An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
'Cholanes' are not recognized as a medical term; however, it is possible that the term is being referred to as "bile acids," which are steroid acids that play an essential role in lipid digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (1/2758)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

Analysis of the effects of food and of digestive secretions on the small intestine of the rat. 1. Mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement. (2/2758)

A modified Roux-en-Y repositioning of rat small intestine was performed so that the proximal segment of bowel (A) received only bile and pancreastic secretions, the second (B) received food direct from the stomach, and these two segments drained into a third (C). Four to five weeks after operation, cell production was assessed by injection of vincristine into operated, sham-operated and unoperated rats, and counts of blocked metaphases were made on isolated microdissected crypts. Villus height, crypt depth, and the number of crypts per villus (crypt/villus ratio) were also measured. Most of segment A showed no significant differences from sham-operated intestine, although the normal proximo-distal gradient of villus height was abolished. At the distal end (near the anastomosis with segments B and C), crypt depth and cell production were increased. The villus height gradient in segment B was also abolished, although crypt depth and cell production were significantly increased, especially at the proximal end. Crypt/villus ratio was also increased. Segment C showed all the characteristics of small bowel promoted to a more proximal position: increased villus height, crypt depth and cell production. Increased crypt/villus ratio was also observed. These results are discussed in terms of the role of food and of digestive secretions in the control of mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement.  (+info)

Progesterone alters biliary flow dynamics. (3/2758)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that progesterone alters sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder function and, therefore, bile flow dynamics. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the effects of progesterone on the biliary tract have been implicated in the increased incidence of gallstones among women, the specific effects of prolonged elevation of progesterone levels, such as occurs with contraceptive progesterone implants and during pregnancy, on the sphincter of Oddi and biliary flow dynamics are still incompletely understood. METHODS: Adult female prairie dogs were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous implants containing either progesterone or inactive pellet matrix only. Hepatic bile partitioning and gallbladder emptying were determined 14 days later using 99mTc-Mebrofenin cholescintigraphy. RESULTS: Significantly less hepatic bile partitioned into the gallbladder in progesterone-treated than in control animals. The gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly reduced from 73+/-6% in controls to 59+/-3% in the progesterone-treated animals. The rate of gallbladder emptying was significantly reduced from 3.6+/-0.3%/minute to 2.9+/-0.1%/minute. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone administered as subcutaneous implants alters partitioning of hepatic bile between gallbladder and small intestine and, therefore, gallbladder filling. Progesterone also significantly impairs gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin. The effects of progesterone on the sphincter of Oddi and the gallbladder may contribute to the greater prevalence of gallstones and biliary motility disorders among women.  (+info)

A new bile acid conjugate, ciliatocholic acid, from bovine gall bladder bile. (4/2758)

This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of ciliatocholic acid in bovine gall bladder bile. Ciliatocholic acid was synthesized according to the method described by Bergstrom and Norman for the synthesis of taurocholic acid. Elemental analysis, melting point, and the infrared spectrum of this substance were determined. An isolation procedure for ciliatocholic acid was established by stepwise elution with an HCl-ethanol solvent system using a Dowex-1 anion exchange resin column chromatographic technique. Ciliatocholic acid amounting to 158 mug (as ciliatine) per 100 ml of gall bladder bile was found in the fraction eluted with 0.01 N HCl in 50% ethanol. This coumpound was purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography and confirmed to be ciliatocholic acid from the hydrolytic stability, phosphorus determination, and chromatographic behavior. Thus, bovine gall bladder bile contains a small amount of ciliatocholic acid.  (+info)

An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease. (5/2758)

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

Influence of renal failure on intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin in rats. (6/2758)

Following intravenous doses, ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in control and nephrectomized rats were studied. There were no differences between control and nephrectomized rats for area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or biliary clearance. The intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin was increased in nephrectomized rats. Intestinal elimination seems to compensate partially for the decrease in urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in nephrectomized rats.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (7/2758)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (8/2758)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

Bile acids and salts are naturally occurring steroidal compounds that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of lipids (fats) in the body. They are produced in the liver from cholesterol and then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form bile acids, which are subsequently converted into bile salts by the addition of a sodium or potassium ion.

Bile acids and salts are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where they help emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. They also aid in the elimination of waste products from the liver and help regulate cholesterol metabolism.

Abnormalities in bile acid synthesis or transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and diarrhea. Therefore, understanding the role of bile acids and salts in the body is essential for diagnosing and treating these disorders.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Bile canaliculi are the smallest bile-transporting structures in the liver. They are formed by the close apposition of hepatocyte (liver cell) plasma membranes, and they are responsible for the majority of bile production. The bile canaliculi merge to form bile ductules, which then merge to form larger bile ducts that transport bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a fluid that contains water, electrolytes, bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipids, and bilirubin, which are produced by the liver and play important roles in digestion and elimination of waste products.

Bile pigments are the yellow-brown colored end products of hemoglobin breakdown in the liver. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. When these cells are broken down, heme (the non-protein part of hemoglobin) is converted into biliverdin, which is then converted into bilirubin. Bilirubin is further metabolized and excreted by the liver as a component of bile, a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine.

