Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
A class of cell surface leukotriene receptors with a preference for leukotriene B4. Leukotriene B4 receptor activation influences chemotaxis, chemokinesis, adherence, enzyme release, oxidative bursts, and degranulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There are at least two subtypes of these receptors. Some actions are mediated through the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.
Unsaturated derivatives of cholane with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched five-carbon chain at C-17. They must have at least one double bond in the ring system.
A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
A genus of primitive fish in the family Petromyzontidae. The sole species is Petromyzon marinus, known as the sea lamprey. The adult form feeds parasitically on other fish species.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/3564)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (2/3564)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

A new hydrolase specific for taurine-conjugates of bile acids. (3/3564)

Through the investigation of the bile acid-deconjugation activities of human intestinal anaerobes, a new enzyme was discovered in Peptostreptococcus intermedius which hydrolyzed specifically the taurine-conjugates, but not the glycine-conjugates of bile acids. However, the enzymes in Streptococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus brevis hydrolyzed chiefly the glycine-conjugates.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (4/3564)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

Enrichment of canalicular membrane with cholesterol and sphingomyelin prevents bile salt-induced hepatic damage. (5/3564)

These studies were undertaken to characterize the role of plasma membrane cholesterol in canalicular secretory functions and hepatocyte integrity against intravenous taurocholate administration. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations and cholesterol/phospholipid ratios were significantly increased in canalicular membranes of diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting a more resistant structure against solubilization by taurocholate. During taurocholate infusion, control rats had significantly decreased bile flow, whereas diosgenin-fed animals maintained bile flow. Maximal cholesterol output increased by 176% in diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting an increased precursor pool of biliary cholesterol in these animals. Maximal phospholipid output only increased by 43% in diosgenin-fed rats, whereas bile salt output remained at control levels. The kinetics of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities in bile showed a significantly faster release in control than in diosgenin-fed rats. After 30 min of intravenous taurocholate infusion, necrotic hepatocytes were significantly increased in control animals. Preservation of bile secretory functions and hepatocellular cytoprotection by diosgenin against the intravenous infusion of toxic doses of taurocholate was associated with an increased concentration of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the canalicular membrane. The increase of biliary cholesterol output induced by diosgenin was correlated to the enhanced concentration of cholesterol in the canalicular membrane.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (6/3564)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (7/3564)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis. (8/3564)

The response of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 to salt stress has been characterized previously in complex media. In this report, it has been demonstrated that this bacterium actively accumulates the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) from salt-enriched complex medium BHI. To further understand the specific effects of GB and other osmoprotective compounds in salt adaptation and salt-induced cross-tolerance to lethal challenges, a chemically defined medium lacking putative osmoprotectants was used. In this medium, bacterial growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. At 0.75 M NaCl, 90% inhibition of the growth rate was observed; GB and its structural analogues restored growth to the non-salt-stressed level. In contrast, proline, pipecolate and ectoine did not allow growth recovery of stressed cells. Kinetic studies showed that the uptake of betaines shows strong structural specificity and occurs through a salt-stress-inducible high-affinity porter [Km = 3.3 microM; Vmax = 130 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1); the uptake activity increased 400-fold in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl]. Moreover, GB and its analogues were accumulated as non-metabolizable cytosolic osmolytes and reached intracellular levels ranging from 1-3 to 1.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1). In contrast to the beneficial effect of GB on the growth of salt-stressed cultures of E. faecalis, its accumulation inhibits the salt-induced cross-tolerance to a heterologous lethal challenge. Indeed, pretreatment of bacterial cells with 0.5 M NaCl induced resistance to 0.3% bile salts (survival of adapted cells increased by a factor of 6800). The presence of GB in the adaptation medium reduced the acquisition of bile salts resistance 680-fold. The synthesis of 11 of the 13 proteins induced during salt adaptation was significantly reduced in the presence of GB. These results raise questions about the actual beneficial effect of GB in natural environments where bacteria are often subjected to various stresses.  (+info)

A simple, precise and sensitive method for separation and determination of total bile acid sulfates in human urine is described. The sulfate fraction of urinary bile acids was separated with lipophilic anion exchange gel, piperidinohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 after sample clean-up with Sep-Pak C18 cartridge. The obtained sulfate fraction was submitted to solvolysis with a small volume of dimethoxypropane-HCl solution and subjected to enzymatic-fluorimetrical assay using 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and resazurin. In this method, no influence of existing salts in the reaction mixture on fluorescence intensity was observed and solvolysis reaction was almost complete. Overall recoveries of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acid 3-sulfates from normal urine ranged from 90.5 to 93.7% and those of unconjugates from 48.7 to 78.0%. The sensitivity of the described method enabled to estimate total bile acid sulfates with 0.5 ml of normal urine and precision tests showed the satisfactory accuracy. The
Since the last International Bile Acid Meeting in Freiburg in 1996, considerable progress has been made in several areas of bile acid research. The different pathways of bile acid synthesis and their regulation have been further characterized. The molecular mechanisms for biliary secretion of bile acids have been elucidated and genetic defects of bile acid transport have been defined. Injurious as well as protective effects of different bile acids on the liver have been further studied. Finally, the beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver diseases have been substantiated and the potential mechanisms of action have been explored. This book, the proceedings of the Falk Symposium No. 108 (XV International Bile Acid Meeting), held in Titisee, Germany, October 12-13, 1998, is dedicated to both basic and clinical aspects of bile acid research with a focus on bile acids and cholestasis.Bile Acids and Cholestasis - XV International Bile Acid Meeting, 1 was published 1999 under ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total bile acids tests are also widely used to screen pregnant women for the condition of obstetric cholestasis, a disease that is caused by elevated total bile acids in the bloodstream ...
Bile acids are C24 steroids that are derived in the liver from cholesterol and secreted into the intestinal lumen to aid in emulsification of dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. The indigenous intestinal microflora modify bile acids, producing up to 20 unique bile acid metabolites. The 7α-dehydroxylation of the bile acids is the most physiologically important bile acid biotransformation. All known intestinal bacteria capable of bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation are anaerobic, gram-positive rods of the genera Clostridium and Eubcicterium. Bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria often contain bile salt hydrolase, which hydrolyzes the peptide bond in taurine-conjugated bile acids to yield a free bile acid and taurine. Taurine is an organosulfonate containing a sulfite moiety. There have been no published reports indicating whether 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria can utilize taurine. Given that taurine and taurine-conjugated bile acids are found at great concentrations in the intestine, the ability to
Faecal bile acid excretion and intestinal transit time were studied in 18 children with inflammatory bowel disease in clinical remission and with normal stools: 16 with ulcerative colitis, two with Crohns colitis, mean age 14 years (range 10-17 years). Five healthy children, mean age 12.4 years (range 10-17 years), were studied as control subjects. Most patients were taking sulphasalazine, but none were taking steroids. Transit time was determined by carmine and did not differ between groups. Faeces were collected for 72 hours, and faecal water was prepared by centrifugation of faeces at 15,000 x g for two hours. Bile acids in total faeces and faecal water were studied using capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Faecal excretion of total bile acids, unconjugated bile acids, and glycine and taurine conjugates were significantly increased in patients as was faecal water excretion of total bile acids, particularly the taurine conjugates and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. Total ...
The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in
1. Coeliac patients are known to have an expanded bile salt pool which recirculates slowly due, at least in part, to impaired gall bladder contractility. We have investigated the possibility that delayed small bowel transit of chyme and bile may also contribute to this sluggish recycling.. 2. Plasma cholylglycine, total bile acids and cholecystokinin concentrations were measured after a lactulose-labelled test meal whose mouth-caecum transit time (M-C TT) was assessed by the breath hydrogen technique.. 3. Overall there were no significant differences in plasma bile acid profiles between seven healthy controls and a group of 25 coeliac patients. However, when subjects were divided according to their M-C TT, the 10 with the slowest transit were found to have significant elevation of fasting levels when compared with the 10 with the fastest transit, fasting total bile acids being 3.4 ± 1.3 versus 0.7 ± 0.6 μmol/l (P , 0.02) and fasting cholylglycine being 0.43 ± 0.17 versus 0.06 ± 0.04 μmol/l ...
To study the effect of steroid hormones on bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes, cells were incubated with various amounts of these compounds during 72 h and conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids was measured. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated in a dose-dependent way by glucocorticoids, but not by sex steroid hormones, pregnenolone or the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in concentrations up to 10 microM. Dexamethasone proved to be the most efficacious inducer, giving 3-fold and 7-fold increases in bile acid synthesis during the second and third 24 h incubation periods respectively, at a concentration of 50 nM. Mass production of bile acids as measured by g.l.c. during the second day of culture (28-52 h) was 2.2-fold enhanced by 1 microM-dexamethasone. No change in the ratio of bile acids produced was observed during this period in the presence of dexamethasone. Conversion of [4-14C]7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, an intermediate of the bile acid pathway, to bile acids was not ...
Bile acids are usually found conjugated to glycine or taurine, a derivative of cysteine. Cells require the presence of an active bile acid transporter for uptake of these conjugated derivatives (10). To test whether conjugated bile acids would also activate FXR, we coexpressed the human ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) with FXR in CV-1 cells (11). FXR was strongly activated by 3 μM of the taurine or glycine conjugates of CDCA, LCA, and DCA (Fig. 2G). Weaker activation was seen with the conjugated forms of CA, and tauro-MCA was inactive (Fig. 2G). These data indicate that FXR can be activated by conjugated bile acids in tissues that express bile acid transporters such as the terminal ileum, liver, and kidney. The relation between the chemical structure of bile acids and their activation of FXR is in close agreement with the reported effects of bile acids on induction of I-BABP expression in Caco-2 cells and inhibition of Cyp7a expression in hepatocytes (3, 12). Coactivator proteins interact ...
Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA is bile acid Coenzyme A ester. In humans, bile acids conjugated with glycine and taurine are the major solutes in bile, and unconjugated bile acids are almost nondetectable in normal bile. Conjugated bile acids are less toxic and are more efficient promoters of intestinal absorption of dietary lipid than unconjugated bile acids. The synthesis of bile acid and amino acid conjugates in human liver is the result of two independent enzymatic reactions with a bile acid coenzyme A thioester intermediate formation of bile acid-CoA esters, considered the rate-limiting step in bile acid amidation and catalyzed by an ATP-dependent microsomal enzyme, bile acid-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.7). In the second reaction, the thioester bond is cleaved, and an amide bond is formed between the bile acid and the amino acids glycine or taurine. The bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.65) catalyzes this reaction in the cytosol prior to secretion into bile. In human liver the ...
Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA is bile acid Coenzyme A ester. In humans, bile acids conjugated with glycine and taurine are the major solutes in bile, and unconjugated bile acids are almost nondetectable in normal bile. Conjugated bile acids are less toxic and are more efficient promoters of intestinal absorption of dietary lipid than unconjugated bile acids. The synthesis of bile acid and amino acid conjugates in human liver is the result of two independent enzymatic reactions with a bile acid coenzyme A thioester intermediate formation of bile acid-CoA esters, considered the rate-limiting step in bile acid amidation and catalyzed by an ATP-dependent microsomal enzyme, bile acid-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.7). In the second reaction, the thioester bond is cleaved, and an amide bond is formed between the bile acid and the amino acids glycine or taurine. The bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.65) catalyzes this reaction in the cytosol prior to secretion into bile. In human liver the ...
1. The biliary excretion of total bilirubin and bile acids, and the fate of tracer doses of radioactive sulphated and non-sulphated bile acids, were studied in patients with percutaneous transhepatic bile drainage.. 2. Non-sulphated bile acids were excreted in bile early after biliary decompression, and the serum total 3α-hydroxy bile acid concentrations fell rapidly to normal. Biliary bilirubin excretion was both less than and delayed compared with that of bile acids, and the serum bilirubin concentration fell more slowly.. 3. The serum disappearance of [3H]chenodeoxycholate-3-sulphate was slower than that of [14C]glycocholate in all patients with bile drainage, the difference being more marked in the jaundiced patients.. 4. The radioactive sulphated bile acids were recovered predominantly in the urine of the jaundiced patients. In contrast [14C]glycocholate was excreted almost exclusively in bile. In an anicteric patient, radioactive sulphated bile acid disappeared from the serum more ...
Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). These effects of bile acids are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, but can affect different tissues throughout the organism. It is still unclear whether these effects also involve signaling of bile acids to the central nervous system (CNS). Bile acid signaling to the CNS encompasses both direct and indirect pathways. Bile acids can act directly in the brain via central FXR and TGR5 signaling. In addition, there are two indirect pathways that involve intermediate agents released upon interaction with bile acids receptors in the gut. Activation of intestinal FXR and TGR5 receptors can result in the release of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), both
In addition to their well-known function as dietary lipid detergents, bile acids have emerged as important signalling molecules that regulate energy homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted that disrupted bile acid metabolism is associated with metabolism disorders such as dyslipidaemia, intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases and obesity. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications in bile acid metabolism. Bile acids bind and modulate the activity of transmembrane and nuclear receptors (NR). Among these receptors, the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) and the NR farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis. The role of these receptors in the intestine... in energy metabolism regulation has been recently highlighted. More precisely, recent studies have shown that FXR is important for glucose homeostasis in particular in metabolic disorders such as T2D and ...
Pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD), involves interaction between environmental factors and inappropriate immune responses in the intestine of genetically predisposed individuals. Bile acids and their nuclear receptor, FXR, regulate inflammatory responses and barrier function in the intestinal tract. We studied the association of five variants (rs3863377, rs7138843, rs56163822, rs35724, rs10860603) of the NR1H4 gene encoding FXR with IBD. 1138 individuals (591 non-IBD, 203 UC, 344 CD) were genotyped for five NR1H4 genetic variants with TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed that the NR1H4 SNP rs3863377 is significantly less frequent in IBD cases than in non-IBD controls (allele frequencies: P = 0.004; wild-type vs. SNP carrier genotype frequencies: P = 0.008), whereas the variant rs56163822 is less prevalent in non-IBD controls (allele frequencies: P = 0.027; wild-type vs. SNP carrier genotype frequencies: P = 0.035). The global
The secondary bile acids are derived from the primary bile acids by the enzymatic action of intestinal bacteria through the process of deconjugation and dehydroxylation. The secondary bile acids in humans include deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, formed from the 7alpha-dehydroxylation of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively ...
The glucuronidation of bile acids is an established metabolic pathway in different human organs. The hepatic and renal UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities vary according to the bile acids concerned. Thus, hyodeoxycholic acid is clearly differentiated from other bile acids by its high rate of glucur …
Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with ...
Bile acids have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of colon and gastric cancer after gastrectomy, but the molecular biology of these effects is poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of different bile acids on human gastric and colon carcinoma cells and identified genes by RNA arbitrarily primed PCR for differential display that are modulated following treatment with hydrophobic bile acids. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) mRNA was upregulated after treatment with taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in St 23132 cells. This raised the question whether deoxycholic acid (DCA) would have regulative effects on TR in HT-29 cells. After an incubation time of 6 h with DCA, TR mRNA expression was increased up to threefold. Ursodeoxycholic acid had no influence on TR mRNA expression. The upregulation of TR after DCA incubation was almost identical to incubation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. This implies that hydrophobic bile acids mediate oxidative stress in ...
The serum concentration of TBA in healthy neonates significantly exceeds that in children over 1 year of age, a condition called physiological cholestasis.9 The urinary TBA:creatinine ratio was raised in the first week after birth, then decreased gradually. The high concentration of TBA in urine may be attributable to either an enhanced stimulation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids or an impaired hepatic clearance or excretion.10The highest value for TBA in meconium was in neonates. This value is greatly influenced by events or conditions during pregnancy, such as the presence of biliary bile in the fetal duodenum or the ingestion of amniotic fluid by the fetus.10 11 Ketonic bile acids are usually considered to result from the bacterial oxidation of primary bile acids.12 In this study we detected ketonic bile acids early in life. The intestine may be colonised by bacterial flora during the first week.13 A high concentration of 3-oxo Δ4 bile acids in serum or urine has been ...
Upregulation of hepatic bile acid synthesis via fibroblast growth factor 19 is defective in gallstone disease but functional in overweight ...
