Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
'Cholanes' are not recognized as a medical term; however, it is possible that the term is being referred to as "bile acids," which are steroid acids that play an essential role in lipid digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.
Unsaturated derivatives of cholane with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched five-carbon chain at C-17. They must have at least one double bond in the ring system.
A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/3564)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (2/3564)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

A new hydrolase specific for taurine-conjugates of bile acids. (3/3564)

Through the investigation of the bile acid-deconjugation activities of human intestinal anaerobes, a new enzyme was discovered in Peptostreptococcus intermedius which hydrolyzed specifically the taurine-conjugates, but not the glycine-conjugates of bile acids. However, the enzymes in Streptococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus brevis hydrolyzed chiefly the glycine-conjugates.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (4/3564)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

Enrichment of canalicular membrane with cholesterol and sphingomyelin prevents bile salt-induced hepatic damage. (5/3564)

These studies were undertaken to characterize the role of plasma membrane cholesterol in canalicular secretory functions and hepatocyte integrity against intravenous taurocholate administration. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations and cholesterol/phospholipid ratios were significantly increased in canalicular membranes of diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting a more resistant structure against solubilization by taurocholate. During taurocholate infusion, control rats had significantly decreased bile flow, whereas diosgenin-fed animals maintained bile flow. Maximal cholesterol output increased by 176% in diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting an increased precursor pool of biliary cholesterol in these animals. Maximal phospholipid output only increased by 43% in diosgenin-fed rats, whereas bile salt output remained at control levels. The kinetics of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities in bile showed a significantly faster release in control than in diosgenin-fed rats. After 30 min of intravenous taurocholate infusion, necrotic hepatocytes were significantly increased in control animals. Preservation of bile secretory functions and hepatocellular cytoprotection by diosgenin against the intravenous infusion of toxic doses of taurocholate was associated with an increased concentration of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the canalicular membrane. The increase of biliary cholesterol output induced by diosgenin was correlated to the enhanced concentration of cholesterol in the canalicular membrane.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (6/3564)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (7/3564)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis. (8/3564)

The response of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 to salt stress has been characterized previously in complex media. In this report, it has been demonstrated that this bacterium actively accumulates the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) from salt-enriched complex medium BHI. To further understand the specific effects of GB and other osmoprotective compounds in salt adaptation and salt-induced cross-tolerance to lethal challenges, a chemically defined medium lacking putative osmoprotectants was used. In this medium, bacterial growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. At 0.75 M NaCl, 90% inhibition of the growth rate was observed; GB and its structural analogues restored growth to the non-salt-stressed level. In contrast, proline, pipecolate and ectoine did not allow growth recovery of stressed cells. Kinetic studies showed that the uptake of betaines shows strong structural specificity and occurs through a salt-stress-inducible high-affinity porter [Km = 3.3 microM; Vmax = 130 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1); the uptake activity increased 400-fold in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl]. Moreover, GB and its analogues were accumulated as non-metabolizable cytosolic osmolytes and reached intracellular levels ranging from 1-3 to 1.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1). In contrast to the beneficial effect of GB on the growth of salt-stressed cultures of E. faecalis, its accumulation inhibits the salt-induced cross-tolerance to a heterologous lethal challenge. Indeed, pretreatment of bacterial cells with 0.5 M NaCl induced resistance to 0.3% bile salts (survival of adapted cells increased by a factor of 6800). The presence of GB in the adaptation medium reduced the acquisition of bile salts resistance 680-fold. The synthesis of 11 of the 13 proteins induced during salt adaptation was significantly reduced in the presence of GB. These results raise questions about the actual beneficial effect of GB in natural environments where bacteria are often subjected to various stresses.  (+info)

Bile acids and salts are naturally occurring steroidal compounds that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of lipids (fats) in the body. They are produced in the liver from cholesterol and then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form bile acids, which are subsequently converted into bile salts by the addition of a sodium or potassium ion.

Bile acids and salts are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where they help emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. They also aid in the elimination of waste products from the liver and help regulate cholesterol metabolism.

Abnormalities in bile acid synthesis or transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and diarrhea. Therefore, understanding the role of bile acids and salts in the body is essential for diagnosing and treating these disorders.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

In the context of medicine, "salts" often refers to ionic compounds that are formed when an acid and a base react together. The resulting product of this neutralization reaction is composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions), which combine to form a salt.

Salts can also be formed from the reaction between a weak acid and a strong base, or between a strong acid and a weak base. The resulting salt will have properties that are different from those of the reactants, including its solubility in water, pH, and taste. In some cases, salts can be used for therapeutic purposes, such as potassium chloride (KCl) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), while others may be harmful and pose a risk to human health.

It's important to note that the term "salts" can also refer to organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a single bond between a carbon atom and a halogen atom, such as sodium chloride (NaCl) or potassium iodide (KI). These types of salts are not formed from acid-base reactions but rather through ionic bonding between a metal and a nonmetal.

Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is a bile acid that is naturally produced in the human body. It is formed in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to become a primary bile acid. CDCA is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where it helps to emulsify fats and facilitate their absorption.

CDCA also has important regulatory functions in the body, including acting as a signaling molecule that binds to specific receptors in the liver, intestines, and other tissues. It plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and cell growth and differentiation.

In addition to its natural functions, CDCA is also used as a medication for the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, it is used to dissolve gallstones that are composed of cholesterol, and it is also used to treat a rare genetic disorder called cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), which is characterized by the accumulation of CDCA and other bile acids in various tissues.

It's important to note that while CDCA has therapeutic uses, it can also have adverse effects if taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Cholic acids are a type of bile acid, which are naturally occurring steroid acids that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. Cholic acid is the primary bile acid synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. It is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated cholic acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion to aid in fat emulsification and absorption.

Cholic acid and its derivatives have also been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions, including liver diseases, gallstones, and bacterial infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and potential side effects of cholic acids and their derivatives before they can be widely used as therapeutic agents.

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

Cholic acid is a primary bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. It is produced in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated bile acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion.

Cholic acid helps to emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller droplets that can be absorbed by the body. It also facilitates the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, and K. In addition to its role in digestion, cholic acid is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the excretion of bile acids from the body.

Abnormalities in cholic acid metabolism can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and genetic disorders that affect bile acid synthesis.

Deoxycholic acid is a bile acid, which is a natural molecule produced in the liver and released into the intestine to aid in the digestion of fats. It is also a secondary bile acid, meaning that it is formed from the metabolism of primary bile acids by bacteria in the gut.

Deoxycholic acid has a chemical formula of C~24~H~39~NO~4~ and a molecular weight of 391.57 g/mol. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In the body, deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to help break down dietary fats into smaller droplets, which can then be absorbed by the intestines.

In addition to its role in digestion, deoxycholic acid has been investigated for its potential therapeutic uses. For example, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an injectable treatment for reducing fat in the submental area (the region below the chin), under the brand name Kybella. When injected into this area, deoxycholic acid causes the destruction of fat cells, which are then naturally eliminated from the body over time.

It's important to note that while deoxycholic acid is a natural component of the human body, its therapeutic use can have potential side effects and risks, so it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a secondary bile acid that is produced in the liver by bacterial modification of primary bile acids, specifically chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a steroid acid that plays a role in various physiological processes such as cholesterol metabolism, drug absorption, and gut microbiota regulation. However, high levels of LCA can be toxic to the liver and have been linked to several diseases, including colon cancer and cholestatic liver diseases.

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used medically as a therapeutic agent. It is commonly used to treat gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, and other conditions associated with abnormal liver function, such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). UDCA works by decreasing the amount of cholesterol in bile and protecting liver cells from damage. It is also known as ursodiol or Ursotan.

Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatic cells and is responsible for the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol.

The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to 7α-hydroxycholesterol, which is then further metabolized to form primary bile acids, including cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These bile acids are essential for the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

Additionally, CYP7A1 is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol levels in the body by providing negative feedback to the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver. When cholesterol levels are high, the activity of CYP7A1 increases, leading to an increase in bile acid synthesis and a decrease in cholesterol levels. Conversely, when cholesterol levels are low, the activity of CYP7A1 decreases, reducing bile acid synthesis and allowing cholesterol levels to rise.

Abnormalities in CYP7A1 function have been implicated in several diseases, including gallstones, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of organic anions across biological membranes. The term "sodium-dependent" refers to a specific type of OAT that requires sodium ions (Na+) as a co-transport substrate to move organic anions across the membrane. These transporters play crucial roles in the elimination and distribution of various endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and metabolites. Sodium-dependent OATs are primarily located in the kidneys and liver, where they help maintain homeostasis by regulating the reabsorption and secretion of these substances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glycocholic Acid" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your request.

If you meant "Glycocholic," it's a term that refers to a substance conjugated with glycine, which is an amino acid. This process often occurs in the liver during the metabolism of certain substances, like bile acids.

"Glycocholic" could theoretically refer to a glycine conjugate of a bile acid such as cholic acid, which would make it a derivative called "Glycocholic Acid." However, I couldn't find any specific medical or scientific literature that directly refers to "Glycocholic Acid" as a known compound or concept.

If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

Enterohepatic circulation is the process by which certain substances, such as bile salts, bilirubin, and some drugs, are chemically modified and reabsorbed in the enterohepatic system. This system includes the liver, bile ducts, and small intestine.

In the case of bile salts, they are synthesized in the liver, secreted into the bile, and stored in the gallbladder. After a meal, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion. The bile salts help to emulsify fats, allowing them to be absorbed by the intestines. Once absorbed, they are transported back to the liver through the portal vein, where they can be reused for further bile production.

Similarly, bilirubin, a waste product produced from the breakdown of red blood cells, is also conjugated in the liver and excreted into the bile. In the small intestine, bacteria break down bilirubin into colorless urobilinogen, which can be reabsorbed and transported back to the liver for further processing.

Certain drugs may also undergo enterohepatic circulation, where they are metabolized in the liver, excreted into the bile, and then reabsorbed in the small intestine. This can prolong the duration of drug action and affect its overall effectiveness.

