Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.
Unsaturated derivatives of cholane with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched five-carbon chain at C-17. They must have at least one double bond in the ring system.
A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)

New perspectives on biliary atresia. (1/3564)

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (2/3564)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

A new hydrolase specific for taurine-conjugates of bile acids. (3/3564)

Through the investigation of the bile acid-deconjugation activities of human intestinal anaerobes, a new enzyme was discovered in Peptostreptococcus intermedius which hydrolyzed specifically the taurine-conjugates, but not the glycine-conjugates of bile acids. However, the enzymes in Streptococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus brevis hydrolyzed chiefly the glycine-conjugates.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (4/3564)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

Enrichment of canalicular membrane with cholesterol and sphingomyelin prevents bile salt-induced hepatic damage. (5/3564)

These studies were undertaken to characterize the role of plasma membrane cholesterol in canalicular secretory functions and hepatocyte integrity against intravenous taurocholate administration. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations and cholesterol/phospholipid ratios were significantly increased in canalicular membranes of diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting a more resistant structure against solubilization by taurocholate. During taurocholate infusion, control rats had significantly decreased bile flow, whereas diosgenin-fed animals maintained bile flow. Maximal cholesterol output increased by 176% in diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting an increased precursor pool of biliary cholesterol in these animals. Maximal phospholipid output only increased by 43% in diosgenin-fed rats, whereas bile salt output remained at control levels. The kinetics of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities in bile showed a significantly faster release in control than in diosgenin-fed rats. After 30 min of intravenous taurocholate infusion, necrotic hepatocytes were significantly increased in control animals. Preservation of bile secretory functions and hepatocellular cytoprotection by diosgenin against the intravenous infusion of toxic doses of taurocholate was associated with an increased concentration of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the canalicular membrane. The increase of biliary cholesterol output induced by diosgenin was correlated to the enhanced concentration of cholesterol in the canalicular membrane.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (6/3564)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (7/3564)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis. (8/3564)

The response of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 to salt stress has been characterized previously in complex media. In this report, it has been demonstrated that this bacterium actively accumulates the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) from salt-enriched complex medium BHI. To further understand the specific effects of GB and other osmoprotective compounds in salt adaptation and salt-induced cross-tolerance to lethal challenges, a chemically defined medium lacking putative osmoprotectants was used. In this medium, bacterial growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. At 0.75 M NaCl, 90% inhibition of the growth rate was observed; GB and its structural analogues restored growth to the non-salt-stressed level. In contrast, proline, pipecolate and ectoine did not allow growth recovery of stressed cells. Kinetic studies showed that the uptake of betaines shows strong structural specificity and occurs through a salt-stress-inducible high-affinity porter [Km = 3.3 microM; Vmax = 130 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1); the uptake activity increased 400-fold in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl]. Moreover, GB and its analogues were accumulated as non-metabolizable cytosolic osmolytes and reached intracellular levels ranging from 1-3 to 1.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1). In contrast to the beneficial effect of GB on the growth of salt-stressed cultures of E. faecalis, its accumulation inhibits the salt-induced cross-tolerance to a heterologous lethal challenge. Indeed, pretreatment of bacterial cells with 0.5 M NaCl induced resistance to 0.3% bile salts (survival of adapted cells increased by a factor of 6800). The presence of GB in the adaptation medium reduced the acquisition of bile salts resistance 680-fold. The synthesis of 11 of the 13 proteins induced during salt adaptation was significantly reduced in the presence of GB. These results raise questions about the actual beneficial effect of GB in natural environments where bacteria are often subjected to various stresses.  (+info)

A simple, precise and sensitive method for separation and determination of total bile acid sulfates in human urine is described. The sulfate fraction of urinary bile acids was separated with lipophilic anion exchange gel, piperidinohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 after sample clean-up with Sep-Pak C18 cartridge. The obtained sulfate fraction was submitted to solvolysis with a small volume of dimethoxypropane-HCl solution and subjected to enzymatic-fluorimetrical assay using 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and resazurin. In this method, no influence of existing salts in the reaction mixture on fluorescence intensity was observed and solvolysis reaction was almost complete. Overall recoveries of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acid 3-sulfates from normal urine ranged from 90.5 to 93.7% and those of unconjugates from 48.7 to 78.0%. The sensitivity of the described method enabled to estimate total bile acid sulfates with 0.5 ml of normal urine and precision tests showed the satisfactory accuracy. The
Since the last International Bile Acid Meeting in Freiburg in 1996, considerable progress has been made in several areas of bile acid research. The different pathways of bile acid synthesis and their regulation have been further characterized. The molecular mechanisms for biliary secretion of bile acids have been elucidated and genetic defects of bile acid transport have been defined. Injurious as well as protective effects of different bile acids on the liver have been further studied. Finally, the beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver diseases have been substantiated and the potential mechanisms of action have been explored. This book, the proceedings of the Falk Symposium No. 108 (XV International Bile Acid Meeting), held in Titisee, Germany, October 12-13, 1998, is dedicated to both basic and clinical aspects of bile acid research with a focus on bile acids and cholestasis.Bile Acids and Cholestasis - XV International Bile Acid Meeting, 1 was published 1999 under ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total bile acids tests are also widely used to screen pregnant women for the condition of obstetric cholestasis, a disease that is caused by elevated total bile acids in the bloodstream ...
Bile acids are C24 steroids that are derived in the liver from cholesterol and secreted into the intestinal lumen to aid in emulsification of dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. The indigenous intestinal microflora modify bile acids, producing up to 20 unique bile acid metabolites. The 7α-dehydroxylation of the bile acids is the most physiologically important bile acid biotransformation. All known intestinal bacteria capable of bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation are anaerobic, gram-positive rods of the genera Clostridium and Eubcicterium. Bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria often contain bile salt hydrolase, which hydrolyzes the peptide bond in taurine-conjugated bile acids to yield a free bile acid and taurine. Taurine is an organosulfonate containing a sulfite moiety. There have been no published reports indicating whether 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria can utilize taurine. Given that taurine and taurine-conjugated bile acids are found at great concentrations in the intestine, the ability to
Faecal bile acid excretion and intestinal transit time were studied in 18 children with inflammatory bowel disease in clinical remission and with normal stools: 16 with ulcerative colitis, two with Crohns colitis, mean age 14 years (range 10-17 years). Five healthy children, mean age 12.4 years (range 10-17 years), were studied as control subjects. Most patients were taking sulphasalazine, but none were taking steroids. Transit time was determined by carmine and did not differ between groups. Faeces were collected for 72 hours, and faecal water was prepared by centrifugation of faeces at 15,000 x g for two hours. Bile acids in total faeces and faecal water were studied using capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Faecal excretion of total bile acids, unconjugated bile acids, and glycine and taurine conjugates were significantly increased in patients as was faecal water excretion of total bile acids, particularly the taurine conjugates and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. Total ...
The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in
1. Coeliac patients are known to have an expanded bile salt pool which recirculates slowly due, at least in part, to impaired gall bladder contractility. We have investigated the possibility that delayed small bowel transit of chyme and bile may also contribute to this sluggish recycling.. 2. Plasma cholylglycine, total bile acids and cholecystokinin concentrations were measured after a lactulose-labelled test meal whose mouth-caecum transit time (M-C TT) was assessed by the breath hydrogen technique.. 3. Overall there were no significant differences in plasma bile acid profiles between seven healthy controls and a group of 25 coeliac patients. However, when subjects were divided according to their M-C TT, the 10 with the slowest transit were found to have significant elevation of fasting levels when compared with the 10 with the fastest transit, fasting total bile acids being 3.4 ± 1.3 versus 0.7 ± 0.6 μmol/l (P , 0.02) and fasting cholylglycine being 0.43 ± 0.17 versus 0.06 ± 0.04 μmol/l ...
To study the effect of steroid hormones on bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes, cells were incubated with various amounts of these compounds during 72 h and conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids was measured. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated in a dose-dependent way by glucocorticoids, but not by sex steroid hormones, pregnenolone or the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in concentrations up to 10 microM. Dexamethasone proved to be the most efficacious inducer, giving 3-fold and 7-fold increases in bile acid synthesis during the second and third 24 h incubation periods respectively, at a concentration of 50 nM. Mass production of bile acids as measured by g.l.c. during the second day of culture (28-52 h) was 2.2-fold enhanced by 1 microM-dexamethasone. No change in the ratio of bile acids produced was observed during this period in the presence of dexamethasone. Conversion of [4-14C]7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, an intermediate of the bile acid pathway, to bile acids was not ...
Bile acids are usually found conjugated to glycine or taurine, a derivative of cysteine. Cells require the presence of an active bile acid transporter for uptake of these conjugated derivatives (10). To test whether conjugated bile acids would also activate FXR, we coexpressed the human ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) with FXR in CV-1 cells (11). FXR was strongly activated by 3 μM of the taurine or glycine conjugates of CDCA, LCA, and DCA (Fig. 2G). Weaker activation was seen with the conjugated forms of CA, and tauro-MCA was inactive (Fig. 2G). These data indicate that FXR can be activated by conjugated bile acids in tissues that express bile acid transporters such as the terminal ileum, liver, and kidney. The relation between the chemical structure of bile acids and their activation of FXR is in close agreement with the reported effects of bile acids on induction of I-BABP expression in Caco-2 cells and inhibition of Cyp7a expression in hepatocytes (3, 12). Coactivator proteins interact ...
Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA is bile acid Coenzyme A ester. In humans, bile acids conjugated with glycine and taurine are the major solutes in bile, and unconjugated bile acids are almost nondetectable in normal bile. Conjugated bile acids are less toxic and are more efficient promoters of intestinal absorption of dietary lipid than unconjugated bile acids. The synthesis of bile acid and amino acid conjugates in human liver is the result of two independent enzymatic reactions with a bile acid coenzyme A thioester intermediate formation of bile acid-CoA esters, considered the rate-limiting step in bile acid amidation and catalyzed by an ATP-dependent microsomal enzyme, bile acid-CoA synthetase (EC In the second reaction, the thioester bond is cleaved, and an amide bond is formed between the bile acid and the amino acids glycine or taurine. The bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (EC catalyzes this reaction in the cytosol prior to secretion into bile. In human liver the ...
Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA is bile acid Coenzyme A ester. In humans, bile acids conjugated with glycine and taurine are the major solutes in bile, and unconjugated bile acids are almost nondetectable in normal bile. Conjugated bile acids are less toxic and are more efficient promoters of intestinal absorption of dietary lipid than unconjugated bile acids. The synthesis of bile acid and amino acid conjugates in human liver is the result of two independent enzymatic reactions with a bile acid coenzyme A thioester intermediate formation of bile acid-CoA esters, considered the rate-limiting step in bile acid amidation and catalyzed by an ATP-dependent microsomal enzyme, bile acid-CoA synthetase (EC In the second reaction, the thioester bond is cleaved, and an amide bond is formed between the bile acid and the amino acids glycine or taurine. The bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (EC catalyzes this reaction in the cytosol prior to secretion into bile. In human liver the ...
1. The biliary excretion of total bilirubin and bile acids, and the fate of tracer doses of radioactive sulphated and non-sulphated bile acids, were studied in patients with percutaneous transhepatic bile drainage.. 2. Non-sulphated bile acids were excreted in bile early after biliary decompression, and the serum total 3α-hydroxy bile acid concentrations fell rapidly to normal. Biliary bilirubin excretion was both less than and delayed compared with that of bile acids, and the serum bilirubin concentration fell more slowly.. 3. The serum disappearance of [3H]chenodeoxycholate-3-sulphate was slower than that of [14C]glycocholate in all patients with bile drainage, the difference being more marked in the jaundiced patients.. 4. The radioactive sulphated bile acids were recovered predominantly in the urine of the jaundiced patients. In contrast [14C]glycocholate was excreted almost exclusively in bile. In an anicteric patient, radioactive sulphated bile acid disappeared from the serum more ...
Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). These effects of bile acids are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, but can affect different tissues throughout the organism. It is still unclear whether these effects also involve signaling of bile acids to the central nervous system (CNS). Bile acid signaling to the CNS encompasses both direct and indirect pathways. Bile acids can act directly in the brain via central FXR and TGR5 signaling. In addition, there are two indirect pathways that involve intermediate agents released upon interaction with bile acids receptors in the gut. Activation of intestinal FXR and TGR5 receptors can result in the release of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), both
In addition to their well-known function as dietary lipid detergents, bile acids have emerged as important signalling molecules that regulate energy homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted that disrupted bile acid metabolism is associated with metabolism disorders such as dyslipidaemia, intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases and obesity. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications in bile acid metabolism. Bile acids bind and modulate the activity of transmembrane and nuclear receptors (NR). Among these receptors, the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) and the NR farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis. The role of these receptors in the intestine... in energy metabolism regulation has been recently highlighted. More precisely, recent studies have shown that FXR is important for glucose homeostasis in particular in metabolic disorders such as T2D and ...
Pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD), involves interaction between environmental factors and inappropriate immune responses in the intestine of genetically predisposed individuals. Bile acids and their nuclear receptor, FXR, regulate inflammatory responses and barrier function in the intestinal tract. We studied the association of five variants (rs3863377, rs7138843, rs56163822, rs35724, rs10860603) of the NR1H4 gene encoding FXR with IBD. 1138 individuals (591 non-IBD, 203 UC, 344 CD) were genotyped for five NR1H4 genetic variants with TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed that the NR1H4 SNP rs3863377 is significantly less frequent in IBD cases than in non-IBD controls (allele frequencies: P = 0.004; wild-type vs. SNP carrier genotype frequencies: P = 0.008), whereas the variant rs56163822 is less prevalent in non-IBD controls (allele frequencies: P = 0.027; wild-type vs. SNP carrier genotype frequencies: P = 0.035). The global
The secondary bile acids are derived from the primary bile acids by the enzymatic action of intestinal bacteria through the process of deconjugation and dehydroxylation. The secondary bile acids in humans include deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, formed from the 7alpha-dehydroxylation of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively ...
The glucuronidation of bile acids is an established metabolic pathway in different human organs. The hepatic and renal UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities vary according to the bile acids concerned. Thus, hyodeoxycholic acid is clearly differentiated from other bile acids by its high rate of glucur …
Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with ...
Bile acids have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of colon and gastric cancer after gastrectomy, but the molecular biology of these effects is poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of different bile acids on human gastric and colon carcinoma cells and identified genes by RNA arbitrarily primed PCR for differential display that are modulated following treatment with hydrophobic bile acids. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) mRNA was upregulated after treatment with taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in St 23132 cells. This raised the question whether deoxycholic acid (DCA) would have regulative effects on TR in HT-29 cells. After an incubation time of 6 h with DCA, TR mRNA expression was increased up to threefold. Ursodeoxycholic acid had no influence on TR mRNA expression. The upregulation of TR after DCA incubation was almost identical to incubation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. This implies that hydrophobic bile acids mediate oxidative stress in ...
The serum concentration of TBA in healthy neonates significantly exceeds that in children over 1 year of age, a condition called physiological cholestasis.9 The urinary TBA:creatinine ratio was raised in the first week after birth, then decreased gradually. The high concentration of TBA in urine may be attributable to either an enhanced stimulation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids or an impaired hepatic clearance or excretion.10The highest value for TBA in meconium was in neonates. This value is greatly influenced by events or conditions during pregnancy, such as the presence of biliary bile in the fetal duodenum or the ingestion of amniotic fluid by the fetus.10 11 Ketonic bile acids are usually considered to result from the bacterial oxidation of primary bile acids.12 In this study we detected ketonic bile acids early in life. The intestine may be colonised by bacterial flora during the first week.13 A high concentration of 3-oxo Δ4 bile acids in serum or urine has been ...
Upregulation of hepatic bile acid synthesis via fibroblast growth factor 19 is defective in gallstone disease but functional in overweight ...
1] Islam KB, et al. Bile acid is a host factor that regulates the composition of the cecal microbiota in rats. Gastroenterology. 2011 Nov;141(5):1773-81.. [2] Hellström PM, et al. Role of bile in regulation of gut motility. J Intern Med. 1995 Apr;237(4):395-402.. [3] Trauner M, et al. Bile acids as regulators of hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Dig Dis. 2010;28(1):220-4.. [4] Watanabe M, et al. Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation. Nature. 2006 Jan 26;439(7075):484-9.. [5] Zhou H, Hylemon PB. Bile acids are nutrient signaling hormones. Steroids. 2014 Aug;86:62-8.. [6] McMillin M, DeMorrow S. Effects of bile acids on neurological function and disease. FASEB J. 2016 Nov;30(11):3658-68.. [7] Fiorucci S, Distrutti E. Bile acid-activated receptors,iIntestinal microbiota, and the treatment of metabolic disorders. Trends Mol Med. 2015 Nov;21(11):702-14.. [8] de Aguiar Vallim TQ, et al. Pleiotropic roles of bile acids in metabolism. Cell Metab. ...