1] Islam KB, et al. Bile acid is a host factor that regulates the composition of the cecal microbiota in rats. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov;141(5):1773-81.. [2] Hellström PM, et al. Role of bile in regulation of gut motility. J Intern Med. 1995 Apr;237(4):395-402.. [3] Trauner M, et al. Bile acids as regulators of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Dig Dis. 2010;28(1):220-4.. [4] Watanabe M, et al. Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation. Nature. 2006 Jan 26;439(7075):484-9.. [5] Zhou H, Hylemon PB. Bile acids are nutrient signaling hormones. Steroids. 2014 Aug;86:62-8.. [6] McMillin M, DeMorrow S. Effects of bile acids on neurological function and disease. FASEB J. 2016 Nov;30(11):3658-68.. [7] Fiorucci S, Distrutti E. Bile acid-activated receptors,iIntestinal microbiota, and the treatment of metabolic disorders. Trends Mol Med. 2015 Nov;21(11):702-14.. [8] de Aguiar Vallim TQ, et al. Pleiotropic roles of bile acids in metabolism. Cell Metab. ...
Bile acids are steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. Individual bile acid carriers have now been cloned from several species. Na(+)-dependent transporters that mediate uptake into hepatocytes and reabsorption from the intestine and biliary epithelium and an ATP-dependent transporter that pumps bile acids into bile comprise the classes of transporter that are specific for bile acids. In addition, at least four human and five rat genes that code for Na(+)-independent organic anion carriers with ...
Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats. We now report the effects of the habitual intake of milk calcium on metabolic risk factors in healthy subjects. A double-blind, cross-over metabolic study was performed in 13 healthy males. Placebo milk products (calcium, 3 mm) were compared with regular milk products (calcium, 30 mm). In each 1-week period, the habitual diet was recorded, and urine and feces were collected for 1 and 3 days, respectively. Milk calcium significantly increased fecal pH and fecal excretion of phosphate (132%), total fat (139%), free fatty acids (195%), and bile acids (141%), indicating intestinal complexation. In fecal water, the concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids (deoxycholic and lithocholic acid), ...
We investigated the effect of increasing dietary cholesterol on bile acid pool sizes and the regulation of the two bile acid synthetic pathways (classic, via cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and alternative, via sterol 27-hydroxylase) in New Zealand white rabbits fed 3 g cholesterol/per day for up to 15 days. Feeding cholesterol for one day increased hepatic cholesterol 75% and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity 1.6 times without significant change of bile acid pool size or sterol 27-hydroxylase activity. After three days of cholesterol feeding, the bile acid pool size increased 83% (P < 0.01), and further feeding produced 10%-20% increments, whereas cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity declined progressively to 60% below baseline. In contrast, sterol 27-hydroxylase activity rose 58% after three days of cholesterol feeding and remained elevated with continued intake. Bile drainage depleted the bile acid pool and stimulated downregulated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity but did not affect ...
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is one of the most efficient recycling routes in the human body. It is a complex process involving numerous transport proteins, which serve to transport bile acids from the small intestine into portal circulation, from the portal circulation into the hepatocyte, from the hepatocyte into the bile, and from the gall bladder to the small intestine. The tremendous transport capacity and organ specificity of enterohepatic circulation combined with versatile derivatization possibilities, rigid steroidal backbone, enantiomeric purity, availability, and low cost have made bile acids attractive tools in designing pharmacological hybrid molecules and prodrugs with the view of improving intestinal absorption, increasing the metabolic stability of pharmaceuticals, specifically targeting drugs to organs involved in enterohepatic circulation, as well as sustaining therapeutically reasonable systemic concentrations of active agents. This article briefly describes bile acid
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
The risk of stillbirth is increased in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy when serum bile acids concentrations are 100 mol L or more, according to
We have demonstrated in vitro the efficacy of the taurine-conjugated dihydroxy bile salts deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate in solubilizing both cholesterol and phospholipid from hamster liver bile-canalicular and contiguous membranes and from human erythrocyte membrane. On the other hand, the dihydroxy bile salt ursodeoxycholate and the trihydroxy bile salt cholate solubilize much less lipid. The lipid solubilization by the four bile salts correlated well with their hydrophobicity: glycochenodeoxycolate, which is more hydrophobic than the tauro derivative, also solubilized more lipid. All the dihydroxy bile salts have a threshold concentration above which lipid solubilization increases rapidly; this correlates approximately with the critical micellar concentration. The non-micelle-forming bile salt dehydrocholate solubilized no lipid at all up to 32 mM. All the dihydroxy bile acids are much more efficient at solubilizing phospholipid than cholesterol. Cholate does not show such a pronounced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological concentrations of bile acids down-regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells. AU - Keating, Niamh. AU - Mroz, Magdalena S. AU - Scharl, Michael M. AU - Marsh, Christine. AU - Ferguson, Gail. AU - Hofmann, Alan F. AU - Keely, Stephen J. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - In patients with bile acid malabsorption, high concentrations of bile acids enter the colon and stimulate Cl(-) and fluid secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA), the predominant colonic bile acid, is normally present at lower concentrations where its role in regulating transport is unclear. Thus, the current study set out to investigate the effects of physiologically relevant DCA concentrations on colonic epithelial secretory function. Cl(-) secretion was measured as changes in short-circuit current across voltage-clamped T(84) cell monolayers. At high concentrations (0.5-1 mM), DCA acutely stimulated Cl(-) secretion but this effect was associated with ...
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet ...
Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming inverted structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes.. The Na+ ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22Na+ partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22Na+ across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. All phospholipids tested, except for phosphatidylcholine, showed ionophoretic capability for Na+ at micromolar concentrations. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the most efficient Na+ carriers, comparable with monensin, an established Na+ ionophore. In contrast, cholic acid as well as other bile acids ...
FXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine. Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a heterodimer with RXR) and binds to hormone response elements on DNA, which up- or down-regulates the expression of certain genes.[6] One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. FXR does not directly bind to the CYP7A1 promoter. Rather, FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which then functions to inhibit transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. In this way, a negative feedback pathway is established in which synthesis of bile acids is inhibited when cellular levels are already high. FXR has also been found to be important in regulation of hepatic triglyceride levels.[7] Studies have also shown the FXR to ...
Bile acids are made in the liver, released into the intestine to help digest fat, and are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. They can be measured in the blood to determine if the liver is working properly. Indications for the test include elevated liver enzymes, seizures, poor growth, and low blood albumin. The test is usually performed after a 12 hour fast and consists of the measurement of serum bile acids before and 2 hours after a meal. The test can be affected by poor intestinal motility - either from disease, sedation/anesthesia, or if the pet has had part of the intestine removed that is responsible for absorption of bile acids. Bile acids will be high if the liver is not functioning properly. It does not rule out liver disease as disease can affect part of the liver without significantly affecting bile acid production. Elevated bile acids may warrant further diagnostics or monitoring depending on your pets condition.. ...
Bile acids are made in the liver, released into the intestine to help digest fat, and are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. They can be measured in the blood to determine if the liver is working properly. Indications for the test include elevated liver enzymes, seizures, poor growth, and low blood albumin. The test is usually performed after a 12 hour fast and consists of the measurement of serum bile acids before and 2 hours after a meal. The test can be affected by poor intestinal motility - either from disease, sedation/anesthesia, or if the pet has had part of the intestine removed that is responsible for absorption of bile acids. Bile acids will be high if the liver is not functioning properly. It does not rule out liver disease as disease can affect part of the liver without significantly affecting bile acid production. Elevated bile acids may warrant further diagnostics or monitoring depending on your pets condition.. Login Required. ...
Bile acids are made in the liver, released into the intestine to help digest fat, and are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. They can be measured in the blood to determine if the liver is working properly. Indications for the test include elevated liver enzymes, seizures, poor growth, and low blood albumin. The test is usually performed after a 12 hour fast and consists of the measurement of serum bile acids before and 2 hours after a meal. The test can be affected by poor intestinal motility - either from disease, sedation/anesthesia, or if the pet has had part of the intestine removed that is responsible for absorption of bile acids. Bile acids will be high if the liver is not functioning properly. It does not rule out liver disease as disease can affect part of the liver without significantly affecting bile acid production. Elevated bile acids may warrant further diagnostics or monitoring depending on your pets condition.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the stereospecificity of microsomal 26-hydroxylation in bile acid biosynthesis.. AU - Gustafsson, J.. AU - Sjöstedt, S.. PY - 1978/1/10. Y1 - 1978/1/10. N2 - The stereospecificity of microsomal 26 -hydroxylation in bile acid biosynthesis was studied. Cholesterol was biosynthesized from [2-14C] mevalonate by a rat liver preparation. The cholesterol was converted stepwise into 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid by microsomal and soluble fractions of rat liver homogenate. The 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid was decarboxylated chemically and the carbon dioxide was assayed for 14C. The amount of radioactivity in the liberated carbon dioxide was assayed for 14C. The amount of radioactivity in the liberated carbon dioxide was such as to indicate complete stereospecificity of the microsomal 26 -hydroxylase system. The system hydroxylates the methyl group in position C-26 (the 25-pro-R methyl group) and its ...
Andriamiarina, R.; Laraki, L.; Pelletier, X.; Debry, G., 1989: Effects of stigmasterol-supplemented diets on fecal neutral sterols and bile acid excretion in rats
Vertebrates use two physiological mechanisms for transport of exogenous compounds depending on the degree of hydrophobicity: the portal venous system and the lymph system (Trevaskis et al., 2008). Cholesterol-derived bile acid molecules, which are made in the liver, are secreted to the gallbladder and then deposited into the intestines through the bile duct. With the help of bile acids and phospholipids, lipophilic molecules form micelles that are shuttled through the intestinal cells and excreted into the portal venous system. The transporter responsible for bile acid-associated export from intestinal cells into the portal blood is solute carrier protein 51a (slc51a, also known as organic solute transporter subunit alpha) (Dawson and Karpen, 2014), which has increased expression in the liver of chemically defended wild frogs compared with laboratory frogs. Bile acid-associated pathways are of particular interest, as bile acid derivatives have been observed in the skin of mantellid poison frogs ...
x] J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 12;286(32):28382-95. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Liaset B, Hao Q, Jørgensen H, Hallenborg P, Du ZY, Ma T, Marschall HU, Kruhøffer M, Li R, Li Q, Yde CC, Criales G, Bertram HC, Mellgren G, Ofjord ES, Lock EJ, Espe M, Frøyland L, Madsen L, Kristiansen K. Bile acids (BAs)3 are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. After their synthesis, they are conjugated to the amino acids taurine or glycine in a species-dependent manner (1). Conjugation of bile acids increases their solubility and facilitates their secretion into bile (2). [...] the dietary levels of these amino acids might be crucial for BA conjugation and secretion [...] In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence that plasma bile acid levels can be modulated by the dietary protein source in high fat-treated rats. Increased levels of plasma BAs were associated with a significant reduction in diet-induced ...
x] J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 12;286(32):28382-95. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Liaset B, Hao Q, Jørgensen H, Hallenborg P, Du ZY, Ma T, Marschall HU, Kruhøffer M, Li R, Li Q, Yde CC, Criales G, Bertram HC, Mellgren G, Ofjord ES, Lock EJ, Espe M, Frøyland L, Madsen L, Kristiansen K. Bile acids (BAs)3 are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. After their synthesis, they are conjugated to the amino acids taurine or glycine in a species-dependent manner (1). Conjugation of bile acids increases their solubility and facilitates their secretion into bile (2). [...] the dietary levels of these amino acids might be crucial for BA conjugation and secretion [...] In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence that plasma bile acid levels can be modulated by the dietary protein source in high fat-treated rats. Increased levels of plasma BAs were associated with a significant reduction in diet-induced ...
The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. They disrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids by combining with bile constituents and preventing their reabsorption from the gut. In general, they are classified as hypolipidemic agents, although they may be used for purposes other than lowering cholesterol. They are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhea due to bile acid malabsorption. Bile acid sequestrants are polymeric compounds that serve as ion-exchange resins. Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester them from the enterohepatic circulation. The liver then produces more bile acids to replace those that have been lost. Because the body uses cholesterol to make bile acids, this reduces the amount of LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood. Bile acid sequestrants are large polymeric structures, and they are not significantly ...
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, excreted with bile into the duodenum, almost completely taken up again in the distal ileum and finally returned to the liver with portal blood in a process termed enterohepatic circulation. Bile acid synthesis, excretion, and reuptake are tightly regulated. The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter [ASBT; also known as ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) and SLC10A2] is pivotal for the almost complete reabsorption of conjugated bile acids in the ileum. Dysfunctional IBAT may be the cause of bile acid diarrhea. Pharmacological IBAT inhibition results in an increased bile acid load in the colon and subsequently a lower bile acid pool, which is associated with improved liver histology in animal models of cholestatic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In humans, IBAT inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials with widely different indications: in patients with idiopathic chronic constipation, an increased number of
Bile acids promote bile formation and facilitate dietary lipid absorption. Animal and human studies showing disturbed bile acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus suggest a link between bile acids and glucose control. Bile acids are activating ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor with an established role in bile acid and lipid metabolism. Evidence suggests a role for FXR also in maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Animal and human studies employing bile acid sequestrants (bile acid binding agents), which interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and effectively reduce plasma cholesterol, support a link between bile acid and glucose metabolism. In lipid-lowering trials, bile acid sequestrants, such as colesevelam hydrochloride, colestyramine (cholestyramine) and colestilan (colestimide), have also been shown to lower plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels, suggesting the utility of these agents as a potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. In this ...
Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is an essential step in bile acid synthesis, since it is required for shortening of C27-bile acid intermediates to produce mature C24-bile acids. D-Bifunctional protein (DBP) is responsible for the second and third step of this beta-oxidation process. However, both patients and mice with a DBP deficiency still produce C24-bile acids, although C27-intermediates accumulate. An alternative pathway for bile acid biosynthesis involving the peroxisomal L-bifunctional protein (LBP) has been proposed. We investigated the role of LBP and DBP in bile acid synthesis by analyzing bile acids in bile, liver, and plasma from LBP, DBP, and LBP:DBP double knock-out mice. Bile acid biosynthesis, estimated by the ratio of C27/C24-bile acids, was more severely affected in double knock-out mice as compared with DBP-/- mice but was normal in LBP-/- mice. Unexpectedly, trihydroxycholestanoyl-CoA oxidase was inactive in double knock-out mice due to a peroxisomal import defect, preventing us ...
Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an under-recognised but common condition of chronic watery diarrhoea. BAD may be secondary to ileal disease affecting the reabsorption and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (bile acid malabsorption) or can be an idiopathic, primary BAD (PBAD). In work published in 2009, we described a new mechanism to explain this syndrome of primary BAD.. Blood levels of the hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) are reduced in primary and secondary BAD, producing impaired feedback inhibition of bile acid synthesis, leading to excess faecal bile acids, which then produce diarrhoea by stimulating colonic secretion. FGF19 is synthesised in the ileum and we have shown transcription is markedly induced by farnesoid X receptor(FXR) agonists such as chenodeoxycholic acid, an abundant natural bile acid. More potent FXR agonists are logical diagnostic and therapeutic agents for this condition, and obeticholic acid (OCA), which is 100x more potent than chenodeoxycholic acid, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503 phosphorylation and is regulated by tyrosine 488 phosphorylation. AU - Sippel, C. Jeffrey. AU - Fallon, Robert J.. AU - Perlmutter, David H.. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Transfection of cDNA for a hepatocyte canalicular phosphoprotein, the rat liver canalicular bile acid transporter/ecto-ATPase/cell CAM 105, confers bile acid efflux and ecto-ATPase activities on heterologous cells (Sippel, C. J., Suchy, F. J., Ananthanarayanan, M., and Perlmutter D. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2083-2091). Our previous studies have also indicated that there is a positive correlation between the degree of phosphorylation of this transporter and its bile acid efflux activity. In this study, we introduced site-specific mutations of amino acid residues within a protein kinase C- dependent (T502A, S503A) and a tyrosine kinase-dependent (Y488F) phosphorylation consensus sequence ...
The transporters participate in a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Transporters are of efflux and influx type, need ATP-binding sites for their in and out movement across the cell membrane. These transporters play an important role in allowing or opposing the drugs into the cells, results in non-linearity in drug pharmacokinetics. A wide range of transporters was discovered; among them, organic solute transporters (OST) play a key role in drug absorption and disposition. Organic solute transporters is a heteromeric transporter localized to the basolateral of epithelial cells. It is the primary efflux bile acid transporter in the intestine of mammals.. ...
