Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Perna: A genus of freshwater mussel in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. It is found in tropical and warm temperate coastal waters. Most species have green in their shells.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transcytosis: The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Facial Transplantation: The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Hand Transplantation: The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Flavonolignans: Heterodimers of FLAVONOIDS bound to LIGNANS.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Enkephalin, D-Penicillamine (2,5)-: A disulfide opioid pentapeptide that selectively binds to the DELTA OPIOID RECEPTOR. It possesses antinociceptive activity.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.ArchivesLeukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute: An acute leukemia exhibiting cell features characteristic of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and probably arising from MULTIPOTENT STEM CELLS.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Burns, ChemicalRegeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.

Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. (1/223)

The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, mediates the transport of a broad range of non-bile salt organic anions from liver into bile. cMOAT-deficient Wistar rats (TR-) are mutated in the gene encoding cMOAT, leading to defective hepatobiliary transport of a whole range of substrates, including bilirubin glucuronide. These mutants also have impaired hepatobiliary excretion of GSH and, as a result, the bile flow in these animals is reduced. In the present work we demonstrate a role for cMOAT in the excretion of GSH both in vivo and in vitro. Biliary GSH excretion in rats heterozygous for the cMOAT mutation (TR/tr) was decreased to 63% of controls (TR/TR) (114+/-24 versus 181+/-20 nmol/min per kg body weight). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably expressing the human cMOAT protein displayed >10-fold increase in apical GSH excretion compared with wild-type MDCKII cells (141+/-6.1 pmol/min per mg of protein versus 13.2+/-1.3 pmol/min per mg of protein in wild-type MDCKII cells). Similarly, MDCKII cells expressing the human multidrug resistance protein 1 showed a 4-fold increase in GSH excretion across the basolateral membrane. In several independent cMOAT-transfectants, the level of GSH excretion correlated with the expression level of the protein. Furthermore, we have shown, in cMOAT-transfected cells, that GSH is a low-affinity substrate for the transporter and that its excretion is reduced upon ATP depletion. In membrane vesicles isolated from cMOAT-expressing MDCKII cells, ATP-dependent S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione uptake is competitively inhibited by high concentrations of GSH (Ki approximately 20 mM). We concluded that cMOAT mediates low-affinity transport of GSH. However, since hepatocellular GSH concentrations are high (5-10 mM), cMOAT might serve an important physiological function in maintenance of bile flow in addition to hepatic GSH turnover.  (+info)

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase lipid products regulate ATP-dependent transport by sister of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 in bile canalicular membrane vesicles. (2/223)

Bile acid transport and secretion in hepatocytes require phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent recruitment of ATP-dependent transporters to the bile canalicular membrane and are accompanied by increased canalicular PI 3-kinase activity. We report here that the lipid products of PI 3-kinase also regulate ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione directly in canalicular membranes. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione in isolated canalicular vesicles from rat liver was reduced 50-70% by PI 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, at concentrations that are specific for Type I PI 3-kinase. Inhibition was reversed by addition of lipid products of PI 3-kinase (PI 3,4-bisphosphate and, to a lesser extent, PI 3-phosphate and PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate) but not by PI 4, 5-bisphosphate. A membrane-permeant synthetic 10-mer peptide that binds polyphosphoinositides and leads to activation of PI 3-kinase in macrophages doubled PI 3-kinase activity in canalicular membrane vesicles and enhanced taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione transport in canalicular membrane vesicles above maximal ATP-dependent transport. The effect of the peptide was blocked by wortmannin and LY294002. PI 3-kinase activity was also necessary for function of the transporters in vivo. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and PI 3-kinase activity were reduced in canalicular membrane vesicles isolated from rat liver that had been perfused with taurocholate and wortmannin. PI 3,4-bisphosphate enhanced ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate in these vesicles above control levels. Our results indicate that PI 3-kinase lipid products are necessary in vivo and in vitro for maximal ATP-dependent transport of bile acid and nonbile acid organic anions across the canalicular membrane. Our results demonstrate regulation of membrane ATP binding cassette transporters by PI 3-kinase lipid products.  (+info)

Primary active transport of organic anions on bile canalicular membrane in humans. (3/223)

Biliary excretion of several anionic compounds was examined by assessing their ATP-dependent uptake in bile canalicular membrane vesicles (CMV) prepared from six human liver samples. 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), sulfobromophthalein glutathione (BSP-SG), E3040 glucuronide (E-glu), beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E2-17G), grepafloxacin glucuronide (GPFXG), pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate, which are known to be substrates for the rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, and taurocholic acid (TCA), a substrate for the bile acid transporter, were used as substrates. ATP-dependent and saturable uptake of TCA, DNP-SG, LTC4, E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG was observed in all human CMV preparations examined, suggesting that these compounds are excreted in the bile via a primary active transport system in humans. Primary active transport of the other substrates was also seen in some of CMV preparations but was negligible in the others. The ATP-dependent uptake of all the compounds exhibited a large inter-CMV variation, and there was a significant correlation between the uptake of glutathione conjugates (DNP-SG, LTC4, and BSP-SG) and glucuronides (E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG). However, there was no significant correlation between TCA and the other organic anions, implying that the transporters for TCA and for organic anions are different also in humans. When the average value for the ATP-dependent uptake by each preparation of human CMVs was compared with that of rat CMVs, the uptake of glutathione conjugates and nonconjugated anions (pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate) in humans was approximately 3- to 76-fold lower than that in rats, whereas the uptake of glucuronides was similar in the two species. Thus there is a species difference in the primary active transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane that is less marked for glucuronides.  (+info)

Correlation of biliary excretion in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats. (4/223)

The relationship between biliary excretion in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats was examined. The biliary excretion of seven model substrates in 96-h sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes was determined by differential cumulative uptake of substrate in the monolayers preincubated in standard buffer (intact bile canaliculi) and Ca2+-free buffer (disrupted bile canaliculi). Biliary excretion in vivo was quantitated in bile duct-cannulated rats. The biliary excretion index of model substrates, equivalent to the percentage of retained substrate in the canalicular networks, was consistent with the percentage of the dose excreted in bile from in vivo experiments. The in vitro biliary clearance of inulin, salicylate, methotrexate, [D-pen2,5]enkephalin, and taurocholate, calculated as the ratio of the amount excreted into the bile canalicular networks and the area under the incubation medium concentration-time profile ( approximately 0, approximately 0, 4.1 +/- 1.0, 12.6 +/- 2.2, and 56. 2 +/- 6.0 ml/min/kg, respectively), correlated with their intrinsic in vivo biliary clearance (0.04, 0, 17.3, 34.4, and 116.9 ml/min/kg, respectively; r2 = 0.99). The model compound 264W94 was not excreted in bile either in vivo or in vitro. The glucuronide conjugate of 2169W94, the O-demethylated metabolite of 264W94, was excreted into bile in vitro when 2169W94, but not 264W94, was incubated with the monolayers; 2169W94 glucuronide undergoes extensive biliary excretion after administration of 264W94 or 2169W94 in vivo. Biliary excretion in long-term sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes correlates with in vivo biliary excretion. The study of biliary excretion of metabolites in the hepatocyte monolayers requires consideration of the status of metabolic activities.  (+info)

Dexamethasone- and osmolarity-dependent expression of the multidrug-resistance protein 2 in cultured rat hepatocytes. (5/223)

Expression of the conjugate export pump multidrug-resistance protein 2 (MRP2) in liver is regulated by endotoxin and anti-tumour agents. This paper reports on the effects of dexamethasone and osmolarity on MRP2 expression. MRP2 expression was studied at the protein, mRNA, immunocytochemical and functional levels in cultured rat hepatocytes. Protein and mRNA expression of MRP2 in rat hepatocytes 24 and 48 h after isolation were largely dependent on the presence of dexamethasone (100 nmol/l) in the culture medium. MRP2 was localized at the pseudocanalicular membrane and increased expression of MRP2 was accompanied by a widening of the pseudocanaliculi. In presence of dexamethasone, hypo-osmolarity (205 mosmol/l) led to a strong induction of MRP2 mRNA and protein, whereas expression was decreased by hyperosmolarity (405 mosmol/l). Also, a decay of MRP2 protein and mRNA following dexamethasone withdrawal was osmosensitive. Expression of dipeptidylpeptidase IV, another canalicular protein, was unaffected by dexamethasone and osmolarity. It is concluded that glucocorticoids are strong inducers of MRP2 in liver. Besides short-term carrier insertion/retrieval, osmoregulation of MRP2 also involves a long-term effect on MRP2 expression.  (+info)

Canalicular membrane transport is primarily responsible for the difference in hepatobiliary excretion of triethylmethylammonium and tributylmethylammonium in rats. (6/223)

Two structurally similar quaternary ammonium compounds, triethylmethylammonium (TEMA, M(r) 116) and tributylmethylammonium (TBuMA, M(r) 200) were used as model compounds to identify the unit process of hepatobiliary excretion that is responsible for markedly different biliary excretion of organic cations (OCs). Cumulative biliary excretion (in percentage of dose; i.v., 12 micromol/kg) was 0.17 for TEMA and 34.5 for TBuMA. In vivo uptake clearance into the liver was 0.686 +/- 0.020 ml/min for TEMA and 0.421 +/- 0.028 ml/min for TBuMA. When the uptake clearance was examined in an isolated hepatocyte system, comparable clearance between TEMA and TBuMA was obtained, consistent with the in vivo result. These observations suggest that uptake into the liver is not the major determinant for the difference in biliary excretion of the OCs. Coadministration of colchicine, an inhibitor of microtubule formation, had no effect on biliary excretion of the model compounds, and the primary site of subcellular distribution of the OCs appears to be the cytosol, suggesting that intracellular movement does not play a major role in the markedly different biliary excretion of the OCs. In contrast, in vivo excretion clearance across the canalicular membrane for TBuMA was 180-fold greater than that for TEMA, and in vitro efflux clearance of TBuMA was smaller than that of TEMA (p <.01), indicative of involvement of these processes in the markedly different biliary excretion of the OCs. Therefore, these data indicate that canalicular transport is primarily responsible for the markedly different biliary excretion of TEMA and TBuMA.  (+info)

Species differences in the transport activity for organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane. (7/223)