Bile acids are steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. Individual bile acid carriers have now been cloned from several species. Na(+)-dependent transporters that mediate uptake into hepatocytes and reabsorption from the intestine and biliary epithelium and an ATP-dependent transporter that pumps bile acids into bile comprise the classes of transporter that are specific for bile acids. In addition, at least four human and five rat genes that code for Na(+)-independent organic anion carriers with ...
Dietary calcium may reduce the risk of colon cancer, probably by precipitating cytotoxic surfactants, such as secondary bile acids, in the colonic lumen. We previously showed that milk mineral, an important source of calcium, decreases metabolic risk factors and colonic proliferation in rats. We now report the effects of the habitual intake of milk calcium on metabolic risk factors in healthy subjects. A double-blind, cross-over metabolic study was performed in 13 healthy males. Placebo milk products (calcium, 3 mm) were compared with regular milk products (calcium, 30 mm). In each 1-week period, the habitual diet was recorded, and urine and feces were collected for 1 and 3 days, respectively. Milk calcium significantly increased fecal pH and fecal excretion of phosphate (132%), total fat (139%), free fatty acids (195%), and bile acids (141%), indicating intestinal complexation. In fecal water, the concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids (deoxycholic and lithocholic acid), ...
We investigated the effect of increasing dietary cholesterol on bile acid pool sizes and the regulation of the two bile acid synthetic pathways (classic, via cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and alternative, via sterol 27-hydroxylase) in New Zealand white rabbits fed 3 g cholesterol/per day for up to 15 days. Feeding cholesterol for one day increased hepatic cholesterol 75% and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity 1.6 times without significant change of bile acid pool size or sterol 27-hydroxylase activity. After three days of cholesterol feeding, the bile acid pool size increased 83% (P < 0.01), and further feeding produced 10%-20% increments, whereas cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity declined progressively to 60% below baseline. In contrast, sterol 27-hydroxylase activity rose 58% after three days of cholesterol feeding and remained elevated with continued intake. Bile drainage depleted the bile acid pool and stimulated downregulated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity but did not affect ...
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is one of the most efficient recycling routes in the human body. It is a complex process involving numerous transport proteins, which serve to transport bile acids from the small intestine into portal circulation, from the portal circulation into the hepatocyte, from the hepatocyte into the bile, and from the gall bladder to the small intestine. The tremendous transport capacity and organ specificity of enterohepatic circulation combined with versatile derivatization possibilities, rigid steroidal backbone, enantiomeric purity, availability, and low cost have made bile acids attractive tools in designing pharmacological hybrid molecules and prodrugs with the view of improving intestinal absorption, increasing the metabolic stability of pharmaceuticals, specifically targeting drugs to organs involved in enterohepatic circulation, as well as sustaining therapeutically reasonable systemic concentrations of active agents. This article briefly describes bile acid
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
The risk of stillbirth is increased in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy when serum bile acids concentrations are 100 mol L or more, according to
We have demonstrated in vitro the efficacy of the taurine-conjugated dihydroxy bile salts deoxycholate and chenodeoxycholate in solubilizing both cholesterol and phospholipid from hamster liver bile-canalicular and contiguous membranes and from human erythrocyte membrane. On the other hand, the dihydroxy bile salt ursodeoxycholate and the trihydroxy bile salt cholate solubilize much less lipid. The lipid solubilization by the four bile salts correlated well with their hydrophobicity: glycochenodeoxycolate, which is more hydrophobic than the tauro derivative, also solubilized more lipid. All the dihydroxy bile salts have a threshold concentration above which lipid solubilization increases rapidly; this correlates approximately with the critical micellar concentration. The non-micelle-forming bile salt dehydrocholate solubilized no lipid at all up to 32 mM. All the dihydroxy bile acids are much more efficient at solubilizing phospholipid than cholesterol. Cholate does not show such a pronounced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological concentrations of bile acids down-regulate agonist induced secretion in colonic epithelial cells. AU - Keating, Niamh. AU - Mroz, Magdalena S. AU - Scharl, Michael M. AU - Marsh, Christine. AU - Ferguson, Gail. AU - Hofmann, Alan F. AU - Keely, Stephen J. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - In patients with bile acid malabsorption, high concentrations of bile acids enter the colon and stimulate Cl(-) and fluid secretion, thereby causing diarrhoea. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA), the predominant colonic bile acid, is normally present at lower concentrations where its role in regulating transport is unclear. Thus, the current study set out to investigate the effects of physiologically relevant DCA concentrations on colonic epithelial secretory function. Cl(-) secretion was measured as changes in short-circuit current across voltage-clamped T(84) cell monolayers. At high concentrations (0.5-1 mM), DCA acutely stimulated Cl(-) secretion but this effect was associated with ...
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet ...
Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming inverted structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes.. The Na+ ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22Na+ partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22Na+ across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. All phospholipids tested, except for phosphatidylcholine, showed ionophoretic capability for Na+ at micromolar concentrations. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the most efficient Na+ carriers, comparable with monensin, an established Na+ ionophore. In contrast, cholic acid as well as other bile acids ...
FXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine. Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a heterodimer with RXR) and binds to hormone response elements on DNA, which up- or down-regulates the expression of certain genes.[6] One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. FXR does not directly bind to the CYP7A1 promoter. Rather, FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which then functions to inhibit transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. In this way, a negative feedback pathway is established in which synthesis of bile acids is inhibited when cellular levels are already high. FXR has also been found to be important in regulation of hepatic triglyceride levels.[7] Studies have also shown the FXR to ...
A metabolic disorder results when an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of our food is defective which results in compounds, also known as metabolites, accumulating in blood or urine. Incorrect metabolism means your body might have too much or too little of a metabolite which can have detrimental impacts on normal growth and development.. For cholestasis of pregnancy patients: qualitative urine bile acids is not the first-line test for the diagnosis/monitoring of cholestasis of pregnancy. Serum total bile acids should be performed in preference. VCGS does not perform serum total bile acids testing.. ...
Bile acids are made in the liver, released into the intestine to help digest fat, and are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. They can be measured in the blood to determine if the liver is working properly. Indications for the test include elevated liver enzymes, seizures, poor growth, and low blood albumin. The test is usually performed after a 12 hour fast and consists of the measurement of serum bile acids before and 2 hours after a meal. The test can be affected by poor intestinal motility - either from disease, sedation/anesthesia, or if the pet has had part of the intestine removed that is responsible for absorption of bile acids. Bile acids will be high if the liver is not functioning properly. It does not rule out liver disease as disease can affect part of the liver without significantly affecting bile acid production. Elevated bile acids may warrant further diagnostics or monitoring depending on your pets condition.. ...
Bile acids are made in the liver, released into the intestine to help digest fat, and are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. They can be measured in the blood to determine if the liver is working properly. Indications for the test include elevated liver enzymes, seizures, poor growth, and low blood albumin. The test is usually performed after a 12 hour fast and consists of the measurement of serum bile acids before and 2 hours after a meal. The test can be affected by poor intestinal motility - either from disease, sedation/anesthesia, or if the pet has had part of the intestine removed that is responsible for absorption of bile acids. Bile acids will be high if the liver is not functioning properly. It does not rule out liver disease as disease can affect part of the liver without significantly affecting bile acid production. Elevated bile acids may warrant further diagnostics or monitoring depending on your pets condition.. ...
Bile acids are made in the liver, released into the intestine to help digest fat, and are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. They can be measured in the blood to determine if the liver is working properly. Indications for the test include elevated liver enzymes, seizures, poor growth, and low blood albumin. The test is usually performed after a 12 hour fast and consists of the measurement of serum bile acids before and 2 hours after a meal. The test can be affected by poor intestinal motility - either from disease, sedation/anesthesia, or if the pet has had part of the intestine removed that is responsible for absorption of bile acids. Bile acids will be high if the liver is not functioning properly. It does not rule out liver disease as disease can affect part of the liver without significantly affecting bile acid production. Elevated bile acids may warrant further diagnostics or monitoring depending on your pets condition.. Login Required. ...
Bile acids are made in the liver, released into the intestine to help digest fat, and are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. They can be measured in the blood to determine if the liver is working properly. Indications for the test include elevated liver enzymes, seizures, poor growth, and low blood albumin. The test is usually performed after a 12 hour fast and consists of the measurement of serum bile acids before and 2 hours after a meal. The test can be affected by poor intestinal motility - either from disease, sedation/anesthesia, or if the pet has had part of the intestine removed that is responsible for absorption of bile acids. Bile acids will be high if the liver is not functioning properly. It does not rule out liver disease as disease can affect part of the liver without significantly affecting bile acid production. Elevated bile acids may warrant further diagnostics or monitoring depending on your pets condition.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the stereospecificity of microsomal 26-hydroxylation in bile acid biosynthesis.. AU - Gustafsson, J.. AU - Sjöstedt, S.. PY - 1978/1/10. Y1 - 1978/1/10. N2 - The stereospecificity of microsomal 26 -hydroxylation in bile acid biosynthesis was studied. Cholesterol was biosynthesized from [2-14C] mevalonate by a rat liver preparation. The cholesterol was converted stepwise into 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid by microsomal and soluble fractions of rat liver homogenate. The 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid was decarboxylated chemically and the carbon dioxide was assayed for 14C. The amount of radioactivity in the liberated carbon dioxide was assayed for 14C. The amount of radioactivity in the liberated carbon dioxide was such as to indicate complete stereospecificity of the microsomal 26 -hydroxylase system. The system hydroxylates the methyl group in position C-26 (the 25-pro-R methyl group) and its ...
Andriamiarina, R.; Laraki, L.; Pelletier, X.; Debry, G., 1989: Effects of stigmasterol-supplemented diets on fecal neutral sterols and bile acid excretion in rats
Vertebrates use two physiological mechanisms for transport of exogenous compounds depending on the degree of hydrophobicity: the portal venous system and the lymph system (Trevaskis et al., 2008). Cholesterol-derived bile acid molecules, which are made in the liver, are secreted to the gallbladder and then deposited into the intestines through the bile duct. With the help of bile acids and phospholipids, lipophilic molecules form micelles that are shuttled through the intestinal cells and excreted into the portal venous system. The transporter responsible for bile acid-associated export from intestinal cells into the portal blood is solute carrier protein 51a (slc51a, also known as organic solute transporter subunit alpha) (Dawson and Karpen, 2014), which has increased expression in the liver of chemically defended wild frogs compared with laboratory frogs. Bile acid-associated pathways are of particular interest, as bile acid derivatives have been observed in the skin of mantellid poison frogs ...
The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. They disrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids by combining with bile constituents and preventing their reabsorption from the gut. In general, they are classified as hypolipidemic agents, although they may be used for purposes other than lowering cholesterol. They are used in the treatment of chronic diarrhea due to bile acid malabsorption. Bile acid sequestrants are polymeric compounds that serve as ion-exchange resins. Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester them from the enterohepatic circulation. The liver then produces more bile acids to replace those that have been lost. Because the body uses cholesterol to make bile acids, this reduces the amount of LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood. Bile acid sequestrants are large polymeric structures, and they are not significantly ...
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, excreted with bile into the duodenum, almost completely taken up again in the distal ileum and finally returned to the liver with portal blood in a process termed enterohepatic circulation. Bile acid synthesis, excretion, and reuptake are tightly regulated. The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter [ASBT; also known as ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) and SLC10A2] is pivotal for the almost complete reabsorption of conjugated bile acids in the ileum. Dysfunctional IBAT may be the cause of bile acid diarrhea. Pharmacological IBAT inhibition results in an increased bile acid load in the colon and subsequently a lower bile acid pool, which is associated with improved liver histology in animal models of cholestatic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In humans, IBAT inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials with widely different indications: in patients with idiopathic chronic constipation, an increased number of
Bile acids promote bile formation and facilitate dietary lipid absorption. Animal and human studies showing disturbed bile acid metabolism in diabetes mellitus suggest a link between bile acids and glucose control. Bile acids are activating ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor with an established role in bile acid and lipid metabolism. Evidence suggests a role for FXR also in maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Animal and human studies employing bile acid sequestrants (bile acid binding agents), which interrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and effectively reduce plasma cholesterol, support a link between bile acid and glucose metabolism. In lipid-lowering trials, bile acid sequestrants, such as colesevelam hydrochloride, colestyramine (cholestyramine) and colestilan (colestimide), have also been shown to lower plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels, suggesting the utility of these agents as a potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. In this ...
Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is an essential step in bile acid synthesis, since it is required for shortening of C27-bile acid intermediates to produce mature C24-bile acids. D-Bifunctional protein (DBP) is responsible for the second and third step of this beta-oxidation process. However, both patients and mice with a DBP deficiency still produce C24-bile acids, although C27-intermediates accumulate. An alternative pathway for bile acid biosynthesis involving the peroxisomal L-bifunctional protein (LBP) has been proposed. We investigated the role of LBP and DBP in bile acid synthesis by analyzing bile acids in bile, liver, and plasma from LBP, DBP, and LBP:DBP double knock-out mice. Bile acid biosynthesis, estimated by the ratio of C27/C24-bile acids, was more severely affected in double knock-out mice as compared with DBP-/- mice but was normal in LBP-/- mice. Unexpectedly, trihydroxycholestanoyl-CoA oxidase was inactive in double knock-out mice due to a peroxisomal import defect, preventing us ...
Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an under-recognised but common condition of chronic watery diarrhoea. BAD may be secondary to ileal disease affecting the reabsorption and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (bile acid malabsorption) or can be an idiopathic, primary BAD (PBAD). In work published in 2009, we described a new mechanism to explain this syndrome of primary BAD.. Blood levels of the hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) are reduced in primary and secondary BAD, producing impaired feedback inhibition of bile acid synthesis, leading to excess faecal bile acids, which then produce diarrhoea by stimulating colonic secretion. FGF19 is synthesised in the ileum and we have shown transcription is markedly induced by farnesoid X receptor(FXR) agonists such as chenodeoxycholic acid, an abundant natural bile acid. More potent FXR agonists are logical diagnostic and therapeutic agents for this condition, and obeticholic acid (OCA), which is 100x more potent than chenodeoxycholic acid, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bile acid efflux mediated by the rat liver canalicular bile acid transport/ecto-ATPase protein requires serine 503 phosphorylation and is regulated by tyrosine 488 phosphorylation. AU - Sippel, C. Jeffrey. AU - Fallon, Robert J.. AU - Perlmutter, David H.. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Transfection of cDNA for a hepatocyte canalicular phosphoprotein, the rat liver canalicular bile acid transporter/ecto-ATPase/cell CAM 105, confers bile acid efflux and ecto-ATPase activities on heterologous cells (Sippel, C. J., Suchy, F. J., Ananthanarayanan, M., and Perlmutter D. H. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2083-2091). Our previous studies have also indicated that there is a positive correlation between the degree of phosphorylation of this transporter and its bile acid efflux activity. In this study, we introduced site-specific mutations of amino acid residues within a protein kinase C- dependent (T502A, S503A) and a tyrosine kinase-dependent (Y488F) phosphorylation consensus sequence ...
The transporters participate in a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Transporters are of efflux and influx type, need ATP-binding sites for their in and out movement across the cell membrane. These transporters play an important role in allowing or opposing the drugs into the cells, results in non-linearity in drug pharmacokinetics. A wide range of transporters was discovered; among them, organic solute transporters (OST) play a key role in drug absorption and disposition. Organic solute transporters is a heteromeric transporter localized to the basolateral of epithelial cells. It is the primary efflux bile acid transporter in the intestine of mammals.. ...
The fasting and postprandial serum concentrations of bile acids and other blood constituents were measured in a group of 10 clinically healthy, female, six-year-old captive red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). The terrapins were housed in a temperate room and maintained in four aquaria in which the water temperature ranged from 24 to 27°C and the temperature above the basking site ranged from 27 to 30°C. The serum concentrations of bile acids were measured four times in a period of five months, and at the second sampling the fasting and two postprandial (after 24 and 48 hours) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and bile acids were determined. Coelioscopy revealed vitellogenic and previtellogenic follicles on the ovaries of all the terrapins, and eggs with calcified shells were detected in two of them. The livers were mostly ...
Purpose: The objective of this study is to show the accumulation of bile acids in laryngeal tissues of laryngeal carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods: The present study compared the total bile acid level in the hypopharyngeal tissue, tumor tissue, and blood of 21 primary laryngeal carcinoma patients (study group) to that in the hypopharyngeal tissue and blood of 15 patients with benign laryngeal lesions (control group). Results: The total bile acid level was significantly higher in the tumor and hypopharyngeal tissues of the study group than in the hypopharyngeal tissues of the control group; however, the difference in the blood total bile acid level between the 2 groups was not significant. Conclusion: Bile acids in reflux material accumulate in the laryngeal tissue in laryngeal carcinoma patients; therefore, bile acids should be considered a carcinogenic factor in the etiology of laryngeal carcinoma because of their mutagenicity due to DNA breaking, as they cause chronic inflammation due ...
