Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)
Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Surgical fistulization of the LACRIMAL SAC for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
A genus of freshwater mussel in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. It is found in tropical and warm temperate coastal waters. Most species have green in their shells.
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers applied to the field of nursing.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.

Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. (1/223)

The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, mediates the transport of a broad range of non-bile salt organic anions from liver into bile. cMOAT-deficient Wistar rats (TR-) are mutated in the gene encoding cMOAT, leading to defective hepatobiliary transport of a whole range of substrates, including bilirubin glucuronide. These mutants also have impaired hepatobiliary excretion of GSH and, as a result, the bile flow in these animals is reduced. In the present work we demonstrate a role for cMOAT in the excretion of GSH both in vivo and in vitro. Biliary GSH excretion in rats heterozygous for the cMOAT mutation (TR/tr) was decreased to 63% of controls (TR/TR) (114+/-24 versus 181+/-20 nmol/min per kg body weight). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably expressing the human cMOAT protein displayed >10-fold increase in apical GSH excretion compared with wild-type MDCKII cells (141+/-6.1 pmol/min per mg of protein versus 13.2+/-1.3 pmol/min per mg of protein in wild-type MDCKII cells). Similarly, MDCKII cells expressing the human multidrug resistance protein 1 showed a 4-fold increase in GSH excretion across the basolateral membrane. In several independent cMOAT-transfectants, the level of GSH excretion correlated with the expression level of the protein. Furthermore, we have shown, in cMOAT-transfected cells, that GSH is a low-affinity substrate for the transporter and that its excretion is reduced upon ATP depletion. In membrane vesicles isolated from cMOAT-expressing MDCKII cells, ATP-dependent S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione uptake is competitively inhibited by high concentrations of GSH (Ki approximately 20 mM). We concluded that cMOAT mediates low-affinity transport of GSH. However, since hepatocellular GSH concentrations are high (5-10 mM), cMOAT might serve an important physiological function in maintenance of bile flow in addition to hepatic GSH turnover.  (+info)

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase lipid products regulate ATP-dependent transport by sister of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 in bile canalicular membrane vesicles. (2/223)

Bile acid transport and secretion in hepatocytes require phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent recruitment of ATP-dependent transporters to the bile canalicular membrane and are accompanied by increased canalicular PI 3-kinase activity. We report here that the lipid products of PI 3-kinase also regulate ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione directly in canalicular membranes. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione in isolated canalicular vesicles from rat liver was reduced 50-70% by PI 3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, at concentrations that are specific for Type I PI 3-kinase. Inhibition was reversed by addition of lipid products of PI 3-kinase (PI 3,4-bisphosphate and, to a lesser extent, PI 3-phosphate and PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate) but not by PI 4, 5-bisphosphate. A membrane-permeant synthetic 10-mer peptide that binds polyphosphoinositides and leads to activation of PI 3-kinase in macrophages doubled PI 3-kinase activity in canalicular membrane vesicles and enhanced taurocholate and dinitrophenyl-glutathione transport in canalicular membrane vesicles above maximal ATP-dependent transport. The effect of the peptide was blocked by wortmannin and LY294002. PI 3-kinase activity was also necessary for function of the transporters in vivo. ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate and PI 3-kinase activity were reduced in canalicular membrane vesicles isolated from rat liver that had been perfused with taurocholate and wortmannin. PI 3,4-bisphosphate enhanced ATP-dependent transport of taurocholate in these vesicles above control levels. Our results indicate that PI 3-kinase lipid products are necessary in vivo and in vitro for maximal ATP-dependent transport of bile acid and nonbile acid organic anions across the canalicular membrane. Our results demonstrate regulation of membrane ATP binding cassette transporters by PI 3-kinase lipid products.  (+info)

Primary active transport of organic anions on bile canalicular membrane in humans. (3/223)

Biliary excretion of several anionic compounds was examined by assessing their ATP-dependent uptake in bile canalicular membrane vesicles (CMV) prepared from six human liver samples. 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), sulfobromophthalein glutathione (BSP-SG), E3040 glucuronide (E-glu), beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E2-17G), grepafloxacin glucuronide (GPFXG), pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate, which are known to be substrates for the rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, and taurocholic acid (TCA), a substrate for the bile acid transporter, were used as substrates. ATP-dependent and saturable uptake of TCA, DNP-SG, LTC4, E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG was observed in all human CMV preparations examined, suggesting that these compounds are excreted in the bile via a primary active transport system in humans. Primary active transport of the other substrates was also seen in some of CMV preparations but was negligible in the others. The ATP-dependent uptake of all the compounds exhibited a large inter-CMV variation, and there was a significant correlation between the uptake of glutathione conjugates (DNP-SG, LTC4, and BSP-SG) and glucuronides (E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG). However, there was no significant correlation between TCA and the other organic anions, implying that the transporters for TCA and for organic anions are different also in humans. When the average value for the ATP-dependent uptake by each preparation of human CMVs was compared with that of rat CMVs, the uptake of glutathione conjugates and nonconjugated anions (pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate) in humans was approximately 3- to 76-fold lower than that in rats, whereas the uptake of glucuronides was similar in the two species. Thus there is a species difference in the primary active transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane that is less marked for glucuronides.  (+info)

Correlation of biliary excretion in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats. (4/223)

The relationship between biliary excretion in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats was examined. The biliary excretion of seven model substrates in 96-h sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes was determined by differential cumulative uptake of substrate in the monolayers preincubated in standard buffer (intact bile canaliculi) and Ca2+-free buffer (disrupted bile canaliculi). Biliary excretion in vivo was quantitated in bile duct-cannulated rats. The biliary excretion index of model substrates, equivalent to the percentage of retained substrate in the canalicular networks, was consistent with the percentage of the dose excreted in bile from in vivo experiments. The in vitro biliary clearance of inulin, salicylate, methotrexate, [D-pen2,5]enkephalin, and taurocholate, calculated as the ratio of the amount excreted into the bile canalicular networks and the area under the incubation medium concentration-time profile ( approximately 0, approximately 0, 4.1 +/- 1.0, 12.6 +/- 2.2, and 56. 2 +/- 6.0 ml/min/kg, respectively), correlated with their intrinsic in vivo biliary clearance (0.04, 0, 17.3, 34.4, and 116.9 ml/min/kg, respectively; r2 = 0.99). The model compound 264W94 was not excreted in bile either in vivo or in vitro. The glucuronide conjugate of 2169W94, the O-demethylated metabolite of 264W94, was excreted into bile in vitro when 2169W94, but not 264W94, was incubated with the monolayers; 2169W94 glucuronide undergoes extensive biliary excretion after administration of 264W94 or 2169W94 in vivo. Biliary excretion in long-term sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes correlates with in vivo biliary excretion. The study of biliary excretion of metabolites in the hepatocyte monolayers requires consideration of the status of metabolic activities.  (+info)

Dexamethasone- and osmolarity-dependent expression of the multidrug-resistance protein 2 in cultured rat hepatocytes. (5/223)

Expression of the conjugate export pump multidrug-resistance protein 2 (MRP2) in liver is regulated by endotoxin and anti-tumour agents. This paper reports on the effects of dexamethasone and osmolarity on MRP2 expression. MRP2 expression was studied at the protein, mRNA, immunocytochemical and functional levels in cultured rat hepatocytes. Protein and mRNA expression of MRP2 in rat hepatocytes 24 and 48 h after isolation were largely dependent on the presence of dexamethasone (100 nmol/l) in the culture medium. MRP2 was localized at the pseudocanalicular membrane and increased expression of MRP2 was accompanied by a widening of the pseudocanaliculi. In presence of dexamethasone, hypo-osmolarity (205 mosmol/l) led to a strong induction of MRP2 mRNA and protein, whereas expression was decreased by hyperosmolarity (405 mosmol/l). Also, a decay of MRP2 protein and mRNA following dexamethasone withdrawal was osmosensitive. Expression of dipeptidylpeptidase IV, another canalicular protein, was unaffected by dexamethasone and osmolarity. It is concluded that glucocorticoids are strong inducers of MRP2 in liver. Besides short-term carrier insertion/retrieval, osmoregulation of MRP2 also involves a long-term effect on MRP2 expression.  (+info)

Canalicular membrane transport is primarily responsible for the difference in hepatobiliary excretion of triethylmethylammonium and tributylmethylammonium in rats. (6/223)

Two structurally similar quaternary ammonium compounds, triethylmethylammonium (TEMA, M(r) 116) and tributylmethylammonium (TBuMA, M(r) 200) were used as model compounds to identify the unit process of hepatobiliary excretion that is responsible for markedly different biliary excretion of organic cations (OCs). Cumulative biliary excretion (in percentage of dose; i.v., 12 micromol/kg) was 0.17 for TEMA and 34.5 for TBuMA. In vivo uptake clearance into the liver was 0.686 +/- 0.020 ml/min for TEMA and 0.421 +/- 0.028 ml/min for TBuMA. When the uptake clearance was examined in an isolated hepatocyte system, comparable clearance between TEMA and TBuMA was obtained, consistent with the in vivo result. These observations suggest that uptake into the liver is not the major determinant for the difference in biliary excretion of the OCs. Coadministration of colchicine, an inhibitor of microtubule formation, had no effect on biliary excretion of the model compounds, and the primary site of subcellular distribution of the OCs appears to be the cytosol, suggesting that intracellular movement does not play a major role in the markedly different biliary excretion of the OCs. In contrast, in vivo excretion clearance across the canalicular membrane for TBuMA was 180-fold greater than that for TEMA, and in vitro efflux clearance of TBuMA was smaller than that of TEMA (p <.01), indicative of involvement of these processes in the markedly different biliary excretion of the OCs. Therefore, these data indicate that canalicular transport is primarily responsible for the markedly different biliary excretion of TEMA and TBuMA.  (+info)