Species differences in the transport activity mediated by canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) were examined using temocaprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor whose biliary excretion is mediated predominantly by cMOAT, and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, a typical substrate for cMOAT, in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Temocaprilat was infused to examine the biliary excretion rate at steady-state. The in vivo transport clearance values across the bile canalicular membrane, defined as the biliary excretion rate divided by the hepatic unbound concentrations, were 9.8, 39.2, 9.2, 1.1, and 0.8 ml/min/kg for mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog, respectively. The K(m) and V(max) values for ATP-dependent uptake of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione into canalicular membrane vesicles were 15.0, 29.6, 16.1, 55.8, and 30.0 microM and 0.38, 1.90, 0.15, 0. 47, and 0.23 nmol/min/mg protein, yielding the in vitro transport clearance across the bile canalicular membrane (V(max)/K(m)) of 25.5, 64.2, 9.4, 8.4, and 7.7 for mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog, respectively. A close in vivo and in vitro correlation was observed among animal species for the transport clearance across the bile canalicular membrane. These results suggest that the uptake experiments with canalicular membrane vesicles can be used to quantitatively predict in vivo excretion across the bile canalicular membrane.  (+info)

Canalicular export pumps traffic with polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor on the same microtubule-associated vesicle in rat liver. (8/223)

Basolateral to apical vesicular transcytosis in the hepatocyte is an essential pathway for the delivery of compounds from the sinusoidal blood to the bile and to traffic newly synthesized resident apical membrane proteins to their site of function at the canalicular membrane front. To characterize this pathway better, microtubules in a hepatocyte homogenate were polymerized by addition of taxol, and associated membrane-bound vesicles were isolated. This fraction was enriched in polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor and contained apical membrane proteins. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor was localized predominantly on vesicles ranging from 100 to 160 nm and that the multidrug resistance protein 2 and the bile salt export pump co-localized on these vesicles. The minus-ended microtubule motor, dynein, was highly enriched in the fraction, and its intermediate chain could be released effectively by incubation with 1 mM ATP or GTP. However, the association of the transcytotic vesicles with the microtubules was not sensitive to hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable nucleotides. This study characterizes a fraction of microtubule-associated vesicles from rat hepatocytes and demonstrates that several resident apical membrane transport proteins and the polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor traffic on the same vesicle.  (+info)

*Bile canaliculus

... (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi merge and form bile ductules, which eventually become common hepatic duct. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi but are sparse. Bile Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Bile canaliculi are formed by grooves on some of the lateral faces of these hepatocytes. ...

*Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Plentiful canalicular multiple drug-resistant protein causes bilirubin transfer to bile canaliculi. An isoform of this protein ... This condition is associated with a defect in the ability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into the bile, and is ... is a result of defective endogenous and exogenous transfer of anionic conjugates from hepatocytes into the bile. Impaired ...

*Regucalcin

... induces formation of microvilli and bile canaliculi in Hep G2 cells". Cell and Tissue Research. 320 (2): 243-9. doi:10.1007/ ...

*Cell damage

In the liver, the enlargement of hepatocytes due to fatty change may compress adjacent bile canaliculi, leading to cholestasis ...

*Canals of Hering

They are found between the bile canaliculi and interlobular bile ducts near the outer edge of a classic liver lobule. ... The Canals of Hering, or intrahepatic bile ductules, are part of the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. ...

*Liver

The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile canaliculi, small grooves between the faces of adjacent hepatocytes. The ... Bile either drains directly into the duodenum via the common bile duct, or is temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the ... The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile aids ... They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts ...

*List of MeSH codes (A03)

... bile ducts, intrahepatic MeSH A03.159.183.158.125 --- bile canaliculi MeSH A03.556.124.369 --- intestinal mucosa MeSH A03.556. ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH A03.159.183.079 --- bile ducts, extrahepatic MeSH A03.159.183.079.300 --- common bile duct MeSH ... bile canaliculi MeSH A03.734.414.065 --- glucagon-secreting cells MeSH A03.734.414.131 --- insulin-secreting cells MeSH A03.734 ...

*Canaliculus

... several small ducts in the eye The dental canaliculi, the blood supply within a tooth Bile canaliculi, where the bile produced ... through it Canaliculus (parietal cell), an adaptation found on gastric parietal cells The lacrimal canaliculi, ... In anatomy, a canaliculus is a small passageway. Examples include: Two functionally different structures in bone: Bone ... canaliculus innominatus), a small occasional opening in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. ...

*Cathepsin E

... associates with the membrane tissue in the intracellular canaliculi of gastric parietal cells, bile canaliculi of ...

*Cholestasis

Bile is secreted by the liver to aid in the digestion of fats. Bile formation begins in bile canaliculi that form between two ... Canalicular bile plugs between individual hepatocytes or within bile ducts may also be seen, representing bile that has been ... GGT is elevated because it leaks out from the bile duct cells due to pressure from inside bile ducts. In a later stage of ... When these plugs occur within the bile duct, sufficient pressure (caused by bile accumulation) can cause them to rupture, ...

*Jaundice

... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... or blockage of the bile duct. In the developed world, the cause is more often blockage of the bile duct or medications while in ... because of the direct and indirect effects of pruritogens in bile such as bile salts. No single test can differentiate between ... Blockage of the bile duct may occur due to gallstones, cancer, or pancreatitis. Medical imaging such as ultrasound is useful ...

*Bile duct

The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required ... The bile duct is green like the gallbladder, because of bile stains. Inflation of a balloon in the bile duct causes, through ... Blockage of the bile duct by gallstones, scarring from injury, or cancer prevents the bile from being transported to the ...

*Biliary tract

Bile canaliculi >> Canals of Hering >> intrahepatic bile ductule (in portal tracts / triads) >> interlobular bile ducts >> left ... store and secrete bile. Bile consists of water, electrolytes, bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and conjugated bilirubin. ... Between meals, secreted bile is stored in the gall bladder. During a meal, the bile is secreted into the duodenum to rid the ... leaving the bile acids and cholesterol. During a meal, the smooth muscles in the gallbladder wall contract, leading to the bile ...

*Liver cytology

The canalicular surfaces are the ones through which bile drains from the hepatocytes to the canaliculi. They represent 15% of ... The cytoplasm of the hepatocyte near canaliculi is rich in actin filaments, and they are probably capable of modifying the ... These surfaces are involved in the exchange of substances between the hepatocyte, the vessels and the biliar canaliculi. The ... canaliculi's diameter, thus influencing the flow; however this is not yet proven. The intercellular surfaces are the ones that ...

*Technetium (99mTc) mebrofenin

Once in the hepatocytes, 99mTc mebrofenin is secreted into the canaliculi and finally excreted by the bile ducts. The two ... HEF is 100% in normal individuals, in most patients remains close to 100% with partial common bile duct obstruction and in ... the common bile duct and finally the small intestines. Patients fasting for the normal requirement of 4 hours and have normal ...

*Heme

This form of bilirubin is excreted from the liver in bile. Excretion of bilirubin from liver to biliary canaliculi is an active ...

*Intrahepatic bile ducts

Intralobular bile ducts (cholangioles or Canals of Hering) - simple cuboidal epithelium, then by hepatocytes Bile canaliculi - ... Intrahepatic bile ducts compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. They can be divided into: Lobar ... Interlobular bile ducts (between the interlobar ducts and the lobules) - simple columnar epithelium. ... two half-canaliculi formed by the hepatocytes facing the perisinusoidal space editor-in-chief, Susan Standring ; section ...

*Choleoeimeria

The endogenous development of the parasite occurs in the cells of the bile epithelium. The infected host cell becomes ... Macrogamont: The organelles include type 1 and type 2 wall forming bodies, canaliculi and granular bodies. Oocyte: The oocyst ...

*Liver function tests

Bile duct obstruction by gallstones, hepatitis, cirrhosis or cancer should be suspected. About 5% of the population has ... ALP is associated with the plasma membrane of hepatocytes adjacent to the biliary canaliculus. Obstruction or inflammation of ... Obstruction can be located either within the liver or in the bile duct). The diagnosis is narrowed down further by evaluating ... ALP levels in plasma rise with large bile duct obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, or infiltrative diseases of the liver. ...

*Omeprazole

In the acidic conditions of the canaliculi of parietal cells, both enantiomers are converted to chiral products (sulfenic acid ... primarily originating from bile secretion.[citation needed] Omeprazole contains a tricoordinated sulfinyl sulfur in a pyramidal ...

*Index of anatomy articles

... labia majora labia minora labium labrum labyrinth lacrimal bone lacrimal canaliculus lacrimal fossa lacrimal gland lacrimal ... recess sphenoid bone sphenoidal sinus sphenopalatine artery sphenopalatine foramen sphincter sphincter of the bile duct ... avis calcar femorale calcarine cortex calcarine fissure calcarine sulcus calf calix calvaria calyx canal of Schlemm canaliculus ... pedunculi basket cell basolateral amygdala biceps bicipital aponeurosis bicuspid valve bifurcation bilateral symmetry bile duct ...

*Erythropoietic protoporphyria

However, it is known to alter the composition of bile, to protect hepatocytes from the cytotoxic effect of hydrophobic bile ... presence of protoporphyrin deposits in the hepatocytes that can be observed as a brown pigment within the biliary canaliculi ... Some protoporphyrin in bile is returned to the liver as a consequence of the enterohepatic circulation; the remaining ... Several drugs are used off label by patients with EPP: Ursodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid that is administered to promote ...

*Scipionyx

Also biliverdine was present, a bile component expected in the liver. The blood might also partly have originated from the ... showing individual osteocytes including their inner hollow spaces and the canaliculi. Also the internal blood vessels of the ...