The fasting and postprandial serum concentrations of bile acids and other blood constituents were measured in a group of 10 clinically healthy, female, six-year-old captive red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). The terrapins were housed in a temperate room and maintained in four aquaria in which the water temperature ranged from 24 to 27°C and the temperature above the basking site ranged from 27 to 30°C. The serum concentrations of bile acids were measured four times in a period of five months, and at the second sampling the fasting and two postprandial (after 24 and 48 hours) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and bile acids were determined. Coelioscopy revealed vitellogenic and previtellogenic follicles on the ovaries of all the terrapins, and eggs with calcified shells were detected in two of them. The livers were mostly ...
Purpose: The objective of this study is to show the accumulation of bile acids in laryngeal tissues of laryngeal carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods: The present study compared the total bile acid level in the hypopharyngeal tissue, tumor tissue, and blood of 21 primary laryngeal carcinoma patients (study group) to that in the hypopharyngeal tissue and blood of 15 patients with benign laryngeal lesions (control group). Results: The total bile acid level was significantly higher in the tumor and hypopharyngeal tissues of the study group than in the hypopharyngeal tissues of the control group; however, the difference in the blood total bile acid level between the 2 groups was not significant. Conclusion: Bile acids in reflux material accumulate in the laryngeal tissue in laryngeal carcinoma patients; therefore, bile acids should be considered a carcinogenic factor in the etiology of laryngeal carcinoma because of their mutagenicity due to DNA breaking, as they cause chronic inflammation due ...
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. Bile acid synthesis is under negative feedback control through activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacological activation of the bile acid nuclear farnesoid X receptor is feasible in patients with quiescent Crohns colitis. AU - van Schaik, F. D.. AU - Gadaleta, R. M.. AU - Schaap, F.G.. AU - van Mil, S. W.. AU - Siersema, P.D.. AU - Oldenburg, B.. AU - van Erpecum, K.J.. PY - 2012/11/26. Y1 - 2012/11/26. N2 - BACKGROUND: The bile acid-activated nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is critical in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and preventing bacterial overgrowth. Patients with Crohns colitis (CC) exhibit reduced ileal FXR target gene expression. FXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate inflammation in murine colitis models. We here explore the feasibility of pharmacological FXR activation in CC. METHODS: Nine patients with quiescent CC and 12 disease controls were treated with the FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA; 15 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Ileal FXR activation was assessed in the fasting state during 6 hrs after the first CDCA dose and on day 8, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and chemical synthesis of a major, novel biliary bile acid in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus). T2 - 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid. AU - Kakiyama, Genta. AU - Tamegai, Hideyuki. AU - Iida, Takashi. AU - Mitamura, Kuniko. AU - Ikegawa, Shigeo. AU - Goto, Takaaki. AU - Mano, Nariyasu. AU - Goto, Junichi. AU - Holz, Peter. AU - Hagey, Lee R.. AU - Hofmann, Alan F.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - The major bile acids present in the gallbladder bile of the common Australian wombat (Vombatus ursinus) were isolated by preparative HPLC and identified by NMR as the taurine N-acylamidates of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid (3α,15α-dihydroxy-5β- cholan-24-oic acid). Taurine-conjugated CDCA constituted 78% of biliary bile acids, and (taurine-conjugated) 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid constituted 11%. Proof of structure of the latter compound was obtained by its synthesis from CDCA via a Δ14 intermediate. The synthesis of its C-15 epimer, ...
BSEP - Bile Salt Export Pump. Looking for abbreviations of BSEP? It is Bile Salt Export Pump. Bile Salt Export Pump listed as BSEP
1. Bile salt metabolism has been studied in seven patients with ileostomy following total proctocolectomy; three of these patients also had various degrees of ileal resection.. 2. The half-life of the cholic acid pool was shortened in the patients with ileal resection.. 3. Rates of bile acid synthesis were raised in two of the three patients with ileal resection. In the third, the rate was normal.. 4. Four of the six patients had low bile acid concentrations in the duodenum after a fatty meal.. 5. Deoxycholic acid could not be detected in the duodenum or ileal effluent of any of the patients.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transporter-mediated bile acid uptake causes Ca2+-dependent cell death in rat pancreatic acinar cells. AU - Kim, Joo Young. AU - Kim, Kyung Hwan. AU - Lee, Jin Ah. AU - Namkung, Wan. AU - Sun, An Qiang. AU - Ananthanarayanan, Meena. AU - Suchy, Frederick J.. AU - Shin, Dong Min. AU - Muallem, Shmuel. AU - Lee, Min Goo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background & Aims: The mechanism by which cholelithiasis increases the risk of acute pancreatitis remains obscure. Because bile acids can enter the pancreas either by luminal diffusion or by interstitial leakage during gallstone impaction and pancreatitis is associated with impaired Ca2+ signaling, we examined the effect of bile acids on pancreatic acinar cell signaling and the associated intracellular events. Methods: Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated. by collagenase digestion and the effects of bile acids on [Ca2+]i signaling, cell survival, inflammatory signals, and the molecular and functional expressions of bile uptake ...
RESULTS: In 135 variably related Maltese, shunt status could be confirmed in 113, including 19 with anextra-hepatic portosystemic shunt (17 confirmed at surgery, 2 at necropsy). Rectal ammonia tolerance testing results and post-prandial serum bile acid concentrations were retrievable for 50 and 88 dogs, respectively. Pedigree information was available for these 135 and an additional 164 related dogs. Two consecutive test matings were carried out between two affected animals (whose shunts had been attenuated), with 2 of 8 (25%) of offspring having an extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Six test matings were carried out between an affected and an unaffected animal, with 2 of 22 (9%) offspring affected. Heritability of extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt was 0·61 calculated using variance components analysis [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·14 to 1·0, P=0·001]. The best fitting model from segregation analysis was a common, partially penetrant, recessive model (allele frequency 0·34, penetrance ...
Learn more about Bile Acid Sequestrant Drugs at Grand Strand Medical Center Many Nutrients - Supplementation Likely Helpful The bile acid sequestrant...
Bile Acid SequestrantsPatients with terminal ileal disease may not absorb bile acids normally, which can lead to secretory diarrhea in the colon. These patients may benefit from bile acid sequestrants... more
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of deoxycholylglycine, a conjugated secondary bile acid, on myogenic tone and Agonist-Induced contraction in rat resistance arteries. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. AU - Raina, Hema. AU - Pappas, Valeria. AU - Raufman, Jean Pierre. AU - Pallone, Thomas L.. PY - 2012/2/16. Y1 - 2012/2/16. N2 - Background: Bile acids (BAs) regulate cardiovascular function via diverse mechanisms. Although in both health and disease serum glycine-conjugated BAs are more abundant than taurine-conjugated BAs, their effects on myogenic tone (MT), a key determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), have not been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings: Fourth-order mesenteric arteries (170-250 μm) isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were pressurized at 70 mmHg and allowed to develop spontaneous constriction, i.e., MT. Deoxycholylglycine (DCG; 0.1-100 μM), a glycine-conjugated major secondary BA, induced reversible, concentration-dependent reduction of MT that was similar in endothelium-intact and ...
Background: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest the possibility that estrogens might have a cytoprotective effect on the liver. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) prevents hepatocellular damage induced by deoxycholic acid (DCA), a hydrophobic bile acid. Methods:HepG2 cells were exposed for 24 h to DCA (350 mu mol/L). Cell viability, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activity and apoptosis were measured as indices of cell toxicity. The effect of DCA was compared to that observed using either a hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; 100 mu mol/L), or E-2 at different concentrations (1 nmol/L, 10 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L and 50 mu mol/L) or mixtures of E-2/DCA or UDCA/DCA. The same experiments were performed using WRL-68 cells that, at variance with HepG2, express a higher level of nuclear estrogen receptor. Results:High concentrations of E-2 and UDCA prevented DCA-induced decrease in cell viability, increase in ...
Shop Acyl-coenzyme A amino acid N-acyltransferase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Acyl-coenzyme A amino acid N-acyltransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic review. T2 - The role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and related neoplasia. AU - McQuaid, K. R.. AU - Laine, L.. AU - Fennerty, M. B.. AU - Souza, R.. AU - Spechler, S. J.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Background Factors other than acid may play a role in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications. Aim To assessed the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of GERD, Barretts oesophagus and Barretts-related neoplasia. Methods We conducted a systematic review of computerised bibliographic databases for original articles involving humans or human oesophageal tissue or cells that assessed exposure to or manipulation of bile acids. Outcomes assessed included GERD symptoms; gross oesophageal injury; Barretts oesophagus and related neoplasia; and intermediate markers of inflammation, proliferation or neoplasia. Results Eighty-three original articles were included. In in vivo studies, bile acids concentrations ...
More than 10 mutations in the AKR1D1 gene have been found to cause congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2. This condition is characterized by cholestasis, a condition that impairs the production and release of a digestive fluid called bile from liver cells. Most of the AKR1D1 gene mutations replace single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the enzyme. These mutations result in production of a 3-oxo-5-β-steroid 4-dehydrogenase enzyme with severely reduced function. Without enough functional enzyme, the conversion of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7α-hydroxy-5β-cholesten-3-one is impaired. The 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one instead gets converted into abnormal bile acid compounds that cannot be transported out of the liver into the intestine, where the bile acids are needed to digest fats. This impaired production and release of bile acids leads to cholestasis. As a result, cholesterol and abnormal bile acids build up in the liver and fat-soluble vitamins are not absorbed, leading ...
Bile acid in the stomach plays a key role in the digestion of food in the small intestine. Two chief bile acids produced in the body include chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These acids assist in the creation of micelles, which aids in breaking down dietary fat, and is integral for the digestion of fat in the small intestine. Bile acid is a fluid secreted by the hepatocytes that flows into the canaliculi. From the canaliculi, it reaches the bile ducts, and is then transferred to the gall bladder where it is concentrated with time and the addition of other bodily fluids. Bile acids are derived from the cholesterol inside of the hepatocytem, and are made up of hydrophilic or polar faces and lipid or hydrophobic faces. Cholesterol gets converted into chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids, which are two forms of bile acid. These are combined with amino acids and released into the canaliculi. This combined nature of bile acids enables them to perform two of the most important functions in the ...
Title:Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacological Effects of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Antagonists. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 19. Author(s):Christina Lamers, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz and Daniel Merk. Affiliation:Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt (Main), Germany.. Keywords:Atherosclerosis, cancer, FXR antagonists, FXR knockout, glucose homeostasis, guggulsterone, lipid homeostasis, liver disorders, metabolic disorders, selective bile acid receptor modulators (SBARMs).. Abstract:The nuclear bile acid sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) constitutes a rising target for the treatment of a variety of diseases including metabolic disorders, inflammation and certain forms of cancer. While the research on FXR agonists has yielded many compounds and first clinical candidates, only few FXR antagonists have been discovered so far and the knowledge about their in vivo effects is quite narrow. We have evaluated available in vitro and in vivo studies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. AU - Jelinek, D. F.. AU - Andersson, S.. AU - Slaughter, C. A.. AU - Russell, D. W.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The rate-limiting step in bile acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by the microsomal cytochrome P-450 cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (7α-hydroxylase). The expression of this enzyme is subject to feedback regulation by sterols and is thought to be coordinately regulated with enzymes in the cholesterol supply pathways, including the low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and synthase. Here we report the purification of rat 7α-hydroxylase and the determination of a partial amino acid sequence. Oligonucleotides derived from peptide sequence were used to clone a full-length cDNA encoding 7α-hydroxylase. DNA sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed a 7α-hydroxylase ...
The Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the predominant transporter responsible for bile acid uptake from portal blood across the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. In rodent models of cholestasis, expression of the Ntcp mRNA and protein is notably decreased (22, 27, 104). Certain human diseases with a cholestatic component, such as primary biliary cirrhosis and cholestatic alcoholic hepatitis, are also associated with reduced NTCP expression (111, 112). Thus, in addition to enhancing bile acid efflux through induction of BSEP, bile acids suppress the expression of the major bile acid uptake system in conditions of elevated hepatocellular bile acid concentrations. It has been proposed that Fxr-induced Shp is responsible for decreased expression of Ntcp in rats through its interference with the retinoic acid receptor (Rar)-Rxr heterodimer, which has a binding site within the rat Ntcp promoter (16). The Rar-Rxr response element of the rat Ntcp promoter is not conserved in the ...
Epomediol (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2.)octan-6,7-endo,endo-diol) (EPO) is a terpenoid compound shown to reverse 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis in rat. The effect is related to the restoration of normal liver plasma membrane fluidity values. To further characterize the effect of EPO, bile flow and biliary lipid composition were measured in rats treated either with EE or EE associated with EPO. EE significantly reduced the bile flow; this reduction was prevented by concomitant treatment with EPO with an increase in the bile salt secretion rate. EPO alone showed a choleretic effect. The biliary secretion rate of cholesterol was also significantly reduced by EE while being comparable to controls in EE-EPO-treated animals. Phospholipid (PL) biliary excretion was significantly (P less than 0.002) increased by EE either alone or combined with EPO. After EE treatment, the biliary PL composition showed a reduction in phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration with a parallel ...
Increased serum bile salt levels have been associated to a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the bile salt export pump (BSEP; ABCB11) in several acquired cholestatic liver diseases but there is little evidence in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Furthermore, a crosstalk between vitamin D and bile acid synthesis has recently been discovered. Whether this crosstalk has an influence on the course of ALD is unclear to date. Our aim was to analyse the role of genetic polymorphisms in BSEP and the vitamin D receptor gene (NR1I1) on the emergence of cirrhosis in patients with ALD. Therefore, 511 alcoholic patients (131 with cirrhosis and 380 without cirrhosis) underwent ABCB11 genotyping (rs2287622). Of these, 321 (131 with cirrhosis and 190 without cirrhosis) were also tested for NR1I1 polymorphisms (bat-haplotype: BsmI rs1544410, ApaI rs7975232 and TaqI rs731236). Frequencies of ABCB11 and NR1I1 genotypes and haplotypes were compared between alcoholic patients with and without cirrhosis and correlated ...
Examples of orphan receptors are found in the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)[2][3][4] and nuclear receptor[5][6][7] families. If an endogenous ligand is found, the orphan receptor is adopted or de-orphanized[8]. An example is the nuclear receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the GPCR TGR5/GPCR19/G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, both of which are activated by bile acids.[9] Adopted orphan receptors in the nuclear receptor group include FXR, liver X receptor (LXR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Another example of an orphan receptor site is the PCP binding site in the NMDA receptor,[10] a type of ligand-gated ion channel. This site is where the recreational drug PCP works, but no endogenous ligand is known to bind to this site. GPCR orphan receptors are usually given the name GPR followed by a number, for example GPR1. In the GPCR family, nearly 100 receptor-like genes remain orphans.[11] ...
CONTEXT: The etiological mechanism of bile acid (BA) effects on insulin resistance and obesity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if plasma BA are elevated in human obesity and/or insulin resistance. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Academic research center. PARTICIPANTS: 71 adult volunteers formed four groups: lean insulin-sensitive (BMI|/=25kg/m 2, HOMA-IR|2.0, n=19), overweight/obese non-diabetic who were either insulin-sensitive (Obsensitive, BMI|25kg/m 2, HOMA-IR|1.5, n=11), or insulin-resistant (Obresistant, BMI|25kg/m 2, HOMA-IR|3.0, n=20), and type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=21). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat distribution and liver density by CT and plasma BA. RESULTS: In the Obresistant group, glucose infusion rate/fat free mass (GIR/FFM, an inverse measure of insulin resistance) was significantly lower, and visceral and liver fat higher, compared to lean and Obsensitive subjects
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and cholesterol causes bile salt malabsorption; the former by competition for and the latter by down-regulation of ileal bile acid transporters. Because ileectomy in rats induces enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin, the hypothesis that dietary steroids might have the same effect was tested. METHODS: Male inbred C57L/J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low doses of UDCA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), or cholesterol added to laboratory chow with simultaneous chow-fed controls. After 1 week (mice) or 2 weeks (rats), indices of bile salt malabsorption and enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin were measured, including bilirubin secretion rates into bile, serum and intestinal bilirubin and bile salt levels, and urobilinogen levels in cecum, large intestine, and feces. RESULTS: Dietary UDCA and cholesterol, but not CDCA, significantly increased bilirubin secretion rates into bile. In UDCA-fed mice, gallbladder biles contained
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequently occurring life threatening congenital diseases. This progressive disease manifests itself in several organ systems. The disease is caused by a mutation in the CFTR protein. The studies in the thesis focused on the development and treatment of CF in the liver and intestine, in particular the role of bile salts. Bile salts are essential in metabolism and play a crucial role in intestinal dietary fat and vitamin absorption in the gut. The experiments were performed in mice models with a mutation in the CFTR protein. With respect to CF disease in the gut we found that a disturbance in the bile salt metabolism, together with e.g. changes in the intestinal microbial flora, could be related to the clinical finding of persistent decrease of intestinal fat absorption in CF, despite adequate medication. These findings could be related to the decreased growth in CF conditions. With respect to CF disease in the liver we found that the currently used ...