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. Bile acid synthesis is under negative feedback control through activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacological activation of the bile acid nuclear farnesoid X receptor is feasible in patients with quiescent Crohns colitis. AU - van Schaik, F. D.. AU - Gadaleta, R. M.. AU - Schaap, F.G.. AU - van Mil, S. W.. AU - Siersema, P.D.. AU - Oldenburg, B.. AU - van Erpecum, K.J.. PY - 2012/11/26. Y1 - 2012/11/26. N2 - BACKGROUND: The bile acid-activated nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is critical in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and preventing bacterial overgrowth. Patients with Crohns colitis (CC) exhibit reduced ileal FXR target gene expression. FXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate inflammation in murine colitis models. We here explore the feasibility of pharmacological FXR activation in CC. METHODS: Nine patients with quiescent CC and 12 disease controls were treated with the FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA; 15 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Ileal FXR activation was assessed in the fasting state during 6 hrs after the first CDCA dose and on day 8, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and chemical synthesis of a major, novel biliary bile acid in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus). T2 - 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid. AU - Kakiyama, Genta. AU - Tamegai, Hideyuki. AU - Iida, Takashi. AU - Mitamura, Kuniko. AU - Ikegawa, Shigeo. AU - Goto, Takaaki. AU - Mano, Nariyasu. AU - Goto, Junichi. AU - Holz, Peter. AU - Hagey, Lee R.. AU - Hofmann, Alan F.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - The major bile acids present in the gallbladder bile of the common Australian wombat (Vombatus ursinus) were isolated by preparative HPLC and identified by NMR as the taurine N-acylamidates of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid (3α,15α-dihydroxy-5β- cholan-24-oic acid). Taurine-conjugated CDCA constituted 78% of biliary bile acids, and (taurine-conjugated) 15α-hydroxylithocholic acid constituted 11%. Proof of structure of the latter compound was obtained by its synthesis from CDCA via a Δ14 intermediate. The synthesis of its C-15 epimer, ...
BSEP - Bile Salt Export Pump. Looking for abbreviations of BSEP? It is Bile Salt Export Pump. Bile Salt Export Pump listed as BSEP
1. Bile salt metabolism has been studied in seven patients with ileostomy following total proctocolectomy; three of these patients also had various degrees of ileal resection.. 2. The half-life of the cholic acid pool was shortened in the patients with ileal resection.. 3. Rates of bile acid synthesis were raised in two of the three patients with ileal resection. In the third, the rate was normal.. 4. Four of the six patients had low bile acid concentrations in the duodenum after a fatty meal.. 5. Deoxycholic acid could not be detected in the duodenum or ileal effluent of any of the patients.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transporter-mediated bile acid uptake causes Ca2+-dependent cell death in rat pancreatic acinar cells. AU - Kim, Joo Young. AU - Kim, Kyung Hwan. AU - Lee, Jin Ah. AU - Namkung, Wan. AU - Sun, An Qiang. AU - Ananthanarayanan, Meena. AU - Suchy, Frederick J.. AU - Shin, Dong Min. AU - Muallem, Shmuel. AU - Lee, Min Goo. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background & Aims: The mechanism by which cholelithiasis increases the risk of acute pancreatitis remains obscure. Because bile acids can enter the pancreas either by luminal diffusion or by interstitial leakage during gallstone impaction and pancreatitis is associated with impaired Ca2+ signaling, we examined the effect of bile acids on pancreatic acinar cell signaling and the associated intracellular events. Methods: Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated. by collagenase digestion and the effects of bile acids on [Ca2+]i signaling, cell survival, inflammatory signals, and the molecular and functional expressions of bile uptake ...
RESULTS: In 135 variably related Maltese, shunt status could be confirmed in 113, including 19 with anextra-hepatic portosystemic shunt (17 confirmed at surgery, 2 at necropsy). Rectal ammonia tolerance testing results and post-prandial serum bile acid concentrations were retrievable for 50 and 88 dogs, respectively. Pedigree information was available for these 135 and an additional 164 related dogs. Two consecutive test matings were carried out between two affected animals (whose shunts had been attenuated), with 2 of 8 (25%) of offspring having an extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt. Six test matings were carried out between an affected and an unaffected animal, with 2 of 22 (9%) offspring affected. Heritability of extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt was 0·61 calculated using variance components analysis [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·14 to 1·0, P=0·001]. The best fitting model from segregation analysis was a common, partially penetrant, recessive model (allele frequency 0·34, penetrance ...
Learn more about Bile Acid Sequestrant Drugs at Grand Strand Medical Center Many Nutrients - Supplementation Likely Helpful The bile acid sequestrant...
Bile Acid SequestrantsPatients with terminal ileal disease may not absorb bile acids normally, which can lead to secretory diarrhea in the colon. These patients may benefit from bile acid sequestrants... more
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of deoxycholylglycine, a conjugated secondary bile acid, on myogenic tone and Agonist-Induced contraction in rat resistance arteries. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. AU - Raina, Hema. AU - Pappas, Valeria. AU - Raufman, Jean Pierre. AU - Pallone, Thomas L.. PY - 2012/2/16. Y1 - 2012/2/16. N2 - Background: Bile acids (BAs) regulate cardiovascular function via diverse mechanisms. Although in both health and disease serum glycine-conjugated BAs are more abundant than taurine-conjugated BAs, their effects on myogenic tone (MT), a key determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), have not been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings: Fourth-order mesenteric arteries (170-250 μm) isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were pressurized at 70 mmHg and allowed to develop spontaneous constriction, i.e., MT. Deoxycholylglycine (DCG; 0.1-100 μM), a glycine-conjugated major secondary BA, induced reversible, concentration-dependent reduction of MT that was similar in endothelium-intact and ...
Background: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest the possibility that estrogens might have a cytoprotective effect on the liver. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) prevents hepatocellular damage induced by deoxycholic acid (DCA), a hydrophobic bile acid. Methods:HepG2 cells were exposed for 24 h to DCA (350 mu mol/L). Cell viability, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activity and apoptosis were measured as indices of cell toxicity. The effect of DCA was compared to that observed using either a hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; 100 mu mol/L), or E-2 at different concentrations (1 nmol/L, 10 nmol/L, 50 nmol/L and 50 mu mol/L) or mixtures of E-2/DCA or UDCA/DCA. The same experiments were performed using WRL-68 cells that, at variance with HepG2, express a higher level of nuclear estrogen receptor. Results:High concentrations of E-2 and UDCA prevented DCA-induced decrease in cell viability, increase in ...
Shop Acyl-coenzyme A amino acid N-acyltransferase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Acyl-coenzyme A amino acid N-acyltransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic review. T2 - The role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and related neoplasia. AU - McQuaid, K. R.. AU - Laine, L.. AU - Fennerty, M. B.. AU - Souza, R.. AU - Spechler, S. J.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Background Factors other than acid may play a role in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications. Aim To assessed the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of GERD, Barretts oesophagus and Barretts-related neoplasia. Methods We conducted a systematic review of computerised bibliographic databases for original articles involving humans or human oesophageal tissue or cells that assessed exposure to or manipulation of bile acids. Outcomes assessed included GERD symptoms; gross oesophageal injury; Barretts oesophagus and related neoplasia; and intermediate markers of inflammation, proliferation or neoplasia. Results Eighty-three original articles were included. In in vivo studies, bile acids concentrations ...
More than 10 mutations in the AKR1D1 gene have been found to cause congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2. This condition is characterized by cholestasis, a condition that impairs the production and release of a digestive fluid called bile from liver cells. Most of the AKR1D1 gene mutations replace single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the enzyme. These mutations result in production of a 3-oxo-5-β-steroid 4-dehydrogenase enzyme with severely reduced function. Without enough functional enzyme, the conversion of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7α-hydroxy-5β-cholesten-3-one is impaired. The 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one instead gets converted into abnormal bile acid compounds that cannot be transported out of the liver into the intestine, where the bile acids are needed to digest fats. This impaired production and release of bile acids leads to cholestasis. As a result, cholesterol and abnormal bile acids build up in the liver and fat-soluble vitamins are not absorbed, leading ...
Bile acid in the stomach plays a key role in the digestion of food in the small intestine. Two chief bile acids produced in the body include chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These acids assist in the creation of micelles, which aids in breaking down dietary fat, and is integral for the digestion of fat in the small intestine. Bile acid is a fluid secreted by the hepatocytes that flows into the canaliculi. From the canaliculi, it reaches the bile ducts, and is then transferred to the gall bladder where it is concentrated with time and the addition of other bodily fluids. Bile acids are derived from the cholesterol inside of the hepatocytem, and are made up of hydrophilic or polar faces and lipid or hydrophobic faces. Cholesterol gets converted into chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids, which are two forms of bile acid. These are combined with amino acids and released into the canaliculi. This combined nature of bile acids enables them to perform two of the most important functions in the ...
Title:Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacological Effects of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Antagonists. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 19. Author(s):Christina Lamers, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz and Daniel Merk. Affiliation:Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt (Main), Germany.. Keywords:Atherosclerosis, cancer, FXR antagonists, FXR knockout, glucose homeostasis, guggulsterone, lipid homeostasis, liver disorders, metabolic disorders, selective bile acid receptor modulators (SBARMs).. Abstract:The nuclear bile acid sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) constitutes a rising target for the treatment of a variety of diseases including metabolic disorders, inflammation and certain forms of cancer. While the research on FXR agonists has yielded many compounds and first clinical candidates, only few FXR antagonists have been discovered so far and the knowledge about their in vivo effects is quite narrow. We have evaluated available in vitro and in vivo studies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. AU - Jelinek, D. F.. AU - Andersson, S.. AU - Slaughter, C. A.. AU - Russell, D. W.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The rate-limiting step in bile acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by the microsomal cytochrome P-450 cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (7α-hydroxylase). The expression of this enzyme is subject to feedback regulation by sterols and is thought to be coordinately regulated with enzymes in the cholesterol supply pathways, including the low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and synthase. Here we report the purification of rat 7α-hydroxylase and the determination of a partial amino acid sequence. Oligonucleotides derived from peptide sequence were used to clone a full-length cDNA encoding 7α-hydroxylase. DNA sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed a 7α-hydroxylase ...
The Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the predominant transporter responsible for bile acid uptake from portal blood across the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. In rodent models of cholestasis, expression of the Ntcp mRNA and protein is notably decreased (22, 27, 104). Certain human diseases with a cholestatic component, such as primary biliary cirrhosis and cholestatic alcoholic hepatitis, are also associated with reduced NTCP expression (111, 112). Thus, in addition to enhancing bile acid efflux through induction of BSEP, bile acids suppress the expression of the major bile acid uptake system in conditions of elevated hepatocellular bile acid concentrations. It has been proposed that Fxr-induced Shp is responsible for decreased expression of Ntcp in rats through its interference with the retinoic acid receptor (Rar)-Rxr heterodimer, which has a binding site within the rat Ntcp promoter (16). The Rar-Rxr response element of the rat Ntcp promoter is not conserved in the ...
Epomediol (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2.)octan-6,7-endo,endo-diol) (EPO) is a terpenoid compound shown to reverse 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis in rat. The effect is related to the restoration of normal liver plasma membrane fluidity values. To further characterize the effect of EPO, bile flow and biliary lipid composition were measured in rats treated either with EE or EE associated with EPO. EE significantly reduced the bile flow; this reduction was prevented by concomitant treatment with EPO with an increase in the bile salt secretion rate. EPO alone showed a choleretic effect. The biliary secretion rate of cholesterol was also significantly reduced by EE while being comparable to controls in EE-EPO-treated animals. Phospholipid (PL) biliary excretion was significantly (P less than 0.002) increased by EE either alone or combined with EPO. After EE treatment, the biliary PL composition showed a reduction in phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration with a parallel ...
Increased serum bile salt levels have been associated to a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the bile salt export pump (BSEP; ABCB11) in several acquired cholestatic liver diseases but there is little evidence in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Furthermore, a crosstalk between vitamin D and bile acid synthesis has recently been discovered. Whether this crosstalk has an influence on the course of ALD is unclear to date. Our aim was to analyse the role of genetic polymorphisms in BSEP and the vitamin D receptor gene (NR1I1) on the emergence of cirrhosis in patients with ALD. Therefore, 511 alcoholic patients (131 with cirrhosis and 380 without cirrhosis) underwent ABCB11 genotyping (rs2287622). Of these, 321 (131 with cirrhosis and 190 without cirrhosis) were also tested for NR1I1 polymorphisms (bat-haplotype: BsmI rs1544410, ApaI rs7975232 and TaqI rs731236). Frequencies of ABCB11 and NR1I1 genotypes and haplotypes were compared between alcoholic patients with and without cirrhosis and correlated ...
Examples of orphan receptors are found in the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)[2][3][4] and nuclear receptor[5][6][7] families. If an endogenous ligand is found, the orphan receptor is adopted or de-orphanized[8]. An example is the nuclear receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the GPCR TGR5/GPCR19/G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, both of which are activated by bile acids.[9] Adopted orphan receptors in the nuclear receptor group include FXR, liver X receptor (LXR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Another example of an orphan receptor site is the PCP binding site in the NMDA receptor,[10] a type of ligand-gated ion channel. This site is where the recreational drug PCP works, but no endogenous ligand is known to bind to this site. GPCR orphan receptors are usually given the name GPR followed by a number, for example GPR1. In the GPCR family, nearly 100 receptor-like genes remain orphans.[11] ...
CONTEXT: The etiological mechanism of bile acid (BA) effects on insulin resistance and obesity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if plasma BA are elevated in human obesity and/or insulin resistance. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Academic research center. PARTICIPANTS: 71 adult volunteers formed four groups: lean insulin-sensitive (BMI|/=25kg/m 2, HOMA-IR|2.0, n=19), overweight/obese non-diabetic who were either insulin-sensitive (Obsensitive, BMI|25kg/m 2, HOMA-IR|1.5, n=11), or insulin-resistant (Obresistant, BMI|25kg/m 2, HOMA-IR|3.0, n=20), and type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=21). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat distribution and liver density by CT and plasma BA. RESULTS: In the Obresistant group, glucose infusion rate/fat free mass (GIR/FFM, an inverse measure of insulin resistance) was significantly lower, and visceral and liver fat higher, compared to lean and Obsensitive subjects
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and cholesterol causes bile salt malabsorption; the former by competition for and the latter by down-regulation of ileal bile acid transporters. Because ileectomy in rats induces enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin, the hypothesis that dietary steroids might have the same effect was tested. METHODS: Male inbred C57L/J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low doses of UDCA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), or cholesterol added to laboratory chow with simultaneous chow-fed controls. After 1 week (mice) or 2 weeks (rats), indices of bile salt malabsorption and enterohepatic cycling of bilirubin were measured, including bilirubin secretion rates into bile, serum and intestinal bilirubin and bile salt levels, and urobilinogen levels in cecum, large intestine, and feces. RESULTS: Dietary UDCA and cholesterol, but not CDCA, significantly increased bilirubin secretion rates into bile. In UDCA-fed mice, gallbladder biles contained
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequently occurring life threatening congenital diseases. This progressive disease manifests itself in several organ systems. The disease is caused by a mutation in the CFTR protein. The studies in the thesis focused on the development and treatment of CF in the liver and intestine, in particular the role of bile salts. Bile salts are essential in metabolism and play a crucial role in intestinal dietary fat and vitamin absorption in the gut. The experiments were performed in mice models with a mutation in the CFTR protein. With respect to CF disease in the gut we found that a disturbance in the bile salt metabolism, together with e.g. changes in the intestinal microbial flora, could be related to the clinical finding of persistent decrease of intestinal fat absorption in CF, despite adequate medication. These findings could be related to the decreased growth in CF conditions. With respect to CF disease in the liver we found that the currently used ...
2H2O affects many membrane transport processes by solvent and kinetic isotope effects. Since bile formation is a process of osmotic filtration where such effects could be important, we investigated the effects of 2H2O on bile formation in the in situ perfused rat liver. Dose finding experiments showed that at high concentrations, 2H2O increased vascular resistance and induced cholestasis; at 60% 2H2O however, a clear dissociation between the vascular and biliary effects was observed. Therefore, further experiments were carried out at this concentration. The main finding was a reduction in bile salt-independent bile flow from 0.99 +/- 0.04 to 0.66 +/- 0.04 microliters.min-1.g-1 (P , 0.001). This was associated with a 40% reduction in biliary bicarbonate concentration (P , 0.001). Choleretic response to neither taurocholate nor ursodeoxycholate was altered by 2H2O; in particular, there was a similar stimulation of bicarbonate secretion by ursodeoxycholate in the presence of 60% 2H2O. To further ...
