes of the liver, and peritoneum (abdominal lining). (petmd.com)
  • If a tumor grows through the bile duct wall, it can invade (grow into) nearby blood vessels, organs, or other structures. (cancer.org)
  • T describes whether the main (primary) tumor has invaded through the wall of the bile duct and whether it has invaded other nearby organs or tissues. (cancer.org)
  • These drugs enter the bloodstream and reach all areas of the body, making this treatment useful for some cancers that have spread to organs beyond the bile duct. (cancer.org)
  • Your veterinarian will require you to give them a complete history of your cat's health, including a clear description of your cat's symptoms and anything that may have preceded the condition that can be causing the bile duct obstruction, such as an injury to the body, a prior surgery or gallstones. (petmd.com)