Species differences in the transport activity for organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane. (7/223)

Species differences in the transport activity mediated by canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) were examined using temocaprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor whose biliary excretion is mediated predominantly by cMOAT, and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, a typical substrate for cMOAT, in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Temocaprilat was infused to examine the biliary excretion rate at steady-state. The in vivo transport clearance values across the bile canalicular membrane, defined as the biliary excretion rate divided by the hepatic unbound concentrations, were 9.8, 39.2, 9.2, 1.1, and 0.8 ml/min/kg for mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog, respectively. The K(m) and V(max) values for ATP-dependent uptake of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione into canalicular membrane vesicles were 15.0, 29.6, 16.1, 55.8, and 30.0 microM and 0.38, 1.90, 0.15, 0. 47, and 0.23 nmol/min/mg protein, yielding the in vitro transport clearance across the bile canalicular membrane (V(max)/K(m)) of 25.5, 64.2, 9.4, 8.4, and 7.7 for mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog, respectively. A close in vivo and in vitro correlation was observed among animal species for the transport clearance across the bile canalicular membrane. These results suggest that the uptake experiments with canalicular membrane vesicles can be used to quantitatively predict in vivo excretion across the bile canalicular membrane.  (+info)

Canalicular export pumps traffic with polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor on the same microtubule-associated vesicle in rat liver. (8/223)