Bile canaliculi are the smallest bile-transporting structures in the liver. They are formed by the close apposition of hepatocyte (liver cell) plasma membranes, and they are responsible for the majority of bile production. The bile canaliculi merge to form bile ductules, which then merge to form larger bile ducts that transport bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a fluid that contains water, electrolytes, bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipids, and bilirubin, which are produced by the liver and play important roles in digestion and elimination of waste products.

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is a bile acid that is conjugated with the amino acid taurine. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. TCDCA, along with other bile acids, is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and transported back to the liver through the enterohepatic circulation. It plays a role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including gallstones, cholestatic liver diseases, and neurological disorders.

Taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) is a bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that is produced in the liver and essential for the digestion and absorption of fats. It is a conjugated bile acid, meaning it is formed from the combination of a deoxycholic acid with a taurine molecule.

TDCA helps to emulsify dietary fats, making them easier to absorb in the small intestine. It also plays a role in the elimination of cholesterol from the body by promoting its conversion into bile acids and excretion through the digestive system.

Abnormal levels of TDCA and other bile acids have been associated with various medical conditions, including liver disease, gallstones, and intestinal disorders. Therefore, measuring the levels of TDCA in blood or other bodily fluids can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Cholestyramine resin is a medication used to treat high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is a type of drug called a bile acid sequestrant, which works by binding to bile acids in the digestive system and preventing them from being reabsorbed into the body. This leads to an increased removal of cholesterol from the body, which can help lower the levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Cholestyramine resin is available as a powder that is mixed with water or other fluids and taken by mouth. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high cholesterol. In addition to its use for lowering cholesterol, cholestyramine resin may also be used to treat itching associated with partial biliary obstruction (blockage of the bile ducts) and to reduce the absorption of certain drugs, such as digitalis and thyroid hormones.

It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking cholestyramine resin, as the medication can interfere with the absorption of other medications and nutrients. It may also cause gastrointestinal side effects, such as constipation, bloating, and gas.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Cholagogues and choleretics are terms used to describe medications or substances that affect bile secretion and flow in the body. Here is a medical definition for each:

1. Cholagogue: A substance that promotes the discharge of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum, often by stimulating the contraction of the gallbladder muscle. This helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Examples include chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and some herbal remedies like dandelion root and milk thistle.
2. Choleretic: A substance that increases the production of bile by the liver or its flow through the biliary system. This can help with the digestion of fats and the elimination of waste products from the body. Examples include certain medications like ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as natural substances such as lemon juice, artichoke extract, and turmeric.

It is important to note that while cholagogues and choleretics can aid in digestion, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overuse may lead to complications like diarrhea or gallstone formation.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Bile reflux is a condition in which bile flows backward from the small intestine into the stomach and sometimes into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, vomiting a greenish-yellow fluid (bile), and abdominal pain. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps to break down fats in the small intestine. Normally, a muscle called the sphincter of Oddi prevents bile from flowing backward into the stomach. However, if this muscle becomes weak or damaged, bile reflux can occur.

Bile reflux is different from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which occurs when stomach acid flows backward into the esophagus. Although both conditions can cause similar symptoms, such as heartburn and regurgitation, they require different treatments. Bile reflux can increase the risk of complications such as inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis), ulcers, and cancer of the esophagus. If left untreated, bile reflux can lead to serious health problems, so it is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms.

Bile pigments are the yellow-brown colored end products of hemoglobin breakdown in the liver. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. When these cells are broken down, heme (the non-protein part of hemoglobin) is converted into biliverdin, which is then converted into bilirubin. Bilirubin is further metabolized and excreted by the liver as a component of bile, a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine.

Under normal conditions, the liver effectively removes and excretes bilirubin from the body through the bile ducts into the small intestine. However, when there is an overproduction of bilirubin or a problem with its elimination, it can accumulate in the blood, leading to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) and other symptoms associated with liver dysfunction.

In summary, bile pigments are the waste products formed during the breakdown of hemoglobin, primarily consisting of bilirubin, which is eliminated from the body via the liver and bile ducts.

Taurine is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body under normal circumstances, but there may be increased requirements during certain periods such as infancy, infection, or illness. Taurine plays important roles in various physiological functions, including bile salt formation, membrane stabilization, neuromodulation, and antioxidation. It is particularly abundant in the brain, heart, retina, and skeletal muscles. In the human body, taurine is synthesized from the amino acids cysteine and methionine with the aid of vitamin B6.

Taurine can also be found in certain foods like meat, fish, and dairy products, as well as in energy drinks, where it is often added as a supplement for its potential performance-enhancing effects. However, there is ongoing debate about the safety and efficacy of taurine supplementation in healthy individuals.

Cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of bile acids and steroids in the body. This enzyme is responsible for adding a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the cholestanetriol molecule at position 26, which is a critical step in the conversion of cholestanetriol to bile acids.

The gene that encodes this enzyme is called CYP3A4, which is located on chromosome 7 in humans. Mutations in this gene can lead to various metabolic disorders, including impaired bile acid synthesis and altered steroid hormone metabolism.

Deficiency or dysfunction of cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase has been associated with several diseases, such as liver disease, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and some forms of cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of this enzyme is essential for developing new therapies and treatments for these conditions.

A symporter is a type of transmembrane protein that functions to transport two or more molecules or ions across a biological membrane in the same direction, simultaneously. This process is called co-transport and it is driven by the concentration gradient of one of the substrates, which is usually an ion such as sodium (Na+) or proton (H+).

Symporters are classified based on the type of energy that drives the transport process. Primary active transporters, such as symporters, use the energy from ATP hydrolysis or from the electrochemical gradient of ions to move substrates against their concentration gradient. In contrast, secondary active transporters use the energy stored in an existing electrochemical gradient of one substrate to drive the transport of another substrate against its own concentration gradient.

Symporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, neurotransmitter reuptake, and ion homeostasis. For example, the sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is a symporter that co-transports glucose and sodium ions across the intestinal epithelium and the renal proximal tubule, contributing to glucose absorption and regulation of blood glucose levels. Similarly, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is a symporter that co-transports dopamine and sodium ions back into presynaptic neurons, terminating the action of dopamine in the synapse.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) is a type of bile acid that is produced in the liver and then conjugated with glycine. Bile acids are formed from cholesterol and play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

GCDCA is a secondary bile acid, which means that it is produced by bacterial metabolism of primary bile acids (such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) in the colon. Once formed, GCDCA is then reabsorbed into the bloodstream and transported back to the liver, where it can be conjugated with glycine or taurine and excreted into bile again.

Abnormal levels of GCDCA and other bile acids have been associated with various health conditions, including cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and colon cancer. Therefore, measuring the levels of these acids in blood, urine, or feces can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Steroid hydroxylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a steroid molecule. These enzymes are located in the endoplasmic reticulum and play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones. The hydroxylation reaction catalyzed by these enzymes increases the polarity and solubility of steroids, allowing them to be further metabolized and excreted from the body.

The most well-known steroid hydroxylases are part of the cytochrome P450 family, specifically CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2. Each enzyme has a specific function in steroid biosynthesis, such as converting cholesterol to pregnenolone (CYP11A1), hydroxylating the 11-beta position of steroids (CYP11B1 and CYP11B2), or performing multiple hydroxylation reactions in the synthesis of sex hormones (CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2).

Defects in these enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by impaired steroid hormone biosynthesis.

Steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of steroids. It is specifically responsible for adding a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the 12th carbon atom of certain steroid molecules. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of bile acids and corticosteroids, including cortisol and aldosterone, which are important hormones produced by the adrenal gland.

The gene that encodes this enzyme is called CYP12A1, and mutations in this gene can lead to various disorders related to steroid metabolism. For example, a deficiency in steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase can result in the accumulation of bile acids that are not properly hydroxylated, which can cause liver damage and cholestatic pruritus (itching). Additionally, impaired cortisol and aldosterone production due to defects in this enzyme can lead to conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and salt-wasting crisis.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical compound that can be mentioned in the context of medical or biological research. TLCA is a bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in digestion and metabolism. Specifically, TLCA is a taurine conjugate of lithocholic acid, meaning it contains a taurine molecule attached to the lithocholic acid molecule.

Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and then released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. TLCA is a secondary bile acid, which means it is formed in the gut by the bacterial metabolism of primary bile acids.

Abnormal levels of TLCA or other bile acids can be associated with various medical conditions, such as liver disease, cholestasis (a condition characterized by reduced bile flow), and intestinal disorders. Therefore, measuring the levels of TLCA and other bile acids in blood, urine, or stool samples can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

Cholestanols are a type of sterol that is similar in structure to cholesterol. They are found in small amounts in the body and can also be found in some foods. Cholestanols are formed when cholesterol undergoes a chemical reaction called isomerization, which changes its structure.

Cholestanols are important because they can accumulate in the body and contribute to the development of certain medical conditions. For example, elevated levels of cholestanols in the blood have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, some genetic disorders can cause an accumulation of cholestanols in various tissues, leading to a range of symptoms such as liver damage, neurological problems, and cataracts.

Medically, cholestanols are often used as markers for the diagnosis and monitoring of certain conditions related to cholesterol metabolism.

Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs when there is a problem with the transport of bile components inside the liver cells (hepatocytes). This can lead to an accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin, and other substances in the liver, which can cause damage to liver cells and result in symptoms such as jaundice, itching, and dark urine.

Intrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including medications, alcohol abuse, hepatitis viruses, autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, and cancer. Depending on the underlying cause, intrahepatic cholestasis can be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Cholestanes are a type of steroid compound that are derived from cholesterol. They are characterized by a fully saturated steroid nucleus, which means that all of the double bonds in the cholesterol molecule have been reduced to single bonds through a process called hydrogenation.

Cholestanes are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of other steroids, such as bile acids and steroid hormones. They can also be found in some natural sources, including certain plants and fungi.