Under normal conditions, the liver effectively removes and excretes bilirubin from the body through the bile ducts into the small intestine. However, when there is an overproduction of bilirubin or a problem with its elimination, it can accumulate in the blood, leading to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) and other symptoms associated with liver dysfunction.

In summary, bile pigments are the waste products formed during the breakdown of hemoglobin, primarily consisting of bilirubin, which is eliminated from the body via the liver and bile ducts.

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

Bile reflux is a condition in which bile flows backward from the small intestine into the stomach and sometimes into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, vomiting a greenish-yellow fluid (bile), and abdominal pain. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps to break down fats in the small intestine. Normally, a muscle called the sphincter of Oddi prevents bile from flowing backward into the stomach. However, if this muscle becomes weak or damaged, bile reflux can occur.

Bile reflux is different from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which occurs when stomach acid flows backward into the esophagus. Although both conditions can cause similar symptoms, such as heartburn and regurgitation, they require different treatments. Bile reflux can increase the risk of complications such as inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis), ulcers, and cancer of the esophagus. If left untreated, bile reflux can lead to serious health problems, so it is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms.

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is a bile acid that is naturally produced in the human body. It is formed in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to become a primary bile acid. CDCA is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where it helps to emulsify fats and facilitate their absorption.

CDCA also has important regulatory functions in the body, including acting as a signaling molecule that binds to specific receptors in the liver, intestines, and other tissues. It plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and cell growth and differentiation.

In addition to its natural functions, CDCA is also used as a medication for the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, it is used to dissolve gallstones that are composed of cholesterol, and it is also used to treat a rare genetic disorder called cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), which is characterized by the accumulation of CDCA and other bile acids in various tissues.

It's important to note that while CDCA has therapeutic uses, it can also have adverse effects if taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Cholic acids are a type of bile acid, which are naturally occurring steroid acids that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. Cholic acid is the primary bile acid synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. It is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated cholic acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion to aid in fat emulsification and absorption.

Cholic acid and its derivatives have also been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions, including liver diseases, gallstones, and bacterial infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and potential side effects of cholic acids and their derivatives before they can be widely used as therapeutic agents.

Deoxycholic acid is a bile acid, which is a natural molecule produced in the liver and released into the intestine to aid in the digestion of fats. It is also a secondary bile acid, meaning that it is formed from the metabolism of primary bile acids by bacteria in the gut.

Deoxycholic acid has a chemical formula of C~24~H~39~NO~4~ and a molecular weight of 391.57 g/mol. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In the body, deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to help break down dietary fats into smaller droplets, which can then be absorbed by the intestines.

In addition to its role in digestion, deoxycholic acid has been investigated for its potential therapeutic uses. For example, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an injectable treatment for reducing fat in the submental area (the region below the chin), under the brand name Kybella. When injected into this area, deoxycholic acid causes the destruction of fat cells, which are then naturally eliminated from the body over time.

It's important to note that while deoxycholic acid is a natural component of the human body, its therapeutic use can have potential side effects and risks, so it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Cholic acid is a primary bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. It is produced in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated bile acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion.

Cholic acid helps to emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller droplets that can be absorbed by the body. It also facilitates the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, and K. In addition to its role in digestion, cholic acid is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the excretion of bile acids from the body.

Abnormalities in cholic acid metabolism can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and genetic disorders that affect bile acid synthesis.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a secondary bile acid that is produced in the liver by bacterial modification of primary bile acids, specifically chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a steroid acid that plays a role in various physiological processes such as cholesterol metabolism, drug absorption, and gut microbiota regulation. However, high levels of LCA can be toxic to the liver and have been linked to several diseases, including colon cancer and cholestatic liver diseases.

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used medically as a therapeutic agent. It is commonly used to treat gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, and other conditions associated with abnormal liver function, such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). UDCA works by decreasing the amount of cholesterol in bile and protecting liver cells from damage. It is also known as ursodiol or Ursotan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glycocholic Acid" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your request.

If you meant "Glycocholic," it's a term that refers to a substance conjugated with glycine, which is an amino acid. This process often occurs in the liver during the metabolism of certain substances, like bile acids.

"Glycocholic" could theoretically refer to a glycine conjugate of a bile acid such as cholic acid, which would make it a derivative called "Glycocholic Acid." However, I couldn't find any specific medical or scientific literature that directly refers to "Glycocholic Acid" as a known compound or concept.

If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Enterohepatic circulation is the process by which certain substances, such as bile salts, bilirubin, and some drugs, are chemically modified and reabsorbed in the enterohepatic system. This system includes the liver, bile ducts, and small intestine.

In the case of bile salts, they are synthesized in the liver, secreted into the bile, and stored in the gallbladder. After a meal, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion. The bile salts help to emulsify fats, allowing them to be absorbed by the intestines. Once absorbed, they are transported back to the liver through the portal vein, where they can be reused for further bile production.