*Outline of human anatomy

Liver Common hepatic duct Gall bladder Cystic duct Bile duct Pancreas Pancreatic islets Nose Nasal cavity Nasal septum Spheno- ... Lacrimal caruncle Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland Lacus lacrimalis Lacrimal papilla Lacrimal punctum Lacrimal canaliculus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503 phosphorylation and is regulated by tyrosine 488 phosphorylation. AU - Sippel, C. Jeffrey. AU - Fallon, Robert. AU - Perlmutter, David H.. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Transfection of cDNA for a hepatocyte canalicular phosphoprotein, the rat liver canalicular bile acid transporter/ecto-ATPase/cell CAM 105, confers bile acid efflux and ecto-ATPase activities on heterologous cells (Sippel, C. J., Suchy, F. J., Ananthanarayanan, M., and Perlmutter D. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2083-2091). Our previous studies have also indicated that there is a positive correlation between the degree of phosphorylation of this transporter and its bile acid efflux activity. In this study, we introduced site-specific mutations of amino acid residues within a protein kinase C- dependent (T502A, S503A) and a tyrosine kinase-dependent (Y488F) phosphorylation consensus sequence in ...
Intrahepatic cholestasis represents 20%-40%of drug-induced injuries from which a large proportion remains unpredictable. We aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying drug-induced cholestasis and improve its early detection using human HepaRG cells and a set of 12 cholestatic drugs and six noncholestatic drugs. In this study, we analyzed bile canaliculi dynamics, Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway implication, efflux inhibition of taurocholate [a predominant bile salt export pump (BSEP) substrate], and expression of the major canalicular and basolateral bile acid transporters. We demonstrated that 12 cholestatic drugs classified on the basis of reported clinical findings caused disturbances of both bile canaliculi dynamics, characterized by either dilatation or constriction, and alteration of the ROCK/MLCK signaling pathway, whereas noncholestatic compounds, by contrast, had no effect. Cotreatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 [4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide
Disruption of the murine mdr2 gene leads to the complete absence of biliary phospholipids. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in biliary phospholipid output induced by fibrates is mediated via induction of the hepatic mdr2 gene and its encoded product, the P-glycoprotein canalicular flippase. Increased levels of mdr2 mRNA were observed in the liver of mice treated with different fibrates: ciprofibrate, 660±155% (as compared with control group); clofibrate, 611±77%; bezafibrate, 410±47%; fenofibrate, 310±52%; gemfibrozil, 190±25% (P , 0.05 compared with control group). Induction of expression of the mdr gene family was specific to the mdr2 gene. Two- to three-fold increases in P-glycoprotein immunodetection were evident on the canalicular plasma-membrane domain of clofibrate- and ciprofibrate-treated mice. Biliary phospholipid output increased from 4.2±1.2 nmol/min per g of liver in the control group to 8.5±0.6, 7.1±2.9 and 5.8±2.5 in ciprofibrate-, clofibrate- and ...
Recent studies have suggested that the canalicular bile salt transport system of rat liver corresponds to a 100-kDa membrane glycoprotein. In the present study we attempted to functionally reconstitute the 100-kDa protein into artificial proteoliposomes. Canalicular membrane proteins were solubilized with octyl glucoside in the presence of asolectin phospholipids. The extracts were treated with preimmune serum or the 100-kDa protein selectively immunoprecipitated with a polyclonal antiserum. Proteins remaining in the supernatant were then incorporated into proteoliposomes by gel-filtration chromatography. Canalicular proteoliposomes containing the 100-kDa protein exhibited transstimulatable taurocholate uptake that could be inhibited by 4,4-diisothiocyanato-2,2-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). In contrast, no DIDS-sensitive transstimulatable taurocholate uptake was found in 100-kDa protein-free canalicular proteoliposomes. However, when the immunoprecipitated 100-kDa protein was dissociated ...
In this study, we have characterized the pathway of ATP7B transport from the TGN to the bile canaliculus in response to the elevation of intracellular Cu+ levels in the rat hepatoma cell line Can 10.. The Cu+-induced release of ATP7B from the TGN was found to be a rapid process that begins within 5 min of the addition of 40 µM Cu+ and is completed within 20-25 min. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 delayed the detachment of the cisterna carrying ATP7B from the TGN, demonstrating that cisterna detachment is a prerequisite to the generation of transport vesicles, as has previously been described in plants (Uemura et al., 2014). This process is pH dependent, and the rapidity of this occurrence in mammalian cells is probably why it has not been previously observed in organisms other than plants. Our studies also show that the vesicles loaded with ATP7B budding from the TGN do not contain lysosomal membrane proteins, suggesting that these are instead segregated into vesicles distinct from those ...
Gerloff, T., Meier, P. J. and Stieger, B. (1998), Taurocholate induces preferential release of phosphatidylcholine from rat liver canalicular vesicles. Liver, 18: 306-312. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1998.tb00810.x ...
The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary phy
Stieger, Bruno; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A (2013). Bile salt Export Pump BSEP (ABCB11): Role in liver physiology and liver disease. In: Ishikawa, T; Kim, R B; König, J. Pharmacogenomics of Human Drug Transporters: Clinical Impacts. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 295-309. ...
Multiplicity for the transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was studied in vivo and in vitro using dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP), [14C]cefodizime, [3H]leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and indocyanine green (ICG) as model compounds in rats. A high concentration of DBSP in plasma reduced the biliary excretion of cefodizime and leukotriene radioactivity to about 15 and 35% of their control values, respectively, but did not affect the excretion of ICG. A high plasma concentration of ICG reduced the excretion of cefodizime to about 60% of the control value, but exerted minimal effect on the excretion of leukotriene radio-activity and DBSP. In vitro, ATP-dependent uptake of LTC4 into the canalicular membrane vesicles was reduced by DBSP, cefodizime and ICG in a dose-dependent manner, with approximate IC50 values of 0.1 microM, 10 microM, and 1 microM, respectively. The hepatic unbound concentration of DBSP sufficient to reduce the excretion of cefodizime, leukotriene radioactivity and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The unique polarity phenotype of hepatocytes. AU - Müsch, Anne. PY - 2014/11/1. Y1 - 2014/11/1. N2 - Hepatocytes, the main epithelial cell type of the liver, function like all epithelial cells to mediate the vectorial flow of macromolecules into and out of the organ they encompass. They do so by establishing polarized surface domains and by restricting paracellular flow via their tight junctions and cell-cell adhesion. Yet, the cell and tissue organization of hepatocytes differs profoundly from that of most other epithelia, including those of the digestive and urinary tracts, the lung or the breast. The latter form monolayered tissues in which the apical domains of individual cells align around a central continuous luminal cavity that constitutes the tubules and acini characteristic of these organs. Hepatocytes, by contrast, form capillary-sized lumina with multiple neighbors resulting in a branched, tree-like bile canaliculi network that spreads across the liver parenchyme. I ...
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an "H". Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
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During the summer, most people find themselves going to bed later than usual. However, this habit does have a negative toll on your body. What is staying up late? 12 am? 3 am? Everybodys body has a different perception of staying up late. Late doesnt have so much to do with the hour, rather…
What exactly is a couplet? Is that two PVCs occuring in a row? Are they more dangerous than single PVCs? What about 3 or 4 in a row? Last night, I was driving home from work and I felt a really...
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The protein encoded by this gene is the major canalicular bile salt export pump in man. Mutations in this gene cause a form of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestases which are a group of inherited disorders with severe cholestatic liver disease from early infancy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
A number of processes could have contributed to the lower canalicular enzyme activities in diclofenac-treated rats including: 1) redistribution of proteins from the canalicular membrane to other intracellular domains, 2) decreased protein synthesis, or 3) decreased activity as a result of adduct formation. It has been reported that several models of cholestasis are associated with redistribution of canalicular proteins and/or decreased synthesis (Barr and Hubbard, 1993; Stieger et al., 1994; Rost et al., 1999). For example, phalloidin-induced cholestasis in rats causes redistribution of ecto-ATPase, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, and a number of ATP-dependent transporter proteins as a result of disruption and internalization of canalicular membrane fragments (Rost et al., 1999). Bile duct ligation in rats has also been associated with decreased localization of dipeptidylpeptidase IV and ecto-ATPase to canalicular membranes and intracellular accumulation as a result of altered delivery of newly ...
Gene name: ATP binding cassette subfamily B, member 11 (ABCB11). Summary. ABCB11, more commonly referred to as BSEP (Bile Salt Export Pump) is a uni-directional, ATP-dependent efflux transporter that plays an important role in the elimination of bile salts from the hepatocyte into the bile canaliculi for export into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is almost exclusively expressed in the liver, with much lower levels reported in the kidney. It is predominantly of relevance to hepatotoxicity, as BSEP inhibition by a drug and/or its metabolites can result in the build-up of bile salts in the liver, which can lead to cholestasis and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Compared to other drug transporters there are only few identified drug substrates and inhibitors of BSEP; thus, its involvement in drug-drug interactions (DDI) is very limited. The relevance of in vitro BSEP inhibition as a predictor of clinical outcomes is not clearly established, but whenever cholestatic liver injury is observed in ...
Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable to the substance moved or because the substance is moved against the direction of its concentration gradient.[7] There are two forms of active transport, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport, the proteins involved are pumps that normally use chemical energy in the form of ATP. Secondary active transport, however, makes use of potential energy, which is usually derived through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient. The energy created from one ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is used to power the transport of another ion moving against its electrochemical gradient.[8] This involves pore-forming proteins that form channels across the cell membrane. The difference between passive transport and active transport is that the active transport ...
hypothetical protein, ABCB1LB, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1-like B, A306_07528, ABC16, ABC member 16, MDR/TAP subfamily, AS27_06659, AS28_00614, ATP-binding cassette protein B11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11-like protein, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 11, bile salt export pump, BRIC2, BSEP, BSEP/SPGP, CB1_000638007, D623_10034923, GW7_06212, H920_16172, I79_001236, Lith1, liver bile salt export pump, M91_01875, M959_07155, MDA_GLEAN10024246, Multidrug resistance protein 1, N301_03105, N302_06788, N303_07198, N305_06591, N306_04080, N307_07545, N308_11810, N309_07944, N312_11735, N321_13718, N327_01303, N328_07355, N329_09470, N331_01374, N332_02914, N333_01536, N334_13094, N336_04014, N340_01262, N341_10800, PAL_GLEAN10025937, PFIC2, PFIC-2, PGY4, progressive familial ...
We have compared by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting the expression and distribution of adhesion molecules participating in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions during embryonic development and regeneration of rat liver. Fibronectin and the fibronectin receptor, integrin alpha 5 beta 1, were distributed pericellularly and expressed at a steady level during development from the 16th day of gestation and in neonate and adult liver. AGp110, a nonintegrin fibronectin receptor was first detected on the 17th day of gestation in a similar, nonpolarized distribution on parenchymal cell surfaces. At that stage of development haemopoiesis is at a peak in rat liver and fibronectin and receptors alpha 5 beta 1 and AGp110 were prominent on the surface of blood cell precursors. During the last 2 d of gestation (20th and 21st day) hepatocytes assembled around lumina. AGp110 was initially depolarized on the surface of these acinar cells but then confined to the lumen and to newly-formed bile canaliculi. ...
A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 mu m(2) field of view has been used for high-resolution (30-40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 mu m), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro-and nanostructure. To test this method we performed Zernike phase contrast and absorption contrast imaging of mouse cancellous bone prepared under different conditions of in vivo loading, fixation, and contrast agents. In addition, the three-dimensional structure was examined using tomography. Individual osteocytic lacunae were observed embedded within trabeculae in cancellous bone. Extensive canalicular networks were evident and included processes with diameters near the 30-40 nm instrument resolution that have not been reported ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Brandy Garzel, Hui Yang, Lei Zhang, Shiew-Mei Huang, James E Polli, Hongbing Wang].