It's worth noting that cholestanes themselves do not have any specific medical significance, but they are important for understanding the biochemistry of steroids and their role in human health and disease.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Sterols are a type of organic compound that is derived from steroids and found in the cell membranes of organisms. In animals, including humans, cholesterol is the most well-known sterol. Sterols help to maintain the structural integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play important roles as precursors for the synthesis of various hormones and other signaling molecules. Phytosterols are plant sterols that have been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects in humans when consumed in sufficient amounts.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

I am not aware of a medical term called "Cholanes." The term may be misspelled or it might refer to a specific concept or substance within a particular context. In general, "chol"-related terms in medicine refer to bile or the biliary system. For example, "chole" means bile and "cholestasis" refers to the stoppage of bile flow. If you have more context or information about where this term is being used, I'd be happy to help you try to decipher it further!

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Cholestanol is a sterol that is similar in structure to cholesterol. It is produced in the body as a byproduct of cholesterol metabolism and can be found in various tissues, including the liver, blood, and nervous system.

Cholestanol is not normally present in large amounts in the body, but elevated levels can indicate the presence of certain genetic disorders or conditions that affect cholesterol metabolism, such as cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). In CTX, mutations in the gene for the enzyme sterol 27-hydroxylase lead to an accumulation of cholestanol and other sterols in various tissues, which can cause a range of symptoms including neurological problems, cataracts, and tendon xanthomas (cholesterol deposits).

Elevated levels of cholestanol can also be found in some other conditions, such as liver disease or bile acid synthesis disorders. Therefore, measuring cholestanol levels in the blood may be useful as a diagnostic tool for these conditions.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Cholestenones are a group of steroid compounds that are derived from cholesterol. They include several biologically important compounds, such as bile acids and their intermediates, which play crucial roles in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Cholestenones are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of various steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.

Cholestenones are characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings, with a double bond between the second and third carbons and a ketone group at the third carbon atom. Some examples of cholestenones include 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is a precursor to vitamin D, and desmosterol, which is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.

It's worth noting that while cholestenones are important biomolecules, they can also accumulate in various tissues and fluids under certain pathological conditions, such as in some inherited metabolic disorders. For example, elevated levels of certain cholestenones in the blood or urine may indicate the presence of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects cholesterol biosynthesis.

Glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, it appears to be a chemical compound that can be formed as a result of the metabolic process in the body. It is a glycine-conjugated bile acid, which means that it is a combination of the bile acid deoxycholic acid and the amino acid glycine.

Bile acids are produced by the liver to help with the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine. They are conjugated, or combined, with amino acids like glycine or taurine before being released into the bile. These conjugated bile acids help to keep the bile acid salts in their soluble form and prevent them from being reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.

Glycodeoxycholic acid may be involved in various physiological processes, but there is limited research on its specific functions or medical significance. If you have any concerns about this compound or its potential impact on your health, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional for more information.

"Eubacterium" is a genus of Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are typically rod-shaped and can be either straight or curved. They play an important role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which are beneficial for host health. Some species of Eubacterium have also been shown to have probiotic properties and may provide health benefits when consumed in appropriate quantities. However, other species can be opportunistic pathogens and cause infections under certain circumstances.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Malabsorption syndromes refer to a group of disorders in which the small intestine is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, leading to various gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms. This can result from a variety of underlying conditions, including:

1. Mucosal damage: Conditions such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or bacterial overgrowth that cause damage to the lining of the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
2. Pancreatic insufficiency: A lack of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas can lead to poor breakdown and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Examples include chronic pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis.
3. Bile acid deficiency: Insufficient bile acids, which are necessary for fat emulsification and absorption, can result in steatorrhea (fatty stools) and malabsorption. This may occur due to liver dysfunction, gallbladder removal, or ileal resection.
4. Motility disorders: Abnormalities in small intestine motility can affect nutrient absorption, as seen in conditions like gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, or scleroderma.
5. Structural abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural defects of the small intestine, such as short bowel syndrome, may lead to malabsorption.
6. Infections: Certain bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections can cause transient malabsorption by damaging the intestinal mucosa or altering gut flora.

Symptoms of malabsorption syndromes may include diarrhea, steatorrhea, bloating, abdominal cramps, weight loss, and nutrient deficiencies. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, radiologic imaging, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is focused on addressing the specific etiology and providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cholates" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in physiology, pathology, or pharmacology. It seems like there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding. If you meant to ask about "cholesterol," I would be happy to help provide information on that.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) that is essential for the normal functioning of our bodies. It plays crucial roles in maintaining cell membrane structure, producing certain hormones, and serving as a precursor for vitamin D and bile acids. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

If you have any questions or need more information about cholesterol or any other medical topic, please feel free to ask!

Selenium radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element selenium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be produced through various nuclear reactions, such as irradiating a stable selenium target with protons or alpha particles. Some examples of selenium radioisotopes include selenium-75, selenium-79, and selenium-81.

Selenium-75 is commonly used in medical imaging to study the function of the thyroid gland, as it accumulates in this gland and can be detected using a gamma camera. Selenium-79 and selenium-81 have potential uses in cancer treatment, as they can be incorporated into compounds that selectively target and destroy cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using these radioisotopes in medical treatments.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires special training and precautions, as they can be dangerous if not handled properly. Exposure to radiation from radioisotopes can increase the risk of cancer and other health problems, so it's essential to use them only under controlled conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is an essential electrolyte in dietary intake. It is a chemical compound made up of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) ions. In a medical context, particularly in nutrition and dietetics, "sodium chloride, dietary" refers to the consumption of this compound in food sources.

Sodium plays a crucial role in various bodily functions such as maintaining fluid balance, assisting nerve impulse transmission, and contributing to muscle contraction. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day and further suggest an ideal limit of no more than 1,500 mg per day for most adults, especially those with high blood pressure. However, the average American consumes more than twice the recommended amount, primarily from processed and prepared foods. Excessive sodium intake can lead to high blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

A salt gland is a type of exocrine gland found in certain animals, including birds and reptiles, that helps regulate the balance of salt and water in their bodies. These glands are capable of excreting a highly concentrated solution of sodium chloride, or salt, which allows these animals to drink seawater and still maintain the proper osmotic balance in their tissues.

In birds, salt glands are typically located near the eyes and are responsible for producing tears that contain high levels of salt. These tears then drain into the nasal passages and are eventually expelled from the body. In reptiles, salt glands can be found in various locations, depending on the species, but they serve the same function of helping to regulate salt and water balance.

It's worth noting that mammals do not have salt glands and must rely on other mechanisms to regulate their salt and water balance, such as through the kidneys and the production of sweat.

Xanthomatosis is a medical term that refers to the condition characterized by the presence of xanthomas, which are yellowish, fat-laden deposits that form under the skin or in other tissues. These deposits consist of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, and immune cells called macrophages, which have engulfed the lipids.

Xanthomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the eyelids, tendons, joints, and other areas with connective tissue. They may appear as small papules or larger nodules, and their size and number can vary depending on the severity of the underlying disorder.

Xanthomatosis is often associated with genetic disorders that affect lipid metabolism, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, or with acquired conditions that cause high levels of lipids in the blood, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and certain liver diseases. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying disorder and controlling lipid levels through dietary changes, medications, or a combination of both.

Allylamine is an organic compound with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-NH2. It is a colorless liquid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Allylamine is used as a building block in the synthesis of various chemical compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers.

In the medical field, allylamine derivatives are used as antifungal agents. These drugs work by inhibiting the enzyme squalene epoxidase, which is necessary for the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. By blocking the production of ergosterol, allylamine derivatives disrupt the integrity of fungal cell membranes and prevent the growth of fungi. Examples of allylamine antifungal drugs include terbinafine and naftifine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cholenes" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in English. It's possible that there may be a spelling mistake or it could be a term specific to a certain language or field of study. If you have more context or information, I'd be happy to help further!

Dehydrocholic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to the field of medicine as a gastrointestinal stimulant and choleretic agent. Here's a brief definition:

Dehydrocholic acid (C~24~H~39~NO~5~) is a bile salt that is formed from cholic acid through the introduction of a double bond between carbons 7 and 8. It is used in medical research and practice as a pharmacological agent to stimulate the production and flow of bile from the liver, which can aid in digestion and absorption of fats. Dehydrocholic acid may also be used in diagnostic tests to assess liver function and biliary tract patency.

It is important to note that dehydrocholic acid is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives for treating gastrointestinal disorders and promoting liver health.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Hydroxylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a molecule, typically a steroid or xenobiotic compound. This process is primarily catalyzed by enzymes called hydroxylases, which are found in various tissues throughout the body.

In the context of medicine and biochemistry, hydroxylation can have several important functions:

1. Drug metabolism: Hydroxylation is a common way that the liver metabolizes drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. By adding a hydroxyl group to a drug molecule, it becomes more polar and water-soluble, which facilitates its excretion from the body.
2. Steroid hormone biosynthesis: Hydroxylation is an essential step in the biosynthesis of many steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve hydroxylation at various steps.
3. Vitamin D activation: Hydroxylation is also necessary for the activation of vitamin D in the body. In order to become biologically active, vitamin D must undergo two successive hydroxylations, first in the liver and then in the kidneys.
4. Toxin degradation: Some toxic compounds can be rendered less harmful through hydroxylation. For example, phenol, a toxic compound found in cigarette smoke and some industrial chemicals, can be converted to a less toxic form through hydroxylation by enzymes in the liver.

Overall, hydroxylation is an important biochemical process that plays a critical role in various physiological functions, including drug metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and toxin degradation.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Sitosterols are a type of plant sterol or phytosterol that are structurally similar to cholesterol, a steroid lipid found in animals. They are found in small amounts in human diets, primarily in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, and avocados. Sitosterols are not synthesized by the human body but can be absorbed from the diet and have been shown to lower cholesterol levels in the blood when consumed in sufficient quantities. This is because sitosterols compete with cholesterol for absorption in the digestive tract, reducing the amount of cholesterol that enters the bloodstream. Some margarines and other foods are fortified with sitosterols or other phytosterols to help reduce cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Extrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile outside of the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption and digestion of fats. When the flow of bile is obstructed or blocked, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, dark urine, light-colored stools, and itching.

Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including gallstones, tumors, strictures, or inflammation of the bile ducts. It is essential to diagnose and treat extrahepatic cholestasis promptly to prevent further complications, such as liver damage or infection. Treatment options may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Sulfuric acid is not a medical term, but instead a chemical compound with the formula H2SO4. It's one of the most important industrial chemicals, being a strong mineral acid with numerous applications.