2H2O affects many membrane transport processes by solvent and kinetic isotope effects. Since bile formation is a process of osmotic filtration where such effects could be important, we investigated the effects of 2H2O on bile formation in the in situ perfused rat liver. Dose finding experiments showed that at high concentrations, 2H2O increased vascular resistance and induced cholestasis; at 60% 2H2O however, a clear dissociation between the vascular and biliary effects was observed. Therefore, further experiments were carried out at this concentration. The main finding was a reduction in bile salt-independent bile flow from 0.99 +/- 0.04 to 0.66 +/- 0.04 microliters.min-1.g-1 (P , 0.001). This was associated with a 40% reduction in biliary bicarbonate concentration (P , 0.001). Choleretic response to neither taurocholate nor ursodeoxycholate was altered by 2H2O; in particular, there was a similar stimulation of bicarbonate secretion by ursodeoxycholate in the presence of 60% 2H2O. To further ...
Bile acid/Bile salt malabsorption *Terminal ileal disease such as Crohn's disease ... In addition, unabsorbed fatty acids, converted to hydroxy-fatty acids by colonic flora, as well as unabsorbed bile acids both ... 75SeHCAT test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption in ileal disease or primary bile acid diarrhea. ... Bile salt breath test (14C-glycocholate) to determine bile salt malabsorption. ...
The serum bile acid blood test for ICP is a quantitative measurement of bile salts. The results of this test often take longer ... To obtain a diagnosis of ICP, there are two LFT (liver function tests) and Serum bile acid test. The liver function tests (LFTs ... In addition to genetic changes to bile salt transport molecules, high levels of estrogen glucuronides have been shown to ... This risk rose further if bile acids doubled, Maternal consequences include the following: Itching, which can become intense ...
"Steroid binding to Autotaxin links bile salts and lysophosphatidic acid signalling". Nature Communications. 7: 11248. doi: ... namely bile acids, or by its own product, lysophosphatidic acid. Various small molecule inhibitors of autotaxin have been ... Salgado-Polo F, Fish A, Matsoukas M, Heidebrecht T, Keune WJ, Perrakis A (July 2018). "Lysophosphatidic acid produced by ... The physiological function of autotaxin is the production of the signalling lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular ...
These salts are formed in the hepatocytes from bile acids combined with an amino acid. Other compounds such as the waste ... Bile is formed of three elements: bile salts, bilirubin and cholesterol. Bilirubin is a waste product of the breakdown of ... The bile salt component is an active non-enzymatic substance that facilitates fat absorption by helping it to form an emulsion ... Bile is secreted into the duodenum of the small intestine via the common bile duct. It is produced in liver cells and stored in ...
... bile salt hydrolase, and choloyltaurine hydrolase. This enzyme participates in bile acid biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 4 ... Rossocha M, Schultz-Heienbrok R, von Moeller H, Coleman JP, Saenger W (2005). "Conjugated bile acid hydrolase is a tetrameric N ... Coleman JP, Hudson LL (1995). "Cloning and characterization of a conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from Clostridium ... Stellwag EJ, Hylemon PB (1976). "Purification and characterization of bile salt hydrolase from Bacteroides fragilis subsp. ...
B. longum also has bile salt hydrolases to hydrolyze bile salts into amino acids and bile acids. The function of this is not ... longum could use the amino acids products to better tolerate bile salts. A number of cases of B. longum infection have been ... Some strains of B. longum were found to have high tolerance for gastric acid and bile, suggesting that these strains would be ... Tanaka, H.; Hashiba, H.; Kok, J.; Mierau, I. (2000). "Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum-biochemical and genetic ...
Bile produced by the liver is made up of water (97%), bile salts, mucus and pigments, 1% fats and inorganic salts. Bilirubin is ... This also contains villi and vitamin B12; bile acids and any residue nutrients are absorbed here. When the chyme is exhausted ... Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to ... so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct. The gallbladder needs to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all ...
Ursodeoxycholic acid, a bile salt, has been used, however there is insufficient data to show if it is effective. It is ... Bile secreted by the liver to aid in digestion may block the bile ducts, leading to liver damage. Impaired digestion or ... This lost salt forms the basis for the sweat test. Most of the damage in CF is due to blockage of the narrow passages of ... In some cases, they can cause the cell to overcome a premature stop codon by inserting a random amino acid, thereby allowing ...
Bile salt breath test (14C-glycocholate) to determine bile salt malabsorption. Schilling test to establish cause of B12 ... Cholestyramine or other bile acid sequestrants will help reducing diarrhoea in bile acid malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption ... In addition, unabsorbed fatty acids, converted to hydroxy-fatty acids by colonic flora, as well as unabsorbed bile acids both ... 75SeHCAT test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption in ileal disease or primary bile acid diarrhea. Glucose hydrogen breath test ...
Thumser AE, Wilton DC (December 1996). "The binding of cholesterol and bile salts to recombinant rat liver fatty acid-binding ... FABP1 is unique in the wider range of other hydrophobic ligands it can bind including bilirubin, monoglycerides, bile acids and ... "Decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation and altered fatty acid uptake in mice with deletion of the liver fatty acid-binding ... "Binding of fatty acids and peroxisome proliferators to orthologous fatty acid binding proteins from human, murine, and bovine ...
Furthermore, a bile acid-picolinic acid conjugate can form gels in solvents that are 30%-50% organic. The increased water ... Oxalic acid dihydrate is another important ligand, that easily forms stable structures when copper salts are added, which can ... "Stimuli-responsive Bile Acid-based Metallogels Forming in Aqueous Media." Steroids 97 (2015): 54-61. Web. 1 Mar. 2016. (10) ... As an example of a chemo-response, adding a small amount of formic acid to Zn/Eu will cause the breakdown of gel-like material ...
Bile acid malabsorption may also be a risk. Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not ... The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from ... and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) have been used in treatment to dissolve gallstones. Medical therapy with oral bile acids has ... Hofmann, AF (September 1989). "Medical dissolution of gallstones by oral bile acid therapy". American Journal of Surgery. 158 ( ...
Mutations in EPHX1 have been linked with preeclampsia, elevated blood levels of bile salts (i.e. hypercholanemia), Fetal ... Ananthanarayanan M, von Dippe P, Levy D (1988). "Identification of the hepatocyte Na+-dependent bile acid transport protein ... EPHX1 mediates the sodium-dependent transport of bile acids into hepatocytes. Androstene oxide and epoxyestratrienol have been ... and cerebral metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids was suggested. Modulation of metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by ...
Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis. Dogs ... Bilious vomiting syndrome in dogs is vomiting in response to bile-induced inflammation of the stomach. It is also known as ...
... most of the bile acids are ionized and mostly occur as their sodium salts which are then called "primary conjugated bile salts ... Bacteria deconjugate some of the primary and secondary conjugated bile salts back to lipid-soluble bile acids, which are ... Finally, the conjugated bile acids which remained un-ionized conjugated bile acids are passively absorbed. Venous blood from ... Hepatocytes metabolize cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These lipid-soluble bile acids are conjugated ( ...
Phosphatidylcholines are excreted into bile and work together with bile acid salts as surfactants in it, thus helping with the ... Certain choline salts are used to supplement chicken, turkey and some other animal feeds. Some salts are also used as ... Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism. In most animals, choline ... Other commercially used salts include tricholine citrate and choline bicarbonate. Hundreds of choline antagonists and enzyme ...
... on the properties of bile salts (over 500), and the mechanisms whereby bile acids produce secretion in the colon (over 400). ... His early studies on the role of bile acids in the formation of micelles, the structure of the mixed micelle, and bile acid ... "The function of bile salts in fat absorption. The solvent properties of dilute micellar solutions of conjugated bile salts". ... Hofmann AF (June 1961). "Micellar solubilization of fatty acids and monoglycerides by bile salt solutions". Nature. 190 (4781 ...
Recently thermospray was also utilized for the production of semiconductor nanocrystals, analysis of bile acids, identification ... diquaternary ammonium salts, pesticides, drugs, dyes, and environmental pollutants can be analyzed using thermospray. ... a new and highly specific technique for the analysis of bile acids". Journal of Lipid Research. 30 (9): 1459-1469. ISSN 0022- ... The second type of ionization is an acid-base transfer such that solvent ions exchange a proton with ionic components of a ...
2007). "Involvement of membrane-type bile acid receptor M-BAR/TGR5 in bile acid-induced activation of epidermal growth factor ... 2007). "The G-protein coupled bile salt receptor TGR5 is expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.". Hepatology 45 (3): ... "Bile Acid Receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ... 2003). "A G protein-coupled receptor responsive to bile acids.". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (11): 9435-40. PMID 12524422. doi:10.1074/ ...
Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis. ... Gallbladder mucocele is a disease whereby the gallbladder becomes extended with bile and mucous, which can lead to the blockage ... Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine. Kidney ... There is more familiarity with the glucocortcoids, such as cortisol; mineralocorticoids control the amount of potassium, salt ...
... and bile acids. By targeting genes these receptors help control sugar, salt, calcium, cholesterol, and fat metabolism. They are ...
12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, is a bile acid. Deoxycholic acid is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic ... Sodium deoxycholate, the sodium salt of deoxycholic acid, is often used as a biological detergent to lyse cells and solubilise ... Bacteria metabolize chenodeoxycholic acid into the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, and they metabolize cholic acid into ... There are additional secondary bile acids, such as ursodeoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is soluble in alcohol and acetic acid ...
Intestinal bacteria also play a role in synthesizing vitamin B and vitamin K as well as metabolizing bile acids, sterols, and ... and bile salts. Normally-commensal bacteria can harm the host if they extrude from the intestinal tract. Translocation, which ... Products include acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. These materials can be used by host cells, providing a major ... Acetic acid is used by muscle, propionic acid facilitates liver production of ATP, and butyric acid provides energy to gut ...
Resistance to gastric acid and bile acid are scientifically presented in the following studies where L. bulgaricus successfully ... lines Antimicrobial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria Ability to reduce pathogen adhesion to surfaces Bile salt ... Resistance to gastric acidity Bile acid resistance Adherence to mucus and/or human epithelial cells and cell ... How can acids be applied so as to control the bacterial flora of the large intestine? Not in the ordinary way because, when ...
"The function of bile salts in fat absorption. The solvent properties of dilute micellar solutions of conjugated bile salts". ... Therefore, it is essential that fats are first emulsified by bile salts for optimal activity of these enzymes. The digestion ... The fatty acids in the fats obtained from land animals tend to be saturated, whereas the fatty acids in the triglycerides of ... Fatty acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA by means of beta oxidation inside the mitochondria, whereas fatty acids are ...
Bile salt diarrhea can also be a side-effect of gallbladder removal. Bile acid sequestrants are the principal therapy for bile ... Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester ... with appropriate intervals between dosing of the vitamins and bile acid sequestrants. In addition to bile acids, bile acid ... Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the ...
Bile salt malabsorption (primary bile acid diarrhea) where excessive bile acids in the colon produce a secretory diarrhea. ... Bile acid sequestrants such as cholestyramine can be effective in chronic diarrhea due to bile acid malabsorption. Therapeutic ... Standard home solutions such as salted rice water, salted yogurt drinks, vegetable and chicken soups with salt can be given. ... Slattery SA, Niaz O, Aziz Q, Ford AC, Farmer AD (July 2015). "Systematic review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of bile acid ...
... and its salt sodium tyropanoate are radiocontrast agents used in cholecystography (X-ray diagnosis of ... After injection it is rapidly excreted into the bile. "PubChem CID 5611". Felicetta, James V.; Green, William L.; Nelp, Wil B ...
It occurs as a sodium salt in the bile of mammals. It is a conjugate of cholic acid with taurine. In medical use, it is ... Hydrolysis of taurocholic acid yields taurine. For commercial use, taurocholic acid is manufactured from cattle bile, a ... Deoxycholic acid Anwer, M. Sawkat (2004). "Cellular regulation of hepatic bile acid transport in health and cholestasis". ... known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline bile acid involved ...
... is a bile acid formed in the liver of most species, including humans, by conjugation of ... It is usually ionized at physiologic pH, although it can be crystallized as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize ... chenodeoxycholic acid with taurine. It is secreted into bile and then into intestine. ... Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, an epimer v t e. ...
The pills are created from sulfate salts and are sold in dosages of 100, 200, 333, and 400 mg of indinavir. It is normally used ... Alpha-Lipoic acid. *Ambrisentan. *AMI-193. *Amlodipine besylate. *Antimycotics. *Artemisinin. *Aurothioglucose. *Bile acids ... Each capsule contains sulfate salt in addition to anhydrous lactose and magnesium stearate. The capsule shell is made of ...
Gohyah Tea is good for bile, liver, dieuretic. Helpful to digestion; prevent from influenza, throat inflammation. Reduce ... When it is softened and reduced, it is crushed in a mortar with a few cloves of garlic, salt and a red or green pepper. It is ... Pantothenic acid (B5). 4%. 0.193 mg. Vitamin B6. 3%. 0.041 mg. ... boiled, drained, no salt. Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) ... In the Konkan region of Maharashtra, salt is added to finely chopped bitter gourd, known as karle (कारले) in Marathi, and then ...
Wolkoff AW, Cohen DE (February 2003). "Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: I. Hepatocyte transport of bile acids". Am. ... Bile salts. *Lieberman-Burchard test to detect cholesterol. *Niemann Pick disease Type C ... A mixture of conjugated and non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted from the liver into the bile. ... A mixture of conjugated and non-conjugated bile acids along with cholesterol itself is excreted from the liver into the bile. ...
Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not enough bile salts. Besides a high concentration ... The medication ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) appears to prevent formation of gallstones during weight loss.[35] A high fat diet ... The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin.[2] Gallstones formed mainly from ... bile) + lith- (stone) + -iasis (process).[1] Presence of gallstones in the common bile duct is called choledocholithiasis, from ...
Retinyl ester hydrolysis requires the presence of bile salts that serve to solubilize the retinyl esters in mixed micelles and ... Currently, alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid) may be used topically to help treat skin lesions from Kaposi's sarcoma. ... The different hydrolyzing enzymes are activated by different types of bile salts and have distinct substrate specificities. For ... Retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to yield free retinol and the corresponding fatty acid (i.e. palmitate or ...
... steatorrhea and bleeding with bile acid diarrhea and vitamin B12 malabsorption commonly found due to ileal involvement. Pelvic ... Molten-salt. Fluorides. *Fuji MSR. *Liquid-fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR). *Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) ...
various salts. *a source of amino acids and nitrogen (e.g., beef, yeast extract) *This is an undefined medium because the amino ... Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by ... Glucose or glycerol are often used as carbon sources, and ammonium salts or nitrates as inorganic nitrogen sources. An ... various salts, which may vary among bacteria species and growing conditions; these generally provide essential elements such as ...
Bile. Bile produced by the liver is made up of water (97%), bile salts, mucus and pigments, 1% fats and inorganic salts.[25] ... This also contains villi and vitamin B12; bile acids and any residue nutrients are absorbed here. When the chyme is exhausted ... Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to ... so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct. The gallbladder needs to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all ...
Lower digestive tract: laxatives, antispasmodics, antidiarrhoeals, bile acid sequestrants, opioid. For the cardiovascular ... lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, Anticonvulsants/antiepileptics, anxiolytics, ... gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine agonists, oestrogen, prostaglandins, gonadorelin, ...
Assessment of certain metabolic activities (e.g. D-lactate production, bile salt deconjugation) ... Some fermented products that contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) include: vegetables such as pickled vegetables,[19] kimchi,[19] ... Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may affect Helicobacter pylori infections (which may cause peptic ulcers) in adults ... "Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria" (PDF). Report of ...