Basolateral to apical vesicular transcytosis in the hepatocyte is an essential pathway for the delivery of compounds from the sinusoidal blood to the bile and to traffic newly synthesized resident apical membrane proteins to their site of function at the canalicular membrane front. To characterize this pathway better, microtubules in a hepatocyte homogenate were polymerized by addition of taxol, and associated membrane-bound vesicles were isolated. This fraction was enriched in polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor and contained apical membrane proteins. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor was localized predominantly on vesicles ranging from 100 to 160 nm and that the multidrug resistance protein 2 and the bile salt export pump co-localized on these vesicles. The minus-ended microtubule motor, dynein, was highly enriched in the fraction, and its intermediate chain could be released effectively by incubation with 1 mM ATP or GTP. However, the association of the transcytotic vesicles with the microtubules was not sensitive to hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable nucleotides. This study characterizes a fraction of microtubule-associated vesicles from rat hepatocytes and demonstrates that several resident apical membrane transport proteins and the polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor traffic on the same vesicle.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503 phosphorylation and is regulated by tyrosine 488 phosphorylation. AU - Sippel, C. Jeffrey. AU - Fallon, Robert J.. AU - Perlmutter, David H.. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Transfection of cDNA for a hepatocyte canalicular phosphoprotein, the rat liver canalicular bile acid transporter/ecto-ATPase/cell CAM 105, confers bile acid efflux and ecto-ATPase activities on heterologous cells (Sippel, C. J., Suchy, F. J., Ananthanarayanan, M., and Perlmutter D. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2083-2091). Our previous studies have also indicated that there is a positive correlation between the degree of phosphorylation of this transporter and its bile acid efflux activity. In this study, we introduced site-specific mutations of amino acid residues within a protein kinase C- dependent (T502A, S503A) and a tyrosine kinase-dependent (Y488F) phosphorylation consensus sequence ...
Intrahepatic cholestasis represents 20%-40%of drug-induced injuries from which a large proportion remains unpredictable. We aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying drug-induced cholestasis and improve its early detection using human HepaRG cells and a set of 12 cholestatic drugs and six noncholestatic drugs. In this study, we analyzed bile canaliculi dynamics, Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway implication, efflux inhibition of taurocholate [a predominant bile salt export pump (BSEP) substrate], and expression of the major canalicular and basolateral bile acid transporters. We demonstrated that 12 cholestatic drugs classified on the basis of reported clinical findings caused disturbances of both bile canaliculi dynamics, characterized by either dilatation or constriction, and alteration of the ROCK/MLCK signaling pathway, whereas noncholestatic compounds, by contrast, had no effect. Cotreatment with ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 [4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide
BSEP - Bile Salt Export Pump. Looking for abbreviations of BSEP? It is Bile Salt Export Pump. Bile Salt Export Pump listed as BSEP
Disruption of the murine mdr2 gene leads to the complete absence of biliary phospholipids. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in biliary phospholipid output induced by fibrates is mediated via induction of the hepatic mdr2 gene and its encoded product, the P-glycoprotein canalicular flippase. Increased levels of mdr2 mRNA were observed in the liver of mice treated with different fibrates: ciprofibrate, 660±155% (as compared with control group); clofibrate, 611±77%; bezafibrate, 410±47%; fenofibrate, 310±52%; gemfibrozil, 190±25% (P , 0.05 compared with control group). Induction of expression of the mdr gene family was specific to the mdr2 gene. Two- to three-fold increases in P-glycoprotein immunodetection were evident on the canalicular plasma-membrane domain of clofibrate- and ciprofibrate-treated mice. Biliary phospholipid output increased from 4.2±1.2 nmol/min per g of liver in the control group to 8.5±0.6, 7.1±2.9 and 5.8±2.5 in ciprofibrate-, clofibrate- and ...
Recent studies have suggested that the canalicular bile salt transport system of rat liver corresponds to a 100-kDa membrane glycoprotein. In the present study we attempted to functionally reconstitute the 100-kDa protein into artificial proteoliposomes. Canalicular membrane proteins were solubilized with octyl glucoside in the presence of asolectin phospholipids. The extracts were treated with preimmune serum or the 100-kDa protein selectively immunoprecipitated with a polyclonal antiserum. Proteins remaining in the supernatant were then incorporated into proteoliposomes by gel-filtration chromatography. Canalicular proteoliposomes containing the 100-kDa protein exhibited transstimulatable taurocholate uptake that could be inhibited by 4,4-diisothiocyanato-2,2-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). In contrast, no DIDS-sensitive transstimulatable taurocholate uptake was found in 100-kDa protein-free canalicular proteoliposomes. However, when the immunoprecipitated 100-kDa protein was dissociated ...
In this study, we have characterized the pathway of ATP7B transport from the TGN to the bile canaliculus in response to the elevation of intracellular Cu+ levels in the rat hepatoma cell line Can 10.. The Cu+-induced release of ATP7B from the TGN was found to be a rapid process that begins within 5 min of the addition of 40 µM Cu+ and is completed within 20-25 min. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 delayed the detachment of the cisterna carrying ATP7B from the TGN, demonstrating that cisterna detachment is a prerequisite to the generation of transport vesicles, as has previously been described in plants (Uemura et al., 2014). This process is pH dependent, and the rapidity of this occurrence in mammalian cells is probably why it has not been previously observed in organisms other than plants. Our studies also show that the vesicles loaded with ATP7B budding from the TGN do not contain lysosomal membrane proteins, suggesting that these are instead segregated into vesicles distinct from those ...
Gerloff, T., Meier, P. J. and Stieger, B. (1998), Taurocholate induces preferential release of phosphatidylcholine from rat liver canalicular vesicles. Liver, 18: 306-312. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1998.tb00810.x ...
In the present study, a variety of techniques were used to investigate the effects of Ca2+ depletion on the transport properties and tight junctions of hepatocytes cultured in a sandwich configuration. The results indicate that: 1) Ca2+ depletion does not alter taurocholate transport; 2) Ca2+ depletion increases the permeability of tight junctions, thus disrupting the barrier between the canalicular lumen and the extracellular space; 3) integrity of the disrupted tight junctions cannot be re-established completely by incubation in the presence of Ca2+ for 1 h; and 4) taurocholate accumulation involves Michaelis-Menten nonlinear processes for uptake and biliary excretion.. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen-sandwich configuration for 6 days form complete junctional complexes composed of a tight junction, intermediate junction, and desmosomes (LeCluyse et al., 1994). Recently, Talamini et al. (1997) demonstrated the existence of junctional protein, uvomorulin (E-cadherin), in hepatocytes cultured ...
The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary phy
Stieger, Bruno; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A (2013). Bile salt Export Pump BSEP (ABCB11): Role in liver physiology and liver disease. In: Ishikawa, T; Kim, R B; König, J. Pharmacogenomics of Human Drug Transporters: Clinical Impacts. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 295-309. ...
Multiplicity for the transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane was studied in vivo and in vitro using dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP), [14C]cefodizime, [3H]leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and indocyanine green (ICG) as model compounds in rats. A high concentration of DBSP in plasma reduced the biliary excretion of cefodizime and leukotriene radioactivity to about 15 and 35% of their control values, respectively, but did not affect the excretion of ICG. A high plasma concentration of ICG reduced the excretion of cefodizime to about 60% of the control value, but exerted minimal effect on the excretion of leukotriene radio-activity and DBSP. In vitro, ATP-dependent uptake of LTC4 into the canalicular membrane vesicles was reduced by DBSP, cefodizime and ICG in a dose-dependent manner, with approximate IC50 values of 0.1 microM, 10 microM, and 1 microM, respectively. The hepatic unbound concentration of DBSP sufficient to reduce the excretion of cefodizime, leukotriene radioactivity and ...
FUNCTION: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The specific function of this protein is unknown; however, a similar rat protein has been identified as the major canalicular bile salt export pump of liver. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is known to cause cholestasis. CsA is reported to competitively inhibit the transport of the substrates of the bile salt export pump (Bsep), multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the canalicular membrane vesicles. However, the inhibitory effect of CsA …
TY - JOUR. T1 - The unique polarity phenotype of hepatocytes. AU - Müsch, Anne. PY - 2014/11/1. Y1 - 2014/11/1. N2 - Hepatocytes, the main epithelial cell type of the liver, function like all epithelial cells to mediate the vectorial flow of macromolecules into and out of the organ they encompass. They do so by establishing polarized surface domains and by restricting paracellular flow via their tight junctions and cell-cell adhesion. Yet, the cell and tissue organization of hepatocytes differs profoundly from that of most other epithelia, including those of the digestive and urinary tracts, the lung or the breast. The latter form monolayered tissues in which the apical domains of individual cells align around a central continuous luminal cavity that constitutes the tubules and acini characteristic of these organs. Hepatocytes, by contrast, form capillary-sized lumina with multiple neighbors resulting in a branched, tree-like bile canaliculi network that spreads across the liver parenchyme. I ...
Publikations-Datenbank der Fraunhofer Wissenschaftler und Institute: Aufsätze, Studien, Forschungsberichte, Konferenzbeiträge, Tagungsbände, Patente und Gebrauchsmuster
Taxonomic Characterization: Male: Anterodorsal plate (AD) with a small frontal spine. In posterior portion of AD elevated ridges, arranged like an H. Within these ridges, deep canaliculi piercing the integumental layers. Outside the ridges, slight paneling and small pores present. Posterodorsal plate with 2 elevated, longitudinal ridges, converging posteriorly but not meeting. Dorsal setae minute. Red-brown pigment is found beneath the AD near the anterior spine and beneath the OC between the corneae. All ventral plates finely porose; when focused on deeper integumental layers, a reticulation is discernible. Genitoanal plate short. Genital opening in the middle of the plate. Distance from GO to anterior margin of GA equals length of GO. Integument on base of gnathosoma pierced by canaliculi. Rostrum as long as base of gnathosoma. Integument of legs pierced by canaliculi, these especially prominent on telofermora and tibiae. Leg I stronger than following legs. The lateral claws on tarsus I are ...
depeople preferableness repercept circumagitate quinicine showing footeite vivency asquare klip trial vegetablize pericanalicular awardable publicly compactness ...
The process of differentiation of HepaRG™ into hepatocytes is long, as it takes approximately two weeks to reach the necessary confluency of cells. In addition to this, as the cells are randomly organized, bile caniculae forming in between cells are difficult to be visualized and quantified.. ...
PERTH asthma sufferers say they are angry they werent given more notice about the thick smoke haze that engulfed Perth for much of the day.
During the summer, most people find themselves going to bed later than usual. However, this habit does have a negative toll on your body. What is staying up late? 12 am? 3 am? Everybodys body has a different perception of staying up late. Late doesnt have so much to do with the hour, rather…
What exactly is a couplet? Is that two PVCs occuring in a row? Are they more dangerous than single PVCs? What about 3 or 4 in a row? Last night, I was driving home from work and I felt a really...
The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The protein encoded by this gene is the major canalicular bile salt export pump in man. Mutations in this gene cause a form of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestases which are a group of inherited disorders with severe cholestatic liver disease from early infancy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