If you are asking for a definition related to human health or medicine, I can tell you that sulfuric acid has no physiological role in humans. Exposure to sulfuric acid can cause irritation and burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Prolonged exposure may lead to more severe health issues. However, it is not a term typically used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

Glycine is a simple amino acid that plays a crucial role in the body. According to the medical definition, glycine is an essential component for the synthesis of proteins, peptides, and other biologically important compounds. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as the production of creatine, which supports muscle function, and the regulation of neurotransmitters, affecting nerve impulse transmission and brain function. Glycine can be found as a free form in the body and is also present in many dietary proteins.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Intestinal secretions refer to the fluids and electrolytes that are released by the cells lining the small intestine in response to various stimuli. These secretions play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The major components of intestinal secretions include water, electrolytes (such as sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and potassium), and enzymes that help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

The small intestine secretes these substances in response to hormonal signals, neural stimulation, and the presence of food in the lumen of the intestine. The secretion of water and electrolytes helps maintain the proper hydration and pH of the intestinal contents, while the enzymes facilitate the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall.

Abnormalities in intestinal secretions can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea, malabsorption, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of cholesterol in the body. It is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid, which is a key rate-limiting step in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

The reaction catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase is as follows:

HMG-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ → mevalonic acid + CoA + 2 NADP+

This enzyme is the target of statin drugs, which are commonly prescribed to lower cholesterol levels in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Statins work by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, thereby reducing the production of cholesterol in the body.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Psyllium is a type of fiber derived from the seeds of the Plantago ovata plant. It's often used as a bulk-forming laxative to help promote regularity and relieve constipation. When psyllium comes into contact with water, it swells and forms a gel-like substance that helps move waste through the digestive tract. In addition to its laxative effects, psyllium has also been shown to help lower cholesterol levels and control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It's available in various forms such as powder, capsules, and wafers, and can be found in many over-the-counter supplements and medications.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Isoxazoles are not a medical term, but a chemical compound. They are organic compounds containing a five-membered ring consisting of one nitrogen atom, one oxygen atom, and three carbon atoms. Isoxazoles have various applications in the pharmaceutical industry as they can be used to synthesize different drugs. Some isoxazole derivatives have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. However, isoxazoles themselves are not a medical diagnosis or treatment.

Glucuronates are not a medical term per se, but they refer to salts or esters of glucuronic acid, a organic compound that is a derivative of glucose. In the context of medical and biological sciences, glucuronidation is a common detoxification process in which glucuronic acid is conjugated to a wide variety of molecules, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, to make them more water-soluble and facilitate their excretion from the body through urine or bile.

The process of glucuronidation is catalyzed by enzymes called UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. The resulting glucuronides can be excreted directly or further metabolized before excretion.

Therefore, "glucuronates" can refer to the chemical compounds that result from this process of conjugation with glucuronic acid, as well as the therapeutic potential of enhancing or inhibiting glucuronidation for various clinical applications.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

Hydroxysteroids are steroid hormones or steroid compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) as a functional group. These molecules have a steroid nucleus, which is a core structure composed of four fused carbon rings, and one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the rings.

The presence of hydroxyl groups makes hydroxysteroids polar and more soluble in water compared to other steroids. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as metabolism, bile acid synthesis, and steroid hormone regulation. Some examples of hydroxysteroids include certain forms of estrogens, androgens, corticosteroids, and bile acids.

It is important to note that the specific medical definition may vary depending on the context or source.

Salt tolerance, in a medical context, refers to the body's ability to maintain normal physiological functions despite high levels of salt (sodium chloride) in the system. While our kidneys usually regulate sodium levels, certain medical conditions such as some forms of kidney disease or heart failure can impair this process, leading to an accumulation of sodium in the body. Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to better handle higher salt intakes, but generally, a high-salt diet is discouraged due to risks of hypertension and other health issues for most people.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of membrane proteins that utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes. These transporters play crucial roles in several biological processes, including detoxification, drug resistance, nutrient uptake, and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

The structure of ABC transporters consists of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate-translocation pathway. The NBDs are typically located adjacent to each other in the cytoplasm, while the TMDs can be either integral membrane domains or separate structures associated with the membrane.

The human genome encodes 48 distinct ABC transporters, which are classified into seven subfamilies (ABCA-ABCG) based on their sequence similarity and domain organization. Some well-known examples of ABC transporters include P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

Dysregulation or mutations in ABC transporters have been implicated in various diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, neurological disorders, and cancer. In cancer, overexpression of certain ABC transporters can contribute to drug resistance by actively effluxing chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells, making them less susceptible to treatment.

1-Naphthylisothiocyanate (also known as 1-NIT or ANS) is a chemical compound that is used in research and scientific studies. It is an isothiocyanate derivative of 1-naphthol, which means it has a molecular structure containing a naphthalene ring with an isothiocyanate functional group attached to it.

In medical and biological research, 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate has been used as a tool for studying various cellular processes, including the regulation of calcium signaling and the activation of certain enzymes. It can also act as an irritant and may cause respiratory and skin irritation in humans.

It is important to note that 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate is not a drug or medication, and it should only be used under controlled laboratory conditions by trained professionals.

Sulfobromophthalein (BSP or bromsulphthalein) is not typically defined in a medical dictionary as it is a chemical compound. However, I can provide you with some information about its use in a medical context:

Sulfobromophthalein is a chemical compound primarily used for liver function tests. It is a dye that is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and then its clearance rate from the blood is measured to evaluate liver function. A healthy liver should quickly remove the dye from the blood and excrete it through the bile ducts into the digestive system. If the liver is not functioning properly, the clearance of sulfobromophthalein will be slower, leading to higher levels of the dye remaining in the bloodstream over time.

The test using sulfobromophthalein has largely been replaced by more modern and specific liver function tests; however, it was once widely used for assessing overall liver health and diagnosing conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver damage due to various causes.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

... acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Lithocholic acid Bile salts ... These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts. The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, ... Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. Primary bile acids are those ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ...
This gene is primarily expressed in liver and adrenal tissues where the encoded protein sulfonates steroids and bile acids. ... Bile salt sulfotransferase also known as hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (HST) or sulfotransferase 2A1 (ST2A1) is an enzyme ... 1991). "Human liver steroid sulphotransferase sulphates bile acids". Biochem. J. 272 (3): 597-604. doi:10.1042/bj2720597. PMC ...
... bile acid reconjugation involves the addition of amino acids to an unconjugated bile acid. Additionally, microbial bile acid ... Bile salt hydrolases (BSH) are microbial enzymes that deconjugate primary bile acids. They catalyze the first step of bile acid ... which regulates bile acid synthesis and transport. Upon activation, FXR can repress bile acid synthesis and alter the bile acid ... One consequence of bile acid metabolism is the variety of effects on the host. In the case of BSHs, deconjugated bile acids can ...
Ursodeoxycholic acid, a bile salt, has been used; however, there is insufficient data to show if it is effective. It is ... Bile secreted by the liver to aid in digestion may block the bile ducts, leading to liver damage. Impaired digestion or ... Children with cystic fibrosis lose excessive salt in their sweat, and parents often notice salt crystallizing on the skin, or a ... This lost salt forms the basis for the sweat test. Most of the damage in CF is due to blockage of the narrow passages of ...
"Unsaturated bile acids. III. Relations of apocholic acid, dihydroxycholenic acid (m. 260) and cholic acid to desoxycholic acid ... The salts and esters of apocholic acid are known as apocholates.[citation needed] Apocholate citrate agar ,ALDRICH&N5=SEARCH_ ... Apocholic acid is an unsaturated bile acid first characterized in the 1920s. It has questionable carcinogenic activity as ... 5-beta-Chol-8(14)-en-24-oic acid, 3-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-, sodium salt at environmentalchemistry.com (All articles with ...
These include chelating agents, cyclodextrins, surfactants, bile acids and salts, and crown ethers. There are also reports on ... Cyclodextrins, chitosan, some surfactants, bile acids and salts, sodium tauro-24,25-dihydro-fusidate, and phospholipids were ... Permeation enhancers that have been used successfully for oral drug development include medium-chain fatty acids like caprylic ... acid or caprate, or its amino acid ester like Salcaprozate sodium (SNAC). The above-mentioned permeation/penetration enhancers ...
Bile salt diarrhea can also be a side-effect of gallbladder removal. Bile acid sequestrants are the principal therapy for bile ... Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester ... with appropriate intervals between dosing of the vitamins and bile acid sequestrants. In addition to bile acids, bile acid ... Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the ...
These salts are formed in the hepatocytes from bile acids combined with an amino acid. Other compounds such as the waste ... Bile is formed of three elements: bile salts, bilirubin and cholesterol. Bilirubin is a waste product of the breakdown of ... The bile salt component is an active non-enzymatic substance that facilitates fat absorption by helping it to form an emulsion ... Bile is secreted into the duodenum of the small intestine via the common bile duct. It is produced in liver cells and stored in ...
... is a crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. It occurs as a sodium salt in the bile of mammals. It is a ... Taurocholic acid "Glycocholic Acid". MeSH. v t e (Articles without KEGG source, ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, Articles ... Bile acids, Cholanes, All stub articles, Steroid stubs). ... conjugate of cholic acid with glycine. Its anion is called ...
... bile salt hydrolase, and choloyltaurine hydrolase. This enzyme participates in bile acid biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 4 ... Rossocha M, Schultz-Heienbrok R, von Moeller H, Coleman JP, Saenger W (2005). "Conjugated bile acid hydrolase is a tetrameric N ... Coleman JP, Hudson LL (1995). "Cloning and characterization of a conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from Clostridium ... Stellwag EJ, Hylemon PB (1976). "Purification and characterization of bile salt hydrolase from Bacteroides fragilis subsp. ...
It has also been called bile acid-induced diarrhea, cholerheic or choleretic enteropathy, bile salt diarrhea or bile salt ... Primary bile acid diarrhea (Type 2 bile acid "malabsorption") may be caused by an overproduction of bile acids. Several groups ... a bile acid precursor, in serum, shows the increased bile acid synthesis found in bile acid malabsorption. This test is an ... Bile acids (also called bile salts) are produced in the liver, secreted into the biliary system, stored in the gallbladder and ...
Anwer MS, Stieger B (2014). "Sodium-dependent bile salt transporters of the SLC10A transporter family: more than solute ... Dawson PA (2011). "Role of the intestinal bile acid transporters in bile acid and drug disposition". Drug Transporters. ... It is involved in the uptake of all types of bile acids from portal blood plasma, a process mediated by the co-transport of Na+ ... It is found on the brush border membrane and is also known as the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT). It is responsible for the ...
B. longum also has bile salt hydrolases to hydrolyze bile salts into amino acids and bile acids. The function of this is not ... longum could use the amino acids products to better tolerate bile salts. A number of cases of B. longum infection have been ... Some strains of B. longum were found to have high tolerance for gastric acid and bile, suggesting that these strains would be ... Tanaka, H.; Hashiba, H.; Kok, J.; Mierau, I. (2000). "Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum-biochemical and genetic ...
2007). "The G-protein coupled bile salt receptor TGR5 is expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells". Hepatology. 45 (3): ... This protein functions as a cell surface receptor for bile acids. Treatment of cells expressing this GPCR with bile acids ... 2007). "Involvement of membrane-type bile acid receptor M-BAR/TGR5 in bile acid-induced activation of epidermal growth factor ... "Bile Acid Receptor". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
Bile produced by the liver is made up of water (97%), bile salts, mucus and pigments, 1% fats and inorganic salts. Bilirubin is ... This also contains villi and vitamin B12; bile acids and any residue nutrients are absorbed here. When the chyme is exhausted ... Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to ... so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct. The gallbladder needs to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all ...
Furthermore, a bile acid-picolinic acid conjugate can form gels in solvents that are 30%-50% organic. The increased water ... Oxalic acid dihydrate is another important ligand, that easily forms stable structures when copper salts are added, which can ... "Stimuli-responsive Bile Acid-based Metallogels Forming in Aqueous Media." Steroids 97 (2015): 54-61. Web. 1 Mar. 2016. (10) ... As an example of a chemo-response, adding a small amount of formic acid to Zn/Eu will cause the breakdown of gel-like material ...
... is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholic acid and glycine, usually found as the ... Bile acids, Cholanes, All stub articles, Steroid stubs). ... Nucleic Acids Res. 39 (Database issue): D1035-41. doi:10.1093/ ... Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (Database issue): D901-6. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm958. PMC 2238889. PMID 18048412. v t e (Articles ... sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption.[citation needed] Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, ...
It occurs as a sodium salt in the bile of mammals. It is a conjugate of cholic acid with taurine. In medical use, it is ... Hydrolysis of taurocholic acid yields taurine. For commercial use, taurocholic acid is manufactured from cattle bile, a ... Deoxycholic acid Anwer, M. Sawkat (2004). "Cellular regulation of hepatic bile acid transport in health and cholestasis". ... known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline bile acid involved ...
Phosphatidylcholines are excreted into bile and work together with bile acid salts as surfactants in it, thus helping with the ... Certain choline salts are used to supplement chicken, turkey and some other animal feeds. Some salts are also used as ... Other commercially used salts include tricholine citrate and choline bicarbonate. Hundreds of choline antagonists and enzyme ... In 1849, Adolph Strecker was the first to isolate choline from pig bile. In 1852, L. Babo and M. Hirschbrunn extracted choline ...
Bile acid malabsorption may also be a risk. Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not ... The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from ... Medical therapy with oral bile acids has been used to treat small cholesterol stones, and for larger cholesterol gallstones ... Hofmann AF (September 1989). "Medical dissolution of gallstones by oral bile acid therapy". American Journal of Surgery. 158 (3 ...
... most of the bile acids are ionized and mostly occur as their sodium salts which are then called "primary conjugated bile salts ... Bacteria deconjugate some of the primary and secondary conjugated bile salts back to lipid-soluble bile acids, which are ... Finally, the conjugated bile acids which remained un-ionized conjugated bile acids are passively absorbed. Venous blood from ... Hepatocytes metabolize cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These lipid-soluble bile acids are conjugated ( ...
Bile salt breath test (14C-glycocholate) to determine bile salt malabsorption. Schilling test to establish cause of B12 ... Cholestyramine or other bile acid sequestrants will help with reducing diarrhoea in bile acid malabsorption. Fructose ... In addition, unabsorbed fatty acids, converted to hydroxy-fatty acids by colonic flora, as well as unabsorbed bile acids both ... 75SeHCAT test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption in ileal disease or primary bile acid diarrhea. Glucose hydrogen breath test ...
Thumser AE, Wilton DC (December 1996). "The binding of cholesterol and bile salts to recombinant rat liver fatty acid-binding ... FABP1 is unique in the wider range of other hydrophobic ligands it can bind including bilirubin, monoglycerides, bile acids and ... "Decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation and altered fatty acid uptake in mice with deletion of the liver fatty acid-binding ... "Binding of fatty acids and peroxisome proliferators to orthologous fatty acid binding proteins from human, murine, and bovine ...
... on the properties of bile salts (over 700), and the mechanisms whereby bile acids produce secretion in the colon (over 500). ... His early studies on the role of bile acids in the formation of micelles, the structure of the mixed micelle, and bile acid ... "The function of bile salts in fat absorption. The solvent properties of dilute micellar solutions of conjugated bile salts". ... Hofmann AF (June 1961). "Micellar solubilization of fatty acids and monoglycerides by bile salt solutions". Nature. 190 (4781 ...
Recently thermospray was also utilized for the production of semiconductor nanocrystals, analysis of bile acids, identification ... diquaternary ammonium salts, pesticides, drugs, dyes, and environmental pollutants can be analyzed using thermospray. ... a new and highly specific technique for the analysis of bile acids". Journal of Lipid Research. 30 (9): 1459-1469. ISSN 0022- ... The second type of ionization is an acid-base transfer such that solvent ions exchange a proton with ionic components of a ...
Mutations in EPHX1 have been linked with preeclampsia, elevated blood levels of bile salts (i.e. hypercholanemia), Fetal ... Ananthanarayanan M, von Dippe P, Levy D (1988). "Identification of the hepatocyte Na+-dependent bile acid transport protein ... EPHX1 mediates the sodium-dependent transport of bile acids into hepatocytes. Androstene oxide and epoxyestratrienol have been ... and cerebral metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids was suggested. Modulation of metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by ...
Carey MC, Small DM (October 1972). "Micelle formation by bile salts. Physical-chemical and thermodynamic considerations". ... Taurochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid formed in the liver of most species, including humans, by conjugation of ... Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, an epimer See article about Taurodeoxycholic acid as an interferent in Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid ... Bile acids, Sulfonic acids, Carboxamides, Diols, Cholanes, All stub articles, Steroid stubs). ...
It absorbs mainly vitamin B12 and bile acids, as well as any other remaining nutrients. The large intestine, also called the ... Its main function is to absorb water and salts. The colon is further divided into: Cecum (first portion of the colon) and ... Products of digestion (sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids) are absorbed into the bloodstream here. Ileum: The final section ... Other factors in the GI tract contribution to immune function include enzymes secreted in the saliva and bile. Beneficial ...
... and bile acids. By targeting genes these receptors help control sugar, salt, calcium, cholesterol, and fat metabolism. They are ...
