Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)
Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Surgical fistulization of the LACRIMAL SAC for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.

Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. (1/223)

The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, mediates the transport of a broad range of non-bile salt organic anions from liver into bile. cMOAT-deficient Wistar rats (TR-) are mutated in the gene encoding cMOAT, leading to defective hepatobiliary transport of a whole range of substrates, including bilirubin glucuronide. These mutants also have impaired hepatobiliary excretion of GSH and, as a result, the bile flow in these animals is reduced. In the present work we demonstrate a role for cMOAT in the excretion of GSH both in vivo and in vitro. Biliary GSH excretion in rats heterozygous for the cMOAT mutation (TR/tr) was decreased to 63% of controls (TR/TR) (114+/-24 versus 181+/-20 nmol/min per kg body weight). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably expressing the human cMOAT protein displayed >10-fold increase in apical GSH excretion compared with wild-type MDCKII cells (141+/-6.1 pmol/min per mg of protein versus 13.2+/-1.3 pmol/min per mg of protein in wild-type MDCKII cells). Similarly, MDCKII cells expressing the human multidrug resistance protein 1 showed a 4-fold increase in GSH excretion across the basolateral membrane. In several independent cMOAT-transfectants, the level of GSH excretion correlated with the expression level of the protein. Furthermore, we have shown, in cMOAT-transfected cells, that GSH is a low-affinity substrate for the transporter and that its excretion is reduced upon ATP depletion. In membrane vesicles isolated from cMOAT-expressing MDCKII cells, ATP-dependent S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione uptake is competitively inhibited by high concentrations of GSH (Ki approximately 20 mM). We concluded that cMOAT mediates low-affinity transport of GSH. However, since hepatocellular GSH concentrations are high (5-10 mM), cMOAT might serve an important physiological function in maintenance of bile flow in addition to hepatic GSH turnover.  (+info)

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase lipid products regulate ATP-dependent transport by sister of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 in bile canalicular membrane vesicles. (2/223)

Bile acid transport and secretion in hepatocytes require phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent recruitment of ATP-dependent transporters to the bile canalicular membrane and are accompanied by increased canalicular PI 3-kinase activity. We report here that the lipid products of PI 3-kinase also regulate ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione directly in canalicular membranes. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione in isolated canalicular vesicles from rat liver was reduced 50-70% by PI 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, at concentrations that are specific for Type I PI 3-kinase. Inhibition was reversed by addition of lipid products of PI 3-kinase (PI 3,4-bisphosphate and, to a lesser extent, PI 3-phosphate and PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate) but not by PI 4, 5-bisphosphate. A membrane-permeant synthetic 10-mer peptide that binds polyphosphoinositides and leads to activation of PI 3-kinase in macrophages doubled PI 3-kinase activity in canalicular membrane vesicles and enhanced taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione transport in canalicular membrane vesicles above maximal ATP-dependent transport. The effect of the peptide was blocked by wortmannin and LY294002. PI 3-kinase activity was also necessary for function of the transporters in vivo. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and PI 3-kinase activity were reduced in canalicular membrane vesicles isolated from rat liver that had been perfused with taurocholate and wortmannin. PI 3,4-bisphosphate enhanced ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate in these vesicles above control levels. Our results indicate that PI 3-kinase lipid products are necessary in vivo and in vitro for maximal ATP-dependent transport of bile acid and nonbile acid organic anions across the canalicular membrane. Our results demonstrate regulation of membrane ATP binding cassette transporters by PI 3-kinase lipid products.  (+info)

Primary active transport of organic anions on bile canalicular membrane in humans. (3/223)

Biliary excretion of several anionic compounds was examined by assessing their ATP-dependent uptake in bile canalicular membrane vesicles (CMV) prepared from six human liver samples. 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), sulfobromophthalein glutathione (BSP-SG), E3040 glucuronide (E-glu), beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E2-17G), grepafloxacin glucuronide (GPFXG), pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate, which are known to be substrates for the rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, and taurocholic acid (TCA), a substrate for the bile acid transporter, were used as substrates. ATP-dependent and saturable uptake of TCA, DNP-SG, LTC4, E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG was observed in all human CMV preparations examined, suggesting that these compounds are excreted in the bile via a primary active transport system in humans. Primary active transport of the other substrates was also seen in some of CMV preparations but was negligible in the others. The ATP-dependent uptake of all the compounds exhibited a large inter-CMV variation, and there was a significant correlation between the uptake of glutathione conjugates (DNP-SG, LTC4, and BSP-SG) and glucuronides (E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG). However, there was no significant correlation between TCA and the other organic anions, implying that the transporters for TCA and for organic anions are different also in humans. When the average value for the ATP-dependent uptake by each preparation of human CMVs was compared with that of rat CMVs, the uptake of glutathione conjugates and nonconjugated anions (pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate) in humans was approximately 3- to 76-fold lower than that in rats, whereas the uptake of glucuronides was similar in the two species. Thus there is a species difference in the primary active transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane that is less marked for glucuronides.  (+info)

Correlation of biliary excretion in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats. (4/223)

The relationship between biliary excretion in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats was examined. The biliary excretion of seven model substrates in 96-h sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes was determined by differential cumulative uptake of substrate in the monolayers preincubated in standard buffer (intact bile canaliculi) and Ca2+-free buffer (disrupted bile canaliculi). Biliary excretion in vivo was quantitated in bile duct-cannulated rats. The biliary excretion index of model substrates, equivalent to the percentage of retained substrate in the canalicular networks, was consistent with the percentage of the dose excreted in bile from in vivo experiments. The in vitro biliary clearance of inulin, salicylate, methotrexate, [D-pen2,5]enkephalin, and taurocholate, calculated as the ratio of the amount excreted into the bile canalicular networks and the area under the incubation medium concentration-time profile ( approximately 0, approximately 0, 4.1 +/- 1.0, 12.6 +/- 2.2, and 56. 2 +/- 6.0 ml/min/kg, respectively), correlated with their intrinsic in vivo biliary clearance (0.04, 0, 17.3, 34.4, and 116.9 ml/min/kg, respectively; r2 = 0.99). The model compound 264W94 was not excreted in bile either in vivo or in vitro. The glucuronide conjugate of 2169W94, the O-demethylated metabolite of 264W94, was excreted into bile in vitro when 2169W94, but not 264W94, was incubated with the monolayers; 2169W94 glucuronide undergoes extensive biliary excretion after administration of 264W94 or 2169W94 in vivo. Biliary excretion in long-term sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes correlates with in vivo biliary excretion. The study of biliary excretion of metabolites in the hepatocyte monolayers requires consideration of the status of metabolic activities.  (+info)

Dexamethasone- and osmolarity-dependent expression of the multidrug-resistance protein 2 in cultured rat hepatocytes. (5/223)

Expression of the conjugate export pump multidrug-resistance protein 2 (MRP2) in liver is regulated by endotoxin and anti-tumour agents. This paper reports on the effects of dexamethasone and osmolarity on MRP2 expression. MRP2 expression was studied at the protein, mRNA, immunocytochemical and functional levels in cultured rat hepatocytes. Protein and mRNA expression of MRP2 in rat hepatocytes 24 and 48 h after isolation were largely dependent on the presence of dexamethasone (100 nmol/l) in the culture medium. MRP2 was localized at the pseudocanalicular membrane and increased expression of MRP2 was accompanied by a widening of the pseudocanaliculi. In presence of dexamethasone, hypo-osmolarity (205 mosmol/l) led to a strong induction of MRP2 mRNA and protein, whereas expression was decreased by hyperosmolarity (405 mosmol/l). Also, a decay of MRP2 protein and mRNA following dexamethasone withdrawal was osmosensitive. Expression of dipeptidylpeptidase IV, another canalicular protein, was unaffected by dexamethasone and osmolarity. It is concluded that glucocorticoids are strong inducers of MRP2 in liver. Besides short-term carrier insertion/retrieval, osmoregulation of MRP2 also involves a long-term effect on MRP2 expression.  (+info)

Canalicular membrane transport is primarily responsible for the difference in hepatobiliary excretion of triethylmethylammonium and tributylmethylammonium in rats. (6/223)

Two structurally similar quaternary ammonium compounds, triethylmethylammonium (TEMA, M(r) 116) and tributylmethylammonium (TBuMA, M(r) 200) were used as model compounds to identify the unit process of hepatobiliary excretion that is responsible for markedly different biliary excretion of organic cations (OCs). Cumulative biliary excretion (in percentage of dose; i.v., 12 micromol/kg) was 0.17 for TEMA and 34.5 for TBuMA. In vivo uptake clearance into the liver was 0.686 +/- 0.020 ml/min for TEMA and 0.421 +/- 0.028 ml/min for TBuMA. When the uptake clearance was examined in an isolated hepatocyte system, comparable clearance between TEMA and TBuMA was obtained, consistent with the in vivo result. These observations suggest that uptake into the liver is not the major determinant for the difference in biliary excretion of the OCs. Coadministration of colchicine, an inhibitor of microtubule formation, had no effect on biliary excretion of the model compounds, and the primary site of subcellular distribution of the OCs appears to be the cytosol, suggesting that intracellular movement does not play a major role in the markedly different biliary excretion of the OCs. In contrast, in vivo excretion clearance across the canalicular membrane for TBuMA was 180-fold greater than that for TEMA, and in vitro efflux clearance of TBuMA was smaller than that of TEMA (p <.01), indicative of involvement of these processes in the markedly different biliary excretion of the OCs. Therefore, these data indicate that canalicular transport is primarily responsible for the markedly different biliary excretion of TEMA and TBuMA.  (+info)

Species differences in the transport activity for organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane. (7/223)