A number of processes could have contributed to the lower canalicular enzyme activities in diclofenac-treated rats including: 1) redistribution of proteins from the canalicular membrane to other intracellular domains, 2) decreased protein synthesis, or 3) decreased activity as a result of adduct formation. It has been reported that several models of cholestasis are associated with redistribution of canalicular proteins and/or decreased synthesis (Barr and Hubbard, 1993; Stieger et al., 1994; Rost et al., 1999). For example, phalloidin-induced cholestasis in rats causes redistribution of ecto-ATPase, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, and a number of ATP-dependent transporter proteins as a result of disruption and internalization of canalicular membrane fragments (Rost et al., 1999). Bile duct ligation in rats has also been associated with decreased localization of dipeptidylpeptidase IV and ecto-ATPase to canalicular membranes and intracellular accumulation as a result of altered delivery of newly ...
Gene name: ATP binding cassette subfamily B, member 11 (ABCB11). Summary. ABCB11, more commonly referred to as BSEP (Bile Salt Export Pump) is a uni-directional, ATP-dependent efflux transporter that plays an important role in the elimination of bile salts from the hepatocyte into the bile canaliculi for export into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is almost exclusively expressed in the liver, with much lower levels reported in the kidney. It is predominantly of relevance to hepatotoxicity, as BSEP inhibition by a drug and/or its metabolites can result in the build-up of bile salts in the liver, which can lead to cholestasis and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Compared to other drug transporters there are only few identified drug substrates and inhibitors of BSEP; thus, its involvement in drug-drug interactions (DDI) is very limited. The relevance of in vitro BSEP inhibition as a predictor of clinical outcomes is not clearly established, but whenever cholestatic liver injury is observed in ...
Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable to the substance moved or because the substance is moved against the direction of its concentration gradient.[7] There are two forms of active transport, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport, the proteins involved are pumps that normally use chemical energy in the form of ATP. Secondary active transport, however, makes use of potential energy, which is usually derived through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient. The energy created from one ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is used to power the transport of another ion moving against its electrochemical gradient.[8] This involves pore-forming proteins that form channels across the cell membrane. The difference between passive transport and active transport is that the active transport ...
The intron 4 (+3)A | C, R930X and R432T represent previously undescribed mutations of the ABCB11 gene that confer a PFIC2 and a BRIC2 phenotype, respectively. By combining functional in-vitro characterization with immunohistochemical detection of variant BSEP we provide direct evidence for the ro …
Thank you for sharing this Cancer Research article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
hypothetical protein, ABCB1LB, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1-like B, A306_07528, ABC16, ABC member 16, MDR/TAP subfamily, AS27_06659, AS28_00614, ATP-binding cassette protein B11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11-like protein, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 11, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 11, bile salt export pump, BRIC2, BSEP, BSEP/SPGP, CB1_000638007, D623_10034923, GW7_06212, H920_16172, I79_001236, Lith1, liver bile salt export pump, M91_01875, M959_07155, MDA_GLEAN10024246, Multidrug resistance protein 1, N301_03105, N302_06788, N303_07198, N305_06591, N306_04080, N307_07545, N308_11810, N309_07944, N312_11735, N321_13718, N327_01303, N328_07355, N329_09470, N331_01374, N332_02914, N333_01536, N334_13094, N336_04014, N340_01262, N341_10800, PAL_GLEAN10025937, PFIC2, PFIC-2, PGY4, progressive familial ...
We have compared by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting the expression and distribution of adhesion molecules participating in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions during embryonic development and regeneration of rat liver. Fibronectin and the fibronectin receptor, integrin alpha 5 beta 1, were distributed pericellularly and expressed at a steady level during development from the 16th day of gestation and in neonate and adult liver. AGp110, a nonintegrin fibronectin receptor was first detected on the 17th day of gestation in a similar, nonpolarized distribution on parenchymal cell surfaces. At that stage of development haemopoiesis is at a peak in rat liver and fibronectin and receptors alpha 5 beta 1 and AGp110 were prominent on the surface of blood cell precursors. During the last 2 d of gestation (20th and 21st day) hepatocytes assembled around lumina. AGp110 was initially depolarized on the surface of these acinar cells but then confined to the lumen and to newly-formed bile canaliculi. ...
It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype physiological constructions and tissue microenvironments, thereby serving as a better model than a conventional 2D cell culture1. and were able to reconstruct the hepatocyte polarity found in physiology and to maintain hepatic function for as long as 6 weeks. Kotov and his team reported the controlled formation of uniformly-sized liver organ growth cell spheroids in upside down colloidal crystal clear (ICC) scaffolds with even porosity11,12,13,14,15, as well as cells exhibiting morphological commonalities to liver organ tissues such as bile canaliculi14. Huh-7.5 is a hepatocellular carcinoma cell series that is highly permissive to hepatitis C pathogen (HCV) infection, and it has been widely used as a model liver cell GDC-0879 for tissues HCV and design infection research16,17,18,19,20,21. In our ...
A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 mu m(2) field of view has been used for high-resolution (30-40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 mu m), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro-and nanostructure. To test this method we performed Zernike phase contrast and absorption contrast imaging of mouse cancellous bone prepared under different conditions of in vivo loading, fixation, and contrast agents. In addition, the three-dimensional structure was examined using tomography. Individual osteocytic lacunae were observed embedded within trabeculae in cancellous bone. Extensive canalicular networks were evident and included processes with diameters near the 30-40 nm instrument resolution that have not been reported ...
HESS-14c]B. Hesse, Varga, P., Langer, M., Pacureanu, A., Schrof, S., Männicke, N., Suhonen, H., Maurer, P., Cloetens, P., Peyrin, F., and Raum, K., Canalicular Network Morphology is the Major Determinant of the Spatial Distribution of Mass Density in Human Bone Tissue - Evidence by Means of Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Nano-CT., ASBMR, vol. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2014. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Brandy Garzel, Hui Yang, Lei Zhang, Shiew-Mei Huang, James E Polli, Hongbing Wang].
We are launching Wepredic! - A group that gathers key players in in vitro technologies Christophe Chesné, Ph.D, CEO of Biopredic International, is also the founder of Eurosafe, Starlight and Advancells. With their long-standing expertise in in vitro technologies for toxicology and pharmacokinetics, these companies daily help and support worlds leading pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical companies. Wepredic has been funded to unite these four brands and deliver in vitro testing solutions that aim to replace laboratory animals. Discover Christophe Chesnés editorial on the reasons for this strategic move ! Read More ...
Active Transport. Features, Types, Carrier Proteins, Significance of Active Transport. Primary active transport. Secondary active transport.
annotations (the reliablity of the annotated protein expression using immunohistochemically (IH) stained on human tissues, the reliablity of the annotated protein expression in immunofluorescently (IF) stained human cell lines, tissue specificity (the distribution of antibody staining or protein expression in human cell types), cell line specificity (the distribution of RNA abundance in cell lines) and subcellular location (based on immunofluorescent staining of cell lines ...
4 - transport --> 4.3 - Primary Active Transporters --> 4.3.A - Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters --> 4.3.A.4 - The Arsenite-Antimonite (Ars) Efflux Family ...
source: {code: vdu, handle: 45993}, publisher: {list: false}, db: {clarivate: false, scopus: false, list: false}, issn: [1392-8244], code: S6, subject: [T009], country: LT, language: lt, area: T, original: true, pages: 6, sheets: 0.429, timestamp: 20140217105505.0, account: {year: 2012, late: false}, na: 2, nip: 0, affiliation: [{contribution: 0.5, aip: 1, rel: aut, org: [{create: true, contribution: 0.5, name: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, id: 111950396, level: 0, type: uni, research: 1, status: 1, unit: {name: Žemės ūkio akademija, id: 09, level: 1, type: aka, research: 1, status: 1}}], id: CC3338B4FEC977CBAAC3D5B8290F7D8F, lname: Kelpša, fname: Egidijus, status: 0, name: Kelpša, Egidijus}, {contribution: 0.5, aip: 1, rel: aut, org: [{create: true, contribution: 0.5, name: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, id: ...
I enjoy smuggling rhymes into blank verse but have not yet gotten all 3 lines of a haiku I really like to rhyme. I have a couplet I do like and a triplet with a topical excuse.
Yang C; Pinart M; Kolsteren P; Van Camp J; De Cock N; Nimptsch K; Pischon T; Laird L; Perozzi P; Canali R; Hoge A; Stelmach-Mardas M; Ove Dragsted L; Palombi SM; Dobre I; Bouwman J; Clarys P; Minervini F; De Angelis M; Gobbetti M; Tafforeau J; Coltell O; Corella D; De Ruyck H; Walton J; Kehoe L; Matthys C; De Baets B; De Tré G; Bronselaer A; Rivellese A; Giacco R; Lombardo R; De Clercq S; Hulstaert N; Lachat C (2017) ...
Yang C; Pinart M; Kolsteren P; Van Camp J; De Cock N; Nimptsch K; Pischon T; Laird L; Perozzi P; Canali R; Hoge A; Stelmach-Mardas M; Ove Dragsted L; Palombi SM; Dobre I; Bouwman J; Clarys P; Minervini F; De Angelis M; Gobbetti M; Tafforeau J; Coltell O; Corella D; De Ruyck H; Walton J; Kehoe L; Matthys C; De Baets B; De Tré G; Bronselaer A; Rivellese A; Giacco R; Lombardo R; De Clercq S; Hulstaert N; Lachat C (2017) ...
Purpose. To investigate the microstructure of the lacrimal canaliculus and the characteristics of lacrimal canalicular diseases by 80-MHz ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).. Methods. This study included 33 participants: 20 normal subjects (40 eyes), 2 patients with chronic lacrimal canaliculitis (4 eyes), 10 patients with chronic dacryocystitis (16 eyes), and 1 patient with lacrimal punctum atresia (2 eyes). All participants underwent 80-MHz UBM; disease-specific features were noted.. Results. On 80-MHz UBM of the lacrimal canaliculi (vertical section) in normal subjects, low echo of the lacrimal canalicular lumen and high echo of the lacrimal canalicular wall were observed. The uniform low echo near the wall was the mucosal epithelium. The outermost layer of medium-to-high echo was the subepithelial elastic fibrous layer. In the horizontal section, the lumen was continuous. Two linear high echoes parallel to the canalicular wall could be observed at the center of the lacrimal canaliculus, which ...
The Lith1 region on Chromosome (Chr) 2 contains a gene that markedly affects the prevalence of cholesterol gallstones in inbred mice. We report the high-resolution genetic and radiation hybrid maps of the chromosomal region surrounding Lith1, using three resources: a DNA panel from 188 progeny from two reciprocal backcrosses between C57BL/6 and Mus spretus inbred strains; 423 progeny of an N4 generation from backcrossing the susceptible C57L/J alleles at Lith1 into the resistant AKR/J strain; and the newly developed hamster-mouse T31 radiation hybrid panel. We mapped 17 microsatellite markers in the D2Mit182 to D2Mit14 region and two candidate genes for Lith1, the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) also known as sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) and the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related gene megalin (Gp330). Both genetic maps were in agreement and ordered the microsatellite markers into a 10.4 +/- 1.5 cM region. The high-resolution physical map revealed ordering of microsatellite
Looking for intracellular canaliculus? Find out information about intracellular canaliculus. One of the minute channels in bone radiating from a Haversian canal and connecting lacunae with each other and with the canal. A passage between the cells... Explanation of intracellular canaliculus
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is an ABC-transporter expressed at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its physiological role is to expel bile salts into the canaliculi from where they drain into the bile duct. Inhibition of this transporter may lead to intrahepatic cholestasis. Predictive computational models of BSEP inhibition may allow for fast identification of potentially harmful compounds in large databases. This article presents a predictive in silico model based on physicochemical descriptors that is able to flag compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors. This model was built using a training set of 670 compounds with available BSEP inhibition potencies. It successfully predicted BSEP inhibition for two independent test sets and was in a further step used for a virtual screening experiment. After in vitro testing of selected candidates, a marketed drug, bromocriptin, was identified for the first time as BSEP inhibitor. This demonstrates the usefulness of the model to identify new BSEP ...