These include chelating agents, cyclodextrins, surfactants, bile acids and salts, and crown ethers. There are also reports on ... Cyclodextrins, chitosan, some surfactants, bile acids and salts, sodium tauro-24,25-dihydro-fusidate, and phospholipids were ...
These salts are formed in the hepatocytes from bile acids combined with an amino acid. Other compounds such as the waste ... Bile is formed of three elements: bile salts, bilirubin and cholesterol. Bilirubin is a waste product of the breakdown of ... The bile salt component is an active non-enzymatic substance that facilitates fat absorption by helping it to form an emulsion ... Bile is secreted into the duodenum of the small intestine via the common bile duct. It is produced in liver cells and stored in ...
... bile salt hydrolase, and choloyltaurine hydrolase. This enzyme participates in bile acid biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 4 ... Rossocha M, Schultz-Heienbrok R, von Moeller H, Coleman JP, Saenger W (2005). "Conjugated bile acid hydrolase is a tetrameric N ... Coleman JP, Hudson LL (1995). "Cloning and characterization of a conjugated bile acid hydrolase gene from Clostridium ... Stellwag EJ, Hylemon PB (1976). "Purification and characterization of bile salt hydrolase from Bacteroides fragilis subsp. ...
B. longum also has bile salt hydrolases to hydrolyze bile salts into amino acids and bile acids. The function of this is not ... longum could use the amino acids products to better tolerate bile salts. A number of cases of B. longum infection have been ... Some strains of B. longum were found to have high tolerance for gastric acid and bile, suggesting that these strains would be ... Tanaka, H.; Hashiba, H.; Kok, J.; Mierau, I. (2000). "Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum-biochemical and genetic ...
Bile produced by the liver is made up of water (97%), bile salts, mucus and pigments, 1% fats and inorganic salts. Bilirubin is ... This also contains villi and vitamin B12; bile acids and any residue nutrients are absorbed here. When the chyme is exhausted ... Bile flows from the liver through the bile ducts and into the gall bladder for storage. The bile is released in response to ... so that it can discharge its bile into the bile duct. The gallbladder needs to store bile in a natural, semi-liquid form at all ...
Ursodeoxycholic acid, a bile salt, has been used, however there is insufficient data to show if it is effective. It is ... Bile secreted by the liver to aid in digestion may block the bile ducts, leading to liver damage. Impaired digestion or ... Children with cystic fibrosis lose excessive salt in their sweat, and parents often notice salt crystallizing on the skin, or a ... This lost salt forms the basis for the sweat test. Most of the damage in CF is due to blockage of the narrow passages of ...
Furthermore, a bile acid-picolinic acid conjugate can form gels in solvents that are 30%-50% organic. The increased water ... Oxalic acid dihydrate is another important ligand, that easily forms stable structures when copper salts are added, which can ... "Stimuli-responsive Bile Acid-based Metallogels Forming in Aqueous Media." Steroids 97 (2015): 54-61. Web. 1 Mar. 2016. (10) ... As an example of a chemo-response, adding a small amount of formic acid to Zn/Eu will cause the breakdown of gel-like material ...
Bile acid malabsorption may also be a risk. Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not ... The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from ... Medical therapy with oral bile acids has been used to treat small cholesterol stones, and for larger cholesterol gallstones ... Hofmann AF (September 1989). "Medical dissolution of gallstones by oral bile acid therapy". American Journal of Surgery. 158 (3 ...
Mutations in EPHX1 have been linked with preeclampsia, elevated blood levels of bile salts (i.e. hypercholanemia), Fetal ... Ananthanarayanan M, von Dippe P, Levy D (1988). "Identification of the hepatocyte Na+-dependent bile acid transport protein ... EPHX1 mediates the sodium-dependent transport of bile acids into hepatocytes. Androstene oxide and epoxyestratrienol have been ... and cerebral metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids was suggested. Modulation of metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by ...
Bile salt breath test (14C-glycocholate) to determine bile salt malabsorption. Schilling test to establish cause of B12 ... Cholestyramine or other bile acid sequestrants will help reducing diarrhoea in bile acid malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption ... In addition, unabsorbed fatty acids, converted to hydroxy-fatty acids by colonic flora, as well as unabsorbed bile acids both ... 75SeHCAT test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption in ileal disease or primary bile acid diarrhea. Glucose hydrogen breath test ...
Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis. Dogs ... Bilious vomiting syndrome in dogs is vomiting in response to bile-induced inflammation of the stomach. It is also known as ...
... most of the bile acids are ionized and mostly occur as their sodium salts which are then called "primary conjugated bile salts ... Bacteria deconjugate some of the primary and secondary conjugated bile salts back to lipid-soluble bile acids, which are ... Finally, the conjugated bile acids which remained un-ionized conjugated bile acids are passively absorbed. Venous blood from ... Hepatocytes metabolize cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These lipid-soluble bile acids are conjugated ( ...
Phosphatidylcholines are excreted into bile and work together with bile acid salts as surfactants in it, thus helping with the ... Certain choline salts are used to supplement chicken, turkey and some other animal feeds. Some salts are also used as ... Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism. In most animals, choline ... Other commercially used salts include tricholine citrate and choline bicarbonate. Hundreds of choline antagonists and enzyme ...
... on the properties of bile salts (over 700), and the mechanisms whereby bile acids produce secretion in the colon (over 500). ... His early studies on the role of bile acids in the formation of micelles, the structure of the mixed micelle, and bile acid ... "The function of bile salts in fat absorption. The solvent properties of dilute micellar solutions of conjugated bile salts". ... Hofmann AF (June 1961). "Micellar solubilization of fatty acids and monoglycerides by bile salt solutions". Nature. 190 (4781 ...
Recently thermospray was also utilized for the production of semiconductor nanocrystals, analysis of bile acids, identification ... diquaternary ammonium salts, pesticides, drugs, dyes, and environmental pollutants can be analyzed using thermospray. ... a new and highly specific technique for the analysis of bile acids". Journal of Lipid Research. 30 (9): 1459-1469. ISSN 0022- ... The second type of ionization is an acid-base transfer such that solvent ions exchange a proton with ionic components of a ...
Thumser AE, Wilton DC (December 1996). "The binding of cholesterol and bile salts to recombinant rat liver fatty acid-binding ... FABP1 is unique in the wider range of other hydrophobic ligands it can bind including bilirubin, monoglycerides, bile acids and ... "Decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation and altered fatty acid uptake in mice with deletion of the liver fatty acid-binding ... "Binding of fatty acids and peroxisome proliferators to orthologous fatty acid binding proteins from human, murine, and bovine ...
Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis. ... Gallbladder mucocele is a disease whereby the gallbladder becomes extended with bile and mucous, which can lead to the blockage ... Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine. Kidney ... There is more familiarity with the glucocortcoids, such as cortisol; mineralocorticoids control the amount of potassium, salt ...
... and bile acids. By targeting genes these receptors help control sugar, salt, calcium, cholesterol, and fat metabolism. They are ...
Resistance to gastric acid and bile acid are scientifically presented in the following studies where L. bulgaricus successfully ... lines Antimicrobial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria Ability to reduce pathogen adhesion to surfaces Bile salt ... Resistance to gastric acidity Bile acid resistance Adherence to mucus and/or human epithelial cells and cell ... Conway PL, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR (January 1987). "Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to ...
... a bile acid analogue), simtuzumab (a monoclonal antibody), and 24-norursodeoxycholic acid (a synthetic bile acid). Although the ... into bile canaliculi where it forms micelles with bile salts to prevent the latter from damaging luminal epithelium. Bile flow ... The primary bile acids cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) are synthesized in the liver and undergo conjugation ... Therefore, it is hypothesized that a reduction in secondary bile acid production, as a result of dysbiosis, could lead to bile ...
Bile salt malabsorption (primary bile acid diarrhea) where excessive bile acids in the colon produce a secretory diarrhea. ... Bile acid sequestrants such as cholestyramine can be effective in chronic diarrhea due to bile acid malabsorption. Therapeutic ... Standard home solutions such as salted rice water, salted yogurt drinks, vegetable and chicken soups with salt can be given. ... Slattery SA, Niaz O, Aziz Q, Ford AC, Farmer AD (July 2015). "Systematic review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of bile acid ...
The composition of hepatic bile is (97-98)% water, 0.7% bile salts, 0.2% bilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids, and ... Cholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Lithocholic acid Medicine portal Animals ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". Retrieved 2016-06-05. "Secretion of Bile ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". Colorado State Hypertextbook article on Bile. Archived from the ...
... the gene that codes for the bile salt export pump, or BSEP. Retention of bile salts within hepatocytes, which are the only cell ... The free or "unchaperoned" bile acids in bile of patients with MDR3 deficiency cause a cholangitis. Biochemically, this is of ... Biochemical markers include a normal GGT for PFIC-1 and -2, with a markedly elevated GGT for PFIC-3. Serum bile acid levels are ... Phosphatidylcholine normally chaperones bile acids, preventing damage to the biliary epithelium. ...
This gene is primarily expressed in liver and adrenal tissues where the encoded protein sulfonates steroids and bile acids. ... Bile salt sulfotransferase also known as hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (HST) or sulfotransferase 2A1 (ST2A1) is an enzyme ... 1991). "Human liver steroid sulphotransferase sulphates bile acids". Biochem. J. 272 (3): 597-604. doi:10.1042/bj2720597. PMC ...
... and its salt sodium tyropanoate are radiocontrast agents used in cholecystography (X-ray diagnosis of ... After injection it is rapidly excreted into the bile. "PubChem CID 5611". Felicetta, James V.; Green, William L.; Nelp, Wil B ... Carboxylic acids, Butyramides, Anilides, All stub articles, Pharmacology stubs, Organohalide stubs). ...
Haslewood, GA (June 1971). "Bile salts of germ-free domestic fowl and pigs". The Biochemical Journal. 123 (1): 15-8. doi: ... Hyocholic acid or 3α,6α,7α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a bile acid found as one of the main forms in pig, and at low ... Hyocholic acid differs from the primary bile acids found in humans by having a third hydroxyl group in the α-conformation at ... Bacterial 7α-dehydroxylation in the colon produces the secondary bile acid, hyodeoxycholic acid. Epimerization of the 7- ...
... acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Lithocholic acid Bile salts ... These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts. The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, ... Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. Primary bile acids are those ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ...
It occurs as a sodium salt in the bile of mammals. It is a conjugate of cholic acid with taurine. In medical use, it is ... Hydrolysis of taurocholic acid yields taurine. For commercial use, taurocholic acid is manufactured from cattle bile, a ... Deoxycholic acid Anwer, M. Sawkat (2004). "Cellular regulation of hepatic bile acid transport in health and cholestasis". ... known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline bile acid involved ...
Carey MC, Small DM (October 1972). "Micelle formation by bile salts. Physical-chemical and thermodynamic considerations". ... Taurochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid formed in the liver of most species, including humans, by conjugation of ... Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, an epimer See article about Taurodeoxycholic acid as an interferent in Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid ... Bile acids, Sulfonic acids, Carboxamides, Diols, Cholanes, All stub articles, Steroid stubs). ...
... chenocholic acid and 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) is a bile acid. Salts of this carboxylic acid are called ... lithocholic acid or the epimer, ursodeoxycholic acid. CDCA is the most potent natural bile acid at stimulating the nuclear bile ... Chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid are the two primary bile acids in humans. Chenodeoxycholic acid has two hydroxyl groups ... Chenodeoxycholic acid is one of the main bile acids. It was first isolated from the bile of the domestic goose, which gives it ...
... bile salts, and vitamin D.[34][45][46] Conversion of pyruvate into oxaloacetate for the citric acid cycle[edit]. Pyruvate ... the conjugate base of lactic acid) in a process called lactic acid fermentation: Pyruvate + NADH + H+ → lactate + NAD+. This ... beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and during the citric acid cycle). The NADH thus produced is primarily used to ultimately ... Pyruvic acid Structure of glycolysis components in Fischer projections and polygonal model[edit]. The intermediates of ...
Phosphatidylcholines are excreted into bile and work together with bile acid salts as surfactants in it, thus helping with the ... Dietary reference intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and ... In 1849, Adolph Strecker was the first to isolate choline from pig bile.[48][49] In 1852, L. Babo and M. Hirschbrunn extracted ... Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism.[2] In most animals, choline ...
Estrogens increase cholesterol secretion and diminish bile salt secretion, while progestins act by reducing bile salt secretion ... Chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodiol with ursodiol more commonly used due to their side-effect profile. It will take ... changes in gallbladder motility and intestinal bacterial degradation of bile salts to destabilize cholesterol carriers in bile ... leading to the contraction and release of bile into the bile ducts. Other hormones allow for the relaxation and further storing ...
Additionally, vitamin E is excreted by the liver via bile into the intestinal lumen, where it will either be reabsorbed or ... Vitamin E is fat soluble, so dietary supplement products are usually in the form of the vitamin, esterified with acetic acid to ... However, under stressed growing conditions such as drought, elevated temperature or salt-induced oxidative stress, the plants' ... for humans or domesticated animals convert the phenol form of the vitamin to an ester using either acetic acid or succinic acid ...
Additionally, aspartic acid is found in: *Dietary supplements, either as aspartic acid itself or salts (such as magnesium ... which serves to regulate enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin and bile acids.[14] ... Aspartic acid, like glutamic acid, is classified as an acidic amino acid, with a pKa of 3.9, however in a peptide this is ... Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D;[4] the ionic form is known as aspartate), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis ...
... and six sulfonic acid groups. When given as a medication, it is usually delivered as the sodium sulfonate salt as this ... 8,8'-{Carbonylbis[imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino(4-methyl-3,1-phenylene)carbonylimino]}di(1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid) ...
Black bileEdit. *Black bile is cold and dry. It is sparse, but it is essential for the body. The right amounts of black bile ... Salt marshes and deserts are warm and dry. Coastal areas are cold and wet, while the tropics are warm and wet.[32] ... and high uric acid. ... Yellow bileEdit. *Yellow bile is not as abundant as phlegm and ... Normal amounts of black bile also support hair and nails. Black bile strengthens body parts, therefore a lack of black bile in ...
... which is then conjugated to glucuronic acid. These metabolites are excreted in the urine and bile. Only about 3% of the active ... Oral administration (as succinate salt) has low bioavailability, partly due to presystemic metabolism-some of it gets broken ... Sumatriptan is metabolised primarily by monoamine oxidase A into 2-{5-[(methylsulfamoyl)methyl]-indole-3-yl}acetic acid, ...
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is reduced in these patients with ileal abnormalities and, as the normal bile acid ... which was synthesized for use as a radiopharmaceutical to investigate in vivo the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. By ... This test has replaced 14C-labeled glycocholic acid (or taurocholic acid) breath tests and fecal bile acid measurements, which ... selenium homocholic acid taurine, or tauroselcholic acid) is a drug used in a clinical test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption ...
... oxalic acid and its salts, lactic acid, cholesterin, stearin, etc. He analysed muscle fibre and chitin. He showed that animal ... He discovered hydrochloric acid in gastric juice and its chemical interaction with pepsin. He studied bile and pancreatic ... Schmidt determined the typical crystallization patterns of many important biochemicals such as uric acid, ...
It is not known how much of this amount comes from the bile, and how much was not absorbed in the first place. (The bile ... It is slightly acidic with a pKa of 7.7 for the enolic acid and 1.1 (calculated) for the carboxamide. The molecule has two ... The tablets contain cabotegravir sodium salt. Cabotegravir was examined in the clinical trials HPTN 083 and HPTN 084. In 2020, ... The marketed injection achieves its long half-life not via nanoparticles but with a suspension of the free cabotegravir acid. ...
Bile acid sequestrants (e.g. cholestyramine, colestipol, etc.): If taken together, bile acid resins may bind to fenofibrate, ... The choline salt of fenofibrate is available in the United States, sold as Trilipix, and may be taken without regard to meals. ... See "Interaction" section under Bile acid sequestrant Coagulation/Bleeding Exercise caution in concomitant treatment with oral ... patients need to separate administration by at least 1 h before or 4 h to 6 h after taking the bile acid sequestrant. ...
"Influence of bile salts on hepatic mdr2 P-glycoprotein expression". Adv. Enzyme. Regul. 36: 351-63. doi:10.1016/0065-2571(95) ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on acid anhydrides to catalyse transmembrane ...
Isonicotinic acid is further metabolized by glycine-conjugation or glucuronic acid-conjugation. Iproniazid can also interact ... Excretion can occur via different routes: via the lungs, the urine, bile and sometimes via the skin or breast milk. Iproniazid ... Pozsgay, Vince; Jennings, Harold J. (1987). "Azide synthesis with stable nitrosyl salts". Tetrahedron Letters. 28 (43): 5091- ... Isonicotinic acid, formed during the hydrolysis of iproniazid, is described as a moderately toxic compound and allergen with ...