Species differences in the transport activity mediated by canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) were examined using temocaprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor whose biliary excretion is mediated predominantly by cMOAT, and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, a typical substrate for cMOAT, in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Temocaprilat was infused to examine the biliary excretion rate at steady-state. The in vivo transport clearance values across the bile canalicular membrane, defined as the biliary excretion rate divided by the hepatic unbound concentrations, were 9.8, 39.2, 9.2, 1.1, and 0.8 ml/min/kg for mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog, respectively. The K(m) and V(max) values for ATP-dependent uptake of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione into canalicular membrane vesicles were 15.0, 29.6, 16.1, 55.8, and 30.0 microM and 0.38, 1.90, 0.15, 0. 47, and 0.23 nmol/min/mg protein, yielding the in vitro transport clearance across the bile canalicular membrane (V(max)/K(m)) of 25.5, 64.2, 9.4, 8.4, and 7.7 for mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog, respectively. A close in vivo and in vitro correlation was observed among animal species for the transport clearance across the bile canalicular membrane. These results suggest that the uptake experiments with canalicular membrane vesicles can be used to quantitatively predict in vivo excretion across the bile canalicular membrane.  (+info)

Canalicular export pumps traffic with polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor on the same microtubule-associated vesicle in rat liver. (8/223)

Basolateral to apical vesicular transcytosis in the hepatocyte is an essential pathway for the delivery of compounds from the sinusoidal blood to the bile and to traffic newly synthesized resident apical membrane proteins to their site of function at the canalicular membrane front. To characterize this pathway better, microtubules in a hepatocyte homogenate were polymerized by addition of taxol, and associated membrane-bound vesicles were isolated. This fraction was enriched in polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor and contained apical membrane proteins. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor was localized predominantly on vesicles ranging from 100 to 160 nm and that the multidrug resistance protein 2 and the bile salt export pump co-localized on these vesicles. The minus-ended microtubule motor, dynein, was highly enriched in the fraction, and its intermediate chain could be released effectively by incubation with 1 mM ATP or GTP. However, the association of the transcytotic vesicles with the microtubules was not sensitive to hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable nucleotides. This study characterizes a fraction of microtubule-associated vesicles from rat hepatocytes and demonstrates that several resident apical membrane transport proteins and the polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor traffic on the same vesicle.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503 phosphorylation and is regulated by tyrosine 488 phosphorylation. AU - Sippel, C. Jeffrey. AU - Fallon, Robert J.. AU - Perlmutter, David H.. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Transfection of cDNA for a hepatocyte canalicular phosphoprotein, the rat liver canalicular bile acid transporter/ecto-ATPase/cell CAM 105, confers bile acid efflux and ecto-ATPase activities on heterologous cells (Sippel, C. J., Suchy, F. J., Ananthanarayanan, M., and Perlmutter D. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2083-2091). Our previous studies have also indicated that there is a positive correlation between the degree of phosphorylation of this transporter and its bile acid efflux activity. In this study, we introduced site-specific mutations of amino acid residues within a protein kinase C- dependent (T502A, S503A) and a tyrosine kinase-dependent (Y488F) phosphorylation consensus sequence ...
Intrahepatic cholestasis represents 20%-40%of drug-induced injuries from which a large proportion remains unpredictable. We aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying drug-induced cholestasis and improve its early detection using human HepaRG cells and a set of 12 cholestatic drugs and six noncholestatic drugs. In this study, we analyzed bile canaliculi dynamics, Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway implication, efflux inhibition of taurocholate [a predominant bile salt export pump (BSEP) substrate], and expression of the major canalicular and basolateral bile acid transporters. We demonstrated that 12 cholestatic drugs classified on the basis of reported clinical findings caused disturbances of both bile canaliculi dynamics, characterized by either dilatation or constriction, and alteration of the ROCK/MLCK signaling pathway, whereas noncholestatic compounds, by contrast, had no effect. Cotreatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 [4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide
BSEP - Bile Salt Export Pump. Looking for abbreviations of BSEP? It is Bile Salt Export Pump. Bile Salt Export Pump listed as BSEP
Disruption of the murine mdr2 gene leads to the complete absence of biliary phospholipids. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in biliary phospholipid output induced by fibrates is mediated via induction of the hepatic mdr2 gene and its encoded product, the P-glycoprotein canalicular flippase. Increased levels of mdr2 mRNA were observed in the liver of mice treated with different fibrates: ciprofibrate, 660±155% (as compared with control group); clofibrate, 611±77%; bezafibrate, 410±47%; fenofibrate, 310±52%; gemfibrozil, 190±25% (P , 0.05 compared with control group). Induction of expression of the mdr gene family was specific to the mdr2 gene. Two- to three-fold increases in P-glycoprotein immunodetection were evident on the canalicular plasma-membrane domain of clofibrate- and ciprofibrate-treated mice. Biliary phospholipid output increased from 4.2±1.2 nmol/min per g of liver in the control group to 8.5±0.6, 7.1±2.9 and 5.8±2.5 in ciprofibrate-, clofibrate- and ...
Recent studies have suggested that the canalicular bile salt transport system of rat liver corresponds to a 100-kDa membrane glycoprotein. In the present study we attempted to functionally reconstitute the 100-kDa protein into artificial proteoliposomes. Canalicular membrane proteins were solubilized with octyl glucoside in the presence of asolectin phospholipids. The extracts were treated with preimmune serum or the 100-kDa protein selectively immunoprecipitated with a polyclonal antiserum. Proteins remaining in the supernatant were then incorporated into proteoliposomes by gel-filtration chromatography. Canalicular proteoliposomes containing the 100-kDa protein exhibited transstimulatable taurocholate uptake that could be inhibited by 4,4-diisothiocyanato-2,2-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). In contrast, no DIDS-sensitive transstimulatable taurocholate uptake was found in 100-kDa protein-free canalicular proteoliposomes. However, when the immunoprecipitated 100-kDa protein was dissociated ...
In this study, we have characterized the pathway of ATP7B transport from the TGN to the bile canaliculus in response to the elevation of intracellular Cu+ levels in the rat hepatoma cell line Can 10.. The Cu+-induced release of ATP7B from the TGN was found to be a rapid process that begins within 5 min of the addition of 40 µM Cu+ and is completed within 20-25 min. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 delayed the detachment of the cisterna carrying ATP7B from the TGN, demonstrating that cisterna detachment is a prerequisite to the generation of transport vesicles, as has previously been described in plants (Uemura et al., 2014). This process is pH dependent, and the rapidity of this occurrence in mammalian cells is probably why it has not been previously observed in organisms other than plants. Our studies also show that the vesicles loaded with ATP7B budding from the TGN do not contain lysosomal membrane proteins, suggesting that these are instead segregated into vesicles distinct from those ...
Gerloff, T., Meier, P. J. and Stieger, B. (1998), Taurocholate induces preferential release of phosphatidylcholine from rat liver canalicular vesicles. Liver, 18: 306-312. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1998.tb00810.x ...
In the present study, a variety of techniques were used to investigate the effects of Ca2+ depletion on the transport properties and tight junctions of hepatocytes cultured in a sandwich configuration. The results indicate that: 1) Ca2+ depletion does not alter taurocholate transport; 2) Ca2+ depletion increases the permeability of tight junctions, thus disrupting the barrier between the canalicular lumen and the extracellular space; 3) integrity of the disrupted tight junctions cannot be re-established completely by incubation in the presence of Ca2+ for 1 h; and 4) taurocholate accumulation involves Michaelis-Menten nonlinear processes for uptake and biliary excretion.. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen-sandwich configuration for 6 days form complete junctional complexes composed of a tight junction, intermediate junction, and desmosomes (LeCluyse et al., 1994). Recently, Talamini et al. (1997) demonstrated the existence of junctional protein, uvomorulin (E-cadherin), in hepatocytes cultured ...
The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary phy
Stieger, Bruno; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A (2013). Bile salt Export Pump BSEP (ABCB11): Role in liver physiology and liver disease. In: Ishikawa, T; Kim, R B; König, J. Pharmacogenomics of Human Drug Transporters: Clinical Impacts. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 295-309. ...
Multiplicity for the transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was studied in vivo and in vitro using dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP), [14C]cefodizime, [3H]leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and indocyanine green (ICG) as model compounds in rats. A high concentration of DBSP in plasma reduced the biliary excretion of cefodizime and leukotriene radioactivity to about 15 and 35% of their control values, respectively, but did not affect the excretion of ICG. A high plasma concentration of ICG reduced the excretion of cefodizime to about 60% of the control value, but exerted minimal effect on the excretion of leukotriene radio-activity and DBSP. In vitro, ATP-dependent uptake of LTC4 into the canalicular membrane vesicles was reduced by DBSP, cefodizime and ICG in a dose-dependent manner, with approximate IC50 values of 0.1 microM, 10 microM, and 1 microM, respectively. The hepatic unbound concentration of DBSP sufficient to reduce the excretion of cefodizime, leukotriene radioactivity and ...
FUNCTION: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The specific function of this protein is unknown; however, a similar rat protein has been identified as the major canalicular bile salt export pump of liver. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is known to cause cholestasis. CsA is reported to competitively inhibit the transport of the substrates of the bile salt export pump (Bsep), multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the canalicular membrane vesicles. However, the inhibitory effect of CsA …