FUNCTION: The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein functions in the canalicular surface of the hepatocyte and in biliary transport, and appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells. Several different mutations in the human gene have been observed in patients with Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Alternative splice variants have been observed for this gene; however, they have not been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Clone REA608 recognizes the human and rat asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGPR1) antigen, a single-pass type II membrane protein, also known as C-type lectin domain family 4 member H1 (CLEC4H1) or hepatic lectin H1 (HL-1). ASGPR1 is the major subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) and is specifically expressed on the sinusoidal and basolateral hepatocellular membranes, but not on the bile canalicular membrane. It plays a role in the clearance of desialylated proteins from the serum through endocytosis and lysosomal degradation.Additional information: Clone REA608 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Thank you for sharing this Drug Metabolism & Disposition article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately dense material. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of Taurocholate Release from Isolated Rat Hepatocytes in Suspension by α‐Adrenergie Agents and Vasopressin. T2 - Implications for Control of Bile Salt Secretion. AU - Gewirtz, David A.. AU - Randolph, Joyce K.. AU - Goldman, I. David. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - Hepatocytes incubated with 25 μM. [3H]taurocholate rapidly deplete the extracellular medium of [3H]taurocholate and achieve a steady‐state level of intracellular bile salt within 15 min. Exposure of cells at steady state ith extracellular taurocholate to the catecholamines norepinephrine or epinephrine results in release of 3H from the cells into the incubation medium; the 3H released represents almost exclusively unmetabolized [3H]taurocholate. The hierarchy of effectiveness of the catecholamines, norepinephrine ≈ epinephrine , phenylephrine ≫ isoproterenol, is indicative of an α‐adrenergic mechanism. Induction of [3H]taurocholate release by norepinephrine is inhibited by the β‐antagonists ...
Cell-derived membrane vesicles (CMVs) are endogenous carriers transporting proteins and nucleic acids between cells. They appear to play an important role in many disease processes, most notably inflammation and cancer, where their efficient functional delivery of biological cargo seems to contribute to the disease progress. CMVs encompass a variety of submicron vesicular structures that include exosomes and shedding vesicles. The lipids, proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) delivered by these vesicles change the phenotype of the receiving cells. CMVs have created excitement in the drug delivery field, because they appear to have multiple advantages over current artificial drug delivery systems. Two approaches to exploit CMVs for delivery of exogenous therapeutic cargoes in vivo are currently considered. One approach is based on engineering of natural CMVs in order to target certain cell types using CMVs loaded with therapeutic compounds. In the second approach, essential characteristics of CMVs are
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. trandolaprilat ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin between micellar and vesicular phases: Potential implications for canalicular bile formation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
4 - transport --> 4.3 - Primary Active Transporters --> 4.3.A - Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters --> 4.3.A.1 - The ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily + ABC-type Uptake Permeases --> 4.3.A.1.a - ABC superfamily ATP binding cytoplasmic component ...
McIndoe, A. H. (1928). "The structure and arrangement of the bile canaliculi". Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 6 ...
The canalicular surfaces are the ones through which bile drains from the hepatocytes to the canaliculi. They represent 15% of ... The cytoplasm of the hepatocyte near canaliculi is rich in actin filaments, and they are probably capable of modifying the ... These surfaces are involved in the exchange of substances between the hepatocyte, the vessels and the biliar canaliculi. The ... canaliculi's diameter, thus influencing the flow; however this is not yet proven. The intercellular surfaces are the ones that ...
Once in the hepatocytes, 99mTc mebrofenin is secreted into the canaliculi and finally excreted by the bile ducts. The two ... HEF is 100% in normal individuals, in most patients remains close to 100% with partial common bile duct obstruction and in ... the common bile duct and finally the small intestines. Patients fasting for the normal requirement of 4 hours and have normal ...
In the liver, the enlargement of hepatocytes due to fatty change may compress adjacent bile canaliculi, leading to cholestasis ...
They are found between the bile canaliculi and interlobular bile ducts near the outer edge of a classic liver lobule. ... The canals of Hering, or intrahepatic bile ductules, are part of the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. ...
The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile canaliculi, small grooves between the faces of adjacent hepatocytes. The ... They are cuboidal epithelium in the small interlobular bile ducts, but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts ... The liver is an accessory digestive organ that produces bile, an alkaline fluid containing cholesterol and bile acids, which ... with liver sinusoids and bile canaliculi appearing. The liver bud separates into the lobes. The left umbilical vein becomes the ...
... and be excreted into bile canaliculi by way of C-MOAT and MRP2 as normal human bile along with a little amount of unconjugated ... or disturbed secretion into the bile canaliculi (Dubin-Johnson syndrome). Liver failure and hepatitis are the most etiological ... That means up to 96%-99% of bilirubin in the bile are conjugated. Normally, there is just a little conjugated bilirubin escapes ... However, only the latter one is primarily excreted into the bile in the normal setting. Upon macrophages spot and phagocytize ...
... bile ducts, intrahepatic MeSH A03.159.183.158.125 - bile canaliculi MeSH A03.556.124.369 - intestinal mucosa MeSH A03.556. ... MeSH A03.159.183.079 - bile ducts, extrahepatic MeSH A03.159.183.079.300 - common bile duct MeSH A03.159.183.079.300.950 - ... bile canaliculi MeSH A03.734.414.065 - glucagon-secreting cells MeSH A03.734.414.131 - insulin-secreting cells MeSH A03.734. ...
... associates with the membrane tissue in the intracellular canaliculi of gastric parietal cells, bile canaliculi of ...
... and on the bile canaliculi side of the hepatocyte, is responsible for sterol efflux. Variations in each of these proteins ...
This form of bilirubin is excreted from the liver in bile. Excretion of bilirubin from liver to biliary canaliculi is an active ...
The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required ... The top half of the common bile duct is associated with the liver, while the bottom half of the common bile duct is associated ... In cholecystectomy there is a slight risk (0.3-0.5%) of injury of the bile ducts, most commonly of the common bile duct. This ...
... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... is caused by a blockage of bile ducts that transport bile containing conjugated bilirubin out of the liver for excretion. This ... increased conjugated bilirubin and bile salts. In complete obstruction of the bile duct, conjugated bilirubin cannot access the ... If a bile duct blockage is present, surgery is typically required; otherwise, management is medical. Surgery in patients with ...
Bile is secreted by the liver to aid in the digestion of fats. Bile formation begins in bile canaliculi that form between two ... Canalicular bile plugs between individual hepatocytes or within bile ducts may also be seen, representing bile that has been ... GGT is elevated because it leaks out from the bile duct cells due to pressure from inside bile ducts.[citation needed] In a ... When these plugs occur within the bile duct, sufficient pressure (caused by bile accumulation) can cause them to rupture, ...
... several small ducts in the eye The dental canaliculi, the blood supply within a tooth Bile canaliculi, where the bile produced ... through it Canaliculus (parietal cell), an adaptation found on gastric parietal cells The lacrimal canaliculi, ... In anatomy, a canaliculus is a small passageway. Examples include: Two functionally different structures in bone: Bone ... canaliculus innominatus), a small occasional opening in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone This disambiguation page lists ...
... (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi.[citation needed] Bile+Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The bile canaliculi empty directly into the Canals of Hering. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in shape, therefore having no set ...
Intralobular bile ducts (cholangioles or Canals of Hering) - simple cuboidal epithelium, then by hepatocytes Bile canaliculi - ... Intrahepatic bile ducts compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. They can be divided into: Lobar ... Interlobular bile ducts (between the interlobar ducts and the lobules) - simple columnar epithelium. ... two half-canaliculi formed by the hepatocytes facing the perisinusoidal space Standring S, Borley NR, eds. (2008). Gray's ...
Bile ducts. *Intrahepatic bile ducts *Bile canaliculus. *Canals of Hering. *Interlobular. *Left hepatic duct ...
Bile ducts. *Intrahepatic bile ducts *Bile canaliculus. *Canals of Hering. *Interlobular. *Left hepatic duct ... 1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common ... Bile can flow in both directions between the gallbladder and the common bile duct and the hepatic duct. ... The hormone cholecystokinin, when stimulated by a fatty meal, promotes bile secretion by increased production of hepatic bile, ...
... probably by rupture of the congested bile canaliculi and direct emptying of the bile into the lymph leaving the liver. Thus, ... or blockage of the bile duct.[3] In the developed world, the cause is more often blockage of the bile duct or medications while ... because of the direct and indirect effects of pruritogens in bile such as bile salts.[19] ... The most common causes are gallstones in the common bile duct, and pancreatic cancer in the head of the pancreas. Also, a group ...
Bile. Bile produced by the liver is made up of water (97%), bile salts, mucus and pigments, 1% fats and inorganic salts.[25] ... Bile ducts. *Intrahepatic bile ducts *Bile canaliculus. *Canals of Hering. *Interlobular. *Left hepatic duct ... Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to ... so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct. The gallbladder needs to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all ...
Bile canaliculi ,, Canals of Hering ,, intrahepatic bile ductule (in portal tracts / triads) ,, interlobular bile ducts ,, left ... store and secrete bile. Bile consists of water, electrolytes, bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and conjugated bilirubin. ... 1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common ... Between meals, secreted bile is stored in the gall bladder. During a meal, the bile is secreted into the duodenum to rid the ...
Bile canaliculi >> Canals of Hering >> intrahepatic bile ductule (in portal tracts / triads) >> interlobular bile ducts >> left ... store and secrete bile. Bile consists of water, electrolytes, bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and conjugated bilirubin. ... Between meals, secreted bile is stored in the gall bladder. During a meal, the bile is secreted into the duodenum to rid the ... leaving the bile acids and cholesterol. During a meal, the smooth muscles in the gallbladder wall contract, leading to the bile ...
The endogenous development of the parasite occurs in the cells of the bile epithelium. The infected host cell becomes ... Macrogamont: The organelles include type 1 and type 2 wall forming bodies, canaliculi and granular bodies. Oocyte: The oocyst ...
... avis calcar femorale calcarine cortex calcarine fissure calcarine sulcus calf calix calvaria calyx canal of Schlemm canaliculus ... recess sphenoid bone sphenoidal sinus sphenopalatine artery sphenopalatine foramen sphincter sphincter of the bile duct ... kneecap knuckle koniocortex kyphosis labia majora labia minora labium labrum labyrinth lacrimal bone lacrimal canaliculus ... pedunculi basket cell basolateral amygdala biceps bicipital aponeurosis bicuspid valve bifurcation bilateral symmetry bile duct ...
However, it is known to alter the composition of bile, to protect hepatocytes from the cytotoxic effect of hydrophobic bile ... presence of protoporphyrin deposits in the hepatocytes that can be observed as a brown pigment within the biliary canaliculi ... Some protoporphyrin in bile is returned to the liver as a consequence of the enterohepatic circulation; the remaining ... Several drugs are used off label by patients with EPP: Ursodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid that is administered to promote ...
Also biliverdine was present, a bile component expected in the liver. The blood might also partly have originated from the ... showing individual osteocytes including their inner hollow spaces and the canaliculi. Also the internal blood vessels of the ...
In the acidic conditions of the canaliculi of parietal cells, both enantiomers are converted to chiral products (sulfenic acid ... primarily originating from bile secretion.[citation needed] ...
... like the parietal cell canaliculus) with acidic environments. In an acid environment, the inactive drug is protonated and ...
Bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi.[citation needed] Bile+Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The bile canaliculi empty directly into the Canals of Hering. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in shape, therefore having no set ...
Sinusoids and Bile Canaliculi. The sinusoids and bile canaliculi neighbor each other in the liver. The sinusoids are capillary- ... Bile is produced in the liver by the hepatocytes and secreted into thin channels called bile canaliculi located within each ... The canaliculi are drained peripherally by bile ducts that in turn drain into Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... ... Continued From Above... hepatic ducts that carry bile away from the liver. As a result, blood travels in the sinusoids and bile ...
There are thousands of bile canaliculi in the liver, each of which... ... A bile canaliculus is a very narrow passageway in the liver. ... Bile canaliculi are the first part of the bile transport system ... A bile canaliculus is an extremely narrow passageway within the liver. Some people describe a bile canaliculus as an ultra-thin ... The amount of bile a bile canaliculus transports also can shift, as an unhealthy liver may not produce as much bile. Under ...
... bile canaliculus explanation free. What is bile canaliculus? Meaning of bile canaliculus medical term. What does bile ... Looking for online definition of bile canaliculus in the Medical Dictionary? ... canaliculus. (redirected from bile canaliculus). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. canaliculus. [ ... canaliculus. pl. canaliculi [L.] an extremely narrow tubular passage or channel.. bile canaliculus. fine tubular channels ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a human liver cell (red-brown), also known as hepatocyte, and a bile canaliculus ( ... Bile is drained away from the liver through a dense network of bile canaliculi towards the gall-bladder. After a meal, bile is ... Bile canaliculus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a human liver cell (red-brown), also known as hepatocyte, and a bile ... canaliculus (green). Hepatocytes, among other numerous functions, secrete a viscous green-brown fluid called bile. ...
... improve the maturity level of a standard cell line by creating small multi-cellular structures each containing bile canaliculi ... Human bile canaliculi derived from HepG2-C3A cell line By combining the more liver-like cell line HepG2-C3A with specific ... improve the maturity level of a standard cell line by creating small multi-cellular structures each containing bile canaliculi ...
... and the bile canaliculus membrane marker HA4 (B1-B3). Notice the retention of ATP7B in the bile canaliculus that is boxed and ... ATP7B incorporation into the bile canaliculus was studied in cells with long and short bile canaliculi that had been treated ... of ATP7B from the TGN to the bile canaliculus in HepG2 cells and the localization of ATP7B in the bile canaliculus of liver ( ... the pathway of the Cu+-mediated transport of ATP7B from the TGN to the bile canaliculus and indicates that the bile canaliculus ...
Primary hepatocytes cultivated in collagen sandwich cultures are known to establish bile c … ... system as an appropriate model to study bile canaliculi in vitro by showing structural similarity measured as bile canaliculi ... So far, techniques to assess time-resolved morphological changes of bile canaliculi in sandwich cultures are not available. In ... Primary hepatocytes cultivated in collagen sandwich cultures are known to establish bile canaliculi which enclose secreted ...
Pluripotent stem cell-derived bile canaliculi-forming hepatocytes to study genetic liver diseases involving hepatocyte polarity ...
Imaging Bile Canaliculi in 3D Liver Microtissues Learn More * Application Note Phenotypic Analysis of Hypertrophy in Human iPSC ...
Lobular cholestasis without injury to the bile ducts is suggestive of a hepatocellular insult; e.g., at the bile canaliculus. ... Interlobular bile ducts were present in a normal distribution in all cases (no ductopenia) and the ducts were normal appearing ... There was no evident bile duct injury, with the exception of the allograft with recent history of severe rejection. ACE2 ... receptor is present on cholangiocytes, so we were certainly interested in identifying bile duct injury, but it was not observed ...
Bile Canaliculi / metabolism* * Biological Transport / drug effects * Cell Membrane / metabolism * Estradiol / analogs & ... These data indicate that E217G is substrate of both the non-bile acid organic anion transport system and P-glycoprotein but not ... all substrates of the canalicular ATP-dependent non-bile acid organic anion transport system, were also effective inhibitors, ... of the ATP-dependent bile acid transport system in canalicular membranes. ...
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, ... A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and ...
Gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and cytokines have not been ... ... a type of bile duct cancer, has a high mortality rate. ... BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, ... that functions in the ATP-dependent secretion of BILE SALTS into the BILE CANALICULI of HEPATOCYTES. Mutations in the ABCB11 ... BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile ...
Histochemistry of hepatic phosphatases of a physiologic pH; with special reference to the demonstration of bile canaliculi. ... special reference to the bile canaliculi in obstructive jaundice and liver-cell necrosis. ...
McIndoe, A. H. (1928). "The structure and arrangement of the bile canaliculi". Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 6 ...
A) Bile canaliculi area ratio calculations based on plane distances. (B) Z-factor calculation based on number of planes and ... Automated analysis of bile canaliculi area was achieved by analysis of maximum intensity projection images of the 60 µm stacks ... Plotting the bile canaliculi area versus the compound concentration allowed the calculation of a dose-response curve. A clear ... Figure 3A shows that the bile canaliculi area ratio remained similar, if an inter-plane distance of up to 8 µm is used. ...
ATP in and Around the Bile Canaliculus Irwin M. Arias. Pages 102-117 ... Hepatic Transport of Organic Anions and Bile Acids. * Characteristics of Organic Anion Binding Proteins from Rat Liver ... Characterization of the Bile Acid Transport System in Normal and Transformed Hepatocytes Using Monoclonal Antibodies ... Comparison of Bile Salt-Binding Proteins in Basolateral Membranes from Small Intestine, Kidney, and Liver ...
LD, lipid droplet; LL, lipolysosome; AP, autophagosome; ER, stressed endoplasmic reticulum; BC, bile canaliculus; red circle, ... were regularly disposed along the path of biliary canaliculi in healthy liver (A), while they were patchy distributed in fatty ...
Bile is initially secreted from hepatocytes and drains from both lobes of the liver via canaliculi, intralobular ducts and ... Bilirubin- Bile pigment & breakdown of the haemoglobin Bile salts- Emulsification of fats. ... These ducts amalgamate to form the common hepatic duct- join onto the cystic duct to form common bile duct and joins pancreatic ... Encloses: Hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct, lymph nodes Its medial. origins- lesser curvature- Porta hepatis ...
Arrows, the stained sinusoidal membrane; arrowheads, unstained bile canaliculi. Bar, 20 µm. ... Arrows, the stained sinusoidal membrane; arrowheads, unstained bile canaliculi. Bar, 20 µm. ... whereas the bile canaliculi remained unstained (arrowheads). Therefore, unlike the situation in kidneys, where the best antigen ...
Deposition of protoporphyrin crystals in hepatocytes and bile canaliculi * Interference with redox systems ...
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes, secreted by ABCB11 (Bsep) into the bile canaliculus, and then ... 1997) Development and maintenance of bile canaliculi in vitro and in vivo. Microsc Res Tech 39:406-412. ... In rodent fetal liver, hepatocytes are unpolarized and have infrequent small canaliculi, and bile acid synthesis is sparse (16 ... In rat hepatocyte sandwich cultures, polarization was manifested by sequential progression of bile canaliculi from small ...
Most of the bile is actually reabsorbed from the intestine and reused, but some is freshly synthesized in the sER ... What organ is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of bile acids? ... What do we call the beginning portion of the bile collecting system? ... Bile canaliculus 84 Bile flows through a system of channels. What are they called? ...
Polarity and Bile Canaliculi-Like Channels in Self-Assembled Rat Hepatocyte Spheroids ...
1D), with structures identical to bile canaliculi, delineated by typical junctional complexes and presenting several microvilli ... A bile canaliculus is indicated by a white triangle. (Bars = 50 μm.) Electron micrographs of HepaRG cells: low magnification ... showing a typical bile canaliculus-like structure and glycogen accumulation, respectively. (Bars = 2 μm.) RHG banding karyotype ... well delineated trabeculae closely resembling those formed in primary human hepatocyte culture in which many bright canaliculi- ...
N, nucleus; GLY, glycogen; BC, bile canaliculus; S, sinusoid; Lp, lipid. The representative data was prepared from HBx ...
Imaging Bile Canaliculi in 3D Liver Microtissues using the Opera Phenix HCS System Analyzing transport of biliary metabolites ... automated image analysis were used to quantify BSEP and MRP-2-mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates into bile canaliculi. ... A functional impairment of hepatobilary transporters, such as bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated ...
Also called bile canaliculus. blood capillary. One of the minute blood vessels that convey blood from the arterioles to the ... bile capillary. One of the intercellular biliary passageways that convey bile from liver cells to the interlobular bile ducts. ... Any of the very small canaliculi that are part of the secretory outflow path receiving secretion discharged from gland cells. ... secretory capillary any of the extremely fine intercellular canaliculi situated between adjacent gland cells, being formed by ...
  • The sinusoids and bile canaliculi neighbor each other in the liver. (innerbody.com)
  • Bile is produced in the liver by the hepatocytes and secreted into thin channels called bile canaliculi located within each hepatic plate. (innerbody.com)
  • hepatic ducts that carry bile away from the liver. (innerbody.com)
  • As a result, blood travels in the sinusoids and bile travels in the opposite direction so blood and bile never mix in the lobules of the liver under normal conditions. (innerbody.com)
  • A bile canaliculus is an extremely narrow passageway within the liver. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some people describe a bile canaliculus as an ultra-thin tube, but this not entirely accurate, as bile canaliculi are actually grooves formed by variations in the faces of liver cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Its primary function is to collect and transport the bile produced by hepatocytes, or liver cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are thousands of canaliculi within the liver. (wisegeek.com)
  • Bile canaliculi can be studied by examining liver tissue under a microscope. (wisegeek.com)
  • A single bile canaliculus thus cannot collect a large amount of bile, but because there are so many canaliculi within the liver, the liver is able to get rid of the roughly half a liter, or just over two cups, of bile produced on a daily basis. (wisegeek.com)
  • Capillaries that transport bile are fairly stable in a healthy liver, as hepatocytes usually don't divide except to repair damage. (wisegeek.com)
  • When there are problems with the liver cells and liver function, however, the structure of the canaliculi may change. (wisegeek.com)
  • The amount of bile a bile canaliculus transports also can shift, as an unhealthy liver may not produce as much bile. (wisegeek.com)
  • If liver function is impaired and bile canaliculi do not transport enough bile, people may experience symptoms of nutritional deficiency. (wisegeek.com)
  • Physicians are able to study bile canaliculi primarily through the examination of liver tissue under a microscope. (wisegeek.com)
  • Staining liver tissue with various dyes helps make the bile capillaries more visible. (wisegeek.com)
  • bile canaliculi fine tubular channels forming a three-dimensional network within the parenchyma of the liver. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a human liver cell (red-brown), also known as hepatocyte, and a bile canaliculus (green). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Bile is drained away from the liver through a dense network of bile canaliculi towards the gall-bladder. (sciencephoto.com)
  • By combining the more liver-like cell line HepG2-C3A with specific micropatterns, we were able to improve the maturity level of a standard cell line by creating small multi-cellular structures each containing bile canaliculi with a higher level of CYP3A4 activity. (cytoo.com)
  • A functional impairment of hepatobiliary transporters such as bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) are strongly associated with an increased risk of liver injury. (genengnews.com)
  • In contrast, hepatocytes in 3D spheroid cultures were shown to build extensive bile canaliculi network throughout the microtissue, as exemplified by InSphero's 3D InSight™ Human Liver Microtissues. (genengnews.com)
  • Loss of polarity causes bile secretory failure (cholestasis) and liver damage ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bile acid synthesis, turnover, and secretion are sparse in fetal liver, and rapidly increase postnatally ( 18 , 19 ), concomitant with hepatocyte polarization and development of a branched canalicular network. (pnas.org)