Similarly, bilirubin, a waste product produced from the breakdown of red blood cells, is also conjugated in the liver and excreted into the bile. In the small intestine, bacteria break down bilirubin into colorless urobilinogen, which can be reabsorbed and transported back to the liver for further processing.

Certain drugs may also undergo enterohepatic circulation, where they are metabolized in the liver, excreted into the bile, and then reabsorbed in the small intestine. This can prolong the duration of drug action and affect its overall effectiveness.

Taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) is a bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that is produced in the liver and essential for the digestion and absorption of fats. It is a conjugated bile acid, meaning it is formed from the combination of a deoxycholic acid with a taurine molecule.

TDCA helps to emulsify dietary fats, making them easier to absorb in the small intestine. It also plays a role in the elimination of cholesterol from the body by promoting its conversion into bile acids and excretion through the digestive system.

Abnormal levels of TDCA and other bile acids have been associated with various medical conditions, including liver disease, gallstones, and intestinal disorders. Therefore, measuring the levels of TDCA in blood or other bodily fluids can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is a bile acid that is conjugated with the amino acid taurine. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. TCDCA, along with other bile acids, is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and transported back to the liver through the enterohepatic circulation. It plays a role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including gallstones, cholestatic liver diseases, and neurological disorders.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatic cells and is responsible for the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol.

The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to 7α-hydroxycholesterol, which is then further metabolized to form primary bile acids, including cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These bile acids are essential for the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

Additionally, CYP7A1 is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol levels in the body by providing negative feedback to the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver. When cholesterol levels are high, the activity of CYP7A1 increases, leading to an increase in bile acid synthesis and a decrease in cholesterol levels. Conversely, when cholesterol levels are low, the activity of CYP7A1 decreases, reducing bile acid synthesis and allowing cholesterol levels to rise.

Abnormalities in CYP7A1 function have been implicated in several diseases, including gallstones, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of organic anions across biological membranes. The term "sodium-dependent" refers to a specific type of OAT that requires sodium ions (Na+) as a co-transport substrate to move organic anions across the membrane. These transporters play crucial roles in the elimination and distribution of various endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and metabolites. Sodium-dependent OATs are primarily located in the kidneys and liver, where they help maintain homeostasis by regulating the reabsorption and secretion of these substances.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Cholagogues and choleretics are terms used to describe medications or substances that affect bile secretion and flow in the body. Here is a medical definition for each:

1. Cholagogue: A substance that promotes the discharge of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum, often by stimulating the contraction of the gallbladder muscle. This helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Examples include chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and some herbal remedies like dandelion root and milk thistle.
2. Choleretic: A substance that increases the production of bile by the liver or its flow through the biliary system. This can help with the digestion of fats and the elimination of waste products from the body. Examples include certain medications like ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as natural substances such as lemon juice, artichoke extract, and turmeric.

It is important to note that while cholagogues and choleretics can aid in digestion, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overuse may lead to complications like diarrhea or gallstone formation.

Adenoma of the bile duct is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops in the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

Bile duct adenomas are rare and usually do not cause any symptoms. However, if they grow large enough, they may obstruct the flow of bile and cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), abdominal pain, or itching. In some cases, bile duct adenomas may become cancerous and develop into bile duct carcinomas.

The exact cause of bile duct adenomas is not known, but they are more common in people with certain genetic disorders, such as Gardner's syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Treatment for bile duct adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Extrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile outside of the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption and digestion of fats. When the flow of bile is obstructed or blocked, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, dark urine, light-colored stools, and itching.

Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including gallstones, tumors, strictures, or inflammation of the bile ducts. It is essential to diagnose and treat extrahepatic cholestasis promptly to prevent further complications, such as liver damage or infection. Treatment options may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Common bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths that can occur in the common bile duct, which is a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms of the common bile duct include papillomas, adenomas, and leiomyomas. Malignant neoplasms are typically adenocarcinomas, which arise from the glandular cells lining the duct. Other types of malignancies that can affect the common bile duct include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and metastatic cancer from other sites.

Symptoms of common bile duct neoplasms may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Diagnosis may involve imaging tests such as CT scans or MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) and biopsy to confirm the type of neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Cholestanols are a type of sterol that is similar in structure to cholesterol. They are found in small amounts in the body and can also be found in some foods. Cholestanols are formed when cholesterol undergoes a chemical reaction called isomerization, which changes its structure.

Cholestanols are important because they can accumulate in the body and contribute to the development of certain medical conditions. For example, elevated levels of cholestanols in the blood have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, some genetic disorders can cause an accumulation of cholestanols in various tissues, leading to a range of symptoms such as liver damage, neurological problems, and cataracts.

Medically, cholestanols are often used as markers for the diagnosis and monitoring of certain conditions related to cholesterol metabolism.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Cholestyramine resin is a medication used to treat high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is a type of drug called a bile acid sequestrant, which works by binding to bile acids in the digestive system and preventing them from being reabsorbed into the body. This leads to an increased removal of cholesterol from the body, which can help lower the levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Cholestyramine resin is available as a powder that is mixed with water or other fluids and taken by mouth. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high cholesterol. In addition to its use for lowering cholesterol, cholestyramine resin may also be used to treat itching associated with partial biliary obstruction (blockage of the bile ducts) and to reduce the absorption of certain drugs, such as digitalis and thyroid hormones.