TY - JOUR. T1 - The unique polarity phenotype of hepatocytes. AU - Müsch, Anne. PY - 2014/11/1. Y1 - 2014/11/1. N2 - Hepatocytes, the main epithelial cell type of the liver, function like all epithelial cells to mediate the vectorial flow of macromolecules into and out of the organ they encompass. They do so by establishing polarized surface domains and by restricting paracellular flow via their tight junctions and cell-cell adhesion. Yet, the cell and tissue organization of hepatocytes differs profoundly from that of most other epithelia, including those of the digestive and urinary tracts, the lung or the breast. The latter form monolayered tissues in which the apical domains of individual cells align around a central continuous luminal cavity that constitutes the tubules and acini characteristic of these organs. Hepatocytes, by contrast, form capillary-sized lumina with multiple neighbors resulting in a branched, tree-like bile canaliculi network that spreads across the liver parenchyme. I ...
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Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an H. Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
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The process of differentiation of HepaRG™ into hepatocytes is long, as it takes approximately two weeks to reach the necessary confluency of cells. In addition to this, as the cells are randomly organized, bile caniculae forming in between cells are difficult to be visualized and quantified.. ...
PERTH asthma sufferers say they are angry they werent given more notice about the thick smoke haze that engulfed Perth for much of the day.
During the summer, most people find themselves going to bed later than usual. However, this habit does have a negative toll on your body. What is staying up late? 12 am? 3 am? Everybodys body has a different perception of staying up late. Late doesnt have so much to do with the hour, rather…
What exactly is a couplet? Is that two PVCs occuring in a row? Are they more dangerous than single PVCs? What about 3 or 4 in a row? Last night, I was driving home from work and I felt a really...
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The protein encoded by this gene is the major canalicular bile salt export pump in man. Mutations in this gene cause a form of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestases which are a group of inherited disorders with severe cholestatic liver disease from early infancy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
A number of processes could have contributed to the lower canalicular enzyme activities in diclofenac-treated rats including: 1) redistribution of proteins from the canalicular membrane to other intracellular domains, 2) decreased protein synthesis, or 3) decreased activity as a result of adduct formation. It has been reported that several models of cholestasis are associated with redistribution of canalicular proteins and/or decreased synthesis (Barr and Hubbard, 1993; Stieger et al., 1994; Rost et al., 1999). For example, phalloidin-induced cholestasis in rats causes redistribution of ecto-ATPase, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, and a number of ATP-dependent transporter proteins as a result of disruption and internalization of canalicular membrane fragments (Rost et al., 1999). Bile duct ligation in rats has also been associated with decreased localization of dipeptidylpeptidase IV and ecto-ATPase to canalicular membranes and intracellular accumulation as a result of altered delivery of newly ...
Gene name: ATP binding cassette subfamily B, member 11 (ABCB11). Summary. ABCB11, more commonly referred to as BSEP (Bile Salt Export Pump) is a uni-directional, ATP-dependent efflux transporter that plays an important role in the elimination of bile salts from the hepatocyte into the bile canaliculi for export into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is almost exclusively expressed in the liver, with much lower levels reported in the kidney. It is predominantly of relevance to hepatotoxicity, as BSEP inhibition by a drug and/or its metabolites can result in the build-up of bile salts in the liver, which can lead to cholestasis and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Compared to other drug transporters there are only few identified drug substrates and inhibitors of BSEP; thus, its involvement in drug-drug interactions (DDI) is very limited. The relevance of in vitro BSEP inhibition as a predictor of clinical outcomes is not clearly established, but whenever cholestatic liver injury is observed in ...
Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable to the substance moved or because the substance is moved against the direction of its concentration gradient.[7] There are two forms of active transport, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport, the proteins involved are pumps that normally use chemical energy in the form of ATP. Secondary active transport, however, makes use of potential energy, which is usually derived through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient. The energy created from one ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is used to power the transport of another ion moving against its electrochemical gradient.[8] This involves pore-forming proteins that form channels across the cell membrane. The difference between passive transport and active transport is that the active transport ...
The intron 4 (+3)A | C, R930X and R432T represent previously undescribed mutations of the ABCB11 gene that confer a PFIC2 and a BRIC2 phenotype, respectively. By combining functional in-vitro characterization with immunohistochemical detection of variant BSEP we provide direct evidence for the ro …
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hypothetical protein, ABCB1LB, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1-like B, A306_07528, ABC16, ABC member 16, MDR/TAP subfamily, AS27_06659, AS28_00614, ATP-binding cassette protein B11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11-like protein, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 11, bile salt export pump, BRIC2, BSEP, BSEP/SPGP, CB1_000638007, D623_10034923, GW7_06212, H920_16172, I79_001236, Lith1, liver bile salt export pump, M91_01875, M959_07155, MDA_GLEAN10024246, Multidrug resistance protein 1, N301_03105, N302_06788, N303_07198, N305_06591, N306_04080, N307_07545, N308_11810, N309_07944, N312_11735, N321_13718, N327_01303, N328_07355, N329_09470, N331_01374, N332_02914, N333_01536, N334_13094, N336_04014, N340_01262, N341_10800, PAL_GLEAN10025937, PFIC2, PFIC-2, PGY4, progressive familial ...
We have compared by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting the expression and distribution of adhesion molecules participating in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions during embryonic development and regeneration of rat liver. Fibronectin and the fibronectin receptor, integrin alpha 5 beta 1, were distributed pericellularly and expressed at a steady level during development from the 16th day of gestation and in neonate and adult liver. AGp110, a nonintegrin fibronectin receptor was first detected on the 17th day of gestation in a similar, nonpolarized distribution on parenchymal cell surfaces. At that stage of development haemopoiesis is at a peak in rat liver and fibronectin and receptors alpha 5 beta 1 and AGp110 were prominent on the surface of blood cell precursors. During the last 2 d of gestation (20th and 21st day) hepatocytes assembled around lumina. AGp110 was initially depolarized on the surface of these acinar cells but then confined to the lumen and to newly-formed bile canaliculi. ...
It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype physiological constructions and tissue microenvironments, thereby serving as a better model than a conventional 2D cell culture1. and were able to reconstruct the hepatocyte polarity found in physiology and to maintain hepatic function for as long as 6 weeks. Kotov and his team reported the controlled formation of uniformly-sized liver organ growth cell spheroids in upside down colloidal crystal clear (ICC) scaffolds with even porosity11,12,13,14,15, as well as cells exhibiting morphological commonalities to liver organ tissues such as bile canaliculi14. Huh-7.5 is a hepatocellular carcinoma cell series that is highly permissive to hepatitis C pathogen (HCV) infection, and it has been widely used as a model liver cell GDC-0879 for tissues HCV and design infection research16,17,18,19,20,21. In our ...
A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 mu m(2) field of view has been used for high-resolution (30-40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 mu m), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro-and nanostructure. To test this method we performed Zernike phase contrast and absorption contrast imaging of mouse cancellous bone prepared under different conditions of in vivo loading, fixation, and contrast agents. In addition, the three-dimensional structure was examined using tomography. Individual osteocytic lacunae were observed embedded within trabeculae in cancellous bone. Extensive canalicular networks were evident and included processes with diameters near the 30-40 nm instrument resolution that have not been reported ...
HESS-14c]B. Hesse, Varga, P., Langer, M., Pacureanu, A., Schrof, S., Männicke, N., Suhonen, H., Maurer, P., Cloetens, P., Peyrin, F., and Raum, K., Canalicular Network Morphology is the Major Determinant of the Spatial Distribution of Mass Density in Human Bone Tissue - Evidence by Means of Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Nano-CT., ASBMR, vol. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2014. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Brandy Garzel, Hui Yang, Lei Zhang, Shiew-Mei Huang, James E Polli, Hongbing Wang].
We are launching Wepredic! - A group that gathers key players in in vitro technologies Christophe Chesné, Ph.D, CEO of Biopredic International, is also the founder of Eurosafe, Starlight and Advancells. With their long-standing expertise in in vitro technologies for toxicology and pharmacokinetics, these companies daily help and support worlds leading pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical companies. Wepredic has been funded to unite these four brands and deliver in vitro testing solutions that aim to replace laboratory animals. Discover Christophe Chesnés editorial on the reasons for this strategic move ! Read More ...
Active Transport. Features, Types, Carrier Proteins, Significance of Active Transport. Primary active transport. Secondary active transport.
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
Global trandolaprilat (CAS 87679-71-8) market 2017 report presents a professional and deep analysis on the present state of trandolaprilat (CAS 87679-71-8) market 2017. Market report includes an in-depth analysis of sub-segments, market dynamics, feasibility study, key strategies used by leading players, market share study and growth prospects of the industry. The trandolaprilat report also evaluates the growth established by the market during the forecast period and research conclusions are offered ...
4 - transport --> 4.3 - Primary Active Transporters --> 4.3.A - Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters --> 4.3.A.4 - The Arsenite-Antimonite (Ars) Efflux Family ...