  • The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ just below the liver that stores bile secreted by the liver. (medicinenet.com)
  • Bile is a watery liquid made by the cells of the liver that is important for digesting food in the intestine, particularly fat, and eliminating toxic substances from the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • Liver cells secrete the bile into small canals within the liver referred to as canaliculi. (medicinenet.com)
  • The bile flows through the canaliculi and into larger collecting ducts within the liver referred to as intrahepatic bile ducts. (medicinenet.com)
  • The bile then flows through merged intrahepatic bile ducts out of the liver as extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts, ( first into the two hepatic bile ducts, then into the single common hepatic duct, and finally, after the common hepatic duct is joined by the cystic duct coming from the gallbladder, into the common bile duct. (medicinenet.com)
  • In pharmacology, IPRLs are mainly used to measure pharmacokinetic parameters of injected drug, such as the liver extraction ratios, the synthesis of metabolites by hepatocyte enzymes, and the bile excretion of drugs and their metabolites. (hindawi.com)
  • Bile is secreted by the liver and then drains through these canaliculi to the bile duct which carries the bile to a storage sack called the gallbladder. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Molecular regulation of sinusoidal liver bile acid transporters during cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is also demonstrated that in other rodent models of liver injuries induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)-containing diet, bile duct ligation (BDL), and chronic injection of carbon tetrachloride, ductular reaction is prominently induced, which is often considered as a sign of activation of LPCs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Besides jaundice, other symptoms include acholic, pale gray stools, dark urine (bilirubin excretion into urine), swollen abdominal region and large hardened liver (which may or may not be observable by the naked eye) secondary to obstructed bile flow. (sages.org)
  • In certain cases, bile duct proliferation may be seen, a relatively nonspecific marker of liver injury. (sages.org)
  • In the liver, ABCB4 is localized to the canalicular membranes of hepatocytes and is necessary for the secretion of phospholipids into bile. (hindawi.com)
  • The gallbladder is an organ that stores and transports bile produced by the liver. (reference.com)
  • Adequate bile flow, maintained in part by the efficient enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids, is critical for normal liver function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, bile acids are frequently used as therapeutic agents in a number of liver diseases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Have a comprehensive understanding of the numerous functions of the liver in human physiology including production of bile, regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, production of hormones, and detoxification. (wikipremed.com)
  • In addition to being the largest gland in the human body, producing bile for example, the liver plays a major role in metabolism. (wikipremed.com)
  • They are synthesized in the liver and secreted via bile into the intestine, where they aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and dietary fat. (ahajournals.org)
  • Subsequently, bile acids return to the liver to complete their enterohepatic circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The liver secretes bile into the small intestine via the bile duct employing the gallbladder as a reservoir. (thefullwiki.org)
  • one of the intercellular channels, about 1 mcm or less in diameter, that occur between liver cells forming the first portion of the bile system. (drugs.com)
  • Salivary Secretion Gastric Secretion Pancreatic Secretion Bile Secretion b y t he Liver Secretions o f t he Small Intestine Secretions o f t he Large Intestine. (slideserve.com)
  • The liver has a complex 3D tissue organization: It consists of functional units, the liver lobuli, containing two intertwined networks, the sinusoids for blood flow and the bile canaliculi for bile secretion and flux. (idw-online.de)
  • In 2017, the research group of Marino Zerial developed a model of the bile canalicular network and bile flow in the mouse liver using multi-resolution 3D analysis of its geometry. (idw-online.de)
  • The interlobular ducts unite further to form lobar or bile ducts that exit the liver parenchyma as a variable number of hepatic ducts, beginning the extrahepatic portion of the biliary system. (ivis.org)
  • These additional ducts connect the intrahepatic lobar ducts of adjacent liver lobes to allow for continued drainage of bile when primary pathways are obstructed. (ivis.org)
  • We assume, therefore, that API5 in cholestasis is produced by cells of the bile canaliculi rather than by liver parenchymal cells in the sinusoidal area. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Limb expression 1-like (LIX1L) protein promotes cholestatic liver injury by regulating bile acid metabolism. (amedeo.com)
  • Bile canaliculi in the liver combine to form the hepatic ducts. (vin.com)
  • Liver cells produce bile, which flows into small channels called bile canaliculi. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Thus, although viral hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) predominantly affects hepatocytes, it commonly leads to damaged canaliculi, small channels that transport bile from hepatocytes. (britannica.com)
  • A unique rat model of bile ductular hyperplasia in which liver is almost totally replaced with well-differentiated bile ductules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They are involved with the various functions of the liver, including metabolism, detoxification , and the production of bile. (encyclopedia.com)
  • hepatocyte (hip- at -oh-syt) n. the principal cell type in the liver: a large cell with many metabolic functions, including synthesis, storage, detoxification, and bile production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gallstones are 'stones' that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts. (medicinenet.com)
  • If they do not, it is likely that gallstones were left in the ducts, there is a second problem within the bile ducts, or the symptoms are caused by another problem. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholangiocytes modify the canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes as bile passes through the bile ducts. (genome.jp)
  • There it flows into branches of the bile duct which drain it into progressively larger ducts until it reaches the right and left hepatic ducts. (hepctrust.org.uk)
  • The sinusoids, lymph vessels and bile ducts are supported by connective tissue. (hepctrust.org.uk)
  • Interlobular ducts are formed from the unification of the canaliculi and lie between the lobules in the interstitial tissue. (ivis.org)
  • Biochemical and histopathological features suggest involvement of the bile ducts rather than of the bile canaliculi. (abcam.com)
  • They include elevated gamma glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, and, typically, marked fibrosis around bile ducts. (abcam.com)
  • These small channels drain into bile ducts. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Bile canaliculi form a complex network that is linked to the interlobular ducts and drains bile to larger ducts and the gall bladder (Vartak et al. (springer.com)
  • 2016 ). After induction of hepatotoxicity, both canaliculi and bile ducts show major structural changes (Jansen et al. (springer.com)
  • 2017 ). In chimeric mice, bile canaliculi can be expected to be formed by the apical cell membranes of the human hepatocytes and these structures have to link to the ducts that are formed by mouse cholangiocytes. (springer.com)
  • They join to form the bile ductules and eventually the hepatic duct. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a complex disease with three different histologic subtypes, the large duct, small duct, and bile ductular types. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is often difficult to correctly diagnose patients who present with dilation of the bile duct. (bioportfolio.com)
  • When cells that expanded in vitro were transplanted into recipient animals, they morphologically and functionally differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes with reconstitution of hepatocyte and bile duct structures. (rupress.org)
  • A second mutant, resulting from disruption of the tumor suppressor gene nf2 , develops extrahepatic choledochal cysts in the common bile duct, suggesting that this gene regulates division of biliary cells during development and that nf2 may play a role in the hyperplastic tendencies observed in biliary cells in individuals with choledochal cysts. (biologists.org)
  • Be able to describe the composition of bile from the bile duct and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic duct as they are released into the duodenum. (wikipremed.com)
  • hemosuccus pancreaticus , a rare cause of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract , can cause silver -coloured stools if the bleeding source obstructs the common bile duct ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • It is divided into a fundus, body, and neck and connects with the bile duct via the cystic duct. (ivis.org)
  • The intramural portion of the bile duct enters the mesenteric wall of the duodenum and courses obliquely for an additional 1.5 to 2 cm before terminating at the major duodenal papilla, separate from the ventral pancreatic duct. (ivis.org)
  • After the last hepatic duct has joined the cystic duct, the duct travelling towards the duodenum becomes the bile duct or common bile duct. (vin.com)
  • The common bile duct enters the duodenum on the major duodenal papilla. (vin.com)
  • A recent study of the sonographic evaluation of the feline common bile duct suggested that, in that species, a common bile duct diameter of 0.5 cm or greater was highly indicative of biliary obstruction. (vin.com)
  • Obstruction occurs at the level of the common bile duct and may be right at the entry point of the CBD into the duodenum (at the sphincter). (vin.com)
  • The surgical management of these patients is determined by one's ability to free the common bile duct of obstruction. (vin.com)
  • If the common bile duct can be cleared (by catheterization of the major duodenal papilla), the gallbladder and cystic duct are removed along with the cholecystoliths. (vin.com)
  • The common bile duct is joined by the pancreatic duct just before it enters the small intestine at the sphincter of Oddi. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Bile canaliculi are also shown supplying a branch of the bile duct. (wardsci.com)
  • Running through the lobules, alongside the sinusoids, are small channels called bile canaliculi. (hepctrust.org.uk)
  • The Cu + pump ATP7B plays an irreplaceable role in the elimination of excess Cu + by the hepatocyte into the bile. (biologists.org)
  • We validated the hepatocyte sandwich culture system as an appropriate model to study bile canaliculi in vitro by showing structural similarity measured as bile canaliculi length per hepatocyte to that observed in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • In conventional 2D hepatocyte cultures, for example, the establishment of bile canaliculi is limited since the cellular contact between hepatocytes are often missing. (genengnews.com)
  • In rat hepatocyte sandwich cultures, polarization was manifested by sequential progression of bile canaliculi from small structures to a fully branched network. (pnas.org)
  • Linkage between bile acid synthesis, hepatocyte polarization, and regulation of energy metabolism is likely important in normal hepatocyte development and disease. (pnas.org)
  • Based on these events, we postulated that bile acids may regulate hepatocyte polarization and canalicular formation. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, the drug concentrations generated by the hepatocyte uptake clearances are simultaneously modified by efflux clearances from hepatocytes into bile canaliculi and back into sinusoids. (hindawi.com)
  • All other cells that may interfere with hepatocyte functions are present, and the bile excretion is preserved. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, these mutants develop defects in the bile canaliculi and have marked biliary paucity, suggesting that vps18 also functions to traffic vesicles to the hepatocyte apical membrane and may play a role in the development of the intrahepatic biliary tree. (biologists.org)
  • In conclusion, the automated quantification system offers the possibility to systematically study the causal relationship between disturbed bile canalicular dynamics and cholestasis. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed "export pumps") for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary physiology and the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Canalicular excretion of bile salts and several non-bile acid organic anions is impaired in various experimental models of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis is characterized by cellular accumulation of bile acids (BAs), whose mechanisms remain poorly understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bile acid intermediates could be important FXR ligands during cholestasis or inborn metabolic disorders when these compounds can potentially be present in large amounts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using personalized biliary fluid dynamic simulations, we learned that the flow of bile in some small areas of the tissue is compromised, which is called micro-cholestasis. (idw-online.de)