Bile salts possess detergent properties that allow them to emulsify fat globules into smaller emulsion droplets, and then into ... allowing them to facilitate transport of monoglycerides and fatty acids across the surface of the enterocyte, where absorption ... Globules of fat are emulsified in the duodenum into small droplets by bile salts during food digestion, speeding up the rate of ...
It produces considerable quantities of bile acids for use in the intestines; these are carried to the intestines via ducts and ... Increased salt intake results in increased salt excretion. Lowered environmental temperature eventually starts chills and ... Its amino acid code (DNA triplet --> amino acid incorporation) is identical across all Terrestrial life except for a very few ... Amino acid a weak acid carbon compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nitrogenous amine group is ...
... salt). The first mention of the mercury-sulphur-salt model was in the Opus paramirum dating to about 1530. Paracelsus believed ... black bile and yellow bile. These ideas were further developed by Galen into an extremely influential and highly persistent set ... Paracelsus in the beginning of the sixteenth century had unknowingly observed hydrogen as he noted that in reaction when acids ... or salt. Paracelsus drew the importance of sulphur, salt, and mercury from medieval alchemy, where they all occupied a ...
... stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious factors such as gastric acid, bile acids ... Certain salivary proteins prevent precipitation, which would form salts. These ions act as a buffer, keeping the acidity of the ... The presence of bacterial products (small organic acids, amines, and thiols) causes saliva to sometimes exhibit a foul odor. ... The biological effects of salivary EGF include healing of oral and gastroesophageal ulcers, inhibition of gastric acid ...
In chronic hepatitis, posthepatitis states, biliary disorders, sequelae after on the bile ducts surgery. In nutrition diseases ... the Praid salt mine, Sovata, and the ceramics centre of Corund. According to the 2002 census, the town's population was 2,864, ... acid urinary lithiasis, sequelae after operations on the urinary tract. In external treatment (through bathing) the Borsec ...
If the "salt" in it was removed, or it was cooked in oil or vinegar, then they wrote that eggplant gained healthy atttributes. ... They wrote that it could cause heat and dryness and an excess of black bile, contributing to a wide range of health problems. ... chlorogenic acid. Case reports of itchy skin or mouth, mild headache, and stomach upset after handling or eating eggplant have ... Rinsing, draining, and salting the sliced fruit before cooking may remove the bitterness. The fruit is capable of absorbing ...
The chloride and sodium ions create a salt-water environment in the small intestines, which through osmosis can pull up to six ... The word cholera is from Greek: χολέρα kholera from χολή kholē "bile". Cholera likely has its origins in the Indian ... the researchers found the bacterium creates a hyperinfected state where genes that control biosynthesis of amino acids, iron ... One such recipe calls for 1 liter of boiled water, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 6 teaspoons of sugar, and added mashed banana for ...
Natural barriers consist of mucus layers, bile salt, proteases, and lipases. Additionally, peristalsis and the renewal of ... which is the amino acid necessary to make nitric oxide. Arginine starvation is known to be a cause of programmed cell death, ...
... is generally available in their stable form as crystallized potassium or sodium salt, quickly losing bactericidal ... A reformulation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and piperacillin-tazobactam has produced results showing an increase in ... indicated by a generally higher concentration of piperacillin than tazobactam in the bile. The metabolites that make up the ...
Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ... Bile acids (also called bile salts). *Bilirubin (a breakdown product or red blood cells) ... Bile helps with digestion. It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. ... Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ...
Bile salts in bile dissolve the unilamellar vesicles to form soluble aggregates called mixed micelles. This happens mainly in ... Ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of gallstones in patients subjected to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass1. Acta Cir Bras. 2019 ... relative to lecithin and bile salts, and (2) the degree of concentration and the extent of stasis of bile in the gallbladder. ... Crohn disease, ileal resection, or other diseases of the ileum decrease bile salt reabsorption and increase the risk of ...
Here Are 7 Ways To Better bile salts vs bile acids. 08.10.2022. Гриша ... thank you so much, Bennett, for sharing your story and all ... DHA, the essential fatty acid found in fish, flax, and walnuts is a crucial building block of your babys brain, too. ...
Role of bile acid malabsorption in pathogenesis of diarrhea and steatorrhea in patients with ileal resection. I. Response to ... which in turn inhibits enterohepatic reuptake of intestinal bile salts. Effective in reducing the choleretic diarrhea in ... Forms a nonabsorbable complex with bile acids in the intestine, ... Also called ursodeoxycholic acid. Improves bile acid-dependent ... Decreases gastric acid secretion by inhibiting parietal cell H+/K+ -ATP pump. ...
Experimental data indicated that human bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition by TAK-875 was mixed whereas sodium taurocholate ... In vitro assays revealed that bile acid transporters were inhibited by both TAK-875 and its metabolite, TAK-875-Glu. ... Determining the mode of bile acid transporter inhibition (Ki) was critical to accurate predictions. In addition, simulations ... Quantitative Systems Toxicology Analysis of In Vitro Mechanistic Assays Reveals Importance of Bile Acid Accumulation and ...
... acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Lithocholic acid Bile salts ... These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts. The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, ... Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. Primary bile acids are those ... Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. Thus ...
n. the organic acids in bile; mostly occurring as bile salts. They are cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid, and ... Source for information on bile acids: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary. ... bile acids pl. n. the organic acids in bile; mostly occurring as bile salts. They are cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ... aspartic acid (aspartate) A non‐essential amino acid. aspartic acid An aliphatic, acidic, p… Glutamic Acid , glutamic acid A ...
Bile Acids and Salts / analysis* * Cell Division * Colonic Neoplasms / analysis* * Colonic Neoplasms / pathology ... Proliferative activity of rectal mucosa and soluble fecal bile acids in patients with normal colons and in patients with ... 5.8% with P = 0.06). The patients with colonic tumors also had significantly higher levels of deoxycholic acid (P = 0.01) and ... lithocholic acid (P = 0.005) in the aqueous extract of their feces. This study shows that these biochemical measures may ...
Bile salts and bile acids are surfactants that play a key role in the digestion of fats by humans. Together with phospholipids ... 2.2 Coarse-grained model of bile salts. The coarse-grained model of dihydroxy taurine- or glycine-substituted bile salts used ... or even molecules similar to bile salts like the triterpenoids asiatic acid and madecassic acid.52,53 ... Ekwall and Small propose a two-step mechanism of micelle formation for bile salts, made possible by the abundance of bile salt ...
More specifically, deoxycholic acid and related compositions, said compositions being free of all moieties of animal origin and ... Bile acids and related compositions and methods of synthesis and use. ... 150000003839 salts Chemical class 0.000 claims description 44 * WYURNTSHIVDZCO-UHFFFAOYSA-N tetrahydrofuran Chemical compound ... EP2407475A2 - Synthetic Bile Acid Composition, Method, and Preparation - Google Patents. Synthetic Bile Acid Composition, ...
Bile Acid. Class Summary. This agent promotes bile salt excretion via direct stimulation of bile flow and via indirect ... of bile acid uptake into hepatocytes and facilitation of excretion of dihydroxy and monohydroxy bile acids and toxic bile acids ... Ileal Bile Acid Transport Inhibitors. Class Summary. Inhibitors of ileal bile acid transport (IBAT) act locally in the distal ... ileum to decrease reuptake of bile acids and increase clearance of bile acids through the colon, thereby, reducing bile acid ...
High Potency Bile Acid Formulation: Bile Acid Factors consists of highly concentrated bile acids, mostly in the conjugated form ... Bile Salts Booster is delivered in tiny capsules containing only 110 mg of bile salts. This is because bile salt dosages should ... Ox Bile Salts & Taurine,180 capsules,110mg, *FORTIFIED WITH TAURINE - Bile Salts Booster includes added Taurine, an amino acid ... Liver Rescue Aid Bile Salts - Tudca Bile Salt - Assist Liver Detox Cleanse Tudca Supplement (Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid) *60 - 1 ...
high tolerances to survive stomach acid and bile salts;. -support for the bodys natural defenses and the intestinal tracts ...
These findings suggest that bile canaliculi have transporter-specific bile excretion abilities. We will continue to study the ... extended bile canaliculi were formed on the whole well surfaces. Biliary efflux transporters were localized in the formed bile ... The formation of functional bile canaliculi in human hepatocytes is required for in vitro cholestasis toxicity tests conducted ... In this study, we investigated the culture conditions required for the formation of bile canaliculi using human-induced ...
Bobowiec R. Effects of the intravenous infusion of sodium salts of bile acids on bile flow and bile acids of sheep {Polish}. ... dose of bile acids used for treating cholelithiasis and 9% of the total bile acid pool (3.0 g) in adults (4,7). The toxic ... bile salt-induced cell membrane damage by liposomes and hydrophilic bile salts. Am J Physiol 1993;264(5 pt 1):G835-G839. ... bile acids will saturate the enterohepatic cycle and result in increased levels of circulating serum bile acids (6). The ...
Bile acid distributions, sex-specificity, and prognosis in colorectal cancer. Cai, Y., Shen, X., Lu, L., Yan, H., Huang, H., ... Kynurenic acid may underlie sex-specific immune responses to COVID-19. Cai, Y., Kim, D. J., Takahashi, T., Broadhurst, D. I., ... Mitochondrial hyperfusion via metabolic sensing of regulatory amino acids. Abdullah, M. O., Zeng, R. X., Margerum, C. L., ...
Effect of primary bile acid ingestion on bile acid metabolism and biliary lipid secretion in gallstone patients. ... Dive into the research topics of Effect of primary bile acid ingestion on bile acid metabolism and biliary lipid secretion in ... Bile Acids and Salts 93% * Chenodeoxycholic Acid 87% * Cholesterol 26% * Cholic Acid 62% ...
2000) ATP-dependent transport of bile salts by rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3). J Biol Chem 275:2905-2910. ... 2001) Disrupted bile acid homeostasis reveals an unexpected interaction among nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and ... A transcriptional control of a plausible bile acid transporter. J Biol Chem 276:46822-46829. ... Substrates of the basolateral export pump MRP3 are sulfated and nonsulfated bile salts, 17β-glucuronosyl estradiol, leukotriene ...
100% survival through simulated digestion* (stomach acid, bile salts, and digestive enzymes). ... This delivery system shields against stomach acid, digestion enzymes, and bile salts, and safeguards viability through ... Preferably on an empty stomach to limit exposure to digestive enzymes and bile salts. However, you know your body best-if its ... Other Ingredients: Acid-Resistant Vegan Outer [chlorophyllin] and Inner Capsules [hypromellose, fermented gellan gum, water], ...
First, in order to be effective Probiotics must contain bacteria which are resistant to stomach acids and bile salts. Secondly ... Cacao is also rich in several B vitamins, minerals such as copper, magnesium and zinc, amino acids and mood-boosting chemicals ...
are known to reduce cholesterol solubility in bile acid micelles, which are related to fat absorption, ... Ogawa, K.; Hirose, S.; Nagaoka, S.; Yanase, E. Interaction between Tea Polyphenols and Bile Acid Inhibits ... Using liquid chromatography, 4 sugars, 6 organic acids, 18 amino acids and 9 polyphenols were detected in all matcha samples ... asparatic acid, glutamic acid, threonine and theanine (amide) in Mat-cha were decreased with decreasing the price of Mat-cha. ...
Poor bile acid metabolism (low levels of free bile salts). · Low levels of Lactobacillus spp. (lactic acid bacteria) ...
Deconjugated bile salts and bacterial hydroxylation of fatty acids exacerbate diarrhea by stimulating colonic secretion. ... a low-fat diet may help by minimizing secretory diarrhea due to bacterial metabolism of fatty acids and bile salts. Oral broad- ... released bile salts remain within the lumen and are ultimately reabsorbed in the ileum and undergo enterohepatic recycling ... after solubilization by bile salt micelles, triglycerides are digested by pancreatic lipase to monoglycerides and free fatty ...
Cholesterol from the liver synthesizes bile acids in the gallbladder.. Bile is a watery solution. It consists of bile salts, ... Soluble fiber reduces the rate at which the body reabsorbs bile acid, affecting how much bile acid it produces. This increases ... When people eat food, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile salts. Bile salts function as a cleaning mechanism that ... How does soluble fiber affect bile production?. Another function of soluble fiber is interacting. with bile acids by absorbing ...
Bile Acids and Salts. *Bile acids surround ingested lipids (forming micelles) and aid in lipid intestinal aborption. *Bile acid ... Bile salts are reclaimed by enterohepatic circulation. *Bile salts absorbed in ileum are transported back to liver via portal ... Primary bile acids are derivatives of Cholic acid and Chenodeoxycholic Acid. *Produced via CYP450 mediated Cholesterol ... Stores bile produced in the liver. *Gall Bladder contraction and release of bile acids into duodenum on ingestion of lipids. * ...
Bile [r]: Bile acids, bile salts, cholesterol and electrolytes produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum via the ... Streptococcus pneumoniae [r]: Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, bile soluble diplococcus recognized as a major cause of pneumonia ... common bile duct. [e]. *C-reactive protein [r]: Globulin that appears in the blood in certain acute inflammatory conditions, ...
Acid reflux in dogs is a condition where gastric or intestinal fluids reverse into the esophagus (the tube connecting the mouth ... to the stomach). Learn about the signs, symptoms, and treatment of acid reflux in dogs. ... The gastric acid, pepsin, bile salts, and other components of the gastrointestinal juices cause damage to the protective lining ... Preventing Acid Reflux in Dogs. High-fat foods can worsen acid reflux. The best way to prevent future flare-ups is a healthy ...
Bile tolerance allows survival of probiotics in the intestinal tract. The objective was to determine whether or not flaxseed ... Therefore, flaxseed improved the bile tolerance of L. acidophilus but not of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus. ... enhances bile tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) LA-K, Lactobacillus delbruekii ssp. bulgaricus (L. ... Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp in the Presence of Acid and Bile Salts. Cultured Dairy Products ...
  • Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. (
  • Diverse bile acids are synthesized in the liver. (
  • Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. (
  • Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans) via cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cholesterol in a multi-step process. (
  • Prior to secreting any of the bile acids (primary or secondary, see below), liver cells conjugate them with either glycine or taurine, to form a total of 8 possible conjugated bile acids. (
  • About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion into the biliary system and gallbladder. (
  • Germa Bile Salts Natural Dietary Supplement, for Liver Support / Sales Biliares Suplemento Dietetico. (
  • Tudca Liver Support Supplement - Tudca 500mg 60 SERVINGS - Liver Cleanse - Liver Rescue Aid Bile. (
  • Animal experiments have been conducted in the preclinical stage but were unable to significantly predict the liver injury associated with the BSEP interference observed in humans because of interspecies differences in bile acid composition, hepatobiliary transporter modulation or constitutive expression, and other mechanisms 12 . (
  • Cholesterol from the liver synthesizes bile acids in the gallbladder . (
  • Bile acids, bile salts, cholesterol and electrolytes produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum via the common bile duct . (
  • Bile salts are produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and deposited into the small intestine as needed for digestion. (
  • Since coconut oil contains mostly medium-chain triglycerides, it is directly absorbed into the portal vein and goes into the liver without requiring lipase or bile salts for digestion. (
  • Glycochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholic acid and glycine, usually found as the sodium salt. (
  • It should be noted that liver disease can dramatically alter this pattern of recirculation - for instance, sick hepatocytes have decreased ability to extract bile acids from portal blood and damage to the canalicular system can result in escape of bile acids into the systemic circulation. (
  • A small, digestive organ positioned under the liver, which concentrates and stores bile. (
  • The sole function of the gallbladder is to store bile, which is produced in the liver and aids in the digestion of fats in the small intestine. (
  • The liver is therefore forced to make more bile acids, thus removing cholesterol from the blood. (
  • Specific probiotic organisms feed on prebiotic fibers, producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate and propionate , both of which may inhibit liver cholesterol synthesis. (
  • Propionate may also inhibit the synthesis of fatty acids in the liver, thereby lowering the rates of triacylglycerol secretion. (
  • The gallbladder is largely a storage container for bile produced by the liver . (
  • Bile is a mixture of salts, bile acids, phospholipids such as lecithin, cholesterol (produced in the liver), bilirubin and a number of other substances. (
  • The bile produced by the liver enters the gallbladder through either the cystic duct or the common bile duct and, after meals, flows into the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum) to mix with the partially digested foods and support the absorption of fats. (
  • 7-If you get kidney stones that are from urate salts, you are likely NOT following a low-ish carb paleo diet, you likely have insulin resistance and your liver is not processing uric acid. (
  • Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver. (
  • Since then, it has become evident that PB not only induces drug metabolism, but also triggers pleiotropic effects on liver function, such as cell growth and communication, proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum, tumor promotion, glucose metabolism, steroid/ thyroid hormone metabolism, and bile acid synthesis. (
  • In chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis , bile acids may deposit in the skin, causing pruritus (itching). (
  • Hence, bile acid sequenstrants may be used for the prevention of pruritus in patients with chronic liver disease. (
  • Most bile acids are reabsorbed in the ileum by active transport, while a small amount is reabsorbed by passive diffusion in the upper intestine to portal blood for circulation to the liver. (
  • Bile salts are efficiently recycled via the portal system back to the liver in the so-called enterohepatic circulation [41]. (
  • Enterohepatic recycling is physiologically important for bile salt because the liver is unable to synthesis enough bile salts to meet the daily requirement for fat digestion. (
  • The vast majority (95%) of the bile acids released into the duodenum are reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and returned to the liver to be reused. (
  • About 94% of the secreted bile is recovered and recycled back to the liver by way of the hepatic portal system. (
  • Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver through two pathways: the classic pathway and the alternative pathway. (
  • In human liver, bile acid synthesis mainly produces two primary bile acids, cholic acid (CA), and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). (
  • Formed in the liver, bile acids are absorbed actively from the small intestine, with each molecule undergoing multiple enterohepatic circulations before being excreted. (
  • Cholestatic liver disease, biliary atresia , and bacterial overgrowth reduce the bile salt concentration in the intestines. (
  • It is a yellow-green fluid produced in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and passed through the common bile duct to the duodenum, where it helps digest fat. (
  • 2021. Bile acids are made in the liver & secreted into small intestine to help with fat digestion. (
  • Modulation of the Bile Acid Enterohepatic Cycle by Intestinal Microbiota Alleviates Alcohol Liver Disease. (
  • Background & Aims: Genetic defects causing dysfunction in bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) lead to liver diseases. (
  • In this report we present a simple and rapid method for analysis of 21 kinds of bile acids and the conjugates in rat serum and liver samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) in the negative ionization mode, using cholic-2, 2, 4, 4-d4 acid as internal standard. (
  • For most bile acids, calibration curves showed good linearities in the range of 0.25 to 5000 ng/mL for serum samples, 2.5 ng/g to 50 mg/g for liver samples. (
  • In the animal study, we compared 21 bile acids in the serum and liver samples of the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats fed with control (SP) diet or high-fat and high-cholesterol-containing (HFC) diet. (
  • By feeding with HFC diet, the glycine conjugates of some bile acids significantly increased and the taurine conjugate of ulsodeoxicolate (TUDC) decreased in serum and liver samples. (
  • Our results suggest that the change of bile acid profiles could be applied for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). (
  • I think I'm either not producing enough bile from my liver or my gallbladder is disfunctional and not spitting the bile out. (
  • Discuss this with a hepatologist, he/she May ask you to have a test named "total bile acids" to check for cholestasis and perhaps some more liver tests. (
  • After oral admin-istration, it is absorbed, conjugated in the liver with glycine or taurine, and excreted in the bile. (
  • A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. (
  • Furthermore, MFP-2-deficient mice accumulated VLCFA in brain and liver phospholipids, immature C(27) bile acids in bile, and, after supplementation with phytol, pristanic and phytanic acid in liver triacylglycerols. (
  • These changes correlated with a severe impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very long straight chain fatty acids (C(24)), 2-methyl-branched chain fatty acids, and the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanic acid in fibroblast cultures or liver homogenates derived from the MFP-2 knockout mice. (
  • In contrast, peroxisomal beta-oxidation of long straight chain fatty acids (C(16)) was enhanced in liver tissue from MFP-2(-/-) mice, due to the up-regulation of the enzymes of the classical peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway. (
  • It helps to dissolve the stone by reducing the amount of cholesterol released by liver into bile. (
  • Bile salts or bile acid: the liver manufactures these steroids. (
  • The liver produces bile salts bilirubin, bile acids and phospholipids that aid in fat digestion. (
  • Gallstones in the liver obstruct the movement of bile through the bile ducts, which impairs digestion and distorts the structural framework of liver lobules. (
  • NewsTarget) If you experience major, persisting health problems, either physical or emotional, your liver may be congested with toxic compounds that are trapped within clumps of hardened bile (intrahepatic stones. (
  • Congestion in the bile ducts of the liver undermines the body's effort to make proper use of the food you eat. (
  • The liver cannot perform any of these functions properly if its bile ducts are clogged with deposits of hardened bile or " gallstones " (made of gall or bile). (
  • The liver flush mentioned in this context is a straightforward, safe and painless do-it-yourself procedure using apple juice (or malic acid), olive oil, citrus juice and Epsom salts to dispel gallstones from both the liver and the gallbladder . (
  • Long-term itching is often a symptom of chronic liver disease, and while the exact cause is not fully understood, it is thought to result from increased levels of lysophosphatidic acid and bile salts that accumulate under the skin. (
  • Ostarine is not known to block the action of bile acid (bile acids are the bile salts made by liver and excreted from the kidney), pct ostarine cycle. (
  • They give bile its foamy character, are important in the digestion of fats in the intestine, and are reabsorbed from the intestine to be used again by the liver. (
  • In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (derivatives of chenodeoxycholic acid) are the major bile salts. (
  • Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. (
  • Cholesterol, ingested as part of the diet or derivative of the hepatic synthesis, is converted into bile acid, cholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid, which is then conjugated with an amino acid ( glycine or taurine) to produce the conjugated form actively secreted in the canaliculus. (
  • 8 Patients with IBS-D are known to have a higher proportion of primary bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, perhaps due to accelerated transit. (
  • Inhibits histamine stimulation of the H2 receptor in gastric parietal cells, which in turn reduces gastric acid secretion, gastric volume, and hydrogen concentrations. (
  • Decreases gastric acid secretion by inhibiting parietal cell H + /K + -ATP pump. (
  • An increased secretion of bile acids produces an increase in bile flow. (
  • Dietary fat should be limited because fat stimulates gastric acid secretion. (
  • Secretion into bile is a major route for eliminating cholesterol . (
  • Many waste products are eliminated from the body by secretion into bile and elimination in feces. (
  • Take a spoonful of the oil with warm water and a pinch of salt to stimulate the secretion of gastric juices, acids and bile into the stomach. (
  • If excessive amounts of bile acids enter the colon, colonic secretion is stimulated and the amount of water incorporated in the stool increased, which causes frequent loose stools associated with a sensation of urgency, often accompanied by nocturnal diarrhoea. (
  • Here, we studied the effects of the dual FXR and TGR5 agonist INT-767 on hepatic bile acid synthesis and intestinal secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in wild-type, Fxr(-/-), and Tgr5(-/-) mice. (
  • Bile acids also induce bile flow and biliary lipid secretion. (
  • As the bile flows through the bile ducts, it is modified by adding a bicarbonate-rich aqueous secretion from the ductal epithelial cells. (
  • Secretion in the bile is an essential route to eliminating cholesterol. (
  • Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is a common cause of chronic diarrhea and is characterized by excess bile acids (BAs) within the colon, resulting in increased colonic motility and secretion. (
  • Colorado State University: 'Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion' Mayo Clinic: 'Bile Reflux' 2. (
  • Secondary bile acids were detected in patients without BSEP expression, suggesting biliary bile acid secretion through alternative routes. (
  • Ursodiol decreases the cholesterol content of bile by reducing hepatic cholesterol secretion. (
  • 1. Dietary fat increases bile acids secretion inside the gut, and they act as aggressive surfactants for the mucosa thus increasing cell loss and proliferation. (
  • Bile formation and secretion. (
  • It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. (
  • Antioxidant that prevents the oxidation of vitamins A and C. Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes from attack by free radicals and protects RBCs against hemolysis. (
  • Coconut oil is different from other oils because it contains medium-chain fatty acids, which make it easier to absorb. (
  • These seed oils contain mostly triglycerides containing long chain fatty acids. (
  • Once eaten, these long-chain fatty acids need to be emulsified by bile salts. (
  • Coconut Milk Powder contains medium-chain fatty acids from a natural, whole-food source. (
  • These fatty acids create and provide energy for our bodies. (
  • Most recent research efforts have been directed toward understanding the interaction of the the long chain fatty acids with the lipid components of hepatic bile, especially the bile salts (BS). (
  • Knowledge of these molecular interactions is essential in order to understand the physical chemistry involved in fatty acid uptake. (
  • and protective short-chain fatty acid production, as well as changes in host immune status. (
  • Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus campylobacter, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus Helicobacter. (
  • and 3) conversion of amino acids to glucose, glycogen, fatty acids, and ketone bodies, or oxidation to CO 2 + H 2 O (see Figure 19.2). (
  • Chylomicron transportation The procedure by which essential fatty acids are absorbed would depend on the chain duration and drinking water solubility. (
  • Most moderate and brief chain essential fatty acids are drinking water soluble and easily absorbed by the enterocytes and enter either the capillaries or lymphatics. (
  • The absorption of the fairly water insoluble lengthy chain fatty acids is definitely more complex. (
  • Long chain fatty acids are integrated into SAHA enzyme inhibitor bile salt micelles to increase their water solubility and enhance their absorption by enterocytes. (
  • After entering the cells, the fatty acids are re-esterified into triglycerides, provided with a glycoprotein coating, and enter the interstitium as chylomicrons. (
  • Fatty acid soap dissoved in oil is the recipe for grease. (
  • Soaps are neutralised fatty acids, the common and low cost bases give soaps. (
  • The soaps tend to be solids or pastes, higher viscosity and melting point than the FFA or glycerol esters (fats) of those fatty acids. (
  • Let me start with a question --- what is the concentration of fatty acids in a typical batch of waste oil? (
  • Several studies in humans and animal models have demonstrated an association between gut microbial metabolites such as trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO), short-chain fatty acids, and bile acid metabolites (amino acid breakdown products) with CVD. (
  • They can solubilize many lipids forming micelles (aggregates of lipids such as fatty acids, cholesterol, and monoglycerides) that remain suspended in water. (
  • Various pathways for formation of cheese flavor compounds were identified: the Wood-Werkman cycle for propionic acid formation, amino acid degradation pathways resulting in the formation of volatile branched chain fatty acids, and esterases involved in the formation of free fatty acids and esters. (
  • According to current views, peroxisomal beta-oxidation is organized as two parallel pathways: the classical pathway that is responsible for the degradation of straight chain fatty acids and a more recently identified pathway that degrades branched chain fatty acids and bile acid intermediates. (
  • The present data indicate that MFP-2 is not only essential for the degradation of 2-methyl-branched fatty acids and the bile acid intermediates di- and trihydroxycoprostanic acid but also for the breakdown of very long chain fatty acids. (
  • These strategies have emphasized in the alteration of nutritional profile, for example increasing the content of polyunsaturated fatty acid ( PUFA ), and in the improvement of the oxidative stability, such as supplementation of animal with natural antioxidants to minimize pigment and lipid oxidation in meat. (
  • The interest in the modification of fatty acid of meat is due to that fatty acid composition plays an important role in the definition of meat quality because it is related to differences in sensory attributes and in the nutritional value for human consumption [ 1 ]. (
  • Meat is a major source of fat in the diet, especially of saturated fatty acids ( SFA ), which have been implicated in diseases, especially in developed countries, such as cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. (
  • However, some monounsaturated fatty acids ( MUFA ) and PUFA , in particular long-chain n-3 PUFA have favourable effects on human health. (
  • SFA greater than 4 and the type of polyunsaturated fatty acid is now being emphasized and a higher ratio of n-3: n-6 fatty acids is advocated [ 1 ]. (
  • bioavailability by forming insoluble complexes with bile salts/fatty acids, inhibiting micelle formation. (
  • Dr. Jianping Ye's group recently published a paper showing that the harmful metabolic effects of a high-fat diet (lard and soybean oil) on mice can be prevented, and even reversed, using a short-chain saturated fatty acid called butyric acid (hereafter, butyrate). (
  • Butyrate, and other short-chain fatty acids produced by gut bacteria**, has a remarkable effect on intestinal permeability. (
  • In tissue culture and live rats, short-chain fatty acids cause a large and rapid decrease in intestinal permeability. (
  • This shows that short-chain fatty acids, including butyrate, play an important role in the maintenance of gut barrier integrity. (
  • C 18 H 30 O 2 , an omega-3 fatty acid derived from plants, esp. (
  • C 20 H 32 O 2 , an omega-6 fatty acid formed by the action of enzymes on phospholipids in cell membranes. (
  • Experimental studies indicate that long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) might influence fat hydrolysis and absorption. (
  • 1 2 Stool hardness in infancy is related to the calcium soap content of the stool, 3 and soaps are formed when residual free fatty acids, especially saturated fats, precipitate with calcium in the intestinal lumen. (
  • 9-11 However, recent experimental studies have indicated that long chain fatty acids may play an important role in fat hydrolysis and absorption. (
  • 12 13 The effect of these long chain fatty acids is related directly to the length of the carbon chain and the degree of unsaturation. (
  • 12 Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are present in breast milk, 14 but until recently were not available in artificial formulas. (
  • Recent data from fat balance studies undertaken on infants randomised to either a formula supplemented with LCPUFAs or to an unsupplemented, but otherwise similar formula, showed that total fat absorption and the absorption of saturated fatty acids were increased in the LCPUFA supplemented group. (
  • In addition, fatty diets favor obesity which in turn increases insulin resistance and associated changes in blood values (high glucose, free fatty acids, insulin and IGF1): these circulating factors increase proliferation and decrease apoptosis (= cell suicide) of precancerous cells, thus promoting tumor growth. (
  • in diabetic ketoacidosis, when the conversion of fatty acids to ketones increases. (
  • C 4 H 8 O 2 , a viscous fatty acid with a rancid odor, derived from butter but rare in most fats. (
  • Dr. Berg's Gallbladder Formula Contains Purified Bile Salts, 90 capsules, Enzymes to Reduce. (
  • 𝗣𝗢𝗪𝗘𝗥𝗙𝗨𝗟 𝗚𝗔𝗟𝗟𝗕𝗟𝗔𝗗𝗗𝗘𝗥 𝗦𝗨𝗣𝗣𝗢𝗥𝗧 - Promotes healthy levels of bile salts and a healthy flow of bile to have a cleansing effect on your gallbladder. (
  • When people eat food, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile salts. (
  • The gallbladder has the capacity to hold 40-50ml of bile. (
  • Once a gallbladder is removed it is important to be on bile acid supplements. (
  • Bile is stored in the gallbladder and is released when fat enters the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) in order to aid digestion. (
  • In gallbladder disease, bile in the gallbladder becomes concentrated and thickens. (
  • A gallbladder attack occurs when the gallstone blocks the flow of bile from the gallbladder and is manifested as a pain in the right side (sometimes perceived in the right shoulder because of referred pain) as severe as the excruciating pain of a heart attack. (
  • In comparison with people of normal weight, the bile of obese people is supersaturated with cholesterol, predisposing them to the development of gallbladder illness. (