The purpose was to determine the effect on the morphine-morphine glucuronide systems of Triton X-100 instilled into the area of the hepatic canalicular membrane by segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection (40 microliters of 0.4% Triton + 31 microliters of saline) in the isolated in situ perfused livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats. In all experiments, [14C]morphine was given by segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection (40 microliters of [14C]morphine + 110 microliters of saline). The control single pass perfusate contained 15.8% [14C]morphine glucuronide (MG) and 6.2% [14C]morphine. With Triton, the major changes observed were an unusual plateau-like pattern of egress of the [14C]MG into the perfusate and a profound decrease in the [14C]MG excretion into bile. In controls, 45 mg of unlabeled morphine sulfate intraportally 5 min before the [14C]morphine reduced the perfusate [14C]MG and increased [14C]morphine as expected by isotope dilution. Also, [14C]MG recovery in bile was accordingly ...
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
Purpose. To investigate the microstructure of the lacrimal canaliculus and the characteristics of lacrimal canalicular diseases by 80-MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).. Methods. This study included 33 participants: 20 normal subjects (40 eyes), 2 patients with chronic lacrimal canaliculitis (4 eyes), 10 patients with chronic dacryocystitis (16 eyes), and 1 patient with lacrimal punctum atresia (2 eyes). All participants underwent 80-MHz UBM; disease-specific features were noted.. Results. On 80-MHz UBM of the lacrimal canaliculi (vertical section) in normal subjects, low echo of the lacrimal canalicular lumen and high echo of the lacrimal canalicular wall were observed. The uniform low echo near the wall was the mucosal epithelium. The outermost layer of medium-to-high echo was the subepithelial elastic fibrous layer. In the horizontal section, the lumen was continuous. Two linear high echoes parallel to the canalicular wall could be observed at the center of the lacrimal canaliculus, which ...
The Lith1 region on Chromosome (Chr) 2 contains a gene that markedly affects the prevalence of cholesterol gallstones in inbred mice. We report the high-resolution genetic and radiation hybrid maps of the chromosomal region surrounding Lith1, using three resources: a DNA panel from 188 progeny from two reciprocal backcrosses between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus inbred strains; 423 progeny of an N4 generation from backcrossing the susceptible C57L/J alleles at Lith1 into the resistant AKR/J strain; and the newly developed hamster-mouse T31 radiation hybrid panel. We mapped 17 microsatellite markers in the D2Mit182 to D2Mit14 region and two candidate genes for Lith1, the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) also known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) and the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related gene megalin (Gp330). Both genetic maps were in agreement and ordered the microsatellite markers into a 10.4 +/- 1.5 cM region. The high-resolution physical map revealed ordering of microsatellite
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is an ABC-transporter expressed at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its physiological role is to expel bile salts into the canaliculi from where they drain into the bile duct. Inhibition of this transporter may lead to intrahepatic cholestasis. Predictive computational models of BSEP inhibition may allow for fast identification of potentially harmful compounds in large databases. This article presents a predictive in silico model based on physicochemical descriptors that is able to flag compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors. This model was built using a training set of 670 compounds with available BSEP inhibition potencies. It successfully predicted BSEP inhibition for two independent test sets and was in a further step used for a virtual screening experiment. After in vitro testing of selected candidates, a marketed drug, bromocriptin, was identified for the first time as BSEP inhibitor. This demonstrates the usefulness of the model to identify new BSEP ...
A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately dense material. ...
Cell-derived membrane vesicles (CMVs) are endogenous carriers transporting proteins and nucleic acids between cells. They appear to play an important role in many disease processes, most notably inflammation and cancer, where their efficient functional delivery of biological cargo seems to contribute to the disease progress. CMVs encompass a variety of submicron vesicular structures that include exosomes and shedding vesicles. The lipids, proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) delivered by these vesicles change the phenotype of the receiving cells. CMVs have created excitement in the drug delivery field, because they appear to have multiple advantages over current artificial drug delivery systems. Two approaches to exploit CMVs for delivery of exogenous therapeutic cargoes in vivo are currently considered. One approach is based on engineering of natural CMVs in order to target certain cell types using CMVs loaded with therapeutic compounds. In the second approach, essential characteristics of CMVs are
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. trandolaprilat ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Uchiumi T., Hinoshita E., Haga S., Nakamura T., Tanaka T., Toh S., Furukawa M., Kawabe T., Wada M., Kagotani K., Okumura K., Kohno K., Akiyama S., Kuwano M.. The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP) gene encodes a membrane protein involved in the ATP-dependent transport of hydrophobic compounds. We previously isolated a canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, cMOAT1/MRP2, that belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, which is specifically expressed in liver, and cMOAT1/MRP2 is responsible for the defects in hyperbilirubinemia II/Dubin-Johnson syndrome. In this study, we isolated a new cDNA of the ABC superfamily designated cMOAT2/MRP3 that is homologous to human MRP1 and cMOAT1/MRP2: cMOAT2/MRP3 is 56% identical to MRP1 and 45% identical to cMOAT1/MRP2, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the chromosomal locus of this gene on chromosome 17q22. The human cMOAT2 cDNA hybridized to a 6.5-kb mRNA that was mainly expressed in liver and to a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - X-linked cholestasis in mouse due to mutations of the P4-ATPase ATP11C. AU - Siggs, Owen M.. AU - Schnabl, Bernd. AU - Webb, Bill. AU - Beutler, Bruce. PY - 2011/5/10. Y1 - 2011/5/10. N2 - Transporters at the hepatic canalicular membrane are essential for the formation of bile and the prevention of cholestatic liver disease. One such example is ATP8B1, a P4-type ATPase disrupted in three inherited forms of intrahepatic cholestasis. Mutation of the X-linked mouse gene Atp11c, which encodes a paralogous P4-type ATPase, precludes B-cell development in the adult bone marrow, but also causes hyperbilirubinemia. Here we explore this hyperbilirubinemia in two independent Atp11c mutant mouse lines, and find that it originates from an effect on nonhematopoietic cells. Liver function tests and histology revealed only minor pathology, although cholic acid was elevated in the serum of mutant mice, and became toxic to mutant mice when given as a dietary supplement. The majority of homozygous ...
Implant devices, systems and methods for insertion into a punctum of a patient optionally comprises a drug core and a sheath body disposed over the drug core. The drug core includes a therapeutic agent deliverable into the eye, and the sheath defines at least one exposed surface of the drug core. The exposed surface(s) of the drug core may contact a tear or tear film fluid and release the therapeutic agent at therapeutic levels over a sustained period when the implant is implanted for use. The implant may include a retention element to retain the drug core and sheath body near the punctum, optionally comprising a shape memory alloy that can resiliently expand. An occlusive element may be attached to the retention element to at least partially occlude tear flow through the canalicular lumen.
Membrane transport proteins are known to influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) of drugs. At the onset of this thesis work, only a few structure-activity models, in general describing P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1) interactions, were developed using small datasets with little structural diversity. In this thesis, drug-transport protein interactions were explored using large, diverse datasets representing the chemical space of orally administered registered drugs. Focus was set on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins expressed in the canalicular membrane of human hepatocytes.. The inhibition of the ABC transport proteins multidrug-resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) and bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) was experimentally investigated using membrane vesicles from cells overexpressing the investigated proteins and sandwich cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH). Several previously unknown inhibitors were identified for both of the proteins ...
Canali Milano charcoal birdseye wool suit 52/42R jacket, 36x30 pants Top line of Canali, full canvas construction, retailed about $2k Fratelli Tallia...
Here is a new paper on dinosaur bone histology, from this weeks Nature: Rensberger, J.M. & M. Watabe. 2000. Fine of bone in dinosaurs, birds, and mammals. Nature 406: 619-621. Unlike most papers so far on bone histology, this one concentrates on the fine-scale structures: in particular, the canaliculi and the college fibre bundles. The looked at a variety of modern mammal and bird bones, as well as previously published material on squamates and amphibians. Among fossils, they examined _Gallimimus_ and a Lancian ornithomimid, a Nemegt hadrosaur, _Protoceratops_, _Triceratops_, and previously published prosauropod material. In all non-dinosaurian taxa the canaliculi are radially oriented and the college bundles highly organized: this is almost certainly the primitive condition for tetrapods. In ornithomimids and birds the canaliculi are randomly oriented and college bundles are irregularly organized. Lamellae in the primary osteons of ornithischians and prosauropods are similar to those of the ...
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Hello everybody! I have a question concerning foreign names, to be more exact Russian names, because I translate from Russian. There are first names in Russian like Timofey, Alexey, Andrey (ey is read as a in the words fate, late etc., and not as ey in kidney, Sydney etc.). Accordingly, last names are formed by adding suffixes in Russian, on doing which we obtain, in direct transliteration, Alexeev, Timofeev, Andreev. It does not seem to be readable in English, because,
prendi con le pinza, seriamente, ogni suggerimento che ricevi qui. Noi non sappiamo che pasticci hanno combinato i developers di papublablabla sopra ad una gentoo liscia, per cui potremmo benissimo darti in buona fede dei consigli molto sbagliati. A tal proposito forse sarebbe stato più produttivo rivolgerti ai canali di supporto propri di quella particolare distribuzione ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and subcellular localization of aquaporin water channels in the polarized hepatocyte cell line, WIF-B. AU - Gradilone, Sergio A.. AU - Tietz, Pamela S.. AU - Splinter, Patrick L.. AU - Marinelli, Raúl A.. AU - LaRusso, Nicholas F.. PY - 2005/8/18. Y1 - 2005/8/18. N2 - Background: Recent data suggest that canalicular bile secretion involves selective expression and coordinated regulation of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels proteins. In order to further characterize the role of AQPs in this process, an in vitro cell system with retained polarity and expression of AQPs and relevant solute transporters involved in bile formation is highly desirable. The WIF-B cell line is a highly differentiated and polarized rat hepatoma/human fibroblast hybrid, which forms abundant bile canalicular structures. This cell line has been reported to be a good in vitro model for studying hepatocyte polarity. Results: Using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence, ...
We have previously shown that the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediates the ATP-dependent membrane transport of the endogenous glutathione conjugate leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and of structurally related anionic conjugates of lipophilic compounds [Jedlitschky, Leier, Buchholz, Center and Keppler (1994) Cancer Res. 54, 4833-4836; Leier, Jedlitschky, Buchholz, Cole, Deeley and Keppler (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 27807-27810]. We demonstrate in the present study that MRP also mediates the ATP-dependent transport of GSSG, as shown in membrane vesicles from human leukaemia cells overexpressing MRP (HL60/ADR cells) or HeLa cells transfected with an MRP expression vector (HeLa T5 cells) in comparison with the respective parental or control cells. The Km value for ATP-dependent transport of GSSG was 93±26 μM (mean value±S.D., n = 5) in membrane vesicles from HeLa T5 cells. GSH, at a concentration of 100 μM, was not a substrate for any significant ATP-dependent MRP-mediated transport. The transport ...
Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol.
Dr. Raffaella Canali of the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition in Rome found Pycnogenol inhibits the generation of COX-2 and 5-LOX, two naturally occurring enzymes associated with a host of inflammatory conditions. "This study reveals that Pycnogenol can actually decrease pain and reduce inflammatory conditions, as has been previously reported, by shutting down the production of specific enzymes involved with inflammation," Canali said in a statement. Inflammation is a tightly controlled, concerted action of immune cells fighting infections, irritations and injuries, when inflammation goes out of control it may target the bodys own tissue such as in arthritis or asthma, Canali said. The study, published in International Immunopharmacology, investigated healthy volunteers ages 35-50, who consumed Pycnogenol 150 milligram tablets for five consecutive days in the morning before breakfast. The study found taking Pycnogenol almost entirely subdued COX-2, 5-LOX and FLAPinduction in the ...
Previous studies suggest that LPS-induced cholestasis is mediated by impairment of the hepatobiliary transporting systems involved in the formation of bile. To date, several genes encoding hepatobiliary transporters localized to sinusoidal or canalicular membranes of hepatocytes have been cloned. It has been shown that LPS-mediated repression of hepatobiliary transporters is principally the result of down-regulation of gene expression (Green et al., 1996; Moseley et al., 1996; Trauner et al., 1997, 1998; Vos et al., 1998). Consistent with these published studies on other transporters, the present data demonstrate that LPS treatment also produces a time-dependent decrease in mouse Oatp4 mRNA levels (Fig. 1). Oatp4 mRNA levels return to control values after a single injection of LPS, indicating that the effects of LPS on Oatp4 mRNA are reversible in this model. Among the rat Oatps, Oatp4 mRNA levels have been shown to be relatively high in liver (Li et al., 2002). Oatp4 mediates Na+-independent ...