  • also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with patients with ICC without VI, patients with VI had a greater abundance of the family Ruminococcaceae, increased levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-4 and six conjugated bile acids, and decreased levels of plasma IL-6 and chenodeoxycholic acid. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this study, we identified new biomarkers, including gut microbiota, bile acids, and inflammatory cytokines, for diagnosis of ICC and prediction of VI in patients with ICC. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The gut microbiota at the intersection of bile acids and intestinal carcinogenesis: an old story, yet mesmerizing. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is well-established that, besides facilitating lipid absorption, bile acids act as signaling molecules that modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes, secreted by ABCB11 (Bsep) into the bile canaliculus, and then mostly absorbed into the enterohepatic circulation ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The major bile acids in mammals are tauro or glycine conjugates of cholic, deoxycholic, and chenodeoxycholic acids ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Using collagen sandwich cultures of rat primary hepatocytes, we confirmed this hypothesis by quantifying canalicular network formation after exposure to bile acids and identifying the signaling pathways involved. (pnas.org)
  • The main solutes in bile are bile acids, which stimulate bile secretion osmotically, as well as facilitate the intestinal absorption of dietary lipids by their detergent properties. (genome.jp)
  • Bile acids are also important signalling molecules. (genome.jp)
  • One important component of this process is the uptake of bile acids from the portal circulation into hepatocytes by the bile acid uptake transporter sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, the ability of various bile acids and drugs to inhibit NTCP activity was determined using a recombinant vaccinia expression system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Expressed NTCP exhibited high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of taurocholate, and as expected, this was markedly inhibited by bile acids and organic anions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nascent bile acid synthesis is minimized by the efficient enterohepatic recycling of bile acids ( Ostrow, 1993 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Hagenbuch and Meier, 1994 ) as the key transporter for hepatic uptake of bile acids ( Stieger and Meier, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we show that a large interindividual variability in NTCP mRNA levels exists and that NTCP transport activity can be modulated by a variety of bile acids and nonbile acid drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • On its activation by bile acids, FXR regulates bile acid synthesis, conjugation, and transport, as well as various aspects of lipid and glucose metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9,10 Originally described as a farnesol-activated receptor interacting with RXR, and accordingly named, FXR was later identified as a receptor that is activated by bile acids ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 More recently, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) like arachidonic, linolenic, or docosahexaenoic acid, 15 as well as intermediates of the bile acid synthetic pathways, 16 were shown to be FXR ligands and modulators in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • Structure and activation potency of several bile acids on human FXR. (ahajournals.org)
  • OATP1A1 and OATP1B2 both transport endogenous substrates such as bile acids and hormone conjugates as well as numerous drugs including gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hepatocytes also form a network of canaliculi for the secretion of bile salts that participate in digestion. (reference.com)
  • In hepatocytes, TJs seal the bile canaliculi and form the intercellular barrier between bile and blood ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Impact of bile salts on coevolutionary dynamics between the gut bacterium Escherichia coli and its lytic phage PP01. (nih.gov)
  • The biliary phospholipids are associated with bile salts and cholesterol in mixed micelles, thereby reducing the detergent activity and cytotoxicity of bile salts and preventing cholesterol crystallization. (hindawi.com)
  • In vivo and cell culture studies have demonstrated that the secretion of biliary phospholipids depends on both ABCB4 expression and bile salts. (hindawi.com)
  • In the presence of bile salts, ABCB4 located in nonraft membranes mediates the efflux of phospholipids, preferentially phosphatidylcholine. (hindawi.com)
  • Eventually, the canaliculi join to larger bile ductules. (wisegeek.com)
  • Blast-like cell compartment in carcinogen-induced proliferating bile ductules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and cytokines in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and cytokines have not been characterized in patients with ICC, and better noninvasive diagnostic approaches for ICC are essential to be established. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to improve our understanding of changes in gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and cytokines in patients with ICC. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alterations of bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota have been reported to play vital roles in intestin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fucoidan and galactooligosaccharides ameliorate high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia in rats by modulating the gut microbiota and bile acid metabolism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bile acid metabolism, in turn, is controlled by se. (bioportfolio.com)
  • intercellular canaliculus one located between adjacent cells, such as one of the secretory capillaries, or canaliculi, of the gastric parietal cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • secretory capillary any of the extremely fine intercellular canaliculi situated between adjacent gland cells, being formed by the apposition of grooves in the parietal cells and opening into the gland's lumen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • apical canaliculus one of the numerous tubular invaginations arising from the clefts between the microvilli of the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney and extending downward into the apical cytoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The presence of BSEP and MRP2 on the apical membrane toward the bile canaliculi indicates that this model system might be a useful tool to study the effects of efflux-inhibiting compounds in a complex 3D environment. (genengnews.com)
  • Tight junction proteins, including occludin, claudin, and ZO-1, seal the canalicular lumen, thereby separating apical and basolateral membrane domains and forming the bile canaliculus ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Using primary rat hepatocytes in collagen sandwich cultures ( 20 ), we analyzed the effect of bile acid treatment on canalicular network formation as identified by immunofluorescence of occludin, a tight junction marker, and ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein), an apical membrane marker. (pnas.org)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate regulates hepatic bile acid synthesis in mice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The canaliculi are similar in transport function to the capillaries of the circulatory system, which are connected to larger veins and arteries. (wisegeek.com)
  • Lutz Brusch from the department of innovative methods of computing at the ZIH explains: "While the fluid dynamics of blood flow through the comparatively large capillaries has been addressed by simulations, this was so far impossible for bile due to the lack of accurate geometrical data of human tissue across all relevant scales. (idw-online.de)
  • and (iv) increase mRNAs of many CypP450 enzymes and CypP450 metabolic rates and increase or restore secretory processes, like VLDL, albumin and bile secretion. (nature.com)
  • Although several defects can already be seen in 2D images, the alterations of bile canaliculi and sinusoidal networks can only be recognized upon a 3D reconstruction. (idw-online.de)
  • Among them, ABCB4, also called MDR3, is essential for the secretion of phospholipids from hepatocytes into bile. (hindawi.com)
  • Bile secretion depends on the function of membrane transport systems in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes and on the structural and functional integrity of the biliary tree. (genome.jp)
  • Functions as a floppase that translocates specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) from the inner to the outer leaflet of the canalicular membrane bilayer into the canaliculi between hepatocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • It is therefore hypothesized that knowledge of a compound's effect on the other major bile acid efflux transporters (e.g. (genengnews.com)
  • For this reason, another name for a bile canaliculi is bile capillary. (wisegeek.com)
  • From the gallbladder bile is periodically released into the duodenum where it is needed for fat digestion. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Hepatocytes, among other numerous functions, secrete a viscous green-brown fluid called bile. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Hepatocytes produce lipoproteins, metabolize glycogen to glucose, secrete bile and perform detoxification. (reference.com)
  • Its function is to store and concentrate bile and secrete a mucoid substance for lubrication and protection. (ivis.org)
  • and form the bile canaliculus across which bile is secreted. (biologists.org)
  • As the next step of device validation, iPS-derived hepatic cells have been matured on-chip into functional, mature hepatocytes, expressing important markers such as albumin and forming bile canalicular structures not seen in corresponding 2D cultures. (gu.se)
  • After a meal, bile is expelled from the gall-bladder and enters the duodenum where it plays an important role in the breakdown and digestion of fatty compounds. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Understand how the secretion of bile is regulated by release of CCK from the duodenum. (wikipremed.com)
  • On the canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, several ABC transporters are responsible for the secretion of bile lipids. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular cloning approaches have identified a number of hepatic transporters capable of bile acid and xenobiotic uptake. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Under the condition connected with a proliferation of bile canaliculi we find this API5 in serum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Under different conditions without proliferation of bile canaliculi we do not find an increase of this API5. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This drains into the gallbladder where bile is stored until it is needed for fat digestion. (hepctrust.org.uk)
  • From days 3 to 5, canaliculi progressively elongated and connected to form branched structures. (pnas.org)
  • The hepatocytes generate the so-called primary bile in their canaliculi. (genome.jp)
  • Finally, organ-specific functions are restored, including xenobiotics degradation and secretion of bile, VLDL and albumin. (nature.com)
  • Hepatocytes are arranged around a central vein in units called lobules , in close association with branches of the hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile canaliculi. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Primary hepatocytes cultivated in collagen sandwich cultures are known to establish bile canaliculi which enclose secreted biliary components. (nih.gov)
  • The current study investigates the effects of AMPK and its upstream activator LKB1 on polarity and bile canalicular network formation and maintenance in collagen sandwich cultures of rat hepatocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, bile is an important route of elimination for excess cholesterol and many waste product, bilirubin, drugs and toxic compounds. (genome.jp)
  • mastoid canaliculus a small channel in the temporal bone transmitting the auricular branch of the vagus nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • tympanic canaliculus a small opening on the inferior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, transmitting the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve and a small artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a very small tube or channel, such as the microscopic haversian canaliculi throughout bone tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In fetal mice and rats, infrequent small canaliculi are present, but do not attain an adult appearance until several days postpartum ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • In control cultures, the canalicular network sequentially grew ( Fig. 1 A and B ). In day 1 cultures, canaliculi were infrequent and small, indicating loss of polarity because of isolation of hepatocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Bile is a vital secretion, essential for digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. (genome.jp)
  • Thus, the expression and functional activity of this transporter may affect the rate of bile acid removal from the portal circulation. (aspetjournals.org)