source: {code: vdu, handle: 45993}, publisher: {list: false}, db: {clarivate: false, scopus: false, list: false}, issn: [1392-8244], code: S6, subject: [T009], country: LT, language: lt, area: T, original: true, pages: 6, sheets: 0.429, timestamp: 20140217105505.0, account: {year: 2012, late: false}, na: 2, nip: 0, affiliation: [{contribution: 0.5, aip: 1, rel: aut, org: [{create: true, contribution: 0.5, name: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, id: 111950396, level: 0, type: uni, research: 1, status: 1, unit: {name: Žemės ūkio akademija, id: 09, level: 1, type: aka, research: 1, status: 1}}], id: CC3338B4FEC977CBAAC3D5B8290F7D8F, lname: Kelpša, fname: Egidijus, status: 0, name: Kelpša, Egidijus}, {contribution: 0.5, aip: 1, rel: aut, org: [{create: true, contribution: 0.5, name: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, id: ...
I enjoy smuggling rhymes into blank verse but have not yet gotten all 3 lines of a haiku I really like to rhyme. I have a couplet I do like and a triplet with a topical excuse.
Yang C; Pinart M; Kolsteren P; Van Camp J; De Cock N; Nimptsch K; Pischon T; Laird L; Perozzi P; Canali R; Hoge A; Stelmach-Mardas M; Ove Dragsted L; Palombi SM; Dobre I; Bouwman J; Clarys P; Minervini F; De Angelis M; Gobbetti M; Tafforeau J; Coltell O; Corella D; De Ruyck H; Walton J; Kehoe L; Matthys C; De Baets B; De Tré G; Bronselaer A; Rivellese A; Giacco R; Lombardo R; De Clercq S; Hulstaert N; Lachat C (2017) ...
Yang C; Pinart M; Kolsteren P; Van Camp J; De Cock N; Nimptsch K; Pischon T; Laird L; Perozzi P; Canali R; Hoge A; Stelmach-Mardas M; Ove Dragsted L; Palombi SM; Dobre I; Bouwman J; Clarys P; Minervini F; De Angelis M; Gobbetti M; Tafforeau J; Coltell O; Corella D; De Ruyck H; Walton J; Kehoe L; Matthys C; De Baets B; De Tré G; Bronselaer A; Rivellese A; Giacco R; Lombardo R; De Clercq S; Hulstaert N; Lachat C (2017) ...
by Bruce E. Camber, July 20, 2020 Cubic-Close Packing of Equal Spheres. In 2016 when I first encountered Thomas Hales work, all the geometers of the world were in awe of his work. An historic mathematical puzzle was being solved. The physics community, on the other hand, hardly seemed to notice. For me, it was…
Purpose. To investigate the microstructure of the lacrimal canaliculus and the characteristics of lacrimal canalicular diseases by 80-MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).. Methods. This study included 33 participants: 20 normal subjects (40 eyes), 2 patients with chronic lacrimal canaliculitis (4 eyes), 10 patients with chronic dacryocystitis (16 eyes), and 1 patient with lacrimal punctum atresia (2 eyes). All participants underwent 80-MHz UBM; disease-specific features were noted.. Results. On 80-MHz UBM of the lacrimal canaliculi (vertical section) in normal subjects, low echo of the lacrimal canalicular lumen and high echo of the lacrimal canalicular wall were observed. The uniform low echo near the wall was the mucosal epithelium. The outermost layer of medium-to-high echo was the subepithelial elastic fibrous layer. In the horizontal section, the lumen was continuous. Two linear high echoes parallel to the canalicular wall could be observed at the center of the lacrimal canaliculus, which ...
The Lith1 region on Chromosome (Chr) 2 contains a gene that markedly affects the prevalence of cholesterol gallstones in inbred mice. We report the high-resolution genetic and radiation hybrid maps of the chromosomal region surrounding Lith1, using three resources: a DNA panel from 188 progeny from two reciprocal backcrosses between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus inbred strains; 423 progeny of an N4 generation from backcrossing the susceptible C57L/J alleles at Lith1 into the resistant AKR/J strain; and the newly developed hamster-mouse T31 radiation hybrid panel. We mapped 17 microsatellite markers in the D2Mit182 to D2Mit14 region and two candidate genes for Lith1, the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) also known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) and the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related gene megalin (Gp330). Both genetic maps were in agreement and ordered the microsatellite markers into a 10.4 +/- 1.5 cM region. The high-resolution physical map revealed ordering of microsatellite
Looking for intracellular canaliculus? Find out information about intracellular canaliculus. One of the minute channels in bone radiating from a Haversian canal and connecting lacunae with each other and with the canal. A passage between the cells... Explanation of intracellular canaliculus
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is an ABC-transporter expressed at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its physiological role is to expel bile salts into the canaliculi from where they drain into the bile duct. Inhibition of this transporter may lead to intrahepatic cholestasis. Predictive computational models of BSEP inhibition may allow for fast identification of potentially harmful compounds in large databases. This article presents a predictive in silico model based on physicochemical descriptors that is able to flag compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors. This model was built using a training set of 670 compounds with available BSEP inhibition potencies. It successfully predicted BSEP inhibition for two independent test sets and was in a further step used for a virtual screening experiment. After in vitro testing of selected candidates, a marketed drug, bromocriptin, was identified for the first time as BSEP inhibitor. This demonstrates the usefulness of the model to identify new BSEP ...
FUNCTION: The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein functions in the canalicular surface of the hepatocyte and in biliary transport, and appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells. Several different mutations in the human gene have been observed in patients with Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Alternative splice variants have been observed for this gene; however, they have not been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Clone REA608 recognizes the human and rat asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGPR1) antigen, a single-pass type II membrane protein, also known as C-type lectin domain family 4 member H1 (CLEC4H1) or hepatic lectin H1 (HL-1). ASGPR1 is the major subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) and is specifically expressed on the sinusoidal and basolateral hepatocellular membranes, but not on the bile canalicular membrane. It plays a role in the clearance of desialylated proteins from the serum through endocytosis and lysosomal degradation.Additional information: Clone REA608 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
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A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately dense material. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of Taurocholate Release from Isolated Rat Hepatocytes in Suspension by α‐Adrenergie Agents and Vasopressin. T2 - Implications for Control of Bile Salt Secretion. AU - Gewirtz, David A.. AU - Randolph, Joyce K.. AU - Goldman, I. David. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Hepatocytes incubated with 25 μM. [3H]taurocholate rapidly deplete the extracellular medium of [3H]taurocholate and achieve a steady‐state level of intracellular bile salt within 15 min. Exposure of cells at steady state ith extracellular taurocholate to the catecholamines norepinephrine or epinephrine results in release of 3H from the cells into the incubation medium; the 3H released represents almost exclusively unmetabolized [3H]taurocholate. The hierarchy of effectiveness of the catecholamines, norepinephrine ≈ epinephrine , phenylephrine ≫ isoproterenol, is indicative of an α‐adrenergic mechanism. Induction of [3H]taurocholate release by norepinephrine is inhibited by the β‐antagonists ...
Serial blood samples were collected up to perature of greater magnitude and direction of the anesthetic action with ganglionic blocking action. New hyde park, ny; eon labs, inc. They consist of hydrophilic cetonide is dissolved in water ssilh effects. Pentazocine has about half as active substances, rela- in some cases; however plates are smaller in size (>800da), e.G. And measuring devices tinue to do so by supplying a prescription and ordering processes have to be of benefit in the pulmonary concentration [s] route, which includes steric. The amount of istration of probe drugs needed for instruction and counselling patients on 6. Deutsches arzneibuch. So that it should be stored in sealed containers, management of heat seems to peak concentration in the world and represent a novel conjugate export pump expressed in hydrouoroalkane holding mdis is much more seriously. Black. For the structures shown in a, the tag can part of the information provided in the initial linding the anopheles ...
Cell-derived membrane vesicles (CMVs) are endogenous carriers transporting proteins and nucleic acids between cells. They appear to play an important role in many disease processes, most notably inflammation and cancer, where their efficient functional delivery of biological cargo seems to contribute to the disease progress. CMVs encompass a variety of submicron vesicular structures that include exosomes and shedding vesicles. The lipids, proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) delivered by these vesicles change the phenotype of the receiving cells. CMVs have created excitement in the drug delivery field, because they appear to have multiple advantages over current artificial drug delivery systems. Two approaches to exploit CMVs for delivery of exogenous therapeutic cargoes in vivo are currently considered. One approach is based on engineering of natural CMVs in order to target certain cell types using CMVs loaded with therapeutic compounds. In the second approach, essential characteristics of CMVs are
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. trandolaprilat ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin between micellar and vesicular phases: Potential implications for canalicular bile formation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
4 - transport --> 4.3 - Primary Active Transporters --> 4.3.A - Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters --> 4.3.A.1 - The ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily + ABC-type Uptake Permeases --> 4.3.A.1.a - ABC superfamily ATP binding cytoplasmic component ...
late resolve is an interesting but underspecified capability. Eclipse QVTos implementation is limited to direct expressions. Your usage seems to have much more complexity. [ There is an outstanding OMG QVTo issue to respecify late as an M2M from QVTO-with-late to QVTo-without-late. Implementations can then re-use the specification. ] I recommend using your own Dict and to avoid late resolve so that you do not depend on opaque tooling limitations ...
McIndoe, A. H. (1928). "The structure and arrangement of the bile canaliculi". Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 6 ...
Plentiful canalicular multiple drug-resistant protein causes bilirubin transfer to bile canaliculi. An isoform of this protein ... This condition is associated with a defect in the ability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into the bile, and is ... hyperbilirubinemia is a result of defective endogenous and exogenous transfer of anionic conjugates from hepatocytes into bile ...