It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking cholestyramine resin, as the medication can interfere with the absorption of other medications and nutrients. It may also cause gastrointestinal side effects, such as constipation, bloating, and gas.

Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs when there is a problem with the transport of bile components inside the liver cells (hepatocytes). This can lead to an accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin, and other substances in the liver, which can cause damage to liver cells and result in symptoms such as jaundice, itching, and dark urine.

Intrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including medications, alcohol abuse, hepatitis viruses, autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, and cancer. Depending on the underlying cause, intrahepatic cholestasis can be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) is a type of bile acid that is produced in the liver and then conjugated with glycine. Bile acids are formed from cholesterol and play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

GCDCA is a secondary bile acid, which means that it is produced by bacterial metabolism of primary bile acids (such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) in the colon. Once formed, GCDCA is then reabsorbed into the bloodstream and transported back to the liver, where it can be conjugated with glycine or taurine and excreted into bile again.

Abnormal levels of GCDCA and other bile acids have been associated with various health conditions, including cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and colon cancer. Therefore, measuring the levels of these acids in blood, urine, or feces can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Dehydrocholic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to the field of medicine as a gastrointestinal stimulant and choleretic agent. Here's a brief definition:

Dehydrocholic acid (C~24~H~39~NO~5~) is a bile salt that is formed from cholic acid through the introduction of a double bond between carbons 7 and 8. It is used in medical research and practice as a pharmacological agent to stimulate the production and flow of bile from the liver, which can aid in digestion and absorption of fats. Dehydrocholic acid may also be used in diagnostic tests to assess liver function and biliary tract patency.

It is important to note that dehydrocholic acid is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives for treating gastrointestinal disorders and promoting liver health.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Taurine is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body under normal circumstances, but there may be increased requirements during certain periods such as infancy, infection, or illness. Taurine plays important roles in various physiological functions, including bile salt formation, membrane stabilization, neuromodulation, and antioxidation. It is particularly abundant in the brain, heart, retina, and skeletal muscles. In the human body, taurine is synthesized from the amino acids cysteine and methionine with the aid of vitamin B6.

Taurine can also be found in certain foods like meat, fish, and dairy products, as well as in energy drinks, where it is often added as a supplement for its potential performance-enhancing effects. However, there is ongoing debate about the safety and efficacy of taurine supplementation in healthy individuals.

Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical compound that can be mentioned in the context of medical or biological research. TLCA is a bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in digestion and metabolism. Specifically, TLCA is a taurine conjugate of lithocholic acid, meaning it contains a taurine molecule attached to the lithocholic acid molecule.

Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and then released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. TLCA is a secondary bile acid, which means it is formed in the gut by the bacterial metabolism of primary bile acids.

Abnormal levels of TLCA or other bile acids can be associated with various medical conditions, such as liver disease, cholestasis (a condition characterized by reduced bile flow), and intestinal disorders. Therefore, measuring the levels of TLCA and other bile acids in blood, urine, or stool samples can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are two types of cholangitis: acute and chronic. Acute cholangitis is a sudden and severe infection that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bile ducts through a blockage or obstruction.

Chronic cholangitis, on the other hand, is a long-term inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, itching, and jaundice. Chronic cholangitis can be caused by various factors, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune disease), bile duct stones, or tumors in the bile ducts.

Treatment for cholangitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, and surgery may be necessary to remove blockages or obstructions in the bile ducts. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of bile acids and steroids in the body. This enzyme is responsible for adding a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the cholestanetriol molecule at position 26, which is a critical step in the conversion of cholestanetriol to bile acids.

The gene that encodes this enzyme is called CYP3A4, which is located on chromosome 7 in humans. Mutations in this gene can lead to various metabolic disorders, including impaired bile acid synthesis and altered steroid hormone metabolism.

Deficiency or dysfunction of cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase has been associated with several diseases, such as liver disease, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and some forms of cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of this enzyme is essential for developing new therapies and treatments for these conditions.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Obstructive Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. This occurs when there is an obstruction or blockage in the bile ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Bile, which contains bilirubin, aids in digestion and is usually released from the liver into the small intestine. When the flow of bile is obstructed, bilirubin builds up in the blood, causing jaundice. The obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as gallstones, tumors, or strictures in the bile ducts.

Obstructive jaundice may present with additional symptoms like dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, abdominal pain, and weight loss, depending on the cause and severity of the obstruction. It is essential to seek medical attention if jaundice is observed, as timely diagnosis and management can prevent potential complications, such as liver damage or infection.

A symporter is a type of transmembrane protein that functions to transport two or more molecules or ions across a biological membrane in the same direction, simultaneously. This process is called co-transport and it is driven by the concentration gradient of one of the substrates, which is usually an ion such as sodium (Na+) or proton (H+).