  • Besides having Rose increase the fiber in her diet, I also gave her lecithin and certain herbs, such as artichoke and dandelion, that help drain bile from the gallbladder. (
  • Bile salt diarrhea is a possible side-effect of gallbladder removal. (
  • In species with gallbladder (man and most domestic animals, except horses and rats), there is an additional modification of bile in that organ. (
  • The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile during the fasting state. (
  • As mentioned, bile from the gallbladder is concentrated compared to hepatic bile. (
  • Bile salts are the most significant volume of bile in the gallbladder and can be six times more concentrated than bile salts in the hepatic bile. (
  • I have been discussing this with my specialist nurses and they mentioned that the gallbladder manages bile salts in the body and are needed to digest food amongst other things. (
  • This study aimed to detect the presence of Helicobacter in gallstone, gallbladder tissue and bile specimens from subjects with H. pylori-positive gastritis with cholelithiasis. (
  • DNA was extracted from gallbladder, bile and gallstone samples from 50 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. (
  • Helicobacter DNA was detected in the gallbladder tissue and bile of 28% and 18% respectively of the patients, but was not detected in any of the gallstones. (
  • Synthesis of bile acids is a major route of cholesterol metabolism in most species other than humans. (
  • We selected most pathways Akr1c21 participated on our site, such as Arachidonic acid metabolism, Bile acid and bile salt metabolism, Glucocorticoid &, which may be useful for your reference. (
  • Amino acid catabolism is part of the larger process of the metabolism of nitrogen-containing molecules. (
  • Nitrogen leaves the body as urea, ammonia, and other products derived from amino acid metabolism. (
  • and 3) nonessential amino acids synthesized from simple intermediates of metabolism (Figure 19.2). (
  • Although the amino acid pool is small (comprising about 90- 100 g of amino acids) in comparison with the amount of protein in the body (about 12 kg in a 70-kg man), it is conceptually at the center of whole-body nitrogen metabolism. (
  • Another vital function of bile is to help excrete various toxins that are either a natural by-product of cellular metabolism or come from other non-natural sources such as drugs, environmental toxins and toxins produced by bacteria, viruses and fungi like Candida. (
  • Farnesoid X receptor induces Takeda G-protein receptor 5 cross-talk to regulate bile acid synthesis and hepatic metabolism. (
  • The metabolism of tauroursodeoxycholic acid orally administered and its effects on the bile acid pool of patients with asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis is described. (
  • Whole Health Source: Butyric Acid: an Ancient Controller of Metabolism, Inflammation and Stress Resistance? (
  • Bile salt hydrolase (BSH), a widely distributed function of the gut microbiota, has a profound impact on host lipid metabolism and energy harvest. (
  • The BSH enzyme made by gut bacterias catalyzes deconjugation of conjugated bile acids, an important gateway response in the rate of metabolism of bile acids [8]. (
  • Because conjugated bile acids work as a more effective natural detergent than unconjugated bile acids to emulsify and solubilize lipids for extra fat digestive function [8], BSH activity offers significant effect on sponsor physiology by troubling fat digestive function and lipid rate of metabolism, influencing bodyweight gain [8 as a result,10,12]. (
  • The tested fibre preparations do not affect lipid metabolism through bile acid-binding in normocholesterolaemic subjects. (
  • Bile acids comprise about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol). (
  • This enzyme is down-regulated by cholic acid, up-regulated by cholesterol and is inhibited by the actions of the ileal hormone FGF15/19. (
  • The body produces about 800 mg of cholesterol per day and about half of that is used for bile acid synthesis producing 400-600 mg daily. (
  • Bile acids have other functions, including eliminating cholesterol from the body, driving the flow of bile to eliminate certain catabolites (including bilirubin), emulsifying fat-soluble vitamins to enable their absorption, and aiding in motility and the reduction of the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. (
  • Together with phospholipids and cholesterol at physiological concentrations, bile salts form dietary mixed micelles (DMMs) responsible for displacing the proteins coating lipid droplets and for solubilizing fats and fat-soluble nutrients or drugs. (
  • Decreases cholesterol content of bile. (
  • It can help lower LDL cholesterol levels in the body and prevent the overproduction of bile. (
  • During digestion, soluble fiber binds with cholesterol in bile and aids in its excretion, which lowers the amount of cholesterol in the body. (
  • This article discusses the effects of soluble fiber on cholesterol levels and bile production. (
  • This increases the synthesis of primary bile acid from cholesterol and changes the composition of the bile acid pool, which lowers the development of bile acid-related diseases such as acid reflux , gallstones , and tumors . (
  • Free cholesterol is virtually insoluble in aqueous solutions, but in bile, it is made soluble by bile acids and lipids like lethicin. (
  • In humans, roughly 500 mg of cholesterol are converted to bile acids and eliminated in bile every day. (
  • Gallstones , most of which are composed predominantly of cholesterol, result from processes that allow cholesterol to precipitate from solution in bile. (
  • Gallstones are born out of this sludge from cholesterol and bile salts. (
  • Gallaher Cynthia M., Munion Jessa, Hesslink Robert, Wise John, Gallaher Daniel D. (2000): Cholesterol Reduction by Glucomannan and Chitosan Is Mediated by Changes in Cholesterol Absorption and Bile Acid and Fat Excretion in Rats. (
  • Li G. (2012): Intestinal probiotics: interactions with bile salts and reduction of cholesterol. (
  • Deconjugated bile acids coprecipitate with dietary cholesterol, leading to lower absorption and increased excretion of cholesterol and cholesterol based components such as bile acids. (
  • One of the main routes for lowering cholesterol levels is via the bile. (
  • These are the solidified bile acids and bile salts that also contain cholesterol. (
  • Gallstones can also be mixed, containing cholesterol and calcium salts. (
  • Probiotics can produce vitamins, amino acids, or enzymes (such as lactase and bile salt hydrolases) that have beneficial impacts on metabolic health, from cholesterol levels to blood sugar balance. (
  • The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is "bad" in the adult because it downregulates hepatocyte low-density lipoprotein receptor activity and thereby elevates plasma cholesterol levels. (
  • Bile is a complex fluid that contains water, electrolytes, and a battery of organic molecules that include bile acids , cholesterol, phospholipids, and bilirubin that flows through the biliary tract into the small intestine. (
  • Bile also carries excess cholesterol out of the body and "pours" it into the gastrointestinal tract, where it can be distributed with other wastes. (
  • This hepatic bile contains many bile acids, cholesterol, and other organic molecules. (
  • Bile acids are derivatives of cholesterol synthesized in the hepatocyte. (
  • The solubility of cholesterol in bile is determined by the relative proportions of bile acids, lecithin, and cholesterol. (
  • Variables observed were identification of Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), BSH activity and cholesterol assimilation. (
  • The hormone cholesterol, bile acid (synthesized in the taken as part of a stack in the bodybuilding world. (
  • This enterohepatic circulation of bile acids allows a low rate of synthesis, only about 0.3g/day, but with large amounts being secreted into the intestine. (
  • In addition, vitamin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis genes, were identified in these kefir isolates. (
  • This requirement is not explained by a higher amino acid requirement for protein synthesis but rather by their limited ability to control the activity of amino acid catabolic enzymes. (
  • the relative contributions of the two enzymes to de novo bile acid synthesis in vivo are not certain (Mihalik et al. (
  • Bile Acid Synthesis. (
  • a change in the bile acid pool composition therefore activating FXR and thus inhibiting bile acid synthesis. (
  • Dietary fibers influence these processes through several mechanisms which include altering the availability of bile acids and digestive enzyme activity, changing the characteristics of the intestinal contents where digestion occurs, altering the morphology of the small intestine so that structural changes are associated with functional changes in the gut, and causing adaptation in the synthesis of enzymes or compounds needed for nutrient absorption from the intestine. (
  • C 10 H 18 N 4 O 6 , a compound intermediate in the synthesis of arginine, formed from citrulline and aspartic acid. (
  • Corticosteroids inhibit formation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids when cell membranes are damaged. (
  • Conjugating bile acids with amino acids lowers the pKa of the bile-acid/amino-acid conjugate to between 1 and 4. (
  • The role of body proteins in these transformations involves two important concepts: the amino acid pool and protein turnover. (
  • For the purpose of this discussion, envision all of these amino acids as if they belonged to a single entity, called the amino acid pool. (
  • In healthy, well-fed individuals, the input to the amino acid pool is balanced by the output. (
  • The amino acid pool is said to be in a steady state, and the individual is said to be in nitrogen balance. (
  • The proteasome unfolds, deubiquitinates, and cuts the target protein into fragments that are then further degraded by cytosolic proteases to amino acids, which enter the amino acid pool. (
  • the amino acid conjugate is polar and hydrophilic. (
  • Collagen is a typical amino acid protein. (
  • Collagen, again, is an amino acid spectrum, so it has a lot of different aminos in it. (
  • One of the best ones for gut health is going to be an amino acid called glycine. (
  • And collagen is very high in alanine as well as glycine on the amino acid spectrum, lower in methionine but higher in glycine. (
  • Glycine is actually the simplest, and therefore smallest, amino acid. (
  • C 4 H 7 NO 4 , a nonessential amino acid that is a product of pancreatic digestion. (
  • The orexins (hypocretins) comprise two neuropeptides produced in the hypothalamus: the orexin A (OX-A) (a 33 amino acid peptide) and the orexin B (OX-B) (a 28 amino acid peptide) (Sakurai T. et al. (
  • C 4 H 7 NO 4 , a nonessential amino acid. (
  • Our fi ndings suggest that cholera to histidine at amino acid position 39 agar. (
  • Yellow colonies from TCBS agar caused by the hybrid variant is present and threonine at amino acid position were tested by using MicroScan Walk- in the Philippines. (
  • Other serum levels (bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) also were elevated in patients using sheep bile. (
  • Bilirubin, which gives bile its yellowish-green color, is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein that carries oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide to the lungs. (
  • The added solubility of conjugated bile salts aids in their function by preventing passive re-absorption in the small intestine. (
  • Bile acid-containing micelles aid lipases to digest lipids and bring them near the intestinal brush border membrane, which results in fat absorption. (
  • Bile salts function as a cleaning mechanism that enables the absorption of lipids and vitamins . (
  • Typically, bile is concentrated five-fold in the gall bladder by absorption of water and small electrolytes - virtually all of the organic molecules are retained. (
  • Bile contains bile acids, which are critical for digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. (
  • Two grams of ox bile salts were administered daily to a child of five years who had a congenital deficiency of bile salts, for a period of 11 months, with consequent improvement in fat absorption and no evidence of ill effects Lancet, 1955, p.1087 . (
  • 100 cm) bile salt depletion may occur with subsequent inadequate micellar formation needed for fat absorption. (
  • Bile acids or bile salts are essentially a detergent to allow for fat absorption-and fat excretion. (
  • In addition to bile acids, bile acid sequestrants may also bind drugs in the GI tract, preventing their absorption into the bloodstream. (
  • Collectively, oleic acid led to a net absorptive pressure of only one 1.3 mm Hg, in comparison to 2.3 mm Hg with glucose absorption. (
  • Hence, during oleic acid-induced liquid absorption, 30% of the absorbate was taken off the interstitium by the lymphatics, while just 18% of the absorbate was taken out by the lymphatics during glucose-induced absorption. (
  • While other lipid lowering agents, such as bile acid sequestrants, lipid absorption inhibitors, and fibrates are typically employed in the small proportion of patients who are intolerant to statins, it is important to consider adjunctive use of these agents in those who cannot reach treatment goals on statins alone or at a dose of statin that is acceptably tolerated. (
  • This means you'll want to add in things that promote healthy digestion and absorption, such as digestive enzymes, bile acids or salts, and/or hydrochloric acid. (
  • Bile acids facilitate digestion of dietary fats and oils. (
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (
  • Such a low barrier may be biologically relevant: it allows for rapid release of bile monomers into the intestine, possibly enabling the coverage of fat droplets by bile salt monomers and subsequent release of micelles containing fats and bile salts - a mechanism that is not possible for ionic head-tail surfactants of similar critical micellar concentrations. (
  • Bile salts and bile acids are surfactants that play a key role in the digestion of fats by humans. (
  • A 2016 report published in the Scientific Research Journal states that it disposes of waste substances and toxins from the body, including uric acid, excess bile, acids, and salts, as well as water and fats. (
  • Bile acid salts are needed for the body to take in fats and some vitamins from the diet. (
  • It is hypothesized that once you pass the age 30, you lose about 1%-2% of collagen per year in the skin in the tissues, hence, elderly people have the aging and the wrinkles, so we can work on promoting that by having good healthy protein and fats in our diet but we can also supplement with bone broth and also collagen supplementation to help provide those extra amino acids. (
  • If there is inadequate bile salts, the body will not be able to make use of nutritional fats, or the all - important fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, & K). (
  • As molecules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions, conjugated bile salts sit at the lipid/water interface and, above the right concentration, form micelles. (
  • Lipid accumulation observed in cats suffering from hepatic lipidosis does not appear linked to arginine deficiency or orotic acid accumulation as has been described in rats. (
  • Bacteria deconjugate some of the primary and secondary conjugated bile salts back to lipid-soluble bile acids, which are passively absorbed into hepatic portal circulation. (
  • bile acids are lipid transporters. (
  • Biliary lipid analysis reveals mildly decreased biliary bile salt concentration. (
  • As a result, the concentration of bile acids/salts in the small intestine is high enough to form micelles and solubilize lipids. (
  • When bile acids are deconjugated, they are less well reabsorbed from the small intestine, enter the colon and are excreted with the feces. (
  • Additionally, diarrhea may be caused by excess bile salts entering the colon rather than being absorbed at the end of the small intestine, typically shortly after eating. (
  • The enterohepatic recirculation (biliary recycling) describes the effect, where drugs are excreted via bile into the small intestine, but can be reabsorbed from the distal intestinal lumen. (
  • Schneeman, BO & Gallaher, D 1985, ' Effects of Dietary Fiber on Digestive Enzyme Activity and Bile Acids in the Small Intestine ', Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine , vol. 180, no. 3, pp. 409-414. (
  • First, in order to be effective Probiotics must contain bacteria which are resistant to stomach acids and bile salts. (
  • Veterinarians also often recommend medications to reduce stomach acid production and to protect the lining of the esophagus. (
  • The researchers studied the proventriculus - a stomach-like organ that softens food using acids and digestive enzymes - and the gizzard, which has thick, muscular walls that grind food. (
  • The surface cells produce mucus that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. (
  • Bile reflux occurs when digestive fluid backs up into your stomach and esophagus. (
  • But if the sphincter relaxes when it shouldn't, or becomes weak, stomach acid can flow backward into the esophagus causing the burning sensation known as heartburn. (
  • Stomach acid can then back up into the esophagus. (
  • The combination of more food left in the stomach plus increased pressure in the stomach due to the delayed emptying increases the risk for stomach acid to leak back up into the esophagus. (
  • Fresh-culture Bio-K+ bacteria resist stomach acid and bile salt and works with the intestinal tract to get results-like mine. (
  • Bacillus subtilis is a spore-forming probiotic that provides its own protection against destruction by stomach acids and survive transit through the stomach intact. (
  • Bacillus subtilis DE111 has been shown to survive stomach acid and bile salt conditions intact. (
  • It forms a protective layer on the ulcer to serve as a barrier against acid, bile salts, and enzymes in the stomach. (
  • Choledocholithiasis refers to the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct (CBD). (
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showing 5 gallstones in the common bile duct (arrows). (
  • Although pro-longed ursodiol therapy expands the bile acid pool, this does notappear to be the principal mechanism of action for dissolution of gallstones. (
  • The salts of their 7-alpha-dehydroxylated derivatives, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, are also found, with derivatives of cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids accounting for over 90% of human biliary bile acids. (
  • colesevelam will decrease the level or effect of cholic acid by drug binding in GI tract. (
  • Take cholic acid at least 1 hr before or 4-6 hr (or as great an interval as possible) after a bile acid binding resin. (
  • Any of the complex acids that occur as salts in bile, e.g., cholic, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids. (
  • Also called ursodeoxycholic acid. (
  • Bile acid - binding resins and ursodeoxycholic acid are used to treat cholelithiasis when surgery is refused or is inappropriate. (
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) is a naturally occurring bile acid present in small quantities in human bile. (
  • Compared with previously published data for ursodeoxycholic acid therapy, these findings indicate that the shift toward a more hydrophilic bile acid pool is greater and potentially more favourable with tauroursodeoxycholate, and this is because of the reduced intestinal biotransformation of tauroursodeoxycholate. (
  • In patients with chronic cholestatic conditions and bile duct patency, ursodeoxycholic acid (ie, ursodiol, UDCA) has also been shown to enhance bile flow. (
  • Ursodiol (ursodeoxycholic acid) is a naturally occurring bile acidthat makes up less than 5% of the circulating bile salt pool in humans and a much higher percentage in bears. (
  • Initially, hepatocytes secrete bile into canaliculi, from which it flows to the bile ducts. (
  • Ox bile is often added as a component of digestive aids available from health food stores. (
  • Bile salts can be obtained as a supplement, often in combination with digestive enzymes, and can be very effective for some people. (
  • For others, just taking a regular digestive enzyme without any bile salts in it is all that is needed. (
  • One of the best things about a good collagen that is hydrolyzed, it is in its peptide form, is that even if you have poor digestion-let's say you have a hydrochloric acid issue, you have a gut infection or SIBO, or low enzyme levels, the collagen being already pre-broken down- it is still allowed to go into your bloodstream with very minimal effort on the digestive side. (
  • Bile duct congestion results in major impairment of digestive functions, thereby restricting the nutrient supply to the trillions of cells in the body. (
  • May involve inhibition of bile acid uptake into hepatocytes and facilitation of excretion of dihydroxy and monohydroxy bile acids and toxic bile acids. (
  • The formation of functional bile canaliculi in human hepatocytes is required for in vitro cholestasis toxicity tests conducted during the early stage of drug development. (
  • In this study, we investigated the culture conditions required for the formation of bile canaliculi using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hiPSC-Heps). (