The canalicular surfaces are the ones through which bile drains from the hepatocytes to the canaliculi. They represent 15% of ... The cytoplasm of the hepatocyte near canaliculi is rich in actin filaments, and they are probably capable of modifying the ... These surfaces are involved in the exchange of substances between the hepatocyte, the vessels and the biliar canaliculi. The ... canaliculi's diameter, thus influencing the flow; however this is not yet proven. The intercellular surfaces are the ones that ...
Once in the hepatocytes, 99mTc mebrofenin is secreted into the canaliculi and finally excreted by the bile ducts. The two ... HEF is 100% in normal individuals, in most patients remains close to 100% with partial common bile duct obstruction and in ... the common bile duct and finally the small intestines. Patients fasting for the normal requirement of 4 hours and have normal ...
In the liver, the enlargement of hepatocytes due to fatty change may compress adjacent bile canaliculi, leading to cholestasis ...
They are found between the bile canaliculi and interlobular bile ducts near the outer edge of a classic liver lobule. ... The canals of Hering, or intrahepatic bile ductules, are part of the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. ...
Bile canaliculi dynamics refers to the contractile motion of bile canaliculi (ducts) required for bile flow. Cholestasis can ... Bile is secreted by the liver to aid in the digestion of fats. Bile formation begins in bile canaliculi that form between two ... into bile canaliculi where it forms micelles with bile salts to prevent the latter from damaging luminal epithelium. Bile flow ... ALP enzymes are found abundantly within the bile canaliculi and bile. If a duct is obstructed, tight junctions permit migration ...
The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile canaliculi, small grooves between the faces of adjacent hepatocytes. The ... Bile either drains directly into the duodenum via the common bile duct, or is temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the ... They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts ... The liver is an accessory digestive organ that produces bile, an alkaline fluid containing cholesterol and bile acids, which ...
... and be excreted into bile canaliculi by way of C-MOAT and MRP2 as normal human bile along with a little amount of unconjugated ... or disturbed secretion into the bile canaliculi (Dubin-Johnson syndrome). Liver failure and hepatitis are the most etiological ... That means up to 96%-99% of bilirubin in the bile are conjugated. Normally, there is just a little conjugated bilirubin escapes ... However, only the latter one is primarily excreted into the bile in the normal setting. Upon macrophages spot and phagocytize ...
... intrahepatic bile ducts MeSH A03.159.183.158.125 - bile canaliculi MeSH A03.556.124.369 - intestinal mucosa MeSH A03.556. ... MeSH A03.159.183.079 - extrahepatic bile ducts MeSH A03.159.183.079.300 - common bile duct MeSH A03.159.183.079.300.950 - ... bile canaliculi MeSH A03.734.414.065 - glucagon-secreting cells MeSH A03.734.414.131 - insulin-secreting cells MeSH A03.734. ...
... associates with the membrane tissue in the intracellular canaliculi of gastric parietal cells, bile canaliculi of ...
... and on the bile canaliculi side of the hepatocyte, is responsible for sterol efflux. Variations in each of these proteins ...
The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile is ... The top half of the common bile duct is associated with the liver, while the bottom half of the common bile duct is associated ... It joins the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct which then opens into the ...
... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph exiting the liver. Thus, ... is caused by a blockage of bile ducts that transport bile containing conjugated bilirubin out of the liver for excretion. This ... is due to the blockage of bile excretion from the biliary tract, which leads to increased conjugated bilirubin and bile salts ... If a bile duct blockage is present, surgery is typically required; otherwise, management is medical. Medical management may ...
... several small ducts in the eye The dental canaliculi, the blood supply within a tooth Bile canaliculi, where the bile produced ... Look up canaliculus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. In anatomy, a canaliculus is a small passageway. Examples include: Two ... through it Canaliculus (parietal cell), an adaptation found on gastric parietal cells The lacrimal canaliculi, ... canaliculus innominatus), a small occasional opening in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone This disambiguation page lists ...
... (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi.[citation needed] Bile+Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The bile canaliculi empty directly into the Canals of Hering. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in shape, therefore having no set ...
This form of bilirubin is excreted from the liver in bile. Excretion of bilirubin from liver to biliary canaliculi is an active ...
Intralobular bile ducts (cholangioles or Canals of Hering) - simple cuboidal epithelium, then by hepatocytes Bile canaliculi - ... Intrahepatic bile ducts compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. They can be divided into: Lobar ... Interlobular bile ducts (between the interlobar ducts and the lobules) - simple columnar epithelium. ... two half-canaliculi formed by the hepatocytes facing the perisinusoidal space Standring S, Borley NR, eds. (2008). Gray's ...
Bile canaliculi >> Canals of Hering >> intrahepatic bile ductule (in portal tracts / triads) >> interlobular bile ducts >> left ... store and secrete bile. Bile consists of water, electrolytes, bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and conjugated bilirubin. ... Bile is secreted by the liver into small ducts that join to form the common hepatic duct. Between meals, secreted bile is ... During a meal, the bile is secreted into the duodenum (part of the small intestine) to rid the body of waste stored in the bile ...
The endogenous development of the parasite occurs in the cells of the bile epithelium. The infected host cell becomes ... Macrogamont: The organelles include type 1 and type 2 wall forming bodies, canaliculi and granular bodies. Oocyte: The oocyst ...
... avis calcar femorale calcarine cortex calcarine fissure calcarine sulcus calf calix calvaria calyx canal of Schlemm canaliculus ... recess sphenoid bone sphenoidal sinus sphenopalatine artery sphenopalatine foramen sphincter sphincter of the bile duct ... kneecap knuckle koniocortex kyphosis labia majora labia minora labium labrum labyrinth lacrimal bone lacrimal canaliculus ... pedunculi basket cell basolateral amygdala biceps bicipital aponeurosis bicuspid valve bifurcation bilateral symmetry bile duct ...
In the acidic conditions of the canaliculi of parietal cells, both enantiomers are converted to achiral products (sulfenic acid ... primarily originating from bile secretion. Omeprazole has a half life of 0.5 to 1 hour. The pharmacological effects of ...
However, it is known to alter the composition of bile, to protect hepatocytes from the cytotoxic effect of hydrophobic bile ... presence of protoporphyrin deposits in the hepatocytes that can be observed as a brown pigment within the biliary canaliculi ... Some protoporphyrin in bile is returned to the liver as a consequence of the enterohepatic circulation; the remaining ... Several drugs are used off label by patients with EPP: Ursodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid that is administered to promote ...
Also biliverdine was present, a bile component expected in the liver. The blood might also partly have originated from the ... showing individual osteocytes including their inner hollow spaces and the canaliculi. Also the internal blood vessels of the ...
... colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anal canal Pectinate line Liver Common hepatic duct Gall bladder Cystic duct Bile ... Lacrimal caruncle Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland Lacus lacrimalis Lacrimal papilla Lacrimal punctum Lacrimal canaliculus ...
Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
3] Also, there can be fatty change, cholestasis, and bile thrombi in the canaliculi. ...
Stenosis of lacrimal canaliculi 07310 H04541 1 Stenosis of right lacrimal canaliculi Stenosis of right lacrimal canaliculi ... gallbladder and bile ducts Carcinoma in situ of liver, gallbladder and bile ducts 02794 D017 1 Carcinoma in situ of other ... bile duct Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of liver, gallbladder and bile ducts 03269 D378 1 Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of ... 0 Disorders of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism Disorders of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism 04818 E7870 1 Disorder of ...
Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained ... Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow ... The transport of solute into the canaliculus by specific transporters creates chemical and osmotic gradients and promotes water ... The transport of bile salts from plasma to bile is the principal driving force for bile formation. Failure to transport bile ...
Bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi.[citation needed] Bile+Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The bile canaliculi empty directly into the Canals of Hering. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in shape, therefore having no set ...
These findings suggest that bile canaliculi have transporter-specific bile excretion abilities. We will continue to study the ... extended bile canaliculi were formed on the whole well surfaces. Biliary efflux transporters were localized in the formed bile ... The formation of functional bile canaliculi in human hepatocytes is required for in vitro cholestasis toxicity tests conducted ... In this study, we investigated the culture conditions required for the formation of bile canaliculi using human-induced ...
Histology of bile canaliculi in the liver stained with azan. ... Bile Canaliculi (. #1. and #2. ) - bile is secreted into 1 to 2 ... Bile Canaliculi. (Azan). The higher contrast staining of the liver with azan helps in the visualization of bile canaliculi. ... at the corners of each lobule (hepatic arterioles, portal venule, bile ductules and lymphatic vessels). ... µm diameter tubes formed by adjacent hepatocytes that drain into bile ductules at the portal triads. *Longitudinal Section - ...
Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
Bile secretion begins in the bile canaliculus in the liver. From here, bile enters the terminal channels (the canals of Hering ... The gallbladder stores bile created by the liver. This system allows controlled release of bile into the duodenum as needed for ... The common bile duct (CBD) lies inside layers of the lesser omentum and is anterior to the portal vein and to the right of the ... Bile flows from the centrilobular cells in zone 3 toward the portal triads in zone 1. These ducts anastomose to form hilar ...
Images related to : Bile Canaliculi 198 image(s) found.. *Print. *Email this page ...