Symporters are classified based on the type of energy that drives the transport process. Primary active transporters, such as symporters, use the energy from ATP hydrolysis or from the electrochemical gradient of ions to move substrates against their concentration gradient. In contrast, secondary active transporters use the energy stored in an existing electrochemical gradient of one substrate to drive the transport of another substrate against its own concentration gradient.

Symporters play important roles in various physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, neurotransmitter reuptake, and ion homeostasis. For example, the sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is a symporter that co-transports glucose and sodium ions across the intestinal epithelium and the renal proximal tubule, contributing to glucose absorption and regulation of blood glucose levels. Similarly, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is a symporter that co-transports dopamine and sodium ions back into presynaptic neurons, terminating the action of dopamine in the synapse.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

Steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of steroids. It is specifically responsible for adding a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the 12th carbon atom of certain steroid molecules. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of bile acids and corticosteroids, including cortisol and aldosterone, which are important hormones produced by the adrenal gland.

The gene that encodes this enzyme is called CYP12A1, and mutations in this gene can lead to various disorders related to steroid metabolism. For example, a deficiency in steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase can result in the accumulation of bile acids that are not properly hydroxylated, which can cause liver damage and cholestatic pruritus (itching). Additionally, impaired cortisol and aldosterone production due to defects in this enzyme can lead to conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and salt-wasting crisis.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid hydroxylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a steroid molecule. These enzymes are located in the endoplasmic reticulum and play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones. The hydroxylation reaction catalyzed by these enzymes increases the polarity and solubility of steroids, allowing them to be further metabolized and excreted from the body.

The most well-known steroid hydroxylases are part of the cytochrome P450 family, specifically CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2. Each enzyme has a specific function in steroid biosynthesis, such as converting cholesterol to pregnenolone (CYP11A1), hydroxylating the 11-beta position of steroids (CYP11B1 and CYP11B2), or performing multiple hydroxylation reactions in the synthesis of sex hormones (CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2).

Defects in these enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by impaired steroid hormone biosynthesis.

Cholestanes are a type of steroid compound that are derived from cholesterol. They are characterized by a fully saturated steroid nucleus, which means that all of the double bonds in the cholesterol molecule have been reduced to single bonds through a process called hydrogenation.

Cholestanes are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of other steroids, such as bile acids and steroid hormones. They can also be found in some natural sources, including certain plants and fungi.

It's worth noting that cholestanes themselves do not have any specific medical significance, but they are important for understanding the biochemistry of steroids and their role in human health and disease.

Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct, which is the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that can form in the gallbladder or, less commonly, in the bile ducts.

Choledocholithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infection or inflammation of the bile ducts or pancreas, which can be life-threatening.

The condition is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention to remove the gallstones from the common bile duct.

Glucuronates are not a medical term per se, but they refer to salts or esters of glucuronic acid, a organic compound that is a derivative of glucose. In the context of medical and biological sciences, glucuronidation is a common detoxification process in which glucuronic acid is conjugated to a wide variety of molecules, including drugs, hormones, and environmental toxins, to make them more water-soluble and facilitate their excretion from the body through urine or bile.

The process of glucuronidation is catalyzed by enzymes called UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. The resulting glucuronides can be excreted directly or further metabolized before excretion.

Therefore, "glucuronates" can refer to the chemical compounds that result from this process of conjugation with glucuronic acid, as well as the therapeutic potential of enhancing or inhibiting glucuronidation for various clinical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cholates" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in physiology, pathology, or pharmacology. It seems like there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding. If you meant to ask about "cholesterol," I would be happy to help provide information on that.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) that is essential for the normal functioning of our bodies. It plays crucial roles in maintaining cell membrane structure, producing certain hormones, and serving as a precursor for vitamin D and bile acids. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

If you have any questions or need more information about cholesterol or any other medical topic, please feel free to ask!

Endoscopic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a light and camera) to cut the papilla of Vater, which contains the sphincter of Oddi muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat gallstones or to manage other conditions related to the bile ducts or pancreatic ducts.

The sphincterotomy helps to widen the opening of the papilla, allowing stones or other obstructions to pass through more easily. It may also be used to relieve pressure and pain caused by spasms of the sphincter of Oddi muscle. The procedure is usually done under sedation or anesthesia and carries a risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation, and pancreatitis.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Sulfobromophthalein (BSP or bromsulphthalein) is not typically defined in a medical dictionary as it is a chemical compound. However, I can provide you with some information about its use in a medical context:

Sulfobromophthalein is a chemical compound primarily used for liver function tests. It is a dye that is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and then its clearance rate from the blood is measured to evaluate liver function. A healthy liver should quickly remove the dye from the blood and excrete it through the bile ducts into the digestive system. If the liver is not functioning properly, the clearance of sulfobromophthalein will be slower, leading to higher levels of the dye remaining in the bloodstream over time.