A couple of years ago I had a very AGGRAVATING Amtrak train trip from New Haven CT to the Metropark stop in NJ to visit family. I do it 2 or 3 times a year; its uneventful. When I checked in at the ticket window I was told the train would be late. I asked HOW late.Maybe a couple hours, maybe longer. The trip is only around two and a half hours. After about three hours,a new announcement:the train wasnt coming. None of the other NJ bound trains that originated east of New Haven showed up,either-something to do with flooding on the tracks from a couple of days earlier! In the end, Amtrak took an Acela train off the schedule to transport all those whose trains had not shown up that morning. After we had been enroute for a while,it was announced that we would not know until just before reaching Penn station if Penn Station would be the end of the line for us,making it necessary to find alternate transportation the rest of the way. Closer to Penn Station we were told ALL of the NJ stops would ...
Renal failure is a pathological condition which is characterized by a complete or partial renal disfunction in maintaining chemical constancy of the organism. Renal failure is accompanied with improper process of secretion and removal of urine, water-salt, acid-alkaline and osmotic imbalance, slow removal of nonvolatile acids and nitrous products (urea, creatinine, urinary acid, etc.).. From the point of view of pathogeny and clinical development of the disease there are two types of renal failure: acute and chronic.. Acute renal failure (ARF) is a severe disfunction of one or both kidneys that affects either all nephrons, or all parts of canaliculi, or glomerular system. ARF develops as a result of affection of various pathological exogenous or endogenous causes on renal parenchyma.. Diagnostics is based first of all on the anamnesis: whether the patient used toxicant products or medicinal preparations, attempted to do an abortion, etc. Further, it is necessary to exclude obstruction of urinary ...
According to Sacred Medical Order Church of Hope, a bilious attack or biliousness is related to various unpleasant symptoms due to bile secretion or digestion disturbance. Causes of a bilious...
If youve been indulging in processed foods and sugar, here are 7 steps to encourage natural detoxification by supporting your livers secretion of bile!
This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate thats been signed by the U.S. government. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted - in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely.. ...
Previous studies have identified the ATP-dependent export of glutathione conjugates as a physiological function of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP). The involvement of MRP in the transport of endogenous and xenobiotic conjugates was investigated further using membrane vesicles from MRP-transfected HeLa cells. The ATP-dependent transport of the glutathione conjugates [3H]leukotriene C4, S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-[3H]glutathione, and 3H-labeled oxidized glutathione was characterized by determination of the transport efficiency Vmax:Km amounting to 1031, 114, and 7.1 ml × mg protein-1 × min-1, respectively. Additional endogenous substrates for MRP-mediated transport included the steroid conjugate 17β-glucuronosyl [3H]estradiol and the bile salt conjugates [6α-14C]glucuronosylhyodeoxycholate and 3α-sulfatolithocholyl [3H]taurine. The Km value of MRP for 17β-glucuronosyl [3H]estradiol was 1.5 ± 0.3 µm, with a Vmax:Km ratio of 42 ml × mg protein-1 × min-1, and a Ki value of 0.7 µm for the ...
1. A liver canalicular plasma-membrane fraction enriched 115-155-fold in five marker enzymes relative to the tissue homogenate was obtained by sonication of liver plasma membranes followed by fractionation in iso-osmotic Nycodenz gradients. 2. Two lateral-plasma membrane fractions were also collected by this procedure; the lighter-density fraction was still associated with canalicular membranes, as assessed by enzymic and polypeptide analysis. 3. The polypeptide composition of the domain-defined plasma-membrane fractions was evaluated. It was demonstrated by immunoblotting that the 41 kDa alpha-subunit of the inhibitory G-protein, associated in high relative amounts with canalicular plasma-membrane fractions, was partially lost in the last stage of purification; however, this subunit was retained by lateral plasma membranes. 4. Antibodies to the proteins of bile-canalicular vesicles were shown to localize to the hepatocyte surface in thin liver sections examined by immunofluorescent and ...
Bilirubin diglucuronide is a conjugated form of bilirubin formed in bilirubin metabolism. The hydrophilic character of bilirubin diglucuronide enables it to be water-soluble. It is pumped across the hepatic canalicular membrane into the bile by the transporter MRP2. Lengyel, G.; et al. (2007-08-29). "Modulation of sinusoidal and canalicular elimination of bilirubin-glucuronides by rifampicin and other cholestatic drugs in a sandwich culture of rat hepatocytes". Hepatology Research. Wiley. 38 (3): 300-309. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2007.00255.x. Metabolism ...
Other Course Information A. Objectives The overall objectives of this course are to introduce the students to the study of the medical sciences by both studying the subject matter as well as developing effective learning skills. The specific learning objectives are as follows: CASE 1 Anatomy: 1. Outline the common characteristics of synovial joints 2. Describe the normal composition of the synovial fluid 3. Explain the joints associated with the big toe 4. Describe the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe and associated movements 5. Trace the pathway from pain receptors of the thumb and big toe to the cerebral cortex Molecular Medicine: 1. Understand the metabolic pathways used for purine metabolism in man, and how that pathway is controlled. 2. Know the function of a key enzyme in the pathway that is a target for treatment. Physiology: 1. Differentiate among the following terms: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, secondary active transport and primary active transport. 2. Describe the ...
A lacrimal silicone stent has a very large diameter segment with a diameter greater than the largest diameter stent which can be pulled through the canaliculi readily without damaging the canaliculi, a thin central segment, a moderate diameter segment, and a distal segment with a lumen extending partway from its end. A lumen can also be provided in the very large diameter segment to enhance its flexibility. In addition, a lumina may be provided in the moderate diameter segment when it is formed as an extruded tube. Except for the lumina, the stent is solid. The stent may be molded in one piece, but it may also be made of molded and extruded segments which are fused together. To install the stent, according to a first method a sheath is inserted through the lacrimal system from the eye, through a DCR ostium into the nasal cavity. The distal segment is threaded into the sheath which is used to pull the distal segment back through the lacrimal system and out the superior canaliculus and punctum. A probe is
Here is the very detailed birth story of Kira Zoey. Its a long story, so if these things interest you, it might be a good read: First baby, Big baby: 10 pounds 1 ounce (56 110lb pre- pregnancy mom), 10 days late, birthing center to hospital transfer, 10 hour birthing time from start to finish…
Lacerations of the canalicular system often occur in the setting of trauma. The canaliculi are the mucosal ducts through which tears drain from the eye.
(NaturalNews) There is definitely no shortage of scientific evidence these days to show that curcumin, the believed-to-be primary active ingredient in the spice turmeric, holds incredible therapeutic value, and just might be the most advisable medicinal spice of our day. And a prominent medical oncologist from Johns Hopkins University seems to agree, having recently held…
Using improved physiological and chemical methods, we have investigated the effects on bile secretion of a high fat diet, of bile salt preparations, and of
I tiazidici, come lidroclorotiazide favorire la perdita di acqua dal corpo (diuretici). Essi inibiscono la Na + / Cl-riassorbimento da parte del tubulo contorto distale nei reni. I diuretici tiazidici anche causare la perdita di potassio e un aumento di livelli sierici di acido urico. I diuretici tiazidici sono spesso usati per trattare lipertensione, ma i loro effetti ipotensivi non sono necessariamente a causa della loro attività diuretica. I diuretici tiazidici hanno dimostrato di prevenire ipertensione correlata morbilità e mortalità anche se il meccanismo non è completamente nota. I diuretici tiazidici provocare vasodilatazione mediante lattivazione canali del potassio calcio-attivata (conduttanza di grandi dimensioni) in vascolare muscolatura liscia e inibendo vari carbonica anhydrases nel tessuto vascolare ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Paul OCallaghan, Jin-Ping Li, Lars Lannfelt, Ulf Lindahl, Xiao Zhang].
Irinotecan is a relatively new anticancer agent of interest for both its clinical activity and its complex clinical pharmacology. It is a prodrug, requiring activation by carboxylesterases to SN-38, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. Recent studies suggest that human carboxylesterase-2 is the primary carboxylesterase involved in the hydrolysis at pharmacological concentrations (1) . Irinotecan is also oxidized by CYP3A43 to the inactive metabolite 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin as well as to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(piperidino)-1-amino]carbonyloxycamptothecin, which can undergo hydrolysis to SN-38 (2, 3, 4) . SN-38 undergoes glucuronidation by UGT1A1 (5) and is possibly oxidized by CYP3A4 as well (6) . Mass balance studies have demonstrated that 64% of the total dose is excreted in the feces, confirming the important role of biliary excretion (7) . Studies suggest that canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter is the major transporter of irinotecan and ...
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B member 11 also known as ABCB11 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ABCB11 gene. The product of the ABCB11 gene is an ABC transporter named BSEP (Bile Salt Export Pump), or sPgp (sister of P-glycoprotein). This membrane-associated protein is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Some members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. This particular protein is responsible for the transport of taurocholate and other cholate conjugates from hepatocytes (liver cells) to the bile. In humans, the activity of this transporter is the major determinant of bile formation and bile flow. ABCB11 is a gene associated with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 ...
Bile acid in the stomach plays a key role in the digestion of food in the small intestine. Two chief bile acids produced in the body include chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These acids assist in the creation of micelles, which aids in breaking down dietary fat, and is integral for the digestion of fat in the small intestine. Bile acid is a fluid secreted by the hepatocytes that flows into the canaliculi. From the canaliculi, it reaches the bile ducts, and is then transferred to the gall bladder where it is concentrated with time and the addition of other bodily fluids. Bile acids are derived from the cholesterol inside of the hepatocytem, and are made up of hydrophilic or polar faces and lipid or hydrophobic faces. Cholesterol gets converted into chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids, which are two forms of bile acid. These are combined with amino acids and released into the canaliculi. This combined nature of bile acids enables them to perform two of the most important functions in the ...
Introduction to pharmacogenomics of drug transporters / Marianne K DeGorter and Richard B Kim -- ADME pharmacogenomics in drug development / Liangfu Chen and Joseph W. Polli -- Regulatory perspective on pharmacogenomics of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters / Lei Zhang [and others] -- The pharmacogenomics of membrane transporters project / Sook Wah Yee, Deanna L. Kroetz, Kathleen M. Giacomini -- Emerging new technology of SNP typing / Toshihisa Ishikawa and Yoshihide Hayashizaki -- Chapters 6: OATP1A2, OAT1 and OAT3 / Rommel G. Tirona -- OATP1B1, OATB1B3 and OATP2B1 / Jorg Konig and Martin Fromm -- OCT (SLC22A) and OCTN families / Sophie L. Stocker [and others] -- MATE (SLC47) family / Atsushi Yonezawa and Ken-ichi Inui -- PEPT (SLC15A) family / Tomoko Sugiura [and others] -- Nucleoside transporters (SLC28 and SLC29) family / Míriam Molina-Arcas -- Maral pastor-anglada -- P-glycoprotein (MDR1/ABCB1) / Ingolf Cascorbi -- Bile salt export pump BSEP (ABCB11) : role in liver physiology and ...
STRENGTHENING BUSINESS PLATFORM IN CHINA TO ADDRESS DIVERSE MEDICAL NEEDS Eisai Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: Tokyo, CEO: Haruo Naito, Eisai) announced today that its China holding company Eisai China...
Do you know that sulfur disinfects the blood, helps the body resist bacteria, and protects the protoplasm of cells? It also aid in necessary oxidation reaction in the body, stimulates bile secretion,
Purpose. Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, a so-called canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). As there appear to be many canalicular organic anion transports, we examined the effects of various organic anions and bile acid conjugates on the biliary excretion of pravastatin in rats. Methods. [l4C]pravastatin was intravenously injected into rats with bile drainage in the presence and absence of the continuous infusion of organic anions and bile acids, and radioactivity of its biliary excretion was studied. Results. Biliary excretion of [14C]pravastatin was markedly inhibited by sulfobromophthalein-glutathione, taurolithocholate-3-sulfate, ursodeoxycholate-3,7-sulfate, and ursodeoxycholate-3-O-glucuronide. In contrast, dibromosulfophthalein only slightly inhibited biliary pravastatin excretion, and cefpiramide did not affect biliary pravastatin excretion. Conclusions. These findings further support the multiplicity of
Bile acids are steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. Individual bile acid carriers have now been cloned from several species. Na(+)-dependent transporters that mediate uptake into hepatocytes and reabsorption from the intestine and biliary epithelium and an ATP-dependent transporter that pumps bile acids into bile comprise the classes of transporter that are specific for bile acids. In addition, at least four human and five rat genes that code for Na(+)-independent organic anion carriers with ...