  • Bile is excreted from hepatocytes into bile canaliculi and transported into the duodenum via the common bile duct. (
  • Canalicular efflux transporters are located in the canalicular membranes of hepatocytes and mediate bile excretion from the hepatocyte cytoplasm into the bile canaliculi. (
  • Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 transports bile salts and conjugated xenobiotics from cells (hepatocytes and enterocytes) into the blood. (
  • When a large quantity of bile acid was taken up into hepatocytes from the medium, low AMND activity was observed, and these proteins did not appear. (
  • When bile acid was secreted and the bile acid concentration inside the hepatocytes was low, high AMND activity was obtained, and these proteins appeared. (
  • Bile acid controls the AMND activity in the transcription of hepatocytes. (
  • Pancreatic enzymes and bile salts may help. (
  • Bile does not contain enzymes like other secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Further breakdown of peptides to single amino acids is aided by enzymes called peptidases (those that break down peptides). (
  • Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. (
  • Their glycine and taurine groups are removed to give the secondary bile acids, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. (
  • In the upper intestinal tract, the bile salt tail predominantly ends in a hydrophilic glycine or taurine group which, depending on pH, may be charged. (
  • Further down in the intestinal tract the taurine or glycine conjugation is removed and the bile salts become more hydrophobic. (
  • The glycine/taurine ratio of the biliary bile acid pool decreased from 1.9 at baseline, to 1.1 with the highest dose. (
  • Ursodeoxycholate in bile was conjugated with glycine and taurine, indicating that tauroursodeoxycholate undergoes significant deconjugation and reconjugation during its enterohepatic recycling. (
  • Anyone that has run an organic acid test will see glycine is really important for that phase 2 detoxification. (
  • Glycine is needed to create bile salts. (
  • Glycine is one of the three amino acids needed to manufacture creatine. (
  • The bile acid sequestrants are a group of medications used for binding certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract . (
  • Bile acid sequestrants are polymeric compounds which serve as ion exchange resins . (
  • Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. (
  • Since bile acid sequestrants are large polymeric structures, they are not well-absorbed from the gut into the bloodstream. (
  • Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the gastrointestinal tract . (
  • Bile acid sequestrants may reduce diarrhea in these patients. (
  • Since bile acid sequestrants are designed to stay in the gut, they generally do not have systemic side effects. (
  • For this reason, it is generally advised that bile acid sequestrants be spaced several hours apart from other drugs. (
  • Use of these agents as hypolipidemic agents has decreased markedly since the introduction of the statins , which are more efficacious than bile acid sequestrants at lowering LDL . (
  • Additionally, because bile acid sequestrants are not well-absorbed from the gut, they are generally regarded as being safe in pregnant women. (
  • Hence, vitamin supplementation may be warranted, with appropriate intervals between dosing of the vitamins and bile acid sequestrants. (
  • If you have bile acid malabsorption, you may need bile acid sequestrants (food additive) to help prevent diarrhea. (
  • Currently, our diagnostic tools are unaccessible and often, therapeutic trials with bile acid sequestrants are used in the diagnosis. (
  • As a result, the culture protocol could lead to a highly predictable, robust cell-based cholestasis assay system because it forms functional bile canaliculi reproducibly and efficiently. (
  • Cholestasis is a condition in which bile flow is obstructed at some point in these processes. (
  • Methods: We compared plasma bile acids in 17 ABCB11-mutated patients, 35 healthy controls and 12 genetically undiagnosed cholestasis patients by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MRM-MS). We developed an index to rank bile acid hydrophobicity, and thus toxicity, based on LC retention times. (
  • Conclusions: Profiling of plasma bile acids has provided insights into cholestasis alleviation and may be useful for the clinical management of cholestatic diseases. (
  • PFIC1 should be suspected in children with a clinical history of cholestasis of unknown origin after exclusion of other main causes of cholestasis presenting with normal serum gamma-GT activity and high serum bile acid concentration. (
  • Bile salts and cholestasis. (
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. (
  • Within the intestines the primary bile acids are acted upon by bacteria and converted to the secondary bile acids, identified as deoxycholate (from cholate) and lithocholate (from chenodeoxycholate). (
  • The amount of secondary bile acids (mainly DCA) in the bile acid pool depends on the rate of formation and Impact of bile acid diarrhea in patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome on symptoms and Quality of Life. (
  • Walters, J. The amount of secondary bile acids (mainly DCA) in the bile acid pool depends on the rate of formation and Diagnostic rates and management vary considerably. (
  • Similar images can be obtained by taking plain radiographs after injection of radiocontrast material in the common bile duct, either endoscopically (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) or percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance (percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography), but these approaches are more invasive. (
  • 2,3 Bile salts are also used in the formulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, because of their ability to enhance drug transport across tissues. (
  • Instead of the hydrophilic head-hydrophobic tail (head-tail) structure that leads to a prolate shape typically associated with surfactants, bile salts have a rigid steroid group with four rings attached to a short and flexible tail, as shown in Fig. 1(a) for the bile salt taurochenodeoxycholate. (
  • P-TBESD containing a bile salt, a protective hydrophilic isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) coating, were successfully prepared by thin film dispersion-sonication method. (
  • Bile acids are composed of two types of bile acids: hydrophilic bile acids and hydrophobic bile acids. (
  • The results came back as positive and my consultant prescribed a medication to help called Colestyramine in sachet form or Colesevelam Tablets which is a bile acid sequestrant, This works by removing unwanted excess bile acids from the body, binding it into your stools rather than it staying in your bowels. (
  • Experimental data indicated that human bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition by TAK-875 was mixed whereas sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) inhibition by TAK-875 was competitive. (
  • In an early attempt in classification, Wheater [23] classified various lactobacilli cultures into L. acidophilus , L. bulgaricus , and a third intermediate group based on many tests including tolerance to bile salt (sodium tauroglycocholate). (
  • Conventionally raised mice fed with HSD developed more severe DSS- (dextran sodium sulfate) and DNBS- (dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) induced colitis compared to mice on control diet, and this effect was absent in germ-free mice. (
  • However, one characteristic element in the western diet that has been overlooked until recently is its high salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) content. (
  • The salt content of food is usually given in terms of "Sodium. (
  • effervescent salts preparations made by adding sodium bicarbonate and tartaric and citric acid s to the active s. (
  • when thrown into water the acids break up the sodium bicarbonate , setting free the carbonic acid gas. (
  • Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporters (ASBT) are the intestinal transporters that form intermediate complexes with substrates and its conformational change drives the movement of substrates across the cell membrane. (
  • Our range of products include bile salt, sodium taurocholate, sodium thioglycollate, bismuth ammonium citrate and yeast extract powder. (
  • Bile salt is a mixture of two salts namely sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate and is widely utilized for microbiological applications. (
  • Glutamic acid, sodium nitrites can cause of chemicals for a little to be carefully select an expert on the best potential exposure cannot account off for a comment below are more human body of underlying estrogen in getting good bacteria start a seizure peaks at its omnipresence in an hour or cloth-covered ice cubes. (
  • MCT, ketone salts = Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium) or special diet (e.g. ketogenic diet) possibly impacting basal ketone levels, to the opinion of the medical expert. (
  • Once secreted into the lumen of the intestine, bile salts are modified by gut bacteria. (
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus is well recognized as one of the most thoroughly documented strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is known to play a crucial role in the health and maintenance of the intestinal tract. (
  • A small amount of unabsorbed conjugated or unconjugated ursodiol passes into the colon, where it is either excreted or undergoes dehydroxylation by colonic bacteria to lithocholic acid, a sub-stance with potential hepatic toxicity. (
  • Strain of Lactic acid bacteria used were L. fermentum strains (A323L, B111K, B323K, C113L, C212L), L. plantarum strains (IIA-1A5 and IIA-2C12), and L. acidophillus IIA-2B4. (
  • Identification and probiotic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Indonesian local beef. (
  • 2011. Cloning of Bile salt hydrolase gene and its expression in lactic acid bacteria. (
  • Diarrhea resulting from excess fecal bile acids may be reduced by colestipol. (
  • They disrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids by sequestering them and preventing their reabsorption from the gut. (
  • Approximately 600 mg of bile salts are synthesized daily to replace bile acids lost in the feces, although, as described below, much larger amounts are secreted, reabsorbed in the gut and recycled. (
  • The patients with colonic tumors also had significantly higher levels of deoxycholic acid (P = 0.01) and lithocholic acid (P = 0.005) in the aqueous extract of their feces. (
  • Fecal lactate was measured by enzymatic methods (D-/L-lactic acid kit, R-Biopharm) and bile acids were quantified with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from lyophilized feces. (
  • Inhibitors of ileal bile acid transport (IBAT) act locally in the distal ileum to decrease reuptake of bile acids and increase clearance of bile acids through the colon, thereby, reducing bile acid serum concentration. (
  • Another function of soluble fiber is interacting with bile acids by absorbing them, preventing their reabsorption, and excreting them into the colon. (
  • Having lower levels of bile acids in your colon lowers your chances of having diarrhea if you have BAM. (
  • However, deoxycholate (DOC) (300 μmol/l), a secondary bile acid, and TPA (20 ng/ml) decreased expression of an ~100-kDa glycoprotein bearing α-2,6-linked sialic acid in a colon cancer cell line (T84) in vitro. (
  • This includes blood pressure, filtering and removal of various metabolic waste products, blood volume, red blood cell count, electrolytes, acid base balance… Guyton's Textbook of Medical Physiology has nearly 200 pages devoted to renal function, and that is a bare-bones overview with little time spent on pathophysiology. (
  • In vitro assays revealed that bile acid transporters were inhibited by both TAK-875 and its metabolite, TAK-875-Glu. (
  • Bile tolerance refers to an in vitro test that measures the ability of a bacterial strain to survive in a media that contains bile salts with similarities to conditions within the small intestines to give an indication of the likelihood that a bacterial strain would survive in the host. (
  • Yue C., Zang X., Chen C., Dong L., Liu Y., Yu G. (2019): Purification, characterization and in vitro bile salt-binding capacity of polysaccharides from Armillaria mellea mushroom. (
  • The bile salt-binding capacities of the polysaccharide samples were studied in vitro . (
  • Camire M.E., Dougherty M.P. (2003): Raisin dietary fiber composition and in vitro bile acid binding. (
  • Magnesium affects spinach carotenoid bioaccessibility in vitro depending on intestinal bile and pancreatic enzyme concentrations. (
  • In vivo and in vitro tests on antimalarial activity of goat bile against Plasmodium berghei and Aqueous extract of goat bile against P. falciparum. (
  • Three local hospitals provided information about serum chemistries obtained from annual examinations during the year preceding ingestion of bile (baseline), during acute illnesses that occurred immediately following reported ingestion, and 2 months after ingestion. (
  • Among patients who had ingested bile, the mean serum creatinine increased from a baseline of 4.0 mg/100 mL (range: 0.6 mg/100 mL-10.4 mg/100 mL) to a postingestion level of 8.0 mg/100 mL (range: 1.9 mg/100 mL-20 mg/100 mL) (pless than 0.001, paired t-test). (
  • Biliary and serum bile acids were measured before and during treatment by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high performance liquid chromatography. (
  • Pasting serum conjugated ursodeoxycholate concentration positively correlated with the tauroursodeoxycholate dose, and the increased proportion of ursodeoxycholate was accompanied by substantial decreases in the endogenous bile acids. (
  • Germa Bile Salts Natural Dietary Supplement. (
  • Changes in hygiene and dietary habits, including increased consumption of foods high in fat, simple sugars, and salt that are known to impact the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota, may explain the increase in prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases. (
  • Transfer experiments into germ-free mice indicated that the HSD-associated microbiota profile is critically dependent on continued exposure to dietary salt. (
  • Nitrogen enters the body in a variety of compounds present in food, the most important being amino acids contained in dietary protein. (
  • Critical micellar concentration" refers to both an intrinsic property of the bile acid itself and amount of bile acid necessary to function in the spontaneous and dynamic formation of micelles. (
  • We examine the mechanism of formation of micelles of dihydroxy bile salts using a coarse-grained, implicit solvent model and Langevin dynamics simulations. (
  • We find that bile salt micelles primarily form via addition and removal of monomers, similarly to surfactants with typical head-tail molecular structures, and not via a two-stage mechanism - involving formation of oligomers and their subsequent aggregation to form larger micelles - originally proposed for bile salts. (
  • The free energy barrier to removal of single bile monomers from micelles is ≈2 k B T , much less than what has been observed for head-tail surfactants. (
  • 2,17-27 The low average aggregation numbers of pure bile micelles compared to those of canonical surfactants like SDS stem from the bile salts' unusual molecular structure. (
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (
  • 95% of the bile acids which are delivered to the duodenum will be recycled by the enterohepatic circulation. (
  • Forms a nonabsorbable complex with bile acids in the intestine, which in turn inhibits enterohepatic reuptake of intestinal bile salts. (
  • Human adults secrete between 12 and 18 g of bile acids into the intestine each day, mostly after meals. (
  • Binds bile acids in the intestine, facilitates partial removal of bile acids from enterohepatic circulation, and prevents their reabsorption. (
  • While the ability of cats to synthesize taurine from methionine and cystine is very limited, they are obligate users of taurine to conjugate with bile acids. (
  • Formation of bile salts results in a continual loss of taurine, as a proportion of the taurine is not recovered in the enterohepatic re-circulation. (
  • The most sensitive and specific test for bile acid malabsorption remains the 7-day retention of Selenium-75-labelled homocholic acid taurine ( 75 SeHCAT). (
  • Idiopathic bile acid diarrhea (type 2 BAD) is unrelated to diarrhea due to ileal disease or resection (type 1 BAD), or an association with intestinal or pancreatic disease or cholecystectomy (type 3 BAD). (
  • This agent promotes bile salt excretion via direct stimulation of bile flow and via indirect alterations in composition of bile. (
  • After the model substrates of the biliary efflux transporters were taken up into cells, their subsequent excretion into the bile canaliculi was observed and was found to be impeded by each inhibitor of the biliary efflux transporter. (
  • These findings suggest that bile canaliculi have transporter-specific bile excretion abilities. (
  • Their study evaluated 94 patients with chronic diarrhea for loss of bile acids using both 75-SeHCAT and a fecal fat excretion tests. (
  • Further, blue lupin increased primary bile acids-excretion ( P = 0.02). (
  • Inhibit enterohepatic reuptake of intestinal bile salts. (
  • It is an ester of benzoic acid and a nitrogen-containing base. (
  • Assay of systemic levels of bile acids is used clinically as a sensitive indicator of hepatic disease. (
  • Since the first report in 2005, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been linked to a variety of metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. (
  • This phenomenon was related to the concentration of bile acid in the culture medium. (
  • Ursodiol also appears to stabilize hepatocyte canalicular membranes, possibly through a reduction in the concentration of other endogenous bile acids or through inhibition of immune-mediated hepatocyte destruction. (
  • However, particularly blue lupin kernel fibre improve colonic function and have beneficial effects on putative risk factors for colorectal cancer such as faecal mass, transit time, SCFA, faecal pH, and secondary bile acid concentration. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare fecal dysbiosis as well as fecal lactate and bile acid concentrations between dogs with EPI and healthy control dogs. (
  • The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the Dysbiosis Index and fecal lactate and bile acid concentrations between dogs with EPI and healthy control dogs. (
  • A recent report of acute hepatic and renal toxicity associated with drinking bile from fish (grass carp) (1) alerted epidemiologists in Saudi Arabia to the possibility of similar risks associated with an existing practice of drinking sheep bile. (
  • This report presents the findings of the investigation, which demonstrate gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal toxicity associated with ingestion of sheep bile. (
  • No death or other sign of toxicity was found in goat bile-treated mice. (
  • Gastroesophageal reflux, also called "acid reflux," is thought to be fairly common in dogs. (
  • High-fat foods can worsen acid reflux. (
  • Landrier JF, Eloranta JJ, Vavricka SR, Kullak-Ublick GA: The nuclear receptor for bile acids, FXR, transactivates human organic solute transporter-alpha and -beta genes. (
  • Atropine is an organic ester formed by the combination of tropine (an organic base) and tropic acid (an aromatic acid). (
  • Increasing the frequency of urination can help remove uric acid from the body and cleanse the kidneys. (
  • It can improve circulation and thereby prevent the accumulation of uric acid in the joints and muscles, thus possibly helping cure rheumatism and arthritis. (
  • In normal individuals, additional administration of moderate quantities of bile acids or salts by mouth has no demonstrable effect, since there are enough bile salts present in the intestinal lumen to carry out all the absorptive functions. (
  • The stool samples were inoculated on Thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose and MacConkey's agar and incubated at 37˚C for 18-24 hours. (
  • Cholestyramine is effective in treating diarrhea associated with either distal ileum resection or after cholecystectomy since this diarrhea is classified as "bile salt-induced. (
  • Bile salts are reabsorbed in the ileum via passive diffusion of neutral bile acids and conjugated bile saltes. (
  • This agent is one of two treatment modalities used for gastric acid hypersecretion. (
  • The gastric acid, pepsin, bile salts, and other components of the gastrointestinal juices cause damage to the protective lining of the esophagus. (
  • Gastric hormones such as cholecystokinin (ko-le-sisto-kinin) and others stimulate the gall bladder to release the bile. (
  • Bariatric surgery, in particular, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), has proven to be the only effective, long-term weight reduction treatment option, curing diabetes and hypertension and lowering both cardiovascular and overall mortality in this population ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Similar injury to the gastric mucosa has been observed with bile acids. (
  • HST6N-1 mRNA levels were reduced ~80% by treatment (≤24 h) with DOC or TPA but not by cholate, a primary bile acid. (