An important function is the production and control of bile acids. Too much bile acid can be toxic to cells and its synthesis ... The hyponatremia can only be corrected by the consumption of salt in the diet. However, it is not certain whether a "salt ... Main articles: Acid-base homeostasis and Acid-base imbalance. The plasma pH can be altered by respiratory changes in the ... An example of this is in the control of bile acids in the liver.[3] ...
... stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids ... Certain salivary proteins prevent precipitation, which would form salts. These ions act as a buffer, keeping the acidity of the ... Minor enzymes include salivary acid phosphatases A+B, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), ... The presence of bacterial products (small organic acids, amines, and thiols) causes saliva to sometimes exhibit foul odor ...
... are folded chains of a large number of different amino acids called polypeptides. The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide ... The four polypeptide chains are bound to each other by salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, and the hydrophobic effect. ... which is secreted into the intestines as bile. Intestines metabolise bilirubin into urobilinogen. Urobilinogen leaves the body ... Hemoglobin has a quaternary structure characteristic of many multi-subunit globular proteins.[34] Most of the amino acids in ...
The word cholera is from Greek: χολέρα kholera from χολή kholē "bile". Cholera likely has its origins in the Indian ... The chloride and sodium ions create a salt-water environment in the small intestines, which through osmosis can pull up to six ... the researchers found the bacterium creates a hyperinfected state where genes that control biosynthesis of amino acids, iron ... One such recipe calls for 1 liter of boiled water, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 6 teaspoons of sugar, and added mashed banana for ...
"Nucleic Acids Res. 33 (19): 6445-58. doi:10.1093/nar/gki954. PMC 1278947. PMID 16275786.. ... Emergency relief services often distribute inexpensive packets of sugars and mineral salts that can be mixed with clean water ... Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ... Treatment often starts with an oral rehydrating solution-water mixed with salt and carbohydrates-to prevent dehydration. ( ...
Comes in free acid, lysine salt, sodium salt and hydrochloride salt forms; the dex-enantiomer comes in trometamol salt form. ... Flufenamic acid. Comes in free acid form and aluminium salt form; anthranilic acid.. As per diclofenac.. Topical.. N/A. Soft ... Meclofenamic acid. Comes in free acid and sodium salt form, sodium salt is the form used in human medicine; practically ... Tolfenamic acid. Comes as free acid; practically insoluble in water; degrades upon contact with light; anthranilic acid.. As ...
"Abuse Of Fake 'Bath Salts' Sends Dozens To ER". KMBC.com. 23 December 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011.. Cite ... The salts pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine sulfate are found in many over-the-counter preparations, either as ... "MDPV Bath Salts Drug Over The Counter". Archived from the original on 10 March 2011.. ... Products labeled as bath salts containing MDPV were previously sold as recreational drugs in gas stations and convenience ...
... this compound is then resolved as its dibenzyl tartrate salt to afford the 2R,4S isomer (7). Reductive amination with the bis- ... Bile acid sequestrants/resins (LDL). *Colesevelam. *Colestilan. *Colestipol. *Colestyramine. *Colextran. Liver. Statins (HMG- ...
Rich Weidman (October 1, 2011). The Doors FAQ: All That's Left to Know About the Kings of Acid Rock. Rowman & Littlefield. p. ... Although the Doors continued to face de facto bans in more conservative American markets and earned new bans at Salt Lake City' ... On May 20, 2013, Ray Manzarek died at a hospital in Rosenheim, Germany, at the age of 74 due to complications related to bile ... Weidman, Rich (October 1, 2011). The Doors FAQ: All That's Left to Know About the Kings of Acid Rock. Rowman & Littlefield. p. ...
glycoprotein-associated/light or catalytic subunits of heterodimeric amino-acid transporters *SLC7A5 ... sodium bile salt cotransport *SLC10A1. *SLC10A2. *SLC10A3. *SLC10A4. *SLC10A5. *SLC10A6. *SLC10A7. *10A1 ...
Impaired utilization of oxygen in the liver impairs bile salt transport, causing jaundice (yellowish discoloration of skin). In ... However, omega-3 fatty acids are not recommended as immune supplements for a person with sepsis or septic shock. The usage of ... an infection of the bile duct, or an intestinal infarction.[10] A pierced internal organ (free air on an abdominal x-ray or CT ... Sepsis caused by gram-positive bacteria may result from an immunological response to cell wall lipoteichoic acid.[44] Bacterial ...
Bile salts play important role in digestion.[4] Safety and environmental risks[edit]. Most anionic and non-ionic surfactants ... Fatty acid esters of polyhydroxy compounds[edit]. Fatty acid esters of glycerol[edit]. *Glycerol monostearate ... Fatty acid ethoxylates[edit]. Fatty acid ethoxylates are a class of very versatile surfactants, which combine in a single ... Shown in red - choline and phosphate group; black - glycerol; green - monounsaturated fatty acid; blue - saturated fatty acid. ...
... because of the direct and indirect effects of pruritogens in bile such as bile salts. No single test can differentiate between ... The globin portion, a protein, is degraded into amino acids and plays no role in jaundice. Two reactions then take place with ... The blood contains an abnormally raised amount of conjugated bilirubin and bile salts which are excreted in the urine. Jaundice ... or blockage of the bile duct. In the developed world, the cause is more often blockage of the bile duct or medications while in ...
... sometimes mixed with diatrizoic acid to reduce transit time in the bowel. Metoclopramide is sometimes also added to the mixture ... "SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE HISTORY OF THE USE OF BARIUM SALTS IN MEDICINE". Medical History. 18 (1): 9-21. doi:10.1017/ ... Gallbladder, bile duct. *Cholecystectomy. *Cholecystostomy. *ERCP. *Hepatoportoenterostomy. *Medical imaging: Cholangiography * ...
... tested in different bile concentrations and demonstrated to have good bile tolerance when incubated with 3 g L-1 of bile salt. ... These include acetic, lactic and succinic acids, and putrescine. Research on the antioxidant properties of strain ME-3 in soft ... L. fermentum would interfere with the recycling of bile salt and facilitate its elimination, which as a result would increase ... the demand for bile salt made from cholesterol.[11] Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3[edit]. The strain Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 ...
"Effects of acute and chronic ethanol intake on bile acid metabolism". Monroe P, Vlahcevic ZR, Swell L. Diakses tanggal 2010-11- ... Lei Z, Wang H, Zhou R, Duan Z (2002). "Influence of salt added to solvent on extractive distillation". Chem Eng J. 87: 149-56. ... Hennell, H. (1828). "On the mutual action of sulfuric acid and alcohol, and on the nature of the process by which ether is ...
... freeing a fatty acid and diglyceride, or a fatty acid from a diacylglycerol molecule, freeing a fatty acid and monoglyceride. ... Bile salt-dependent. *Gastric/Lingual. *Pancreatic. *Lysosomal. *Hormone-sensitive. *Endothelial. *Hepatic. *Lipoprotein ... The short form is expressed in adipose tissue, among others, where it hydrolyzes stored triglycerides to free fatty acids.[8] ... HSL is also known as triglyceride lipase, while the enzyme that cleaves the second fatty acid in the triglyceride is known as ...
Reaction of sodium bicarbonate and an acid to give a salt and carbonic acid, which readily decomposes to carbon dioxide and ... It is found in its dissolved form in bile, where it serves to neutralize the acidity of the hydrochloric acid produced by the ... Aqueous solutions are mildly alkaline due to the formation of carbonic acid and hydroxide ion: HCO−3 + H2O → H2CO3 + OH−. ... Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda ...
... contains salts added as stability media. These added salts could cause edema or fluid accumulation. It would be ... 2S,5R,6R)-6-[(2-ethoxy-1-naphthoyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid ...
Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid, catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid, in addition to providing energy ... bile, and black bile (the bodily form of the elements). Galen thought that for a person to have gout, kidney stones, or ... Salt, pepper and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. In ... Essential fatty acids[edit]. Main article: Essential fatty acids. Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can ...
Effect of bile acids on the proliferative activity and apoptosis of rat hepatocytes. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2001; 53: 227-33.. * ... Hepatocyte transplantation in bile salt export pump-deficient mice: selective growth advantage of donor hepatocytes under bile ... Hepatocyte transplantation in bile salt export pump-deficient mice: selective growth advantage of donor hepatocytes under bile ... Bile acid transport in sister of P-glycoprotein (ABCB11) knockout mice. Biochemistry. 2005; 44: 12598-605.. *CrossRef, ...
T. Inamine, S. Higa, F. Noguchi et al., "Association of genes involved in bile acid synthesis with the progression of primary ... The Association between Bile Salt Export Pump Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Susceptibility and ... C. Lang, Y. Meier, B. Stieger et al., "Mutations and polymorphisms in the bile salt export pump and the multidrug resistance ... P. L. M. Jansen, S. S. Strautnieks, E. Jacquemin et al., "Hepatocanalicular bile salt export pump deficiency in patients with ...
A Comparative Study of the Choleretic Effect of Bile Salts and Oleic Acid and Bile Salts(A Comparative Study of the Choleretic ... Effect of Bile Salts and Oleic Acid and Bile Salts*†)(A Comparative Study of the Choleretic Effect of Bile Salts and Oleic Acid ... A Comparative Study of the Choleretic Effect of Bile Salts and Oleic Acid and Bile Salts(A Comparative Study of the Choleretic ... Effect of Bile Salts and Oleic Acid and Bile Salts*†)(A Comparative Study of the Choleretic Effect of Bile Salts and Oleic Acid ...
... to suppress the reabsorption of bile acids into the enterohepatic circulation and to enhance the excretion of bile acids in ... fecal bile acids and microflora was estimated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Anaerobic lactic acid bacteria decreased and ... Administration of milk and fermented milks produced from indigenous dadih lactic acid bacteria on serum lipids and bile acids, ... lactis IS-10285 significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and total bile acids. Milk and fermented milks ...
Effect of histamine H2 antagonism by metiamide on the response of the canine gastric mucosa to acid and bile salt. ... Effect of histamine H2 antagonism by metiamide on the response of the canine gastric mucosa to acid and bile salt. ... Effect of histamine H2 antagonism by metiamide on the response of the canine gastric mucosa to acid and bile salt. ...
Bile Salt-Fatty Acid Mixed Micelles as Nasal Absorption Promoters. III. Effects on Nasal Transport and Enzymatic Degradation of ... ester prodrugs were investigated in rats using the in situ nasal perfusion technique in the presence of bile salt-fatty acid ... Mixed micelles composed of 15 m M NaGC and 5 m M linoleic acid are incapable of incorporating these esters into the micellar ... To estimate the nasal epithelial membrane and cytoplasmic damaging effect caused by sodium glycocholate (NaGC)-linoleic acid ( ...
... bile acid Certified Spiking Solution® of Ursodeoxycholic acid, Deoxycholic acid and Taurocholic acid sodium salt. ... Taurocholic acid sodium salt, T-110 500 ug/mL (as free sulfate) in Methanol Taurocholic acid (TCA) sodium salt, also known as ... Ursodeoxycholic acid, U-001 500 µg/mL in Methanol Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a secondary bile acid that helps regulate ... Deoxycholic acid (DCA), also known as deoxycholate and cholanoic acid is a secondary bile acid that aids in the absorption of ...
Bile Salts, and Acids flashcards from Annette Liem ... bile acids) and 50% unprotonated (bile salts). -OH groups are ... albumin binds and transports bile salts in blood. -hepatocytes take bile salts from blood with an isoform of Na+-bile ... but sterol nucleus is eliminated by conversion to bile acids and bile salts. -small percentage of cholesterol in feces or bile ... before bile acids leave the liver. -amide bond forms between carboxyl group of bile acid and amino group of glycine (carboxyl) ...
Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds ... WP1788: Bile acid and bile salt metabolism. WP1828: Hexose transport. WP1847: Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives. WP1877 ... BILE SALTS MIXTURE (Equivalent to Bile Salt No. 3). 100 gm. 28-048. M96 may be involved in the activation of MT ( ... bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds. pathways : Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and ...
bile* is a greenish-yellow fluid produced by the liver [1], and passing from there into the duodenum [2]; it has a number of ... Bile, or gall, is composed of water, bile acids and their salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, fatty acids, and inorganic salts. ... bile pigments, and electrolytes (minerals).. Bile acids and bile salts. The function of these remarkable molecules is ... by increasing the bile acid/cholesterol ratio of bile. This is achieved simply by taking synthetic bile acids by mouth. ...
... probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four
probiotic strains Lacto ... The objective of the study was to select the survival of,br, probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition ... pH 2 for 2 hours and bile salt 0.3%,,br, pH 5.8 for 8 hour. The survived probiotics were counted in MRS agar.,br, Among four ...
Relationship between stress response towards bile salts, acid and heat in Enterococcus faecalis. ... Relationship between stress response towards bile salts, acid and heat in Enterococcus faecalis ...
... select="/dri:document/dri:meta/dri:pageMeta/dri: ... The study on Bifidobacterium strains with resistances acid and bile salts. Shigwedha Nditange ...
... function of xenoperfused livers and compatibility with human bile salts and porcine livers. ... Bile acids in xenogeneic ex-vivo liver perfusion: ... bile acid from serum is similar to bile acid excretion in bile ... human bile acids made up 85% of total biliary bile acids. Pig bile acids appeared in patients sera after 1 hr of perfusion, ... and glyco-3alpha-hydroxy-6-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid) for markers of pig bile. Bile acids from both serum and bile were ...
Finding natural treatments for bile acid diarrhea can be difficult. But searching for root causes of loose, watery and green ... Natural Treatments For Bile Acid Diarrhea (aka Bile Salt Diarrhea). CLICK HERE TO JOIN OUR NEXT SMALL GROUP TRAINING USING THE ... Natural Treatments For Bile Acid Diarrhea (The Holistic Way). The key to treating bile acid diarrhea effectively is treating ... If the artichoke binds to the bile acids, but my problem is from too little bile acid, would this exacerbate my symptoms? Do ...
... binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt ... binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt ... binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt ... binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt ...
bile acids steroid acids and salts, derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine, and ... bile acids (en); حمض صفراوي (ar); Χολικά οξέα (el); Жучне киселине (sr-ec) steroid acids and salts, derived from cholesterol in ... Bile Acids and Salts (en); Sal biliar (gl); Žlučová kyselina (cs); kwasy żółciowe (pl) ... English: This category contains pictures of bile acids and their derivatives.. Deutsch: Diese Kategorie enthält Bilder von ...
Moreover, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results showed that none ... but were more responsive to oxidative and bile stress. The bacterial isolates also expressed high amounts of BSH, ranging from ... EIGHT lactic acid bacterial (LAB) isolates were obtained from food and non-food sources and identified by 16S rRNA gene ... "Probiotic Properties and Bile Salt Hydrolase Activity of Some Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria". Egyptian Journal of Microbiology ...
Read what our expert says about bile acid malabsorption, and how you can change your diet to avoid it. ... A reader asks what foods might exacerbate bile salt diarrhea, the potential cause of her IBS. ... Bile salts are actually bile acids. Bile acids are steroid acids found in the bile of mammals. The two major bile acids are ... bile acid malabsorption. (The symptom of chronic, watery, diarrhea is then often described as bile salt diarrhea.) In one ...
The presence of bile salts gives bile the ability to emulsify, or mix, lipid in the aqueous environment of the intestine. ... Bile salts are a component of bile, a fluid secreted from the gallbladder during the digestion of lipids. ... the acid groups on conjugated bile acids are often converted to salts. Bile salts are a primary component of bile. Sodium is ... the amino acids taurine and glycine are linked to the bile acids. This generates the conjugated bile acids taurocholic acid, ...
Bile salts/acids Calcium pantothenate Calomel Colocynth Elaterin resin Frangula Gamboge Ipomea ... a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and all other B-vitamins, dexpanthenol, estradiol and ... a) The amino acids glycine, alanine, and glutamic acid (alone or in combination) and the ingredient sabal have been present in ... 310.518 Drug products containing iron or iron salts. Drug products containing elemental iron or iron salts as an active ...
Bile salts/acids Calcium pantothenate Calomel Colocynth Elaterin resin Frangula Gamboge Ipomea ... Boric acid Calcium acetate (except calcium acetate monohydrate when combined with aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate to provide ... or any other ephedrine salt) in combination with any analgesic(s) or analgesic-antipyretic(s), anticholinergic, antihistamine, ...