Chen, H.-L., Chen, H.-L., Yuan, R.-H., Wu, S.-H., Chen, Y.-H., Chien, C.-S., Chou, S.-P., Wang, R., Ling, V. and Chang, M.-H. (2012), Hepatocyte transplantation in bile salt export pump-deficient mice: selective growth advantage of donor hepatocytes under bile acid stress. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 16: 2679-2689. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2012.01586.x ...
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Born Humphrey Crum, nephew and heir of James Ewing (q.v.). Crum-Ewing was Liberal MP for Paisley 1857-1874. He was a Director of the Colonial Co., and a large-scale owner of estates in post-Emancipation British Guiana. The Humphrey C. Ewing who, according to the Argosy report reproduced by Walter Rodney, took over La Bonne Mere estate in British Guiana from George Lillie and was late by 1883, when trustees were in place, was Humphrey Ewing Crum Ewing jun., the youngest son of Humphrey Ewing Crum Ewing, who had died in Demerara c. 1878. The British Guiana 1882 Directory shows James Ewing & Co. as the owner of Better Hope and Vryheids Lust, La Bonne Mere and Montrose, while H.E. Crum Ewing was part proprietor of Canefield and Lochaber.. ...
Just two months ahead of its self-imposed deadline to file a marketing app for a sepsis drug with blockbuster potential, Japans Eisai says that it is now scrapping those plans after the therapy
Transmembrane P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes in tumor cell lines. P-glycoproteins function as energy dependent efflux flippases that prevent the cellular accumulation of a wide variety of compounds. We characterized P-gp expression in populations of several fish species exposed in their natural habitat to environmental contaminants which may be P-gp substrates/inducers. We evaluated whether P-gp activity may be implicated in this multixenobiotic resistant phenotype. In winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) with contaminant-associated liver tumors, P-gp was highly expressed in bile canaliculi of non-tumorous liver surrounding cholangiocellular carcinoma, but was not detected within tumors. Cellular stress caused by impaired bile elimination may be responsible for elevated P-gp. Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a contaminated field sites had higher intestinal P-gp and lower hepatic P-gp than control killifish. In contaminated fish, ...
Bilirubin, resulting largely from the turnover of hemoglobin, is found in the plasma in two main forms: unconjugated or conjugated with glucuronic acid. Unconjugated bilirubin is transported into hepatocytes. There, it is glucuronidated by UGT1A1 and secreted into the bile canaliculi. We report a genome wide association scan in 4300 Sardinian individuals for total serum bilirubin levels. In addition to the two known loci previously involved in the regulation of bilirubin levels, UGT1A1 (P = 6.2 x 10-62) and G6PD (P = 2.5 x 10-8), we observed a strong association on chromosome 12 within the SLCO1B3 gene (P = 3.9 x 10-9). Our findings were replicated in an independent sample of 1860 Sardinians and in 832 subjects from the Old Order Amish (combined P , 5 x 10-14). We also show that SLC01B3 variants contribute to idiopathic mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Thus, SLC01B3 appears to be involved in the regulation of serum bilirubin levels in healthy individuals and in some bilirubin-related ...
1. The interference between biliary phospholipid and bilirubin secretion was investigated in rats with bile fistulae, under conditions of normal and maximal bilirubin secretion. The enterohepatic circulation of bile salts was interrupted and the animals received infusions of sodium taurocholate, a micelle-forming physiological bile salt.. 2. Sodium taurocholate infusion (0.19 μmol min−1 100 g−1 body weight) induced an increase in bile flow and phospholipid secretion, while basal bilirubin secretion was not increased.. 3. Bilirubin infusion (0.26 μmol min−1 100 g−1 body weight) induced a decrease in basal and taurocholate-stimulated phospholipid secretion. Biliary mixed micelle formation was presumably altered during bilirubin infusion, although bile taurocholate concentration, taurocholate secretion rate and bile flow were not modified.. 4. When sodium taurocholate was infused during bilirubin-decreased phospholipid secretion, this secretion was restored but maximal biliary bilirubin ...
The historical introductory chapter brings home the almost startling rapidity with which the field has developed. Less than half a century ago it was first understood that bile secretion was an active process which could be sustained against a pressure gradient in contradistinction to urine. The energy which drives secretion is now known to emanate from an array of ATP binding cassette transporters responsible for secretion of osmotically active bile solutes. Many of those transporters have been cloned and characterised and disease associations worked out.. Similarly, the function and feedback regulation of a host of genes whose products contribute to the composition and secretion of bile is explained, along with the changes induced by various cholestatic perturbations. The scope of the book is comprehensive, including all aspects of cell physiology pertinent to bile formation for the hepatocyte and cholangiocyte, and extensive data on the causes and consequences of cholestasis. The basic ...
S3 Granules are a full-strength synovial support supplement supplying the geriatric and arthritic dogs with Glucosamine, MSM, Creatine, Perna Canaliculus, Omega 3 fatty acids, Vitamins, Minerals & Antioxidants.
Irish drugmaker Elan has agreed to sell the European rights to Prialt (ziconotide), its non-opioid severe chronic pain agent, to Japans Eisai, but will retain product rights in the USA. - News - PharmaTimes
Something had me thinking about bile recently. I cant be sure what it was and I wouldnt want to date this blog post by relating it to any recent news events to take a guess. It seems to me that it has something of an unfair reputation. Bile that is. Obviously. In language and to…
Hi, Im currently pregnant with my 2nd. Im only 5/6 weeks so wouldnt have it yet anyway, but I developed OC first time round and ... Read more on Netmums
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain ...
Involved in bile acid metabolism. In liver hepatocytes catalyzes the second step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi. The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl-CoA thioester, either in peroxisomes (primary bile acids deriving from the cholesterol pathway), or cytoplasmic at the endoplasmic reticulum (secondary bile acids). May catalyze the conjugation of primary or secondary bile acids, or both. The conjugation increases the detergent properties of bile acids in the intestine, which facilitates lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. In turn, bile acids are deconjugated by bacteria in the intestine and are recycled back to the liver for reconjugation (secondary bile acids). May also act as an acyl-CoA thioesterase that regulates intracellular levels of free fatty acids. In vitro, catalyzes the hydrolysis of long- and very long-chain ...
Anatomy. Bile canaliculi in the liver combine to form the hepatic ducts. The number of hepatic ducts varies from 3-5; they join the extrahepatic biliary system at the cystic duct. The gallbladder lies in the right medial and quadrate liver lobes in the gallbladder fossa. One duct, the cystic duct, leaves the gallbladder and receives the hepatic ducts. After the last hepatic duct has joined the cystic duct, the duct travelling towards the duodenum becomes the bile duct or common bile duct. The common bile duct enters the duodenum on the major duodenal papilla. The bile duct tunnels submucosally aboral to the serosal attachment of the duct; this is more pronounced in dogs than cats. The gallbladder wall contains smooth muscle and the bladder is lined with epithelium, which is rich in mucous-secreting goblet cells.. Diagnostic Imaging. 1. Radiography. Plain film radiography can demonstrate radiodense choleliths. In addition, focal or generalised peritonitis can be suspected when poor abdominal ...
Henoch-Sch nlein purpura (HSP) is the most common form of childhood vasculitis. Various viral and bacterial infections, drugs, vaccines, food allergy and even insect bites have been considered as triggering factors in pathogenesis of HSP. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, which is associated with HSP, have been rarely reported. Herein we present HSP patient possibly caused by EBV infection. A 8-year old boy was admitted to our department with fever, rashes on legs and arms and intermittant mild abdominal pain. Multiple purpuric rashes were on his extremities, abdomen and buttock. Laboratory investigations revealed that monospot test was positive, EBV seriology tests; Anti-EA-D Ig G: 3+, Anti-VCA gp125 Ig G: 3+, Anti-VCA p19 Ig M: 2+, Anti EBNA-1 Ig M: negative, Anti EBNA-1 Ig M: negative, Anti EBNA-1 Ig G: negative. The patient was interpreted as the primary active acute EBV infection. A skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis. The other viral and bacterial investigations were negative. The
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Such requirements resulted, first, in the evolutionary appearance of more constrained channels that could assume carrier functions, secondly, in the appearance of larger, more complex obligatory secondary carriers that could no longer catalyse passive diffusion and, thirdly, in the emergence of primary active transporters and group translocators with superimposed energy-coupling subunits. Thus, the ancestral precursors of all these transporter types were simple peptide channels. The pathways most frequently taken were evidently tandem intragenic duplications giving rise to larger helical bundles that had the potential to form discrete stereospecific intramembranous substrate binding sites. They could also be constrained for coupling to other transport processes and, through conformational coupling, they were subject to control by a superimposed primary energy-yielding process such as ATP hydrolysis. We assume that none of these requirements could be satisfied by the ancestral one, two or three ...
Such requirements resulted, first, in the evolutionary appearance of more constrained channels that could assume carrier functions, secondly, in the appearance of larger, more complex obligatory secondary carriers that could no longer catalyse passive diffusion and, thirdly, in the emergence of primary active transporters and group translocators with superimposed energy-coupling subunits. Thus, the ancestral precursors of all these transporter types were simple peptide channels. The pathways most frequently taken were evidently tandem intragenic duplications giving rise to larger helical bundles that had the potential to form discrete stereospecific intramembranous substrate binding sites. They could also be constrained for coupling to other transport processes and, through conformational coupling, they were subject to control by a superimposed primary energy-yielding process such as ATP hydrolysis. We assume that none of these requirements could be satisfied by the ancestral one, two or three ...
Results Girls and boys who went to bed at 19:30-20:00 had the lowest prevalence of clinically relevant socioemotional difficulties (4.4% and 9.5%), and the highest reading (115.3 and 111.8), maths (9.7 and 9.8) and spatial (53.8 and 54.2) test scores. Late, after 21:00, bedtime was associated with an increased likelihood of socioemotional difficulties in girls (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.0 to 2.5) and lower test scores for girls (reading=110.6, maths=9.3, spatial=52.0, all p,0.01) and boys (reading=108.5, maths=9.3, spatial=50.3, all p,0.01). Not having a fixed bedtime was associated with an increased likelihood of socioemotional difficulties in girls (3.2, 1.8 to 5.7) and boys (2.1, 1.3 to 3.5) lower test scores for girls (reading=107.3, maths=8.9, spatial=51.6, all p,0.01) and boys (reading=106.3, maths=9.1, spatial=50.7, all p,0.01). Adjustment for socioeconomic and psychosocial markers attenuated some but not all associations.. ...
Special Senses. Chapter 8. Eye Anatomy. Accessory Structures Eyelids Commissures Palpebral fissure Tarsal gland Lacrimal Apparatus Lacrimal gland Lacrimal canaliculi Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct. Extrinsic Eye Muscles. Layers of the Eyeball. Fibous Layer: Schlera and Cornea Slideshow 2647055 by conner
Byron published "The Prisoner of Chillon" in 1816 in the volume The Prisoner of Chillon and Other Poems . He was inspired to write the poem by his visit, with Percy Shelley, to the Chateau de Chillon on Lake Lemand in Switzerland. There Byron learned the story of Francois de Bonnivard, a sixteenth-century patriot imprisoned for his defense of the freedom of Geneva. This poem marks the first time Byron chooses to tell the story of a real historical figure with attention given to historical, rather than fantastic, detail.. The poem is a "dramatic monologue in form and in octosyllabic couplets, with some variation in rhyme scheme" (Trueblood). Much of the poem is made up of rhyming couplets, with the main variation being couplets arranged to complement each other (i.e., AB followed by BA rhyme schemes). The recurrence of rhymed couplets intermingled with oppositely rhymed couplets emphasizes the dichotomies between an imprisoned body and a free mind, between nature and human constructions, and ...
Valerio, G., Maffeis, C., Saggese, G., Ambruzzi, M. A., Balsamo, A., Bellone, S., Bergamini, M., Bernasconi, S., Bona, G., Calcaterra, V., Canali, T., Caroli, M., Chiarelli, F., Corciulo, N., Crinò, A., Di Bonito, P., Di Pietrantonio, V., Di Pietro, M., Di Sessa, A., Diamanti, A. & 38 others, Doria, M., Fintini, D., Franceschi, R., Franzese, A., Giussani, M., Grugni, G., Iafusco, D., Iughetti, L., Lamborghini, A., Licenziati, M. R., Limauro, R., Maltoni, G., Manco, M., Reggiani, L. M., Marcovecchio, L., Marsciani, A., Del Giudice, E. M., Morandi, A., Morino, G., Moro, B., Nobili, V., Perrone, L., Picca, M., Pietrobelli, A., Privitera, F., Purromuto, S., Ragusa, L., Ricotti, R., Santamaria, F., Sartori, C., Stilli, S., Street, M. E., Tanas, R., Trifiró, G., Umano, G. R., Vania, A., Verduci, E. & Zito, E., Jul 31 2018, In : Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 44, 1, p. 1-21 21 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article ...
A federal judge has granted Eisai Co. Ltd.s request for a preliminary injunction to block Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. from marketing a generic version of its Alzheimers disease treatment Aricept.
List of Drugs, Medicines and other Pharmacy and Healthcare products manufactured by Eisai- a Pharma and Health care product manufacturer ...