Haslewood, GA (June 1971). "Bile salts of germ-free domestic fowl and pigs". The Biochemical Journal. 123 (1): 15-8. doi: ... Hyocholic acid or 3α,6α,7α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a bile acid found as one of the main forms in pig, and at low ... Hyocholic acid differs from the primary bile acids found in humans by having a third hydroxyl group in the α-conformation at ... Bacterial 7α-dehydroxylation in the colon produces the secondary bile acid, hyodeoxycholic acid. Epimerization of the 7- ...
Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis. ... Gallbladder mucocele is a disease whereby the gallbladder becomes extended with bile and mucous, which can lead to the blockage ... Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine. Kidney ... There is more familiarity with the glucocortcoids, such as cortisol; mineralocorticoids control the amount of potassium, salt ...
Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis. Dogs ... Bilious vomiting syndrome in dogs is vomiting in response to bile-induced inflammation of the stomach. It is also known as ...
... acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Lithocholic acid Bile salts ... These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts. The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, ... Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. Primary bile acids are those ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ...
Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ... Bile acids (also called bile salts). *Bilirubin (a breakdown product or red blood cells) ... Bile helps with digestion. It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. ... Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ...
Bile acids are important liver products, and their levels are tightly regulated. Here, we identify a role for nuclear receptor- ... Bile Acids and Salts / administration & dosage * Bile Acids and Salts / blood * Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism* ... Here, we identify a role for nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling in normal liver regeneration. Elevated bile acid ... as does the absence of the primary nuclear bile acid receptor FXR. We propose that FXR activation by increased bile acid flux ...
Bile Acids and Salts Grants and funding * R01 DK125820/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States ... Thus, other regions of the gut, particularly the ileum, the nexus for incretin and bile acid signaling, may play an important ... Keywords: 16S; CP: Microbiology; FXR; RNA-seq; bile acids; incretins; lumen; microbiota; small intestine. ... and alters the ileal bile acid pool and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling, which could explain how TRF exerts its metabolic ...
In turn, this stimulates the liver to produce more bile acids, which uses more cholesterol. ... The bile acid sequestrants bind to these acids, reducing their supply. ... What are the benefits of bile salts?. Bile salts help with the digestion of fats in our bodies. They also help us to absorb fat ... How do bile acid resins work?. How do bile acid sequestrants work? Bile acid sequestrants bind bile acids in the intestine and ...
Bile salts in bile dissolve the unilamellar vesicles to form soluble aggregates called mixed micelles. This happens mainly in ... Ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of gallstones in patients subjected to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass1. Acta Cir Bras. 2019 ... relative to lecithin and bile salts, and (2) the degree of concentration and the extent of stasis of bile in the gallbladder. ... Crohn disease, ileal resection, or other diseases of the ileum decrease bile salt reabsorption and increase the risk of ...
Bile Acids and Salts. Campbell Y, Fantacone ML, Gombart AF. 2012. Regulation of antimicrobial peptide gene expression by ...
Keywords: Humans; Child; Adult; Infant, Newborn; Bile Acids and Salts; Cholic Acid; Liver Diseases; Cholestasis; Health ... called primary bile acids, such as cholic acid. When these primary bile acids are lacking, the body produces abnormal bile ... This makes the liver unable to produce enough of the main components of bile such as cholic acid. BASD are responsible for 1-2 ... 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase or Δ4-3-oxosteroid-5β-reductase deficiencies are part of are a group of Bile Acid ...
This side effect is called bile acid malabsorption. Leftover bile salts trigger your colon to secrete water, causing chronic ... Bile acid malabsorption. Sometimes fat malabsorption results from a lack of bile from diseases of the gallbladder, bile ducts ... If you have bile acid malabsorption, you may need bile acid sequestrants (food additive) to help prevent diarrhea. ... But sometimes it results from another problem, leaving leftover bile acids in your small intestine and passing these on to your ...
Taurocholic acid sodium salt. 12.96. Y=-68.605+4988.1x. 0.999233726. T-α-MCA. Tauro-α-muricholic acid sodium salt. 7.391. Y= ... primary bile acids are converted to secondary bile acids through microbial metabolism, and secondary bile acids are positively ... Taurolithocholic acid sodium salt. 24.44. Y=-496.67+12631x. 0.998144375. TDCA. Taurodeoxycholic acid sodium salt. 18.92. Y= ... 5: (A and B): Unconjugated Bile Acids of SD rats fed with CAP in fiber diet; (C): Conjugated Bile Acids of SD rats fed with CAP ...
bile salt export pump. CA. cholic acid. CAR. constitutive androstane receptor. CDCA. chenodeoxycholic acid. CYP27A1. sterol 27- ... apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. BA. bile acid. BDE-47. 2,29,4,49-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. BDE-99. 2,29,4,49,5- ... Research ArticleSpecial Section on Bile Acids, Drug Metabolism, and Toxicity. Xenobiotics Modulate Bile Acids and FXR Pathway. ... Research ArticleSpecial Section on Bile Acids, Drug Metabolism, and Toxicity. Xenobiotics Modulate Bile Acids and FXR Pathway. ...
Urine is acidified and bile acids are extracted on an Amberlite XAD-2 column. Bile salts are converted to acids on an Amberlyst ... Analysis of metabolic profiles of bile acids in urine using a lipophilic anion exchanger and computerized gas-liquid ... A method is described for quantitative analysis of bile acids in urine. ... Sulfur amino acid metabolism has been receiving increased attention because of the link to chronic diseases such as ...
Bile acids regulate cholesterol metabolism. Accordingly, the authors found MMKD-specific associations between bile salt ... containing microbes and some bile acids. However, they did not observe diet-specific associations between broader bile acid ... Bile acids are responsible for cholesterol elimination in the brain, accumulation of which could lead to hepatic encephalopathy ... Thus, an individuals diets fat content or cognitive status most likely had no effect on the bile acid categories, e.g., ...
Bile Acid Sequestrants. Class Summary. Bile acid sequestrants bind C difficile toxin and other proteins. Although not as ... inhibits the enterohepatic reuptake of intestinal bile salts. ... This agent forms a nonabsorbable complex with bile acids in the ... the advantage of bile acid sequestrant therapy is that it does not alter the gut microflora. ... Lactic acid production by Streptococcus thermophilus alters Clostridium difficile infection and in vitro Toxin A production. ...
Understanding Bile Acids. Bile acids belong to a diverse family of bile salts, characterised by their planar and amphipathic ... Bile Acid Deficiency. TBA deficiency is caused by a genetic error in one of the 17 enzymes that produce bile acids. Deficiency ... Importance of Bile Acids in Metabolism. Bile acids serve multiple functions in our bodies. Firstly, they emulsify dietary fats ... One key receptor associated with bile acid metabolism is the Farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Activation of FXR regulates bile acid ...
Increased urination assists in the elimination of toxins like uric acid, bile and excess salts and helps relieve fluid ... To relive a sore throat: Add a drop of bitter orange essential oil to warm salt water and gargle.. Other Orange Essential Oil ...
Serum metabolic profiling of targeted bile acids reveals potentially novel biomarkers for primary biliary cholangitis and ... Billington D, Evans CE, Godfrey PP, Coleman R. Effects of bile salts on the plasma membranes of isolated rat hepatocytes. ... CA: Cholic acid; CDCA: Chenodeoxycholic acid; DCA: Deoxycholic acid; TCA: Taurocholic acid; GCA: Glycocholic acid; TDCA: ... CA: Cholic acid; CDCA: Chenodeoxycholic acid; DCA: Deoxycholic acid; GCA: Glycocholic acid; GCDCA: Glycochenodeoxycholic acid; ...
... bile salt hydrolase, is commonly made by gut bacteria and functions to change the chemical properties of bile acids in the gut ... The team led by Dr Cormac Gahan and Dr Susan Joyce has analysed a bacterial protein that modifies bile acids (a major component ... "Recent work by other groups has shown that bile acids act as signalling molecules in the host, almost like a hormonal network, ... "Regulation of host weight gain and lipid metabolism by bacterial bile acid modification in the gut" www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/ ...
Bile salts (bile acids) are the major organic component in bile. The liver uses active transport to secrete bile salts into the ... bile salts draw other bile components (particularly sodium and water) into the canaliculus by osmosis. Bile salts are also ... Bile salts are poorly absorbed by passive diffusion in the proximal small bowel; most intestinal bile salts reach the terminal ... of bile salts into the portal venous circulation. Returned to the liver, bile salts are efficiently extracted, promptly ...
Serum unconjugated cholic acid (SUCA)11 Serum total unconjugated bile acids are increased in human patients with small ... Conjugated BAs are secreted into the duodenum and deconjugated by bile salt hydrolase-producing bacteria. Unconjugated BAs are ... Serum unconjugated bile acids as a test for intestinal bacterial overgrowth in dogs. Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45:407-414. ... Most bacterial species involved in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth produce bile salt hydrolase. Thus the concentration of ...
The phylogenetically oldest and best documented function of taurine is conjugation with bile acids in bile salt synthesis [2, 3 ... Conjugation of Bile Acids in Patients with Hypothyroidism (Bile Acids and Steroids, 105. Journal of Atherosclerosis Research. ... In dog and rat bile acids are entirely conjugated to taurine, whereas rabbits have all their bile acids conjugated to glycine. ... acids.. fatty. acids.. dietary. fibre.. in. edible.. seaweed. products.. Food Chemistry. 3. 103. 891. 839. 2007. ...
Ileal protein which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion. Seems to be able to bind to bile salts and bilirubins. ... Fang C, Dean J, Smith JW: A novel variant of ileal bile acid binding protein is up-regulated through nuclear factor-kappaB ... Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ... Isoform 2 is essential for the survival of colon cancer cells to bile acid-induced apoptosis. ...
Bile acid transport inhibitors. *Avoid use of strong bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibitors (eg, cyclosporine) ... Taurursodiol is a bile acid *May increase risk of worsening diarrhea in patients with disorders that interfere with bile acid ... Bile acid sequestering agents. *Avoid use; consider alternative cholesterol lowering agents. *Bile acid sequestering agents (eg ... that inhibit canalicular membrane bile acid transporters such as BSEP may exacerbate accumulation of conjugated bile salts in ...
The result is that they are gallstones containing cholesterol and bile acids and salts. ... After having discovered a gallstone of 11 mm, I tried your method with Epsom salts and various herbs prescribed to me by you. I ... I started treatment straight away and after 2 liver cleanses I brought some bile stones to my doctor. He laughed in my face ... This time I personally brought the bile stones directly to the "Bio-analytic Center" of Porza to have them analysed. ...
... which may have a protective effect on the liver by reducing the absorption of other potentially toxic bile salts. ... The dose for ursodeoxycholic acid is determined by your body weight. Your doctor should tell you how much ursodeoxycholic acid ... The name of your medicine is APO-Ursodeoxycholic Acid Capsules. It contains the active ingredient ursodeoxycholic acid. ... If you think you, or your child, is having an allergic reaction to ursodeoxycholic acid, do not take any more of this medicine ...
... which results in decreased reuptake of bile salts, as observed by a decrease in serum bile acids [see Clinical Pharmacology ( ... For patients taking bile acid binding resins, take BYLVAY at least 4 hours before or 4 hours after taking a bile acid binding ... 7.1 Bile Acid Binding Resins. Administer bile acid binding resins (e.g., cholestyramine, colesevelam, or colestipol) at least 4 ... Odevixibat is a reversible inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT). It decreases the reabsorption of bile acids ( ...
It is room-temperature stable and highly resistant to the action of heat, gastric acid and bile. In addition, L. acidophilus ... Contains no added milk or dairy, sugar, salt, starch, wheat, gluten, soy, artificial colors or preservatives. ... It is room-temperature stable and highly resistant to the action of heat, gastric acid and bile. In addition, L. acidophilus ... Contains no added milk, dairy, sugar, salt, starch, wheat, gluten, soy, artificial colors or preservatives. ...
An increased duodenal acid load may precipitate and wash out the bile salts, which normally inhibit the growth of H pylori. ... Both lysolecithin and bile acids can disrupt the gastric mucous barrier, allowing the back diffusion of positive hydrogen ions ... Although bile reflux may occur in the intact stomach, most of the features associated with bile reflux are typically found in ... Pancreatic juice enhances epithelial injury in addition to bile acids. In contrast to other chronic gastropathies, minimal ...
Bile Acids and Salts/pharmacology. *Boron Compounds/metabolism. *Cholesterol/metabolism. *Digestive System/drug effects ...