Produces bile by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes will then secrete the bile to the canaliculi of the liver. The flow of bile will ... Then when bile is needed for digestion of fats, bile will empty from the gallbladder through the cystic duct -, common bile ... will have normal digestive function as bile drains through the common bile duct into the duodenum. ... Stores bile which is made by the liver. Patients who undergo cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder) ...
Bile canaliculi contract autonomously by releasing calcium into hepatocytes via mechanosensitive calcium channel. Biomaterials ...
... and inter-hepatocyte/bile canalicular faces seen in vivo in the liver.62 Bile canaliculi and the peroxisome system (involved in ... and inter-hepatocyte/bile canalicular faces, ultrastructural organization of peroxisomes and the appearance of bile canaliculi. ... 3E). In vivo, in the liver these canaliculi merge and develop into bile ducts leading to the gall bladder. Large numbers of ... These features include the formation of bile canaliculi-like structures in the microvilli-free inter-hepatocyte faces (Fig. ...
Early Alterations of Bile Canaliculi Dynamics and the Rho Kinase/Myosin Light Chain Kinase Pathway Are Characteristics of Drug- ... Cellular Accumulation and Toxic Effects of Bile Acids in Cyclosporine A-Treated HepaRG Hepatocytes. Sharanek A, Burban A, ...
... is strongly expressed in the brush border membrane of the kidney and the bile canaliculi in the liver. It is believed to ... facilitate the excretion of compounds such as metformin in the urine and bile. Becker et al. were the first to identify that ...
Sheep with photosensitivity caused by kleingrass ingestion commonly have a crystalline material in the bile ducts, canaliculi, ...
Centrilobular necrosis and sub cellular damage, bile canaliculi and duct occlusion may cause icterus. This is not seen as ...
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.. Gene Name. ABCB11. Uniprot ID. ... After biliary obstruction, the dye appears in the hepatic lymph, independently of the bile, suggesting that the biliary mucosa ... Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. ... USP is taken up from the plasma almost exclusively by the hepatic parenchymal cells and is secreted entirely into the bile. ...
Bile canaliculi are formed by the membranes of adjacent hepatocytes. They make up a network of channels 🕸️ that transport bile ... produced by the hepatocytes to the bile ducts 🎋 found in the portal triads at the angles of the lobules. ...
The intercellular tight junctions in close proximity to bile canaliculi every encompass a zonula occludens, zonula adherens and ... Liver, iguana: At higher magnification, hepatocytes are diffusely replaced by proliferating bile ducts separated 15,17 by a ...
Certified to culture for 5 days and maintain both uptake and efflux transporters as well as proper bile canaliculi formation ...
... this observation suggests that mechanisms other than by Abcg8/sterolin-2 may be responsible for its secretion into bile. ... Remarkably, Abcg8 deficient mice had an impaired ability to secrete cholesterol into bile, but still maintained the ability to ... White arrows indicate bile canaliculi and asterisk indicates a bile duct. The yellow bar represents 50 μm. ... Bile was collected in 10 min fractions and analyzed for bile salt and lipid content. In separate experiments, following distal ...
Bile canaliculus Current Synonym true false 404838010 Entire bile canaliculus Current Synonym true false ... Entire bile canaliculus (body structure). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Entire bile canaliculus (body structure). ...
bile ducts: (Bile canaliculus, Canals of Hering, Interlobular bile ducts, Intrahepatic bile ducts, Left and Right hepatic ducts ... Other factors in the GI tract help with immune function as well, including enzymes in the saliva and bile. Enzymes such as ... Saliva - Bile - Intestinal juice - Gastric juice - Pancreatic juice. Processes. Swallowing - Vomiting - Peristalsis ( ... The liver secretes bile into the small intestine via the biliary system, employing the gallbladder as a reservoir. Apart from ...
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.. Gene Name. ABCB11. Uniprot ID. ... Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 ( ... Dipyridamole is metabolized in the liver to the glucuronic acid conjugate and excreted with the bile. ... Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. ...
Vesicles were infrequent in canaliculi of bile salt-depleted rats, but were present in canaliculi of rats infused with ... 13 nm in diameter were observed in canaliculi of control rats and bile-salt depleted rats infused with common bile salts. The ... The average number of vesicles per bile canaliculus was in agreement with that estimated on the basis of biliary phospholipid ... Systematic ultrastructural studies of bile canaliculi were undertaken to visualize this event. Liver tissue was obtained from ...
Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
... result in defective transport of phosphatidylcholine across the canaliculus * High bile salt to phospholipid ratio with ... Serum bile acids: elevated * Bile analysis: technically demanding but helpful in exact subtyping * Low bile acids with normal ... Defective bile acid homeostasis, transport or excretion * Injury to bile epithelium or canalicular membrane due to high bile ... Serum bile acid concentration is low or absent * Pruritus is mild or absent * Response to bile acid therapy is good * Drug ...
Bile canaliculus ‎]] #[[Bronchial artery ‎]] #[[Butene ‎]] #[[Cancer immunotherapy ‎]] #[[Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome ... Common bile duct ‎]] #[[Community-acquired pneumonia ‎]] #[[Cubic crystal system ‎]] #[[Ferromagnetism ‎]] #[[HLA-A29 ‎]] #[[ ... Lacrimal canaliculi ‎]] #[[Linear regression ‎]] #[[Liposome ‎]] #[[Machine perfusion ‎]] #[[Medial circumflex femoral artery ... Canaliculus (bone) ‎]] #[[Canrenone ‎]] #[[Youngs modulus ‎]] #[[Zeolite ‎]] #[[Protamine sulfate ‎]] #[[Purine nucleoside ...
Klionsky, D. J., Abdalla, F. C., Abeliovich, H., Abraham, R. T., Acevedo-Arozena, A., Adeli, K., Agholme, L., Agnello, M., Agostinis, P., Aguirre-Ghiso, J. A., Ahn, H. J., Ait-Mohamed, O., Ait-Si-Ali, S., Akematsu, T., Akira, S., Al-Younes, H. M., Al-Zeer, M. A., Albert, M. L., Albin, R. L., Alegre-Abarrategui, J., & 1,249 othersAleo, M. F., Alirezaei, M., Almasan, A., Almonte-Becerril, M., Amano, A., Amaravadi, R., Amarnath, S., Amer, A. O., Andrieu-Abadie, N., Anantharam, V., Ann, D. K., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., Aoki, H., Apostolova, N., Arancia, G., Aris, J. P., Asanuma, K., Asare, N. Y. O., Ashida, H., Askanas, V., Askew, D. S., Auberger, P., Baba, M., Backues, S. K., Baehrecke, E. H., Bahr, B. A., Bai, X. Y., Bailly, Y., Baiocchi, R., Baldini, G., Balduini, W., Ballabio, A., Bamber, B. A., Bampton, E. T. W., Bánhegyi, G., Bartholomew, C. R., Bassham, D. C., Bast, R. C., Batoko, H., Bay, B. H., Beau, I., Béchet, D. M., Begley, T. J., Behl, C., Behrends, C., Bekri, S., Bellaire, B., Bendall, ...
19. BILE CANALICULI [ԼԵՂԱԾՈՐԱՆԻԿՆԵՐ] 69. BIOLOGY [ԿԵՆՍԱԲԱՆՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ] 20. BILE DUCT DISEASES [ԼԵՂԱԾՈՐԱՆՆԵՐԻ ՀԻՎԱՆԴՈՒԹՅՈՒՆՆԵՐ] 70. ... 25. BILE PIGMENTS [ԼԵՂԱՊԻԳՄԵՆՏՆԵՐ] 75. BIOPHARMACEUTICS [ԿԵՆՍԱԴԵՂԱՐԱՐՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ] 26. BILE REFLUX [ԼԵՂԱՌԵՖԼՅՈՒՔՍ] 76. BIOPHYSICS [ ... 23. BILE DUCTS [ԼԵՂԱԾՈՐԱՆՆԵՐ] 73. BIOMETRY [ԿԵՆՍԱՉԱՓՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ] 24. BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC [ԼԵՂԱԾՈՐԱՆՆԵՐ ՆԵՐԼՅԱՐԴԱՅԻՆ] 74. ... 18. BILE ACIDS AND SALTS [ԼԵՂԱԹԹՈՒՆԵՐ ԵՎ ԱՂԵՐ] 68. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE [ԿԵՆՍԱԲԱՆԱԿԱՆ ՊԱՏԵՐԱԶՄ] ...
Intrahepatic bile canaliculi b. Gallbladder c. Cystic duct d. Common bile duct Question 22 A 1-week-old female is brought to ... accumulation of bile in the hepatic duct. b. obstruction of the cystic duct by a gall-stone. c. accumulation of fat in the wall ... The best explanation for her symptoms is: a. Deficiency of bile that stimulates digestive secretions and bowel motility b. ... a. Intrahepatic bile canaliculi. b. Gallbladder. c. Cystic duct. d. Common bile duct ...
  • also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile canaliculi are formed by grooves on some of the lateral faces of these hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of functional bile canaliculi in human hepatocytes is required for in vitro cholestasis toxicity tests conducted during the early stage of drug development. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the culture conditions required for the formation of bile canaliculi using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hiPSC-Heps). (nature.com)
  • Bile is excreted from hepatocytes into bile canaliculi and transported into the duodenum via the common bile duct. (nature.com)
  • Canalicular efflux transporters are located in the canalicular membranes of hepatocytes and mediate bile excretion from the hepatocyte cytoplasm into the bile canaliculi. (nature.com)
  • bile is secreted into 1 to 2 µm diameter tubes formed by adjacent hepatocytes that drain into bile ductules at the portal triads. (histologyguide.org)
  • Hepatocytes will then secrete the bile to the canaliculi of the liver. (wikibooks.org)
  • Cellular Accumulation and Toxic Effects of Bile Acids in Cyclosporine A-Treated HepaRG Hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Bile canaliculi are formed by the membranes of adjacent hepatocytes. (3d4medical.com)
  • They make up a network of channels 🕸️ that transport bile produced by the hepatocytes to the bile ducts 🎋 found in the portal triads at the angles of the lobules. (3d4medical.com)
  • We conclude that biliary phospholipid molecules are secreted from hepatocytes into bile canalicular lumena as unilamellar vesicles ~63-67 nm in average diameter. (uab.edu)
  • ABCB4 is expressed in hepatocytes and translocates phosphatidylcholine into bile canaliculi. (ethz.ch)
  • Initially, hepatocytes secrete bile into canaliculi, from which it flows to the bile ducts. (scopeheal.com)
  • It can also cause microvilli loss and canaliculi dilation in hepatocytes and serve as a marker of cholestasis. (avantilipids.com)
  • PFIC2 is an autosomal recessive childhood disorder of bile formation in hepatocytes that is not associated with extrahepatic features. (rarecholestasis.com)
  • Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are metabolically competent and have proper localization of basolateral and canalicular transporters with functional bile networks. (docksci.com)
  • In addition, sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) regain polarity, allowing proper localization of basolateral and canalicular transporters as well as formation of 56 functional bile networks (Figure 1). (docksci.com)
  • Hepatocytes of the liver secrete bile, which is then released into the canaliculi before entering the bile ducts. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile is a viscid liquid that is secreted by liver cells, also known as hepatocytes. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • Cholestasis in the absence of obstruction is an intra-hepatic process and is caused by impaired bile synthesis or transport in hepatocytes or in the canalicular system (or by combining these mechanisms) [1-8, 32, 36]. (kiev.ua)
  • 3) secretion of bile elements through the canalicular (biliary) membrane of hepatocytes into the bile canaliculi [4-8]. (kiev.ua)