The test using sulfobromophthalein has largely been replaced by more modern and specific liver function tests; however, it was once widely used for assessing overall liver health and diagnosing conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver damage due to various causes.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Sterols are a type of organic compound that is derived from steroids and found in the cell membranes of organisms. In animals, including humans, cholesterol is the most well-known sterol. Sterols help to maintain the structural integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play important roles as precursors for the synthesis of various hormones and other signaling molecules. Phytosterols are plant sterols that have been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects in humans when consumed in sufficient amounts.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Xanthomatosis is a medical term that refers to the condition characterized by the presence of xanthomas, which are yellowish, fat-laden deposits that form under the skin or in other tissues. These deposits consist of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, and immune cells called macrophages, which have engulfed the lipids.

Xanthomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the eyelids, tendons, joints, and other areas with connective tissue. They may appear as small papules or larger nodules, and their size and number can vary depending on the severity of the underlying disorder.

Xanthomatosis is often associated with genetic disorders that affect lipid metabolism, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, or with acquired conditions that cause high levels of lipids in the blood, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and certain liver diseases. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying disorder and controlling lipid levels through dietary changes, medications, or a combination of both.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

I am not aware of a medical term called "Cholanes." The term may be misspelled or it might refer to a specific concept or substance within a particular context. In general, "chol"-related terms in medicine refer to bile or the biliary system. For example, "chole" means bile and "cholestasis" refers to the stoppage of bile flow. If you have more context or information about where this term is being used, I'd be happy to help you try to decipher it further!

Biliary cirrhosis is a specific type of liver cirrhosis that results from chronic inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to impaired bile flow, liver damage, and fibrosis. It can be further classified into primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and secondary biliary cirrhosis. PBC is an autoimmune disease, while secondary biliary cirrhosis is often associated with chronic gallstones, biliary tract obstruction, or recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Symptoms may include fatigue, itching, jaundice, and abdominal discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsy. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms, slowing disease progression, and preventing complications.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to an excess of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Bilirubin is a yellow-orange pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Normally, bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile into the digestive system. However, if there's an issue with bilirubin metabolism or elimination, it can accumulate in the body, leading to jaundice.

Jaundice can be a symptom of various underlying conditions, such as liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis), gallbladder issues (gallstones, tumors), or blood disorders (hemolysis). It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if jaundice is observed, as it may indicate a severe health problem requiring prompt medical attention.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian physiologist who discovered it in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi has two parts: the sphincter papillae, which surrounds the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, and the sphincter choledochus, which is located more proximally in the bile duct. The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help regulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the flow of bile from the liver to aid in digestion.

Biliary atresia is a rare, progressive liver disease in infants and children, characterized by the inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction of the bile ducts. This results in the impaired flow of bile from the liver to the intestine, leading to cholestasis (accumulation of bile in the liver), jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and eventually liver cirrhosis and failure if left untreated.

The exact cause of biliary atresia is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It can occur as an isolated condition or in association with other congenital anomalies. The diagnosis of biliary atresia is typically made through imaging studies, such as ultrasound and cholangiography, and confirmed by liver biopsy.

The standard treatment for biliary atresia is a surgical procedure called the Kasai portoenterostomy, which aims to restore bile flow from the liver to the intestine. In this procedure, the damaged bile ducts are removed and replaced with a loop of intestine that is connected directly to the liver. The success of the Kasai procedure depends on several factors, including the age at diagnosis and surgery, the extent of liver damage, and the skill and experience of the surgeon.

Despite successful Kasai surgery, many children with biliary atresia will eventually develop cirrhosis and require liver transplantation. The prognosis for children with biliary atresia has improved significantly over the past few decades due to earlier diagnosis, advances in surgical techniques, and better postoperative care. However, it remains a challenging condition that requires close monitoring and multidisciplinary management by pediatric hepatologists, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

1-Naphthylisothiocyanate (also known as 1-NIT or ANS) is a chemical compound that is used in research and scientific studies. It is an isothiocyanate derivative of 1-naphthol, which means it has a molecular structure containing a naphthalene ring with an isothiocyanate functional group attached to it.

In medical and biological research, 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate has been used as a tool for studying various cellular processes, including the regulation of calcium signaling and the activation of certain enzymes. It can also act as an irritant and may cause respiratory and skin irritation in humans.

It is important to note that 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate is not a drug or medication, and it should only be used under controlled laboratory conditions by trained professionals.

"Eubacterium" is a genus of Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are typically rod-shaped and can be either straight or curved. They play an important role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which are beneficial for host health. Some species of Eubacterium have also been shown to have probiotic properties and may provide health benefits when consumed in appropriate quantities. However, other species can be opportunistic pathogens and cause infections under certain circumstances.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of membrane proteins that utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes. These transporters play crucial roles in several biological processes, including detoxification, drug resistance, nutrient uptake, and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

The structure of ABC transporters consists of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate-translocation pathway. The NBDs are typically located adjacent to each other in the cytoplasm, while the TMDs can be either integral membrane domains or separate structures associated with the membrane.