Levels of total bile acid (TBA), ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and SP-A were determined and the lungs of fetal rats were analyzed for ... To determine the correlation between maternal bile acid (BA) level and fetal pulmonary surfactant in rats and study the effects ... D. G. Oelberg, S. A. Downey, and M. M. Flynn, "Bile salt-induced intracellular Ca++ accumulation in type II pneumocytes," Lung ... Group A (high dose group) was injected with 5.5 mg/kg bile acid. Group B (low dose group) was injected with 1.4 mg/kg bile acid ...
  • About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system and gallbladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Should I take bile salts after gallbladder removal? (moviecultists.com)
  • Finally, it is important to supplement with bile salts , especially considering it is a subject that is rarely discussed, especially after one has had a gallbladder removed. (moviecultists.com)
  • Sometimes fat malabsorption results from a lack of bile from diseases of the gallbladder, bile ducts or liver. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • During fasting, about 75% of the bile secreted passes from the common hepatic duct into the gallbladder via the cystic duct. (merckmanuals.com)
  • During fasting, the gallbladder absorbs up to 90% of bile water, concentrating and storing bile. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Bile empties from the gallbladder into the common bile duct. (merckmanuals.com)
  • This study aimed to detect the presence of Helicobacter in gallstone, gallbladder tissue and bile specimens from subjects with H. pylori-positive gastritis with cholelithiasis. (who.int)
  • DNA was extracted from gallbladder, bile and gallstone samples from 50 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. (who.int)
  • Helicobacter DNA was detected in the gallbladder tissue and bile of 28% and 18% respectively of the patients, but was not detected in any of the gallstones. (who.int)
  • Bile acids comprise about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans) via cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cholesterol in a multi-step process. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is down-regulated by cholic acid, up-regulated by cholesterol and is inhibited by the actions of the ileal hormone FGF15/19. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthesis of bile acids is a major route of cholesterol metabolism in most species other than humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body produces about 800 mg of cholesterol per day and about half of that is used for bile acid synthesis producing 400-600 mg daily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acids have other functions, including eliminating cholesterol from the body, driving the flow of bile to eliminate certain catabolites (including bilirubin), emulsifying fat-soluble vitamins to enable their absorption, and aiding in motility and the reduction of the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • In turn, this stimulates the liver to produce more bile acids, which uses more cholesterol. (moviecultists.com)
  • Does bile acid sequestrants lower cholesterol? (moviecultists.com)
  • Bile acid sequestrants are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . (moviecultists.com)
  • How does bile affect cholesterol? (moviecultists.com)
  • Bile acid breaks down cholesterol , so bile acid sequestrants, or separators, just help these acids along. (moviecultists.com)
  • The sequestrants take cholesterol-containing bile acids and form them into an insoluble complex - meaning it can't be dissolved in the body - which then leaves your body through your stool. (moviecultists.com)
  • Bile acid resins are substances that bind in the intestines with bile acids that contain cholesterol and are then eliminated in the stool. (moviecultists.com)
  • The major effect of bile acid resins is to lower LDL-cholesterol by about 10 to 20 percent . (moviecultists.com)
  • Bile acids are responsible for cholesterol elimination in the brain, accumulation of which could lead to hepatic encephalopathy, a liver disease that increases the risk of developing AD. (news-medical.net)
  • Bile is isosmotic with plasma and consists primarily of water and electrolytes but also organic compounds: bile salts, phospholipids (mostly lecithin), cholesterol, bilirubin, and other endogenously produced or ingested compounds, such as proteins that regulate gastrointestinal function and drugs or their metabolites. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Bile salts are also biologic detergents that enable the body to excrete cholesterol and potentially toxic compounds (eg, bilirubin, drug metabolites). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes their liver unable to produce enough of the main components of bile, called primary bile acids, such as cholic acid. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • When these primary bile acids are lacking, the body produces abnormal bile acids instead which can damage the liver, potentially leading to life-threatening liver failure. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • These pathways produce primary bile acids, which are further modified to generate secondary and tertiary bile acids 2 . (randox.com)
  • One key receptor associated with bile acid metabolism is the Farnesoid X receptor (FXR). (randox.com)
  • Recent work by other groups has shown that bile acids act as signalling molecules in the host, almost like a hormonal network, with an ability to influence host metabolism. (ucc.ie)
  • Hepatocytes (liver parenchymal cells) perform the liver's metabolic functions: Formation and excretion of bile as a component of bilirubin metabolism. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Additionally, bile acids are crucial for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. These vitamins are incorporated into micelles, facilitated by the presence of bile acids, enabling their uptake 3 . (randox.com)
  • The bile acid sequestrants bind to these acids, reducing their supply. (moviecultists.com)
  • Bile acid sequestrants (cholestyramine or colestipol) raise triglyceride levels and are not appropriate therapy for hypertriglyceridemia. (moviecultists.com)
  • What is the most common side effect of bile acid sequestrants? (moviecultists.com)
  • Since bile acid sequestrants are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, they have limited systemic side effects. (moviecultists.com)
  • How do Bile Acid Sequestrants Work? (moviecultists.com)
  • Therefore, our data show that when treatment with bile acid sequestrants causes an increase in plasma VLDL-TG, the increase is due to an increment in production and not to a decrease in catabolism. (moviecultists.com)
  • Bile acid sequestrants bind bile acids in the intestine and increase the excretion of bile acids in the stool . (moviecultists.com)
  • Chemical or reactive gastritis is caused by injury to the gastric mucosa resulting from reflux of bile and pancreatic secretions into the stomach, but it can also be caused by exogenous substances, including NSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid, chemotherapeutic agents, and alcohol. (medscape.com)
  • As molecules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, conjugated bile salts sit at the lipid/water interface and, above the right concentration, form micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illustration of the conformation of bile acids around a central lipid, forming a micelle. (randox.com)
  • Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. (hmdb.ca)
  • The added solubility of conjugated bile salts aids in their function by preventing passive re-absorption in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid-containing micelles aid lipases to digest lipids and bring them near the intestinal brush border membrane, which results in fat absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties allow bile acids to emulsify and solubilize lipids, facilitating their digestion and absorption 1 . (randox.com)
  • The function of bile salts in the duodenum is to solubilize ingested fat and fat-soluble vitamins, facilitating their digestion and absorption. (merckmanuals.com)
  • In contrast, in SIBO microorganisms in the small intestine synthesize folic acid, which can lead to an increase in folate absorption and in turn to an increased serum folate concentration. (vin.com)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid, which may have a protective effect on the liver by reducing the absorption of other potentially toxic bile salts. (mydr.com.au)
  • Since therapy with colestyramin, antihistaminics, naloxon and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) did not improve symptoms, we decided to perform plasma absorption and to start rifampicin therapy. (elsevier.es)
  • In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid) are the major bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The salts of their 7-alpha-dehydroxylated derivatives, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, are also found, with derivatives of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids accounting for over 90% of human biliary bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results showed that the addition of capsaicin further decreased the fasting blood glucose and insulin, and increased beta-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and 3 beta-ursodeoxycholic acid when compared to only high fiber diet. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Subsequent enzymatic reactions catalyzed by sterol 12 α -hydroxylase (CYP8B1) and sterol 27-hyroxylase (CYP27A1), respectively, yield the primary BAs, cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is a multifactorial disorder characterised by elevated levels of bile acids in the blood, particularly chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) 4 . (randox.com)
  • For example, chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids are cytotoxic and have detergent effects. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro experiments showed that chenodeoxycholic acids could also disrupt cellular membranes in the alveoli, increasing cationic permeability and intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, leading to overloading of Ca 2+ in cells, and causing injury to type II pneumonocyte [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The bacteria break them down into gasses and short-chain fatty acids. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The gasses cause intestinal gas, and the short-chain fatty acids cause fatty stools. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Plasma parameters, gut microbiota, bile acid and short-chain fatty acids were analyzed to detect the improved effects and possible mechanisms. (ijpsonline.com)
  • and increased the short-chain fatty acids, especially acetic acid and butyric acid. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Results from our study indicated that the addition of capsaicin have better effects to reduce the weight, insulin and fasting blood glucose, and the possibly mechanism can be due to the changes in bile acid composition, microbial abundance and shortchain fatty acids. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In addition, dietary fiber can be fermented by gut microbes into Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs), which have beneficial effects on the gut barrier and can mitigate obesity by regulating the endocrine activity[ 8 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • People with diabetes, low thyroid activity, and those who use a lot of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) without antioxidants such as vitamin E have lowered ability to convert beta-carotene to A. Assimilation of vitamin A and the carotenes is helped by the presence of bile salts and fatty acids in the intestine. (healthy.net)
  • If TGs remain elevated or are increasing after secondary factors are addressed, then clinicians are advised to further reduce TGs with a very low-fat diet, avoidance of refined carbohydrates and alcohol, consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and consideration of fibrate therapy if concern for acute pancreatitis. (acc.org)
  • Fermented Cod Liver Oil is an excellent source of Vitamin D and Vitamin A, and also a decent source of Omega 3 fatty acids. (foodrenegade.com)
  • Orphacol® is a medicine containing cholic acid, a substance found in the bile, which is used to digest fats. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Administration of 0.05 g/kg capsaicin showed the highest of tauro-alpha-muricholic acid sodium salt and tauro-beta-muricholic acid sodium salt and 0.1 g/kg capsaicin resulted in the highest of lithocholic acid, cholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. (nih.gov)
  • This leaflet answers some common questions about ursodeoxycholic acid. (mydr.com.au)
  • The name of your medicine is APO-Ursodeoxycholic Acid Capsules. (mydr.com.au)
  • It contains the active ingredient ursodeoxycholic acid. (mydr.com.au)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid may affect your developing baby if you take it during pregnancy. (mydr.com.au)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid may pass into human breast milk. (mydr.com.au)
  • Some medicines may interact with ursodeoxycholic acid. (mydr.com.au)
  • Other medicines not listed above may also interact with ursodeoxycholic acid. (mydr.com.au)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid has been shown to improve survival free of transplantation in a conclusive fashion. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Corticosteroid therapy and ursodeoxycholic acid have been evaluated in a few patients with autoimmune cholangitis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid enriches intestinal bile salt hydrolase-expressing Bacteroidetes in cholestatic pregnancy. (bvsalud.org)
  • In patients with chronic cholestatic conditions and bile duct patency, ursodeoxycholic acid (ie, ursodiol, UDCA) has also been shown to enhance bile flow. (medscape.com)