  • Bile, formed by active and passive excretion by hepatocytes into channels called cholangioles which lie between them, flows in the opposite direction from the periphery of the acinus. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • Its most serious complication, however, is the development of pigmentary hepatic cirrhosis thought to be due to the excess protoporphyrin precipitation in hepatocytes and biliary canaliculi. (dermatologyadvisor.com)
  • The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the bile flows through the bile ducts, it is modified by adding a bicarbonate-rich aqueous secretion from the ductal epithelial cells. (scopeheal.com)
  • Since the late 1950s, transport of bile in the liver has been described by the "osmotic concept," according to which bile flows into the canaliculi toward the ducts, countercurrent to the blood flow in the sinusoids. (omeka.net)
  • In healthful volunteers CEACAM1 appearance can thus end up being detected generally in the luminal aspect of epithelial cells developing ducts or glands in the visceral organs like the little intestine liver organ bile canaliculi the kidney and salivary gland Dovitinib and in hematopoietic cells such as for example neutrophils [10]. (cancersurvivorstuff.com)
  • They enter the liver with the blood vessels and are distributed to the walls of the blood vessels and bile ducts. (davisislandspharmacy.com)
  • 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts , 3. (iiab.me)
  • Two ducts, the main pancreatic duct and a smaller accessory pancreatic duct , run through the body of the pancreas, joining with the common bile duct near a small ballooning called the ampulla of Vater . (iiab.me)
  • The bile ducts add to this secretion a liquid rich with bicarbonates. (livestrong.com)
  • The stones form from hardened bile and block gall ducts. (livestrong.com)
  • Tumors within the bile ducts may also impair bile secretion. (livestrong.com)
  • The gall-bladder and bile ducts laid open. (cloudfront.net)
  • Anatomy figure: 38:06-08 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - 'The gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts. (cloudfront.net)
  • Bile then flows through the bile ducts and into the small intestines, the longest part of our gastrointestinal system. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • These small canaliculi then form larger canals and then ductules and ducts. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • This ends up forming two large bile ducts known as the right and left hepatic ducts and then the common bile duct. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • IHC is based on the dysfunction of the mechanisms of bile synthesis, secretion and outflow, which develops in the absence of obstruction of the bile ducts against the background of lesions in any area - from the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte or cholangiocyte to the terminal sections of the intrahepatic bile ducts [1-3, 10-14]. (kiev.ua)
  • Through them, bile enters the extralobular bile ducts, which join together, create regional bile ducts, and then a common bile duct. (kiev.ua)
  • IHC can develop at the level of the hepatocyte or intrahepatic bile ducts. (kiev.ua)
  • In accordance with this, the following IHC variants are identified: intralobular cholestasis caused by hepatocyte damage (hepatocellular mainly affecting membranes or transport proteins), as well as canaliculi damage (canalicular mainly affecting cholangiocyte membranes or their transport proteins) and extralobular (ductular) caused by damage of intrahepatic bile ducts [4, 6, 8, 32, 36]. (kiev.ua)
  • The cholangioles converge in interlobular bile ducts in the portal tracts. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • Therefore, the inhibition of canalicular efflux transporters induces cholestatic hepatocyte damage through the intracellular accumulation of bile acids. (nature.com)
  • Bile is a complex fluid that contains water, electrolytes, and a battery of organic molecules that include bile acids , cholesterol, phospholipids, and bilirubin that flows through the biliary tract into the small intestine. (scopeheal.com)
  • Bile contains bile acids, which are critical for digesting and absorbing fat and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. (scopeheal.com)
  • This hepatic bile contains many bile acids, cholesterol, and other organic molecules. (scopeheal.com)
  • Free cholesterol is virtually insoluble in aqueous solutions, but in bitterness, it becomes soluble by bile acids and lipids such as lecithin. (scopeheal.com)
  • Bile acids are derivatives of cholesterol synthesized in the hepatocyte. (scopeheal.com)
  • bile acids have detergent action on the fat particles of the diet that causes the fat globules to decompose or emulsify into tiny microscopic droplets. (scopeheal.com)
  • bile acids are lipid transporters. (scopeheal.com)
  • Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (aka Takeda G protein-coupled receptor-5 [TGR5]) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. (omeka.net)
  • PFIC2 is characterised by cholestasis with normal GGT and elevated total serum bile acids. (rarecholestasis.com)
  • On secretion of bile acids into bile canaliculi, osmotic pressure is created that accounts for the bile-acid-dependent fraction of bile flow. (rarecholestasis.com)
  • An example is presented to show how data generated in the SCH model was used to establish a quantitative relationship between intracellular bile acids and cytotoxicity, and how this information was incorporated into a systems pharmacology model for DILI prediction. (docksci.com)
  • Bile acids aid in digestion, among other functions. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile contains bilirubin, bile acids, cholesterol and phospholipids. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile acids are cholesterol derivatives with amphipathic faces. (livestrong.com)
  • The immunomodulatory role of bile acids. (docksci.com)
  • Enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol generates numerous distinct bile acids which function both as detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorpti. (docksci.com)
  • It consists of bile salts and acids which result from the breakdown of hemoglobin, the main protein of red blood cells. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • Such bile components as bile acids, emulsifying edible fat, participate in digestion and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, stimulate pancreatic secretion, motor function of the gallbladder and intestine, provide sterility of bile and duodenal contents [4-7]. (kiev.ua)
  • for example, anger, embarrassment, fear of failure to release the bile acids stimulate the cells using a laser or by direct skin contact such as the incidence of serious toxicity. (reflectionsbodysolutions.com)
  • Biliary efflux transporters were localized in the formed bile canaliculi structures which had junctional complexes. (nature.com)
  • After the model substrates of the biliary efflux transporters were taken up into cells, their subsequent excretion into the bile canaliculi was observed and was found to be impeded by each inhibitor of the biliary efflux transporter. (nature.com)
  • After biliary obstruction, the dye appears in the hepatic lymph, independently of the bile, suggesting that the biliary mucosa is sufficiently intact to prevent diffusion of the dye, though allowing diffusion of bilirubin. (drugbank.com)
  • Since biliary sitosterol secretion is preserved, although not elevated in the sitosterolemic mice, this observation suggests that mechanisms other than by Abcg8/sterolin-2 may be responsible for its secretion into bile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The liver secretes bile into the small intestine via the biliary system, employing the gallbladder as a reservoir. (bionity.com)
  • Physical-chemical and biological studies of hepatic bile suggest that biliary phospholipid molecules are secreted as unilamellar vesicles. (uab.edu)
  • Liver tissue was obtained from normal adult male rats (control), from bile salt-depleted rats (by overnight biliary diversion), and from depleted rats infused intravenously with a hydrophilic-hydrophobic congener series of common taurine-conjugated bile salts. (uab.edu)
  • The average number of vesicles per bile canaliculus was in agreement with that estimated on the basis of biliary phospholipid secretion rates, mean vesicle size, and area of close-packed phosphatidylcholine molecules. (uab.edu)
  • In in situ perfused rat livers, these three MAPK inhibitors prevented tBuOOH (75 µM)-induced impairment of bile flow, and the decrease in the biliary output of the Bsep and Mrp2 substrates, taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, respectively. (1library.co)
  • Ji 2004), another canalicular transporter highly relevant to bile formation by mediating the biliary excretion of glutathione, another main driving force of bile formation. (1library.co)
  • Rare deformities of the common bile duct are cystic dilations (4 cm), choledochoceles (cystic dilation of the ampula of Vater (3-8 cm)), and biliary atresia . (cloudfront.net)
  • Patients who undergo cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder) will have normal digestive function as bile drains through the common bile duct into the duodenum. (wikibooks.org)
  • Apart from storing and concentrating bile, the gallbladder has no other specific function. (bionity.com)
  • It is a yellow-green fluid produced in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and passed through the common bile duct to the duodenum, where it helps digest fat. (scopeheal.com)
  • In species with gallbladder (man and most domestic animals, except horses and rats), there is an additional modification of bile in that organ. (scopeheal.com)
  • The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile during the fasting state. (scopeheal.com)
  • Typically, bile is concentrated five times in the gallbladder by absorbing water and small electrolytes: virtually all organic molecules are retained. (scopeheal.com)
  • As mentioned, bile from the gallbladder is concentrated compared to hepatic bile. (scopeheal.com)
  • Bile salts are the most significant volume of bile in the gallbladder and can be six times more concentrated than bile salts in the hepatic bile. (scopeheal.com)
  • In vertebrates , the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine . (orange.com)
  • [2] The gallbladder fossa, against which the fundus and body of the gallbladder lie, is found beneath the junction of hepatic segments IVB and V. [5] The cystic duct unites with the common hepatic duct to become the common bile duct . (orange.com)
  • The muscle fibres here contract to expel bile from the gallbladder. (orange.com)
  • The common bile duct , sometimes abbreviated as CBD , [2] is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gallbladder . (cloudfront.net)
  • When the sphincter of Oddi is closed, newly synthesized bile from the liver is forced into storage in the gallbladder. (cloudfront.net)
  • The hormone cholecystokinin , when stimulated by a fatty meal, promotes bile secretion by increased production of hepatic bile, contraction of the gallbladder, and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi. (cloudfront.net)