The human genome encodes 48 distinct ABC transporters, which are classified into seven subfamilies (ABCA-ABCG) based on their sequence similarity and domain organization. Some well-known examples of ABC transporters include P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

Dysregulation or mutations in ABC transporters have been implicated in various diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, neurological disorders, and cancer. In cancer, overexpression of certain ABC transporters can contribute to drug resistance by actively effluxing chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells, making them less susceptible to treatment.

Cholestanol is a sterol that is similar in structure to cholesterol. It is produced in the body as a byproduct of cholesterol metabolism and can be found in various tissues, including the liver, blood, and nervous system.

Cholestanol is not normally present in large amounts in the body, but elevated levels can indicate the presence of certain genetic disorders or conditions that affect cholesterol metabolism, such as cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). In CTX, mutations in the gene for the enzyme sterol 27-hydroxylase lead to an accumulation of cholestanol and other sterols in various tissues, which can cause a range of symptoms including neurological problems, cataracts, and tendon xanthomas (cholesterol deposits).

Elevated levels of cholestanol can also be found in some other conditions, such as liver disease or bile acid synthesis disorders. Therefore, measuring cholestanol levels in the blood may be useful as a diagnostic tool for these conditions.

Cholestenones are a group of steroid compounds that are derived from cholesterol. They include several biologically important compounds, such as bile acids and their intermediates, which play crucial roles in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Cholestenones are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of various steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.

Cholestenones are characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings, with a double bond between the second and third carbons and a ketone group at the third carbon atom. Some examples of cholestenones include 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is a precursor to vitamin D, and desmosterol, which is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.

It's worth noting that while cholestenones are important biomolecules, they can also accumulate in various tissues and fluids under certain pathological conditions, such as in some inherited metabolic disorders. For example, elevated levels of certain cholestenones in the blood or urine may indicate the presence of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects cholesterol biosynthesis.