Bile salts/acids Calcium pantothenate Calomel Colocynth Elaterin resin Frangula Gamboge Ipomea ... Boric acid Calcium acetate (except calcium acetate monohydrate when combined with aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate to provide ... or any other ephedrine salt) in combination with any analgesic(s) or analgesic-antipyretic(s), anticholinergic, antihistamine, ...
Bile Acids and Salts. Grant support. *335122/European Research Council/International. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text ... b) Spatial order of enzymes matches their position in the classic bile-acid biosynthesis cascade. Cyp7a1 and Hsd3b7 peak at ... These include a spatial order of bile acid biosynthesis enzymes that matches their position in the enzymatic cascade. Our ...
Any member of a group of hydroxy-5β-cholanic acids occuring in bile, where they are present as the sodium salts of their amides ... bile acid (CHEBI:3098) is a bile acids (CHEBI:138366) bile acid (CHEBI:3098) is a hydroxy-5β-cholanic acid (CHEBI:24663) ... bile acid (CHEBI:3098). lithocholic acid (CHEBI:16325) is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). Meliantriol (CHEBI:80723) is a bile acid ( ... bile acid (CHEBI:3098). Squalamine (CHEBI:80765) is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). ursocholic acid (CHEBI:81240) is a bile acid ( ...
Iron salts. Calcium salts. Phosphate binders. Bile acid sequestrants. Ion resin exchangers ... treatment with retinoic acid normalizes TSHβ mRNA levels (Graeppi-Dulac et al. 2014). Accordingly, retinoids can induce central ... and valproic acid increase metabolism of thyroid hormones through the hepatic P450 system but may also influence the pituitary ... valproic acid, and oxcarbazepine, but not with the more recently developed lamotrigine, levetiracetam, tiagabine, and ...
Biliary excretion of bile acids by bile salt export pump (BSEP) is the rate-limiting step in... ... Bile acid homeostasis is maintained through the tightly regulated enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. ... Biliary excretion of bile acids by bile salt export pump (BSEP) is the rate-limiting step in the circulation. Impairment of ... Ogimura E, Sekine S, Horie T (2011) Bile salt export pump inhibitors are associated with bile acid-dependent drug-induced ...
The membranolytic activity is analysed as a function of the hydrophobicity of the bile salt, ionic strength, temperature, ... The interactions of two bile salt molecules, sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with biological phospholipid ... Hydrogels as Reaction Vessels: Acenaphthylene Dimerization in Hydrogels Derived from Bile Acid Analogues ... Keywords: Bile salt; liposome; phospholipid; vesicle; membranolytic; membrane; ITC; Bile salt; liposome; phospholipid; vesicle ...
Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ... Bile acids (also called bile salts). *Bilirubin (a breakdown product or red blood cells) ... Bile helps with digestion. It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. ... Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ...
While bile acids (BAs) have long been known to be essential in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol catabolism, in recent ... Bile Acids and Salts / pharmacology* * Body Weight / drug effects * Carbon Dioxide / metabolism ... Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation Nature. 2006 Jan 26;439(7075):484-9. ... While bile acids (BAs) have long been known to be essential in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol catabolism, in recent ...
  • Sustained upregulation of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and bile salt export pump and downregulation of cholesterol 7 α -hydroxylase in the liver of patients with end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis," Medical Molecular Morphology , vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 134-138, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • lactis IS-10285 significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and total bile acids. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 1995. Binding of cholesterol with lactic acid bacteria cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a secondary bile acid that helps regulate cholesterol. (cerilliant.com)
  • its other major components are bile salts , cholesterol , phospholipids , bile pigments , and electrolytes (minerals). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The two main bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, are both made from cholesterol in the liver and pass into the bile in combination with amino acids, as bile salts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This enables bile salts to make small parcels ('micelles') including several different molecules, with cholesterol as contents and bile salts as the wrapping. (encyclopedia.com)
  • According to 'Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism,' bile is derived from chemical modification of cholesterol. (livestrong.com)
  • This modification of cholesterol occurs in the liver and creates bile acids. (livestrong.com)
  • Water, electrolytes, cholesterol, phospholipids and bile salts are all necessary to give bile its function. (livestrong.com)
  • While bile acids (BAs) have long been known to be essential in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol catabolism, in recent years an important role for BAs as signalling molecules has emerged. (nih.gov)
  • Bile acids are derived from cholesterol and are potent physiological laxatives. (nih.gov)
  • EP4 deficiency negatively regulate bile acid synthesis through repression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK)-mediated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression and that the hypercholesterolemia in EP4 knockout mice is due to a defect in cholesterol conversion into bile acids. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, EP4 plays a critical role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis by regulating the synthesis and elimination of bile acids. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of EP4 serves as an effective novel strategy to promote cholesterol disposal in the forms of bile acids in order to lower plasma cholesterol levels. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol. (uniprot.org)
  • Bile acids are a group of cholesterol metabolites functioning as key regulators of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes, secreted by ABCB11 (Bsep) into the bile canaliculus, and then mostly absorbed into the enterohepatic circulation ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and released in the intestinal lumen upon food intake. (frontiersin.org)
  • In short, bile acids have a cholesterol backbone. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bile acid biosynthesis mainly occurs in hepatocytes (Figure 1 ), where the classical pathway is initiated by cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) which is regulated by the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bile acids, a structurally related group of molecules derived from cholesterol, have a long history as therapeutic agents in medicine, from treatment for primarily ocular diseases in ancient Chinese medicine to modern day use as approved drugs for certain liver diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • a mixture of sodium salts of the bile acids and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids synthesized in the liver as a derivative of cholesterol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The liver excretes excess cholesterol in the form of bile acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Bile acids serve two purposes: to remove unwanted cholesterol from the body and to aid in lipid digestion in the intestine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because the body uses cholesterol to make bile acids, this reduces the amount of LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • As bile acids are biosynthesized from cholesterol, disruption of bile acid reabsorption will decrease cholesterol levels, in particular, low-density lipoprotein (commonly known as "bad cholesterol") in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major pathway for eliminating free cholesterol is via secretion into bile. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Aside from its digestive function as an emulsifier, bile serves as the route for excretion of the hemoglobin breakdown product bilirubin, which gives bile its yellowish color, and for elimination of cholesterol as well. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The body converts free cholesterol to the bile acids cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In humans, about 500 mg of cholesterol are converted to these acids and eliminated each day. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bile acid sequestrants are medications that can aid in the removal of cholesterol from the blood in order to prevent cholelithiasis. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Impact of mucin, bile salts and cholesterol on the virulence of Vibrio anguillarum towards gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the impact of the host factors mucin, bile salts and cholesterol on the virulence of the economically important aquatic pathogen Vibrio anguillarum towards sea bass larvae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) not only have a major impact on the metabolism of drugs and nutrients, but they also regulate the homeostasis of many endogenous compounds, such as cholesterol and bile acids (BAs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Seven known bile acids: cholic, quenodeoxicholic, deoxicholic, dehydrocholic, taurocholic, taurodeoxicholic and glicocholic (prepared in 0.1 % solution of ethanol) and cholesterol (prepared in 0.1% solution of chloroform), were used as standards during the experiment, to recognize bands from the sample extracts. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Bile acids (BAs), which are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, potentially play a role in the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pharmacological use of exogenous BAs is limited by their narrow therapeutic window due to the toxicity of selected secondary BAs and the effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to increase LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nonetheless, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been gainfully used for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones or treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to bile salts, bile contains cholesterol, water, bile acids and the pigment bilirubin. (healthline.com)
  • Bile salts are produced by the hepatocyte cells in the liver and are derived from cholesterol. (healthline.com)
  • Bile acids and bile alcohols in the form of their conjugates are amphipathic end products of cholesterol metabolism with multiple physiological functions. (ebscohost.com)
  • Inhibition of biliary phospholipid and cholesterol secretion by organic anions affects bile canalicular membrane composition and fluidity. (ebscohost.com)
  • Bile Salts: Their Role in Cholesterol Synthesis, Secretion and Lithogenesis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents information on the role of bile salts in cholesterol synthesis, secretion and lithogenesis. (ebscohost.com)
  • TMAO has been shown to induce AS by affecting cholesterol metabolism through inhibiting hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis ( 2 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • It is well known that bile acids arise from enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol and that hypercholesterolemia leading to hepatic cholesterol accumulation is one of the key hallmarks in NAFLD and NASH [8, 10]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results: Significant increase in biliary content and fecal excretion of bile acids was observed in rats fed for 21 days on cholesterol-supplemented and cholesterol-unsupplemented diets containing 6%, 12%, and 18% water-soluble gummy fibers, but 2. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Taurine in bile acid conjugation and cholesterol excretion -Taurine is incorporated into one of the most abundant bile acids , chenodeoxychloic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver. (vetstream.com)
  • Cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids (primary bile acids) synthesized in liver from cholesterol → conjugated with taurine (preferred) or glycine and excreted in bile as their sodium salts (bile salts). (vetstream.com)
  • Bile acids comprise about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans) via cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cholesterol in a multi-step process. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is down-regulated by cholic acid, up-regulated by cholesterol and is inhibited by the actions of the ileal hormone FGF15/19. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of bile acids is a major route of cholesterol metabolism in most species other than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body produces about 800 mg of cholesterol per day and about half of that is used for bile acid synthesis producing 400-600 mg daily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids have other functions, including eliminating cholesterol from the body, driving the flow of bile to eliminate certain catabolites (including bilirubin), emulsifying fat-soluble vitamins to enable their absorption, and aiding in motility and the reduction of the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biliary phospholipids are associated with bile salts and cholesterol in mixed micelles, thereby reducing the detergent activity and cytotoxicity of bile salts and preventing cholesterol crystallization. (hindawi.com)
  • Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The liver synthesizes primary BAs, namely cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) from cholesterol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to 'Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism,' during a meal, bile is secreted from the gallbladder into the small intestine. (livestrong.com)
  • According to 'Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism,' the acid groups on conjugated bile acids are often converted to salts. (livestrong.com)
  • Altered bile acid metabolism in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. (nih.gov)
  • Alterations in bile acid metabolism may be implicated in the pathophysiology of constipation. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of the study is to determine, whether administration of VSL#3 (Original De Simone formulation) probiotic preparation can alter the bile acid metabolism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The goal of this study is to assess if oral vancomycin can restore the normal bile acid metabolism of people with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Study participants will provide blood and stool samples in order to evaluate the bile acid metabolism before a short course of vancomycin and then again after to assess for change. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • IBD has been associated with impairment of bile acid (BA) metabolism. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. (uniprot.org)
  • Alterations in the gut microbiota have profound effects on bile acid metabolism, which can result in the development of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bile acids are now accepted as central signaling molecules for the regulation of glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This project will compare the amount of bile acids and their kinetics in overweight and obese people with normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose tolerance and frank type 2 diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Linkage between bile acid synthesis, hepatocyte polarization, and regulation of energy metabolism is likely important in normal hepatocyte development and disease. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, in this review we discuss the signaling pathways of bile acids implicated in the control of energy metabolism under normal physiological circumstances, involving both direct and indirect pathways to the CNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two aspects of bile acid metabolism are relevant to their role in neurodegenerative disorders, bile acids that circulate systemically and that are synthesized by neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because the in vivo role of VDR in bile acid metabolism remains unknown, we investigated the effect of VDR activation in a mouse model of cholestasis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bile acids (BAs) regulate multiple aspects of metabolism ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Semi-synthetic bile acid fxr and tgr5 agonists: physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism in the rat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Regulation of host weight gain and lipid metabolism by bacterial bile acid modification in the gut. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They next investigated the downstream effects of altering the levels of specific bile salts on mouse metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Association of genes involved in bile acid synthesis with the progression of primary biliary cirrhosis in Japanese patients," Journal of Gastroenterology , vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1160-1170, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Mass spectrometry-based analysis of UDCA is routinely performed in clinical diagnostic testing applications such as neonatal testing of inborn errors of bile acid synthesis, differentiating among types of familial intrahepatic cholestasis, and therapeutic monitoring of patient responses to UDCA therapy. (cerilliant.com)
  • Mass spectrometry-based analysis of DCA is routinely performed in clinical diagnostic testing applications including neonatal testing of inborn errors of bile acid synthesis and differentiating among types of familial intrahepatic cholestasis. (cerilliant.com)
  • Levels of TCA can serve as markers for inborn and acquired hepatobiliary disorders such as biliary atresia and familial intrahepatic cholestasis as well as inborn errors of bile acid synthesis and sclerosing cholangitis. (cerilliant.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether bile acid synthesis is altered in constipation. (nih.gov)
  • C4 (7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) levels reflecting bile acid synthesis were measured at 0800 h and 1300 h. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with IBS-C and FC have marked changes in bile acid synthesis in relation to colonic transit. (nih.gov)
  • Deficiency of EP4 significantly decreased total bile acid levels in the liver by 26.2% and the fecal bile acid content by 27.6% as compared to wild type littermates, indicating that the absence of EP4 decreased hepatic bile acid synthesis and their subsequent excretion in stools. (nih.gov)
  • Treating high fat diet-challenged mice with the pharmacological EP4 agonist, CAY10580 (200 μg/kg body weight/day i.p) for three weeks effectively prevented diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, enhanced endogenous bile acid synthesis and their fecal excretion. (nih.gov)
  • Russell DW (2003) The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Chiang JY (2004) Regulation of bile acid synthesis: pathways, nuclear receptors, and mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Bile acid synthesis, turnover, and secretion are sparse in fetal liver, and rapidly increase postnatally ( 18 , 19 ), concomitant with hepatocyte polarization and development of a branched canalicular network. (pnas.org)
  • NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) is essential for the function of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), including those P450s involved in bile acid (BA) synthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1α(OH)D 3 treatment altered the expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and transport in the liver, kidney, and intestine but did not decrease bile acid levels in the plasma and liver of BDL mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Highly Enantioselective Synthesis of Fused Tri- and Tetra-substituted Aziridines via Bifunctional Phosphonium Salt-Catalyzed Aza-Darzens Reaction. (bioportfolio.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Recently, trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO) has been identified as a novel and independent risk factor for promoting atherosclerosis (AS) partially through inhibiting hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis. (asm.org)
  • This enterohepatic circulation of bile acids allows a low rate of synthesis, only about 0.3g/day, but with large amounts being secreted into the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis. (genome.jp)
  • Mutations and polymorphisms in the bile salt export pump and the multidrug resistance protein 3 associated with drug-induced liver injury," Pharmacogenetics and Genomics , vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 47-60, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Bile is a complex biochemical mixture, made continuously by the liver - 500-1000 ml/day passing down into the duodenum via the bile duct . (encyclopedia.com)
  • There is a diversion in this journey: a small 50 ml sac - the gall bladder - fills with bile from the liver, and, by absorbing water across its walls, concentrates bile 5-6-fold. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The bile salts are absorbed as whole molecules at the far end of the small intestine (the terminal ileum) and pass up the portal vein to the liver, whence they are re-secreted into bile. (encyclopedia.com)
  • SLC38A4 is found predominantly in liver and transports both cationic and neutral amino acids. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • While the liver produces bile salts, bile is also concentrated in the gallbladder by removal of water and other electrolytes. (drhoustonanderson.com)
  • Bile acids are further modified in the liver. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile acids in xenogeneic ex-vivo liver perfusion: function of xenoperfused livers and compatibility with human bile salts and porcine livers. (duke.edu)
  • In these studies we examined the ability of the ex vivo porcine liver to clear human bile acids during extracorporeal liver perfusion (ELP). (duke.edu)
  • Bile from the porcine liver and serum samples were collected hourly during perfusion. (duke.edu)
  • Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bile acids (BAs) represent a unique mechanism of communication between the host and intestinal microbiome and the liver. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Synthesized in the liver, bile acids are metabolized by intestinal bacteria hydroxylases to secondary BAs which then re-enter the portal circulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Bile is the greenish-yellow liquid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The ileum-liver Farnesoid X Receptor signaling axis mediates the compensatory mechanism of 17α-ethynylestradiol-induced cholestasis via increasing hepatic biosynthesis of chenodeoxycholic acids in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. (uniprot.org)
  • Gerloff T, Stieger B, Hagenbuch B et al (1998) The sister of P-glycoprotein represents the canalicular bile salt export pump of mammalian liver. (springer.com)
  • Kullak-Ublick GA, Stieger B, Meier PJ (2004) Enterohepatic bile salt transporters in normal physiology and liver disease. (springer.com)
  • Lam P, Soroka CJ, Boyer JL (2010) The bile salt export pump: clinical and experimental aspects of genetic and acquired cholestatic liver disease. (springer.com)