Bile canaliculus - WikipediaBile canaliculus - Wikipedia

Bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi merge and form bile ductules, which eventually become common hepatic duct. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi but are sparse. Bile Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Bile canaliculi are formed by grooves on some of the lateral faces of these hepatocytes. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bile_canaliculus

Sinusoids and Bile Canaliculi - Anatomy Pictures and InformationSinusoids and Bile Canaliculi - Anatomy Pictures and Information

Sinusoids and Bile Canaliculi. The sinusoids and bile canaliculi neighbor each other in the liver. The sinusoids are capillary- ... Bile is produced in the liver by the hepatocytes and secreted into thin channels called bile canaliculi located within each ... The canaliculi are drained peripherally by bile ducts that in turn drain into Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... ... Continued From Above... hepatic ducts that carry bile away from the liver. As a result, blood travels in the sinusoids and bile ...
more infohttps://www.innerbody.com/image/dige07.html

Bile canaliculus | definition of bile canaliculus by Medical dictionaryBile canaliculus | definition of bile canaliculus by Medical dictionary

... bile canaliculus explanation free. What is bile canaliculus? Meaning of bile canaliculus medical term. What does bile ... Looking for online definition of bile canaliculus in the Medical Dictionary? ... canaliculus. (redirected from bile canaliculus). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. canaliculus. [ ... canaliculus. pl. canaliculi [L.] an extremely narrow tubular passage or channel.. bile canaliculus. fine tubular channels ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/bile+canaliculus

Coloured SEM of a bile canaliculus in the liver - Stock Image - P530/0089 - Science Photo LibraryColoured SEM of a bile canaliculus in the liver - Stock Image - P530/0089 - Science Photo Library

Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a human liver cell (red-brown), also known as hepatocyte, and a bile canaliculus ( ... Bile is drained away from the liver through a dense network of bile canaliculi towards the gall-bladder. After a meal, bile is ... Bile canaliculus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a human liver cell (red-brown), also known as hepatocyte, and a bile ... canaliculus (green). Hepatocytes, among other numerous functions, secrete a viscous green-brown fluid called bile. ...
more infohttps://www.sciencephoto.com/media/310235/view/coloured-sem-of-a-bile-canaliculus-in-the-liver

Human bile canaliculi derived from HepG2-C3A cell line | CYTOOHuman bile canaliculi derived from HepG2-C3A cell line | CYTOO

... improve the maturity level of a standard cell line by creating small multi-cellular structures each containing bile canaliculi ... Human bile canaliculi derived from HepG2-C3A cell line By combining the more liver-like cell line HepG2-C3A with specific ... improve the maturity level of a standard cell line by creating small multi-cellular structures each containing bile canaliculi ...
more infohttps://cytoo.com/assay-development-and-screening/cellular-models/human-bile-canaliculi-derived-hepg2-c3a-cell-line

Basolateral sorting and transcytosis define the Cu+-regulated translocation of ATP7B to the bile canaliculus | Journal of Cell...Basolateral sorting and transcytosis define the Cu+-regulated translocation of ATP7B to the bile canaliculus | Journal of Cell...