  • Choledocholithiasis refers to the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct (CBD). (medscape.com)
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showing 5 gallstones in the common bile duct (arrows). (medscape.com)
  • Similar images can be obtained by taking plain radiographs after injection of radiocontrast material in the common bile duct, either endoscopically (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) or percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance (percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography), but these approaches are more invasive. (medscape.com)
  • The rest flows directly into the common bile duct (formed by the junction of the common hepatic and cystic ducts) into the duodenum. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The common bile duct joins with the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater, which empties into the duodenum. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Before joining the pancreatic duct, the common bile duct tapers to a diameter of ≤ 0.6 cm. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The sphincter of Oddi, which surrounds both the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct, includes a sphincter for each duct. (merckmanuals.com)
  • bs to hepatic and common bile duct? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The best biomarker for diagnosis and follow-up of ICP is up to knowing percentage levels of bile acids (taurocholic and glycocholic acids) over 40% with TBA 14 mmol/L. The level of bile acid is found to be associated with fetal complications [ 1 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The team led by Dr Cormac Gahan and Dr Susan Joyce has analysed a bacterial protein that modifies bile acids (a major component of bile secretions) in the gut. (ucc.ie)
  • Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we identified a total of 61 compounds in mental gland secretions, the most numerous being carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, alkanes, steroids and alcohols. (researchgate.net)
  • Malabsorption in ZES usually is multifactorial, being caused by direct mucosal damage by acid, inactivation of pancreatic enzymes, and precipitation of bile salts. (medscape.com)
  • This enterohepatic circulation of bile acids allows a low rate of synthesis, only about 0.3g/day, but with large amounts being secreted into the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of phosphatidic acid phosphatase promotes hepatic triglyceride (TG) synthesis, induces secretion of TG-rich , very low density lipoprotein particles, and consequently, increases plasma TG levels. (moviecultists.com)
  • 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase or Δ4-3-oxosteroid-5β-reductase deficiencies are part of are a group of Bile Acid Synthesis Disorders (BASD) which are rare metabolic diseases caused by a lack of various liver enzymes involved in the synthesis of bile acids. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Activation of FXR regulates bile acid synthesis, delivery, and clearance, maintaining their levels within a safe range. (randox.com)
  • The phylogenetically oldest and best documented function of taurine is conjugation with bile acids in bile salt synthesis [ 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Since gut microbiota transforms bile acids, it is another fascinating area in AD research. (news-medical.net)
  • Once secreted, bile salts draw other bile components (particularly sodium and water) into the canaliculus by osmosis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. (nih.gov)
  • MCT, ketone salts = Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium) or special diet (e.g. ketogenic diet) possibly impacting basal ketone levels, to the opinion of the medical expert. (who.int)
  • most intestinal bile salts reach the terminal ileum, which actively absorbs 90% of bile salts into the portal venous circulation. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Once secreted into the lumen of the intestine, bile salts are modified by gut bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the concentration of bile acids/salts in the small intestine is high enough to form micelles and solubilize lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human adults secrete between 12 and 18 g of bile acids into the intestine each day, mostly after meals. (wikipedia.org)
  • But sometimes it results from another problem, leaving leftover bile acids in your small intestine and passing these on to your colon. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The liver uses active transport to secrete bile salts into the canaliculus, the cleft between adjacent hepatocytes. (merckmanuals.com)
  • what cells secrete bile? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • "In contrast with other lactic acid bacteria, the probiotic status of S. thermophilus remains still questioned," ​ the researchers wrote in their study. (nutraingredients.com)
  • We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. (who.int)
  • This includes blood pressure, filtering and removal of various metabolic waste products, blood volume, red blood cell count, electrolytes, acid base balance… Guyton's Textbook of Medical Physiology has nearly 200 pages devoted to renal function, and that is a bare-bones overview with little time spent on pathophysiology. (robbwolf.com)
  • These agents enhance bile salt-dependent biliary flow. (medscape.com)
  • Shown to promote bile flow in cholestatic conditions associated with a patent extrahepatic biliary system. (medscape.com)
  • Although their role in the postoperative management of biliary atresia has never been established, some centers have found that short-term, high-dose therapy in the immediate postoperative period may improve the likelihood of achieving adequate bile drainage, particularly for infants in whom bile flow is not immediately apparent following portoenterostomy. (medscape.com)
  • Increased urination assists in the elimination of toxins like uric acid, bile and excess salts and helps relieve fluid retention. (naturalnews.com)
  • 7-If you get kidney stones that are from urate salts, you are likely NOT following a low-ish carb paleo diet, you likely have insulin resistance and your liver is not processing uric acid. (robbwolf.com)
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critical micellar concentration" refers to both an intrinsic property of the bile acid itself and amount of bile acid necessary to function in the spontaneous and dynamic formation of micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduces the amount of bile acids returning to the liver and forces the liver to produce more bile acids to replace the bile acids lost in the stool. (moviecultists.com)
  • Canalicular transport is the rate-limiting step in bile formation. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • TRF partially restores diurnal rhythms of the ileal microbiome and transcriptome, increases GLP-1 release, and alters the ileal bile acid pool and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling, which could explain how TRF exerts its metabolic benefits. (nih.gov)
  • Ileal protein which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion. (hmdb.ca)
  • Fang C, Dean J, Smith JW: A novel variant of ileal bile acid binding protein is up-regulated through nuclear factor-kappaB activation in colorectal adenocarcinoma. (hmdb.ca)
  • The exact mechanisms underlying ICP are not fully understood, but it is believed that elevated bile acid levels may have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of the foetus, potentially leading to stillbirth or preterm birth 5 . (randox.com)
  • This side effect is called bile acid malabsorption . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Advances in the understanding of the causes of the symptoms (including pelvic floor weakness and incontinence, bile salt malabsorption and food intolerance) mean that effective, safe and well tolerated treatments are now available. (wjgnet.com)
  • Decreasing the dietary intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and/or using bile acid binders can greatly decrease symptoms of diarrhoea. (wjgnet.com)
  • Bile acids also have hormonal actions throughout the body, particularly through the farnesoid X receptor and GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5). (wikipedia.org)
  • The impact of exposures on bile acid (BA) signaling and Farnesoid X receptor-mediated gut-liver crosstalk is emerging. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The goal of this minireview is to provide an update on the regulation of bile acid (BA) homeostasis by the nuclear receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the effects on this regulation by exposure to environmental or therapeutic agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to secreting any of the bile acids (primary or secondary, see below), liver cells conjugate them with either glycine or taurine, to form a total of 8 possible conjugated bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their glycine and taurine groups are removed to give the secondary bile acids, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a 17-fold reduction in fecal secondary bile acids after vancomycin treatment. (wustl.edu)
  • The symptoms of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) are secondary to hypergastrinemia, which causes hypertrophy of the gastric mucosa, leading to increased numbers of parietal cells and increased maximal acid output. (medscape.com)
  • Total bile acid (TBA) concentration is a commonly measured parameter to assess the severity of ICP. (randox.com)
  • To facilitate the accurate quantification of total bile acids in serum and plasma, the 5th Generation Total Bile Acids Assay has emerged as a reliable and advanced diagnostic tool. (randox.com)
  • Levels of total bile acid (TBA), ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and SP-A were determined and the lungs of fetal rats were analyzed for pathological changes. (hindawi.com)
  • Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulphur-containing compound characterized as an amino acid. (intechopen.com)
  • The presence of a sulfonic group, as opposed to a carboxyl group in other amino acids, gives taurine a pKa value of 1.5 and it is the most acidic amino acid. (intechopen.com)
  • It is an exclusively free amino acid, i.e. it is not incorporated into proteins, but still widely distributed in most body tissues. (intechopen.com)
  • In humans it is regarded as a conditionally essential amino acid due to a limited ability to synthesize it [ 14 , 15 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Our fi ndings suggest that cholera to histidine at amino acid position 39 agar. (cdc.gov)
  • Yellow colonies from TCBS agar caused by the hybrid variant is present and threonine at amino acid position were tested by using MicroScan Walk- in the Philippines. (cdc.gov)
  • In this article, we will delve into the structural and functional aspects of bile acids and explore their significance in a condition called intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). (randox.com)
  • To determine the correlation between maternal bile acid (BA) level and fetal pulmonary surfactant in rats and study the effects of BA on fetal lung in rat model of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • is a degradation product of heme compounds from worn-out red blood cells (RBCs) and is the pigment that gives bile its yellow-green color. (merckmanuals.com)
  • what gives bile its color? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • They extracted deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for metagenomic sequencing and metabolites for untargeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. (news-medical.net)
  • 1985. Mutagenicity evaluation of phthalic acid esters and metabolites in Salmonella typhimurium cultures. (cdc.gov)
  • Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taurine was identified almost two centuries ago and was named after the ox, Bos taurus , since it was first isolated from the bile of ox [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • It is room-temperature stable and highly resistant to the action of heat, gastric acid and bile. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • Bile acids (BAs) are fascinating molecules that play a pivotal role in our bodies metabolic processes. (randox.com)
  • BYLVAY may not be effective in a subgroup of PFIC type 2 patients with specific ABCB11 variants resulting in non-functional or complete absence of the bile salt export pump protein [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5) and Clinical Studies (14) ]. (nih.gov)
  • Bile acids are primarily synthesized in the liver through two pathways: the classic (neutral) pathway and the alternate (acidic) pathway. (randox.com)
  • Bile salts circulate through this pathway from liver to gut to liver-the enterohepatic circulation-10 to 12 times/day. (merckmanuals.com)
  • bile salt pathway? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Here, we identify a role for nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling in normal liver regeneration. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated bile acid levels accelerate regeneration, and decreased levels inhibit liver regrowth, as does the absence of the primary nuclear bile acid receptor FXR. (nih.gov)
  • Case reports indicate that the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide might be an effective treatment for bile acid diarrhoea. (regionh.dk)
  • The nutritional egg coating was designed by selecting microbial stains based on bile salt tolerance, acid tolerance, the ability to pass through the eggshell and membrane to enter the yolk and the ability to form biofilms. (wattagnet.com)
  • Besides the expected acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, we identified a set of bile salt activated lipases structures, among which the human pancreatic lipase (hBAL) that shares 34% identity with BChE. (rcsb.org)