  • Loss of polarity causes bile secretory failure (cholestasis) and liver damage ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Upon reaching the ileum, bile acids are transported by specific transport proteins to the portal circulation for recycling back to the liver. (frontiersin.org)
  • classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g. cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g. deoxycholic and lithocholic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • leakage of bile from the common bile duct or gallbladder may occur as a result of trauma, including perforation during percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver, and (rarely) erosion from biliary calculi. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The liver then produces more bile acids to replace those that have been lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • In chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis, bile acids may deposit in the skin, causing pruritus (itching). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, bile acid sequestrants may be used for the prevention of pruritus in patients with chronic liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most vertebrates , bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder between meals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bile is made in the liver. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The human liver produces about a quart (or liter) of bile per day. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bile formation is a major function of the liver. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bile, greenish yellow secretion that is produced in the liver and passed to the gallbladder for concentration, storage, or transport into the first region of the small intestine, the duodenum. (britannica.com)
  • Individual bile acids are endogenous markers of liver cell function and studies of both qualitative and quantitative bile acid changes have been conducted as a result of liver and intestinal diseases. (waters.com)
  • The measurement of serum bile acid concentrations can provide information pertaining to liver damage, as well as hepatic and biliary tract diseases. (waters.com)
  • Serum bile acid changes were observed after gaIN treatment, including elevated taurine-conjugated bile acids, which correlated to liver damage severity. (waters.com)
  • This gene is primarily expressed in liver and adrenal tissues where the encoded protein sulfonates steroids and bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presents a letter to the editor in response to the article "Pruritus of Cholestasis Is Related to Effects of Bile Salts on the Liver, Not the Skin," by C. N. Ghent, which appeared in a 1987 issue. (ebscohost.com)
  • A definition of the medical term "dehydrocholic acid" is presented, which means a bile salt that stimulates production of bile from the liver. (ebscohost.com)
  • Any of the liver-produced steroid acids, such as taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid, that appear in the bile as sodium salts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primary and secondary bile acids are synthesized by liver cells and gut bacteria, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bile acids are conjugated in the liver with taurine or glycine and are excreted in bile via the bile duct as their sodium salts (bile salts). (vetstream.com)
  • They are transported to the liver to be re-secreted in the bile. (vetstream.com)
  • In other species bile acids are a sensitive indicator of liver function and of integrity of liver, biliary and intestinal circulation. (vetstream.com)
  • Only 2-5% of total bile acids are lost in feces each day-remainder resorbed, pass to the liver via portal vein, where extracted and re-excreted (enterohepatic circulation). (vetstream.com)
  • Liver biopsy when [bile acid] 7.6 mg/l (depending on laboratory's normal values) may give more indication of specific cause Biopsy: hepatic . (vetstream.com)
  • Diverse bile acids are synthesized in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to secreting any of the bile acids (primary or secondary, see below), liver cells conjugate them with either glycine or taurine, to form a total of 8 possible conjugated bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system and gallbladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the liver, ABCB4 is localized to the canalicular membranes of hepatocytes and is necessary for the secretion of phospholipids into bile. (hindawi.com)
  • To obtain a diagnosis of ICP, there are two LFT (liver function tests) and Serum bile acid test. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most BAs in the liver are pumped into the biliary tree by the efflux transporters on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, mainly the bile salt export pump (Bsep). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Partial purification and characterization of an enzyme from rat liver that catalyzes the sulfation of bile salts. (genome.jp)
  • Evidence for an ordered reaction mechanism for bile salt: 3'phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate: sulfotransferase from rhesus monkey liver that catalyzes the sulfation of the hepatotoxin glycolithocholate. (genome.jp)
  • Bile acid sulfotransferase I from rat liver sulfates bile acids and 3-hydroxy steroids: purification, N-terminal amino acid sequence, and kinetic properties. (genome.jp)
  • Bile Salt Inhibition of Sterol Biosynthesis by Small-intestine Mucosa in Vitro. (annals.org)
  • 1972. Characterization of the kinetics of passive and active transport mechanisms for bile absorption in the small intestine and colon of the rat. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Both bile and lipase are necessary for the proper absorption of fats by the small intestine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bile salts pass down the entire length of the small intestine, but instead of their being degraded or excreted in faeces, a remarkable phenomenon occurs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the small intestine, bile helps to break dietary fat into smaller particles, a process called emulsification. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile acid diarrhea most often occurs in a diseased small intestine, at the point of the terminal ileum, or after surgical resection of the terminal ileum. (healthcentral.com)
  • Bile is a vital secretion, essential for digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. (nih.gov)
  • It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chronic diarrhea may be caused by excess bile salts entering the colon rather than being absorbed at the end of the small intestine (the ileum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. (uniprot.org)
  • When fats are present in the digestive tract after the consumption of a meal, a signal from cholecystokinin, or CCK (a hormone released from the small intestine), stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release bile. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The bile is discharged into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine, where most of digestion occurs), where it consequently aids the process of fat digestion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • thus bile acids and salts aid in the absorption of fats in the small intestine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In humans, approximately 95 percent of secreted bile salts are reabsorbed in the ileum (terminal portion of the small intestine) and re-used. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is a complex process involving numerous transport proteins, which serve to transport bile acids from the small intestine into portal circulation, from the portal circulation into the hepatocyte, from the hepatocyte into the bile, and from the gall bladder to the small intestine. (mdpi.com)
  • The bile is released into the first part of our small intestine called the duodenum. (healthline.com)
  • Bile acids are secreted at time of eating to small intestine where they aid in digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. (vetstream.com)
  • The small intestine does more digesting and also absorbs the amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol and simple sugars that result. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • The added solubility of conjugated bile salts aids in their function by preventing passive re-absorption in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the concentration of bile acids/salts in the small intestine is high enough to form micelles and solubilize lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to 'Biochemistry: A Case-Oriented Approach,' to improve the ability to emulsify fat, the amino acids taurine and glycine are linked to the bile acids. (livestrong.com)
  • Subsequently, these bile acids are conjugated with the amino acids glycine (mainly in humans) or taurine (mainly in mice). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bile salts are bile acids conjugated with amino acids . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bile acids are steroid compounds (deoxycholic and cholic acid), often combined with the amino acids glycine and taurine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identical amino acids are red . (hindawi.com)
  • The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins provides an in-depth look at the involvement and role of amino acids and proteins in molecular nutrition. (elsevier.com)
  • Editor Dominique Dardevet has assembled a collection of chapters written by leading researchers and top professors that provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of amino acids and proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • The book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of amino acids and proteins as well as the composition of food. (elsevier.com)
  • The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins also features reference guides for terms and bullet-point summaries, making it readily accessible to novices while still providing the most up-to-date and detailed information that experienced researchers need. (elsevier.com)
  • PRIMARY AUDIENCE: Nutrition researchers, graduate students in molecular nutrition programs, molecular biologists and chemists studying proteins and amino acids. (elsevier.com)
  • The enzyme pepsin plays an important role in the digestion of proteins by breaking down the intact protein to peptides, which are short chains of four to nine amino acids. (amazonaws.com)
  • Bile Salt-Fatty Acid Mixed Micelles as Nasal Absorption Promoters. (ovid.com)
  • The absorption enhancement and presystemic degradation kinetics of a homologous series of acyclovir 2′-ester prodrugs were investigated in rats using the in situ nasal perfusion technique in the presence of bile salt-fatty acid mixed micells. (ovid.com)
  • It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The FXR-alpha-mediated SHP induction also underlies the downregulation of the hepatic fatty acid and triglyceride biosynthesis and very-low-density lipoprotein production mediated by sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c. (nih.gov)
  • It aids food digestion by mainly breaking down fats and turning them into fatty acids. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the bile acids, fatty acids (fatty acids are part of the diet) and bacteria that are present in the intestines. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 7) fluid that assists in digestion by breaking down fats , mostly triglycerides, into monoglycerides and fatty acids . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • These emulsified droplets are then organized into many micelles, or small droplets of phospholipid arranged so that the interior is filled with hydrophobic fatty acid tails, which increases overall absorption by helping make large fat globules into smaller particles. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • atresia and stenosis: Bile-duct atresia is a condition that is always accompanied by severe jaundice and that limits the person's capacity to digest fatty foods. (britannica.com)
  • If the fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids that you eat can't be absorbed, they pass into the colon where they can cause complications. (healthline.com)
  • For example, bacteroides ferment soluble fibre to produce short chain fatty acids - over 500kcals of energy a day can be generated in this way. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • It is bacteroides which allow us to digest soluble fibre and make short chain fatty acids. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • Short chain fatty acids also protect us from hypoglycaemia. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • In addition, unabsorbed fatty acids, converted to hydroxy-fatty acids by colonic flora, as well as unabsorbed bile acids both impair absorption and induce secretion of water and electrolytes by the colon adding to stool mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein functions in the regulation of blood plasma colloid osmotic pressure and acts as a carrier protein for a wide range of endogenous molecules including hormones, fatty acids, and metabolites, as well as exogenous drugs. (genecards.org)
  • Despite the 2-fold increased uptake of oxVLDL protein, the cell association of triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids by the J774 macrophages after incubation with oxVLDL was only 50% of that with native VLDL. (tudelft.nl)
  • The major bile acids in mammals are tauro or glycine conjugates of cholic, deoxycholic, and chenodeoxycholic acids ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the presence of physiologic serum BA concentrations, cyclosporine A, chlorpromazine, and troglitazone induced early and preferential cellular accumulation of unconjugated lithocholic, deoxycholic, and chenodeoxycholic acids that increased 8- to 12-fold and 47- to 50-fold after 24 hours and 6 days, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taurocholic acid (TCA) sodium salt, also known as cholaic acid is a conjugate of cholic acid and taurine that is involved with the emulsification of fats. (cerilliant.com)
  • Any member of a group of hydroxy-5β-cholanic acids occuring in bile, where they are present as the sodium salts of their amides with glycine or taurine. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. (uniprot.org)
  • This allowed for characteristic metabolite fragmentation information to be obtained in a single analytical run, easily distinguishing glycine and taurine bile acid conjugates. (waters.com)
  • Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their glycine and taurine groups are removed to give the secondary bile acids, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids , glycine and taurine conjugates, and 7-alpha-dehydroxylated derivatives (deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid) are all found in human intestinal bile . (primidi.com)
  • By decreasing the amount of toxins in the bile, the gallbladder becomes less irritated and responsive to other environmental toxins. (drhoustonanderson.com)
  • Bile salts are a component of bile, a fluid secreted from the gallbladder during the digestion of lipids. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile reflux often occurs after surgery, such as a gastric bypass or gallbladder removal, or because of peptic ulcers . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In vivo H MRS of human gallbladder bile in understanding the pathophysiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): Immune-mediated disease versus bile acid-induced injury. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ingestion of food causes bile acid secretion from the gallbladder through the common bile duct to the duodenum in order to facilitate the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins via formation of micelles. (frontiersin.org)
  • This duct receives a cystic duct from the gallbladder (absent in the horse) and thence becomes the bile duct . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bile salt diarrhea can also be a side-effect of gallbladder removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In species with a gallbladder (including humans and most domestic animals, but not horses or rats ), further modification of bile occurs in this organ. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile during the fasting state (between meals). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Typically, bile is concentrated five-fold in the gallbladder by absorption of water and small electrolytes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid and long-term prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis," Hepatology , vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 871-877, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Improved prognosis of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis that have a biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid," Gastroenterology , vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 1281-1287, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • The mean total bile acid clearance from serum (243+/-44 micromol/h) was similar to the total bile acid biliary excretion (286+/-84 micromol/hr, P = 0.06). (duke.edu)
  • After 3 hr of perfusion, human bile acids made up 85% of total biliary bile acids. (duke.edu)
  • Biliary excretion of bile acids by bile salt export pump (BSEP) is the rate-limiting step in the circulation. (springer.com)
  • See also bile duct , biliary . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bile duct obstruction may cause distention and rupture of biliary canaliculi. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The salts of their 7-alpha-dehydroxylated derivatives, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, are also found, with derivatives of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids accounting for over 90% of human biliary bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo and cell culture studies have demonstrated that the secretion of biliary phospholipids depends on both ABCB4 expression and bile salts. (hindawi.com)
  • Bile acid homeostasis is maintained through the tightly regulated enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. (springer.com)
  • They disrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids by combining with bile constituents and preventing their reabsorption from the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is one of the most efficient recycling routes in the human body. (mdpi.com)
  • Deoxycholic acid (DCA), also known as deoxycholate and cholanoic acid is a secondary bile acid that aids in the absorption of fats in the intestine. (cerilliant.com)
  • Bile has two broad functions: it plays a digestive role in the breakdown and absorption of fat, and it excretes substances from blood which cannot be excreted by the kidneys. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bile salts also assist the final absorption of the products of fat digestion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • But, the problem is, why isn't anyone asking why you have poor re-absorption or why you may be creating an excess bile acid . (drhoustonanderson.com)
  • The body can makes approximately 1 quart of bile per day to aid in the absorption of fats. (drhoustonanderson.com)
  • Without bile, digestion and absorption of fat is incomplete. (livestrong.com)
  • Furthermore, reversible inhibition of ileal absorption of taurocholate and the bile salt derivative taurodehydrocholate could be demonstrated in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Relative specificity for the bile salt system of these cationic bile salt derivatives was demonstrated in the in vivo preparation by comparing its inhibition of taurodehydrocholate absorption with their lesser capacity to inhibit glucose transport. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These salts act as emulsifying agents to assist in the absorption of dietary fats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition to bile acids, bile acid sequestrants may also bind drugs in the GI tract, preventing their absorption into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile is also valuable in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and the elimination of waste products, which are secreted into the bile and eliminated in feces. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The tremendous transport capacity and organ specificity of enterohepatic circulation combined with versatile derivatization possibilities, rigid steroidal backbone, enantiomeric purity, availability, and low cost have made bile acids attractive tools in designing pharmacological hybrid molecules and prodrugs with the view of improving intestinal absorption, increasing the metabolic stability of pharmaceuticals, specifically targeting drugs to organs involved in enterohepatic circulation, as well as sustaining therapeutically reasonable systemic concentrations of active agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Bile salts have a physiological role in intestinal absorption of fat, and changes in the type or amount of intraluminal bile salt result in abnormal absorption of fat, for example, in the. (ebscohost.com)
  • Bile acid-containing micelles aid lipases to digest lipids and bring them near the intestinal brush border membrane, which results in fat absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids (BAs) are important natural detergents that form micelles to facilitate the absorption of dietary fat and lipid soluble vitamins from the gastrointestinal tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lactis IS-10285 was attributed to its ability to suppress the reabsorption of bile acids into the enterohepatic circulation and to enhance the excretion of bile acids in feces of hypercholesterolemic rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The relative hepatic uptake of bile acid from serum is similar to bile acid excretion in bile. (duke.edu)
  • This is the third specific aim of a program on IBS-D with increased fecal bile acid excretion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although bile acids are secreted into the intestine, most is re-absorbed prior to excretion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Moreover, RSV increased levels of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium , which increased the bile salt hydrolase activity, thereby enhancing bile acid (BA) deconjugation and fecal excretion in C57BL/6J and ApoE −/− mice. (asm.org)
  • Bile salts function by combining with phospholipids to break down large fat globules in a process known as emulsification. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Among them, ABCB4, also called MDR3, is essential for the secretion of phospholipids from hepatocytes into bile. (hindawi.com)
  • In the presence of bile salts, ABCB4 located in nonraft membranes mediates the efflux of phospholipids, preferentially phosphatidylcholine. (hindawi.com)
  • The presence of bile salts gives bile the ability to emulsify, or mix, lipid in the aqueous environment of the intestine. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile acids are facial amphipathic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic (lipid soluble) and hydrophilic (water soluble) components. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • lipid: Bile acids: The bile acids and their salts are detergents that emulsify fats in the gut during digestion. (britannica.com)