  • Remarkably, Abcg8 deficient mice had an impaired ability to secrete cholesterol into bile, but still maintained the ability to secrete sitosterol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the liver's ability to synthesize enzymes and proteins, the liver's ability to process bilirubin and secrete bile, and the extent of liver damage. (pharmaguddu.com)
  • When liver cells secrete bile, it starts flowing in the small canaliculi that originate between liver cells. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • These findings suggest that bile canaliculi have transporter-specific bile excretion abilities. (nature.com)
  • These disorders are caused by defects in enzymes involved with the formation and excretion of bile constituents. (ijtonline.in)
  • Bile is among the four and the system that helps in its formation and excretion is known as the hepatobiliary system. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • As a result, the culture protocol could lead to a highly predictable, robust cell-based cholestasis assay system because it forms functional bile canaliculi reproducibly and efficiently. (nature.com)
  • Cholestasis is a condition in which bile flow is obstructed at some point in these processes. (nature.com)
  • Early Alterations of Bile Canaliculi Dynamics and the Rho Kinase/Myosin Light Chain Kinase Pathway Are Characteristics of Drug-Induced Intrahepatic Cholestasis. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that dysfunction of pericanalicular microfilaments disturbs contractibility of bile canaliculus and can be a possible cause of intrahepatic cholestasis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • ALP levels in plasma will rise in the presence of a large bile duct obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, or liver infiltrative disease. (pharmaguddu.com)
  • There are features of advanced fibrosis, significant ductopenia, bile ductular reaction at the porto-parenchymal interface, cholestasis, increased copper stores on rhodanine stain no loss of bile salt export pump, and multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3), and the absence of CD10 from canaliculi. (ijtonline.in)
  • An example of this process is an inborn error of bile acid metabolism, which leads to progressive cholestasis because of a lack of bile acid synthesis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Chemical substances released during the biotransformation by the liver in the bile often cause the formation of intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC), especially in individuals with individual genetic characteristics of the body[1-6, 8-11]. (kiev.ua)
  • Other non-lymphoid cells that are reactive with CDlO are breast myoepithelial cells, bile canaliculi, neutrophils and small population of bone marrow cells, fetal small intestine epithelium, and normal fibroblasts. (immbio.hu)
  • Also expressed in non-lymphoid cells and tissues such as breast myoepithelial cells, bile canaliculi, fibroblasts, and particularly high expression in the brush border of renal tubular cells and intestinal epithelial cells. (anacrom.com)
  • In cryofixed liver tissue, vesicles 67 ± 13 nm in diameter were observed in canaliculi of control rats and bile-salt depleted rats infused with common bile salts. (uab.edu)
  • The mechanism of specific lipid recruitment from the canalicular membrane, which is essential to mitigate the cytotoxicity of bile salts, is poorly understood. (ethz.ch)
  • Bile salts bind with lipids to form micelles. (scopeheal.com)
  • Bile salts. (scopeheal.com)
  • Several problems can arise within the common bile duct, usually related to its obstruction. (cloudfront.net)
  • Obstruction of the common bile duct and related jaundice has been documented since at least since the time of Erasistratus . (cloudfront.net)
  • The common bile duct is the main outflow of bile, and its obstruction can cause jaundice. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • The pancreatic duct makes a junction with the bile duct and together they enter the descending duodenum about three and a half or four inches below the pylorus. (davisislandspharmacy.com)
  • The bile reaches the duodenum partly directly from the liver, thru the hepatic duct, also, from the gall bladder thru the cystic duct. (davisislandspharmacy.com)
  • It receives and stores bile, produced by the liver, via the common hepatic duct and releases it via the common bile duct into the duodenum , where the bile helps in the digestion of fats . (orange.com)
  • Next, a hormone called cholecystokinin (CCK), causes gall bladder contraction, which discharges bile into the duodenum. (livestrong.com)
  • The flow of bile from the ampulla of Vater into the duodenum is under the control of the sphincter of Oddi . (cloudfront.net)
  • When open, the stored and concentrated bile (now mixed with pancreatic secretions) exits into the duodenum and takes part in digestion . (cloudfront.net)
  • Choledochoduodenostomy - a surgical procedure to create a connection between the common bile duct (CBD) and an alternative portion of the duodenum. (cloudfront.net)
  • 32 It is caused by impaired bile salt secretion due to defects in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP). (rarecholestasis.com)
  • Indeed, our group demonstrated in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHCs) that OS induces rapid endocytic internalization of the bile salt export pump (Bsep, AKA: Abcc11) (Perez 2006b), the main canalicular bile salt transporter. (1library.co)
  • Many waste products, including bilirubin, are eliminated from the body by secretion into the bile and elimination in the stool. (scopeheal.com)
  • Conjugation of bilirubin increases its solubility and facilitates its secretion into bile. (rarecholestasis.com)
  • The liver converts bilirubin into a water-soluble form to be secreted into bile. (pharmaguddu.com)
  • A large number of toxic exogenous and endogenous compounds are released from the body with bile (bilirubin, cholesterol, metabolites of medicinal products, xenobiotics, etc. (kiev.ua)
  • By using the protocol above, connection site by bile canaliculi have been formed between hepatocyte and bile duct. (bionauts.jp)
  • Intestine farnesoid X receptor agonist and the gut microbiota activate G-protein bile acid receptor-1 signaling to improve metabolism. (omeka.net)
  • The hepatic duct from the gall bladder and the cystic duct from the liver, form the bile duct which is about three inches long and one-quarter of an inch in diameter. (davisislandspharmacy.com)
  • When the bile is not needed to aid digestion, it is stored in the gall bladder, a receptacle about three inches in length and from one to one and a quarter of an inch in diameter. (davisislandspharmacy.com)
  • The gland secretes bile, a green-colored digestive enzyme stored in the gall bladder during fasting. (livestrong.com)
  • The gall bladder is a sac-like organ that is found under the liver, and its main function is to store bile. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • Bile flows out of the gall bladder through a duct called the cystic duct and then into the common bile duct. (a2zhealthy.com)
  • We postulate that this secretion mechanism involves lumenal bile salt-induced vesiculation of lipid microdomains in the exoplasmic hemileaflet of the canalicular membrane. (uab.edu)
  • BAs also regulate bile flow and lipid secretion. (avantilipids.com)
  • Bile flows from the centrilobular cells in zone 3 toward the portal triads in zone 1. (medscape.com)
  • It will be observed that the bile, which is held in the reservoir, is diverted from its original channel, the bile duct using the cystic duct as a diverticulum for the storing of the surplus bile. (davisislandspharmacy.com)
  • Similarly, although the liver secretes free cholesterol into bile, it can preferentially excrete non-cholesterol sterols into bile and the mechanism(s) of this process has yet to be elucidated as well. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bile also carries excess cholesterol out of the body and "pours" it into the gastrointestinal tract, where it can be distributed with other wastes. (scopeheal.com)
  • Secretion in the bile is an essential route to eliminating cholesterol. (scopeheal.com)
  • Gallstones, most of which are predominantly cholesterol, result from processes that allow cholesterol to precipitate out of the solution in the bile. (scopeheal.com)
  • Cholesterol, ingested as part of the diet or derivative of the hepatic synthesis, is converted into bile acid, cholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid, which is then conjugated with an amino acid ( glycine or taurine) to produce the conjugated form actively secreted in the canaliculus. (scopeheal.com)
  • Additionally, the alloacid has been found to reduce hepatic bile flow and cholesterol secretion. (avantilipids.com)
  • The bile acid family is a group of acid steroids synthesised from cholesterol in the liver. (rarecholestasis.com)
  • Cirrhosis scars the liver and prevents the flow of bile in and out of the organ. (livestrong.com)
  • In previous studies, we showed that the pro-oxidant model agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBuOOH) induces alterations in hepatocanalicular secretory function by activating Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C isoforms (cPKC), via F-actin disorganization followed by endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters relevant to bile formation (Mrp2, Bsep). (1library.co)
  • promoting F-actin rearrangement and further endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters critical for bile formation. (1library.co)
  • Animal experiments have been conducted in the preclinical stage but were unable to significantly predict the liver injury associated with the BSEP interference observed in humans because of interspecies differences in bile acid composition, hepatobiliary transporter modulation or constitutive expression, and other mechanisms 12 . (nature.com)
  • In this review, applications of SCH in studying hepatobiliary drug disposition and bile acid-mediated DILI are discussed. (docksci.com)
  • Bile synthesis and secretion are vital processes. (kiev.ua)
  • In living bone the canaliculi are occupied by the cytoplasmic processes of the osteocytes. (metaglossary.com)
  • in bone, canaliculi permit the diffusion of nutrients and wastes to and from osteocytes. (metaglossary.com)
  • CD13 is also present on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, epithelial cells from renal proximal tubules and intestinal brush border, bone marrow stromal cells, osteoclasts, and cells forming bile canaliculi. (biosb.com)
  • The bile canaliculi empty directly into the Canals of Hering. (wikipedia.org)
  • From here, bile enters the terminal channels (the canals of Hering), which gradually enlarge as they approach the portal canal. (medscape.com)
  • Gall stones are the most common antagonists of bile secretion. (livestrong.com)
  • The two most common types are Klatskin's and distal bile duct tumors. (livestrong.com)
  • This conduction of bile is the main function of the common bile duct. (cloudfront.net)
  • On abdominal ultrasonography , the common bile duct is most readily seen in the porta hepatis (where the CBD lies anterior to the portal vein and hepatic artery ). (cloudfront.net)
  • Does the common bile duct dilate after cholecystectomy? (cloudfront.net)
  • Bile does not contain enzymes like other secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. (scopeheal.com)