... and the bile canaliculus membrane marker HA4 (B1-B3). Notice the retention of ATP7B in the bile canaliculus that is boxed and ... ATP7B incorporation into the bile canaliculus was studied in cells with long and short bile canaliculi that had been treated ... of ATP7B from the TGN to the bile canaliculus in HepG2 cells and the localization of ATP7B in the bile canaliculus of liver ( ... the pathway of the Cu+-mediated transport of ATP7B from the TGN to the bile canaliculus and indicates that the bile canaliculus ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/129/11/2190

36 - GI System IV Flashcards by  | Brainscape36 - GI System IV Flashcards by | Brainscape

Most of the bile is actually reabsorbed from the intestine and reused, but some is freshly synthesized in the sER ... What organ is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of bile acids? ... What do we call the beginning portion of the bile collecting system? ... Bile canaliculus 84 Bile flows through a system of channels. What are they called? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/36-gi-system-iv-3145919/packs/4955175

105b end + 110-111b pancreas, liver, gall bladder Flashcards by Daniel Reinhardt | Brainscape105b end + 110-111b pancreas, liver, gall bladder Flashcards by Daniel Reinhardt | Brainscape

bile ductule. **bile flows towards via bile canaliculi; blood flows away towards central vein (to heptic vein and systemic ... Composed of bile salts (bile acids conjugated to glycine or taurine, making them water soluble),. phospholipids, cholesterol, ... concentrates bile from liver by pumping Na from apical PM (water follows) ... glucuronate, and excreted in bile.. Direct bilirubin-conjugated with glucuronic acid; water soluble.. Indirect bilirubin- ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/105b-end-110-111b-pancreas-liver-gall-bla-1362361/packs/2660762

Lavinija Matakovic - Research database - University of GroningenLavinija Matakovic - Research database - University of Groningen

Pluripotent stem cell-derived bile canaliculi-forming hepatocytes to study genetic liver diseases involving hepatocyte polarity ...
more infohttps://www.rug.nl/staff/l.matakovic/research

Islet Allotransplantation for Type 1 Diabetic PatientsIslet Allotransplantation for Type 1 Diabetic Patients

Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, ... A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/186996/Islet-Allotransplantation-for-Type-1-Diabetic-Patients.html

Cardiovascular Disease ResearchCardiovascular Disease Research

Imaging Bile Canaliculi in 3D Liver Microtissues using the Opera Phenix HCS System Analyzing transport of biliary metabolites ... automated image analysis were used to quantify BSEP and MRP-2-mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates into bile canaliculi. ... A functional impairment of hepatobilary transporters, such as bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated ...
more infohttp://www.perkinelmer.com/category/cardiovascular-disease-research

Role of microwave heating in antigen retrieval in cryosections of the formalin-fixed mammalian tissues | IntechOpenRole of microwave heating in antigen retrieval in cryosections of the formalin-fixed mammalian tissues | IntechOpen

Arrows, the stained sinusoidal membrane; arrowheads, unstained bile canaliculi. Bar, 20 µm. ... Arrows, the stained sinusoidal membrane; arrowheads, unstained bile canaliculi. Bar, 20 µm. ... whereas the bile canaliculi remained unstained (arrowheads). Therefore, unlike the situation in kidneys, where the best antigen ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/microwave-heating/role-of-microwave-heating-in-antigen-retrieval-in-cryosections-of-the-formalin-fixed-mammalian-tissu/

Plus itPlus it

N, nucleus; GLY, glycogen; BC, bile canaliculus; S, sinusoid; Lp, lipid. The representative data was prepared from HBx ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/6/2033

Hepatic Transport of Organic Substances | SpringerLinkHepatic Transport of Organic Substances | SpringerLink

ATP in and Around the Bile Canaliculus Irwin M. Arias. Pages 102-117 ... Hepatic Transport of Organic Anions and Bile Acids. * Characteristics of Organic Anion Binding Proteins from Rat Liver ... Characterization of the Bile Acid Transport System in Normal and Transformed Hepatocytes Using Monoclonal Antibodies ... Comparison of Bile Salt-Binding Proteins in Basolateral Membranes from Small Intestine, Kidney, and Liver ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-74247-7

Capillary tubes | definition of capillary tubes by Medical dictionaryCapillary tubes | definition of capillary tubes by Medical dictionary

Also called bile canaliculus. blood capillary. One of the minute blood vessels that convey blood from the arterioles to the ... bile capillary. One of the intercellular biliary passageways that convey bile from liver cells to the interlobular bile ducts. ... Any of the very small canaliculi that are part of the secretory outflow path receiving secretion discharged from gland cells. ... secretory capillary any of the extremely fine intercellular canaliculi situated between adjacent gland cells, being formed by ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/capillary+tubes

Plus itPlus it

... bile canaliculi; TBS-T, Tris-buffered saline containing 0.3% Tween 20; GF120918, N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2- ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/33/2/287

Wachstein M[au] - PubMed - NCBIWachstein M[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Histochemistry of hepatic phosphatases of a physiologic pH; with special reference to the demonstration of bile canaliculi. ... special reference to the bile canaliculi in obstructive jaundice and liver-cell necrosis. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Wachstein+M%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Sry HMG Box Protein 9-positive (Sox9+) Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-negative (EpCAM−) Biphenotypic Cells Derived from...Sry HMG Box Protein 9-positive (Sox9+) Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-negative (EpCAM−) Biphenotypic Cells Derived from...

bile canaliculus. CDE. choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented. Cyp. cytochrome P450. DAPM. 4-4′-diaminodiphenylmethane. BDL. ... To enhance the formation of bile canaliculus (BC) structures in the colonies, 100 μm taurocholate (Tokyo Chemical Industry Co. ... Consistent with previous studies (23, 25), HNF1β, Grhl2, and Sox9 were detected in the nuclei of EpCAM+ bile duct cells in the ... bile duct ligation. DDC. 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine. EpCAM. epithelial adhesion molecule. Grhl2. grainyhead-like ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3953272/

KAKEN - Research Projects | STUDY ON PATHOBIOLOGY OF LIVER CELL DEATH AND REGENERATION (KAKENHI-PROJECT-04304038)KAKEN - Research Projects | STUDY ON PATHOBIOLOGY OF LIVER CELL DEATH AND REGENERATION (KAKENHI-PROJECT-04304038)

Publications] Osamu Segawa: Actin and Myosin Deposition Around Bile Canaliculi J.Pediatr.Surg.28. 851-856 (1993). *. Related ... Publications] Kitamura T,Sato N,et al.: Canalicular transport mechanisms of fluorescent bile acid in hepatocyte doublets. ... Publications] Kitamura T: Canalicular transport mechanisms of fluorescent bile acid in hepatocyte doublets Gastroenterol Jpn ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-04304038/

Porphyria Overview: Background, Pathophysiology, PrevalencePorphyria Overview: Background, Pathophysiology, Prevalence

Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1389981-overview

Tissue expression of ABCB11 - Summary - The Human Protein AtlasTissue expression of ABCB11 - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas

Distinct expression in liver bile canaliculi.. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DATA RELIABILITY. Data reliability. descriptioni. ... GO:0015432 [bile acid-exporting ATPase activity]. GO:0015721 [bile acid and bile salt transport]. GO:0015722 [canalicular bile ... The protein encoded by this gene is the major canalicular bile salt export pump in man. Mutations in this gene cause a form of ... GO:0006699 [bile acid biosynthetic process]. GO:0006810 [transport]. GO:0008554 [sodium-exporting ATPase activity, ...
more infohttp://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000073734-ABCB11/tissue

Effect of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors Tolcapone and Entacapone on Fatty Acid Metabolism in HepaRG Cells,...Effect of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors Tolcapone and Entacapone on Fatty Acid Metabolism in HepaRG Cells,...

... bile canaliculus; CACT, carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase; cidea, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like ... bile canaliculus; CACT, carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase; cidea, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like ... bile canaliculus; CACT, carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase; cidea, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like ... bile canaliculus; CACT, carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase; cidea, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ou_press/effect-of-the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-inhibitors-tolcapone-and-V5GFOPIglA

Stem cells and rat liver carcinogenesis: contributions of confocal and electron microscopy. - Semantic ScholarStem cells and rat liver carcinogenesis: contributions of confocal and electron microscopy. - Semantic Scholar

In the parenchyma, subpopulations of bile ductule epithelial cells that established ATPase-positive bile canalicular structures ... Are there undifferentiated progenitor cells with stem cell-like properties within bile ductules? What are the interrelations of ... In the connective tissue stroma surrounding the bile ductules, nonpolarized epithelial cells with hepatocyte phenotype were ... Do the heterogeneous cell types within the bile ductules, in the surrounding connective tissue, and within the hepatic cords ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Stem-cells-and-rat-liver-carcinogenesis%3A-of-and-Novikoff-Yam/78d17535cf0eeb1b9971d64a5ed5d796df0c459c

Clonal identification and characterization of self-renewing pluripotent stem cells in the developing liver | JCBClonal identification and characterization of self-renewing pluripotent stem cells in the developing liver | JCB

These structures resembled hepatic bile canaliculi. (E and F) Bile duct-like structures formed by neatly aligned cells were ... 5 B). In spleens, many bile duct-like structures composed of cholangiocytes expressing bile duct-specific cytokeratins (Pinkus ... forming bile canaliculi-like structures with luminal spaces occupied by microvilli, and into cholangiocytes, forming well- ... structures strongly resembling bile canaliculi between mature hepatocytes. The cells cytoplasm also contained abundant ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/156/1/173
  • The bile canaliculi merge and form bile ductules, which eventually become common hepatic duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • They join to form the bile ductules and eventually the hepatic duct. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is also demonstrated that in other rodent models of liver injuries induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet, bile duct ligation (BDL), and chronic injection of carbon tetrachloride, ductular reaction is prominently induced, which is often considered as a sign of activation of LPCs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A second mutant, resulting from disruption of the tumor suppressor gene nf2 , develops extrahepatic choledochal cysts in the common bile duct, suggesting that this gene regulates division of biliary cells during development and that nf2 may play a role in the hyperplastic tendencies observed in biliary cells in individuals with choledochal cysts. (biologists.org)
  • Bile is secreted by the liver and then drains through these canaliculi to the bile duct which carries the bile to a storage sack called the gallbladder. (sciencephoto.com)
  • After a meal, bile is expelled from the gall-bladder and enters the duodenum where it plays an important role in the breakdown and digestion of fatty compounds. (sciencephoto.com)
  • apical canaliculus one of the numerous tubular invaginations arising from the clefts between the microvilli of the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney and extending downward into the apical cytoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • tympanic canaliculus a small opening on the inferior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, transmitting the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve and a small artery. (thefreedictionary.com)