  • As amphipathic molecules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, conjugated bile salts sit at the lipid/water interface and, above the right concentration, form micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said lipid profile comprises at least one lipid metabolite from the primary bile acid and/or secondary bile acid class. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In addition, bile acids can signal via intermediate signaling molecules that are released upon activation of bile acid receptors in the intestine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Once secreted into the lumen of the intestine, bile salts are modified by gut bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human adults secrete between 12-18 g of bile acids into the intestine each day, mostly after meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As hoped, they found that mice colonised with the hydrolase-deficient strain had much higher amounts of certain unmetabolised bile salts in their intestine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Wang L, Soroka CJ, Boyer JL (2002) The role of bile salt export pump mutations in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II. (springer.com)
  • Recently, the role of bile acids and the homeobox gene transcription factor CDX-2 has been suggested in the pathogenesis of BE. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To estimate the nasal epithelial membrane and cytoplasmic damaging effect caused by sodium glycocholate (NaGC)-linoleic acid (15 m M:5 m M) mixed micelles, the release profiles of 5′-nucleotidase (5′-ND), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and carboxylesterase in the nasal perfusate were measured as a function of time. (ovid.com)
  • Mixed micelles composed of 15 m M NaGC and 5 m M linoleic acid are incapable of incorporating these esters into the micellar cavity, although NaGC micelle alone can actively solubilize them in a concentration-dependent manner. (ovid.com)
  • The bile micelles pass into the duodenum, where the detergent action of the bile salts emulsifies fats, which are then broken down by the enzyme lipase from the pancreas . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The CMC values of mixed micelles do not differ from the CMC values of the micelle constituents, which suggests that the binding of morphine hydrochloride does not perturb the hydrophobic domain of the bile acid molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • Critical micellar concentration" refers to both an intrinsic property of the bile acid itself and amount of bile acid necessary to function in the spontaneous and dynamic formation of micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of bile acid is to facilitate the formation of micelles, which promotes processing of dietary fat. (primidi.com)
  • The changes in bile salt and β-glucan signals suggest a stabilization of bile salt micelles and concomitant conformational changes in β-glucans. (dtu.dk)
  • Bile salts are necessary for digestion of fat. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile is necessary for efficient digestion of lipids. (livestrong.com)
  • What Roles Do Hydrochloric Acid & Bile Play in Digestion? (livestrong.com)
  • Bile helps with digestion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. (frontiersin.org)
  • In essence, bile greatly increases the surface area of fat, allowing easier digestion by lipases, as well as transport of lipids by suspension in water. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bile salts help with the digestion of fats in our bodies. (healthline.com)
  • Bile salts are a primary component of bile and are needed by our bodies to help break down fats, aid digestion, absorb important vitamins, and eliminate toxins. (healthline.com)
  • Bile acids facilitate digestion of dietary fats and oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body's main strategy is to use bile salts as detergents: the molecules have a water-soluble ( hydrophilic ) side and a fat-soluble ( hydrophobic ) side. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Based on literature, this phenomenon may be due to the formation of aggregates in the cell between the molecules of bile acids and morphine. (elsevier.com)
  • Kinetic measurements indicated that, in addition to micellar interaction between morphine hydrochloride and sodium salts of bile acids, a complex may also be formed in chloroform via hydrogen bonds formed between the drug and bile acid molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • The interactions of two bile salt molecules, sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with biological phospholipid model membranes are considered. (mdpi.com)
  • Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkylation of Drug-Like Molecules and Pharmaceuticals Using Heterocyclic Phosphonium Salts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Genetic mutations affecting hepatic bile salt transport molecules have also been found in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to genetic changes to bile salt transport molecules, high levels of estrogen glucuronides have been shown to inhibit the bile salt export pump (BSEP) ABCB11, and high levels of progesterone to inhibit the ABCB4 (MDR3) phospholipid transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now available from Cerilliant - bile acid Certified Spiking Solution® of Ursodeoxycholic acid, Deoxycholic acid and Taurocholic acid sodium salt. (cerilliant.com)
  • This generates the conjugated bile acids taurocholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. (livestrong.com)
  • The most important compounds are the salts of taurocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid) are the major bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the salts of taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) represent approximately eighty percent of all bile salts . (primidi.com)
  • Bile acids will be measured on each sample and the average composition of primary to secondary bile acids over the 5 day period will be assessed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gut microbes produce unconjugated and secondary bile acids through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions respectively. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear receptor that regulates calcium homeostasis, has been found to function as a receptor for secondary bile acids. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The primary products of the BA synthetic pathway in humans are CDCA and cholic acid (CA). They in turn are modified by gut microbiota to yield lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), two secondary BAs, respectively, as well as other secondary and tertiary BAs ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Bacterial bile salt hydrolysis is considered a risk factor for the development of colon cancer because of the risk of forming harmful secondary bile salts after an initial deconjugation step. (ebscohost.com)
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impairment of BSEP function and expression results in excessive accumulation of hepatic bile acids, which are toxic to hepatocytes. (springer.com)
  • Using collagen sandwich cultures of rat primary hepatocytes, we confirmed this hypothesis by quantifying canalicular network formation after exposure to bile acids and identifying the signaling pathways involved. (pnas.org)
  • Canalicular Network Formation in Sandwich Culture of Rat Hepatocytes and the Effect of Bile Acid. (pnas.org)
  • Using primary rat hepatocytes in collagen sandwich cultures ( 20 ), we analyzed the effect of bile acid treatment on canalicular network formation as identified by immunofluorescence of occludin, a tight junction marker, and ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein), an apical membrane marker. (pnas.org)
  • On the canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, several ABC transporters are responsible for the secretion of bile lipids. (hindawi.com)
  • Estrogens, and particularly glucuronides such as estradiol-17β-D-glucuronide, have been shown to cause cholestasis in animal studies, by reducing bile acid uptake by hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli must tolerate high levels of bile salts, powerful detergents that disrupt biological membranes. (asm.org)
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • the sodium salts secreted in bile, sodium taurocholate and sodium glycocholate, which greatly lower surface tension and are important in emulsifying fats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After we eat and there are fats present in our digestive tracts, our hormones send a signal to our gallbladders to release bile. (healthline.com)
  • The bile helps to process and digest the fats. (healthline.com)
  • then via bile salts (which are also toxic to microbes) and pancreatic enzymes to further digest protein, fats and carbohydrates. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • Administration of milk and fermented milks produced from indigenous dadih lactic acid bacteria on serum lipids and bile acids, fecal bile acids and microflora was estimated in hypercholesterolemic rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • however, the number of fecal lactic acid bacteria remained unchanged when rats were administered milk and fermented milks. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Fecal samples collected over the course of a week will be assessed by 16S r-Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid gene profiling. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Fecal bile acid patterns have been used successfully to identify scats. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Neotropical felid scats are capable of this biochemical identification because they present low concentrations of plant pigments that would interfere in fecal bile acids detection. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Fecal bile acids and their relative concentrations follow patterns that are species specific ( Haslewood 1967 ). (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Three bile acids (glycocholic, glycodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic acid) were selected as markers for human bile and three (glycohyocholic, glycohyodeoxycholic, and glyco-3alpha-hydroxy-6-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid) for markers of pig bile. (duke.edu)
  • Thus, BAD has also been referred to as bile acid malabsorption or BAM. (drhoustonanderson.com)
  • To compare with a randomized trial (n=15 per treatment group), effects of colesevelam and placebo treatment, on colonic transit, bowel functions, permeability and tight junction expression in rectosigmoid mucosa of IBS-D with Bile Acid Malabsorption. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 30 subjects with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea and bile acid malabsorption will be randomized into 15 people per group in 4-week double-blind, parallel-group trial to Colesevelam or placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, I can tell you that the actual name for the disorder that you seem to have, is known medically as ' bile acid malabsorption . (healthcentral.com)
  • They are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhea due to bile acid malabsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition of bile acid malabsorption occurs after surgery to the ileum, in Crohn's disease, with a number of other gastrointestinal causes, or is commonly a primary, idiopathic condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • New treatment for salt malabsorption. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents a letter to the editor related to the treatment of patients with bile salt malabsorption. (ebscohost.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine the effectiveness of oral bile acid therapy with cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with peroxisomal disorders involving impa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aims of the present study were 1) to compare the mRNA and protein expression of CDX-2 in biopsies obtained from patients with BE and normal squamous epithelium and 2) to study the effect of two different bile salts, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), on the mRNA expression of CDX-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in Barrett's the adenocarcinoma cell line (OE-33). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accumulation of these hydrophobic BAs resulted from strong inhibition of amidation, and in addition, for lithocholic acid reduction of its sulfoconjugation, and was associated with variable alterations of uptake and efflux transporters. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1987. Deconjugation of bile acids by human intestinal bacteria implanted in germ free rats. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • While many cases of vomiting bile have a clear cause, vomiting due to an intestinal blockage or other condition may be more difficult to determine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Intestinal blockages are a common cause of someone throwing up bile, but it may not be obvious to them that an intestinal blockage is to blame. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hepatocanalicular bile salt export pump deficiency in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis," Gastroenterology , vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1370-1379, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Jansen PL, Strautnieks SS, Jacquemin E et al (1999) Hepatocanalicular bile salt export pump deficiency in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. (springer.com)
  • Pruritus in Diseases with Cholestasis: Pruritogen and Serum Bile Acids. (ebscohost.com)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Relationships between bile acid levels and fetal complication rates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • BASD accounts for about 2% of neonatal cholestasis cases, and early primary bile acid replacement treatment can achieve good results. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis is characterized by cellular accumulation of bile acids (BAs), whose mechanisms remain poorly understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxins are secreted into the bile and eliminated in feces. (healthline.com)
  • Approximately 600 mg of bile salts are synthesized daily to replace bile acids lost in the feces, although, as described below, much larger amounts are secreted, reabsorbed in the gut and recycled. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increased secretion of bile acids produces an increase in bile flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of bile acid and bile acids sequestrants on GLP-1 Secretion, during a meal, in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid sequestrants are polymeric compounds that serve as ion-exchange resins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid sequestrants are large polymeric structures, and they are not significantly absorbed from the gut into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of these agents as hypolipidemic agents has decreased markedly since the introduction of the statins, which are more efficacious than bile acid sequestrants at lowering LDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid sequestrants are the principal therapy for bile acid-induced diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid sequestrants may also be used to treat hyperthyroidism as an adjunct therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholestyramine has been used in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections, in order to absorb toxins A and B. As bile acid sequestrants are designed to stay in the gut, in general, they do not have systemic side-effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because bile acid sequestrants are not well-absorbed from the gut, they are generally regarded as safe in pregnant women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, vitamin supplementation may be considered, with appropriate intervals between dosing of the vitamins and bile acid sequestrants. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, it is generally advised that bile acid sequestrants be spaced several hours apart from other drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDA Heart Health Online - Bile Acid Sequestrants Hashim SA, Vanitallie TB (April 1965). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate are examples of bile salts. (livestrong.com)
  • This study describes a unique function of taurocholate in bile canalicular formation involving signaling through a cAMP-Epac-MEK-Rap1-LKB1-AMPK pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Organic acid/(conjugated) bile acid (taurocholate):Na + symporter. (tcdb.org)
  • Any of the sodium salts of the bile acids, such as taurocholate and glycocholate, occurring in bile. (dictionary.com)
  • Bile acids were extracted from serum using methanol and a gradient elution of water and acetonitrile was employed, which also enabled the detection of a wide range of endogenous metabolites, such as lipids. (waters.com)
  • In this study, a series of cationic bile salt derivatives (cholamine conjugates) were prepared with one, two, and three alpha-hydroxyl groups on the steroid moiety. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ileum: … and the reabsorption of conjugated bile salts. (britannica.com)
  • Soroka CJ, Boyer JL (2014) Biosynthesis and trafficking of the bile salt export pump, BSEP: therapeutic implications of BSEP mutations. (springer.com)
  • The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Involved in the suppression of bile acid biosynthesis through down-regulation of CYP7A1 expression, following positive regulation of the JNK and ERK1/2 cascades. (genecards.org)
  • In rat hepatocyte sandwich cultures, polarization was manifested by sequential progression of bile canaliculi from small structures to a fully branched network. (pnas.org)
  • Based on these events, we postulated that bile acids may regulate hepatocyte polarization and canalicular formation. (pnas.org)
  • 1] "Functional expression cloning and characterization of the hepatocyte Na+/bile acid cotransport system. (tcdb.org)
  • Consequently, both genetic mutations in hepatocyte proteins involved in bile secretion together with inhibition of those proteins by high levels of hormone metabolites in pregnancy may have roles in the pathogenesis of ICP. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). (frontiersin.org)
  • ABCB4, also called multidrug resistance 3 (MDR3), is a 1279-amino acid transmembrane protein. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic mutations in the hepatocellular transport protein ABCB4 (MDR3), which controls secretion of phosphatidylcholine into bile, have been found in 15% of cases of ICP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G-protein coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) has been associated with the development of gastrointestinal cancer. (dovepress.com)
  • Bile acid signaling to the CNS encompasses both direct and indirect pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, there are two indirect pathways that involve intermediate agents released upon interaction with bile acids receptors in the gut. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that when plasma bile acids levels are high all three pathways may contribute in signal transmission to the CNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, activation of signal transduction pathways associated with cell proliferation is observed with acid exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2. bile trapped in obstructed system for a long period and from which pigments have been resorbed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • heterocyclic compound: Five-membered rings with one heteroatom: The bile pigments are formed by decomposition of the porphyrin ring and contain a chain of four pyrrole rings. (britannica.com)
  • All of them were fed basically with meat, so we did not expect to find plant pigments interfering with the bile acids. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Bile salts are one of the primary components of bile. (healthline.com)
  • Probiotic Properties and Bile Salt Hydrolase Activity of Some Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria', Egyptian Journal of Microbiology , 52(1), pp. 87-100. (ekb.eg)
  • Moreover, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. (ekb.eg)
  • Several Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotic strains exhibit bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity and are suspected to play a role in combating the negative effects of bile via detoxification of. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Protective effect of the bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri against bile salt cytotoxicity. (ebscohost.com)
  • We took a novel approach to understanding the role of these enzymes by controlling the activity of a selective bile salt hydrolase in the mouse gut. (eurekalert.org)
  • After identifying a bacterial species with a bile salt hydrolase that only metabolises certain types of bile salts, they generated two strains of bacteria - one with the hydrolase and one without - and introduced them into germ-free mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • We do not know if strains that show the 'desired' trait (e.g., high level resistance to acid or bile, adherence to mucus or good bile salt hydrolase activity) perform any better than strains testing as poor or mediocre on those traits. (cdrf.org)
  • These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to 'Biochemistry: A Case-Oriented Approach,' bile contains several components in addition to bile acids. (livestrong.com)
  • Pig bile acids appeared in patients' sera after 1 hr of perfusion, and after 3 hr, 35% of serum bile salts were pig-specific. (duke.edu)
  • Follow the diagnostic tree for Increased Total Serum Bile Acids in Dogs Increased Total Serum Bile Acids in Dogs . (vetstream.com)
  • Measurements of total serum bile acids (TSBA) not indicated when jaundice is present because hyperbilirubinemia is present and increased affecting TSBA. (vetstream.com)
  • Bile reflux occurs when bile backs up into a person's stomach and esophagus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Enterohepatic recycling of the bile acid pool occurs about 12 times per day, thus the net flux of bile acids through primarily the portal, but also the systemic, circulation is substantial. (frontiersin.org)
  • We then decided to undertake an experimental study of the choleretic effect of bile salts and of oleic acid with bile salts to ascertain whether oleic acid which has a direct action on the gall-bladder also enhances the well known choleretic effect of bile salts. (annals.org)
  • Kullak-Ublick GA, Stieger B, Hagenbuch B et al (2000) Hepatic transport of bile salts. (springer.com)
  • The two primary bile acids are chenodeoxycholate and cholate. (livestrong.com)
  • Bile salts are a primary component of bile. (livestrong.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been considered to be either an "autoimmune disease" or a "bile acid-induced injury. (bioportfolio.com)
  • De novo synthesized bile acids are called primary bile acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that brief exposure of the Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma cell line, SEG-1, or primary cultures of Barrett's esophageal tissues to acid or bile results in changes consistent with cell proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using previously published methods, Barrett's-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines and primary cultures of Barrett's esophageal tissue were exposed to short pulses of acid or bile salts followed by incubation in culture media at pH 7.4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similar experiments using short-term primary cultures of Barrett's esophagus also did not result in detectable changes in gene expression with either acid or bile salt exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study addresses whether exposure of Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma cell lines or primary Barrett's esophageal tissues to acid or bile salts results in differences in gene expression patterns that support transformation to a malignant state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another primary function of bile is to remove toxins. (healthline.com)