Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cholenes: Unsaturated derivatives of cholane with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched five-carbon chain at C-17. They must have at least one double bond in the ring system.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.TritiumCholanesIntestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Colestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Mevalonic AcidLipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is mainly expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; and SPLEEN. It also plays an important role in SKELETAL MUSCLE development and can contribute to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.TriglyceridesNaphazoline: An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Glycodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.ValeratesMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Norsteroids: Steroids which have undergone contraction in ring size or reduction in side chains.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Iodipamide: A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.Racemases and Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.Peroxisomal Bifunctional Enzyme: A monomeric protein found in liver peroxisomes that contains two enzymatically active domains; an enoyl-CoA hydratase/3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase domain, and an (S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase domain. The enzyme is stereospecific with regards to how cis and trans double bonds are metabolized. It is complemented by PEROXISOMAL MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROTEIN-2, which has the opposite stereospecificity.Clofibric Acid: An antilipemic agent that is the biologically active metabolite of CLOFIBRATE.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Enoyl-CoA Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Inbred C57BLMicelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.UridineHyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Apazone: An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Pregnenes: Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.ThymidineBile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Taurolithocholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.UracilBiliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
  • At steady-state, an amount of chenodiol near the daily dose escapes to the colon and is converted by bacterial action to lithocholic acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • In rodents, CDCA is further hydroxylated to alpha-muricholic acid (αMCA), and then epimerized to beta-muricholic acid (βMCA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on these events, we postulated that bile acids may regulate hepatocyte polarization and canalicular formation. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, BA plays the role of nutrient signaling hormones by combining with receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in BA synthesis and transport by encoding enzymes and proteins , for instance, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5(TGR5), pregnane X receptor (PXR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2) [6,8- (peertechz.com)
  • CHOLBAM is a treatment for infants, children and adults who have a rare condition called bile acid synthesis disorders. (fda.gov)
  • Based on the suspicion of a bile acid synthetic defect, oral cholic acid (Cholbam TM ) was started at 50 mg twice daily (10 mg/kg/dose). (gi.org)
  • Black stones tend to form mainly in the gallbladder and occur in sterile bile, while brown stones may occur in any part of the biliary tract in patients with chronic biliary infections and stasis (stagnation of blood). (britannica.com)
  • Decreased flow of bile in the gallbladder, a condition that occurs late in pregnancy, in persons on diets low in fat, and among diabetics, also appears to favour the formation of cholesterol stones. (britannica.com)
  • Patients with bacterial infections in the gallbladder or bile ducts commonly have severe shaking chills, with high, spiking fevers . (britannica.com)
  • Chemical agents that dissolve gallstones (e.g. oral bile acid therapy, contact dissolution after transhepatic catheterization of the gallbladder) and physical methods (e.g. extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy) have a role to play in a very few patients. (enetmd.com)
  • Between meals much of the bile is diverted to the gallbladder where it is concentrated by the removal of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and water. (enetmd.com)
  • In response to food, the gallbladder contracts, emptying bile into the duodenum. (enetmd.com)
  • Cholesterol, fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, and other lipids present in our diets are not only nutritionally important but serve as precursors for ligands that bind to receptors in the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Their ability to sense and respond to changes in intracellular metabolic environment is largely due to the fact that the transactivation potential of most nuclear receptors is crucially dependent on small lipophilic ligands, such as bile acids, fatty acids, lipophilic vitamins, and steroidal hormones. (physiology.org)
  • We found that taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate and a combination of glycocholic acid and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate showed excellent activity against all of the pathogens assayed. (asm.org)
  • carboxylic acid any organic compound containing the carboxy group (-COOH), including amino and fatty acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Your best chinese one-station supplier for APIs (Pharmaceutical raw materials), Food & Feed Additives, Vitamins, Amino Acids and Nutritional Ingredients, with 30-plus-years related experience. (cphi.com)
  • In addition, the isoforms FXRα1 and FXRα3 contain an additional stretch of four amino acids, MYTG, due to a differential splicing event at the end of exon 5. (physiology.org)
  • During chenodiol therapy there is only a minor increase in biliary lithocholate, while fecal bile acids are increased three- to fourfold. (drugbank.ca)
  • 3. (Highly Fermentable ) Fiber produces SCFA (short chain fatty acids) when bacterial fermentation occurs. (wordpress.com)
  • Our production management is strictly conducted by the requirement of GMP of China, ISO9001-2008, and all of our products could meet the requirements of international standards.In 2013, products including cholesterol, bilirubin, cholic acid,ox bile powder, hyodeoxycholic acid and pig bile powder passed the certification of China GMP. (cphi.com)