The pH of common duct bile (7.50 to 8.05) is higher than that of the corresponding gallbladder bile (6.80 to 7.65). Bile in the ... "yellow bile"). Excesses of black bile and yellow bile were thought to produce depression and aggression, respectively, and the ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". www.vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-05. "Secretion of Bile ... two of which related to bile: blood, phlegm, "yellow bile" (choler), and "black bile". These "humors" are believed to have ...
A bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic ... The bile canaliculi empty directly into the canals of Hering. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in shape, therefore having no set ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi.[citation needed] Bile+Canaliculi at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ...
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile is ... The path is as follows: bile canaliculi → canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right ... The top half of the common bile duct is associated with the liver, while the bottom half of the common bile duct is associated ... It joins the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct which then opens into the ...
The bile acid pool size is between 4-6 g, which means that bile acids are recycled several times each day. About 95% of bile ... These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts. The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, ... Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. Primary bile acids are those ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. Diverse bile acids are ...
A Bile Bean Puzzle Book was published during the early 1930s and also freely distributed. By that time advertising for Bile ... Despite the Bile Beans Manufacturing Company having lost the Scottish court case in 1906, Bile Beans remained popular through ... The product sold by Fulford and Gilbert was not the first patent medicine marketed as "Bile Beans". A different type of Bile ... In the early years Bile Beans were marketed as "Charles Forde's Bile Beans for Biliousness", and sales relied heavily on ...
The bile up (or boil-up) is considered the cultural dish of the Kriols of Belize. It is a combination of boiled eggs, fish and/ ...
... at Soccerway Darnell Bile at the French Football Federation (in French) (CS1 French-language sources (fr), CS1 ... Darnell Eric Bile (born 28 October 2005) is a French professional footballer who plays as a forward for the Milan's U19 team. ... Born in France, Bile holds French and Ivorian nationalities. He is a youth international for France, first receiving a call ... "Darnell Bile présente ses excuses après son coup de tête avec l'équipe de France U18". L'Équipe (in French). 27 September 2022 ...
His son Ahmed Bile ran competitively for Georgetown University. Bile was born in Las Anod, Somalia a member of the Nur Ahmed ... As of the 2020s, Bile has the 17th fastest kilometer race of all time with a time of 2:14.50. Bile has won gold medals in the ... Abdi Bile (Somali: Cabdi Bile Cabdi, Arabic: عبد بلي عبد; born 28 December 1962) is a former middle distance runner. He holds ... Bile graduated from George Mason University with a BSc in marketing management. At George Mason, Bile was team captain and a ...
2 (2022) "Bile Biography, Songs, & Albums". AllMusic. Retrieved July 20, 2023. Bile at AllMusic (Articles with short ... A Bucket of Bile, Best of Bile (2004) Hate Radio (2009) Built to Fuck, Born to Kill (2013) Sharks and Covid, Vol. 1 (EP, 2021) ... Bile. Krztoff coined the phrase "Demonic Electronic" to best describe their sound and live show. Bile has played and toured the ... Beginning in 1992 Bile began as an art project. The band became a top-drawing New York City live spectacle, which led to them ...
... (Ukrainian: Біле озеро, means 'white lake') is a lake in the south-western Ukraine, in the delta of the Dniester ... Similar to the other lakes of the Dniester River delta, Lake Bile is the unique biotope, inhabited by a lot of rare plant ... the Dniester wetlands (in Russian) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Bile. http://www.poezdnik.kiev.ua/ozera/bile_ ...
The Bile River is a river in the United States territory of Guam. List of rivers of Guam U.S. Geological Survey Geographic ... Names Information System: Bile River v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
... (born 24 December 2004) is a Ivorian professional footballer who currently plays for Žilina in the Niké Liga as a ... MŠK Žilina official club profile Eric Bile at Soccerway Futbalnet profile Niké Liga profile v t e (Articles with short ...
Bile Style Records FORMAT: LP INFO: Full title: "Regurge: A Bucket of Bile Best Of." This is a best of compilation containing ... Bile Style Records FORMAT: LP INFO: A collection of Bile's cover songs. All songs recorded, mixed, and mastered by Krztoff. ... The Devil's Bile (4:22) Legion (3:47) Demonic Electronic (3:03) Celebrity (5:58) Prime Time Loser (5:25) Bad Karma (6:09) The ... LABEL: Bile Style Records FORMAT: LP INFO: "Demonic Electronic" was written, performed, produced, recorded, mixed, engineered, ...
Consumers of bear bile have a strong preference for bile produced from wild bears; bile from farms may, therefore, not be a ... Bear species farmed for collecting bile Bear bile and gallbladders, which store bile, are ingredients in traditional Chinese ... "Ending the bear bile industry" World Animal Protection Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bear bile. "New home for bile ... Some bears may be kept in cages for bile extraction for 20 years or more. A bear can produce 2.2 kg of bile over a 5-year ...
... birthname Bile), 19th century Cameroonian ruler Bile River, Guam Birecik, Turkey, a city called Bile during the Crusades Bile, ... Bile is a greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted from the liver of most vertebrates. Bile may also refer to: Abdi Bile (born ... BiLE) All pages with titles containing bile Biles, a surname This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ... a Southern Bantoid Jarawan language of Nigeria Black bile, a humor in ancient and pre-modern medicine Yellow bile, a humor in ...
Bile (Bille) is one of the few Bantu languages of Nigeria. They can be found domiciled in Adamawa state below the Benue river ... Bile at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required) Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). ...
"Mingo Bile Régio Francisco Congo Zalata". National Football Teams. Retrieved 16 November 2018. Mingo Bile at National-Football- ... Mingo Bile started his career at Primeiro de Agosto in 2003. In 2006, he transferred to Desportivo da Huíla to earn more game ... Mingo Bile was first called into the National Team in 2010 and has now gained 36 caps. Scores and results list Albania's goal ... "Mingo Bile". footballdatabase.eu. Retrieved 2017-07-27. "Futebol: Plantel do 1º de Agosto para época 2019/20" (in Portuguese). ...
Micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome stain. Intermediate magnification Micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome ... Histopathology of a bile duct hamartoma, high magnification, H&E stain. It shows typical features of bile duct hamartoma: von ... A bile duct hamartoma or biliary hamartoma, is a benign tumour-like malformation of the liver. They are classically associated ... Bile duct hamartomas are a developmental anomaly in which abnormal tissues are present at normal site due to failure of ...
The interlobular bile ducts (or interlobular ductules) carry bile in the liver between the Canals of Hering and the interlobar ... STRAZZABOSCO, MARIO; FABRIS, LUCA (2008-06-01). "Functional Anatomy of Normal Bile Ducts". Anatomical Record. 291 (6): 653-660 ... bile ducts. They are part of the interlobular portal triad and can be easily localized by looking for the much larger portal ...
Primary bile acid diarrhea (Type 2 bile acid "malabsorption") may be caused by an overproduction of bile acids. Several groups ... It has also been called bile acid-induced diarrhea, cholerheic or choleretic enteropathy, bile salt diarrhea or bile salt ... a bile acid precursor, in serum, shows the increased bile acid synthesis found in bile acid malabsorption. This test is an ... Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being ...
... s (BSH) are microbial enzymes that deconjugate primary bile acids. They catalyze the first step of bile acid ... which regulates bile acid synthesis and transport. Upon activation, FXR can repress bile acid synthesis and alter the bile acid ... bile acid reconjugation involves the addition of amino acids to an unconjugated bile acid. Additionally, microbial bile acid ... One consequence of bile acid metabolism is the variety of effects on the host. In the case of BSHs, deconjugated bile acids can ...
Bile (Ukrainian: Біле) is an urban-type settlement in Alchevsk Raion (district) in Luhansk Oblast of eastern Ukraine. ... "Bile (Luhansk Oblast)". weather.in.ua. Retrieved 14 June 2022. Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number ...
... compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. They can be divided into: Lobar ... Interlobular bile ducts (between the interlobar ducts and the lobules) - simple columnar epithelium. Intralobular bile ducts ( ... cholangioles or Canals of Hering) - simple cuboidal epithelium, then by hepatocytes Bile canaliculi - two half-canaliculi ...
An accessory bile duct is a conduit that transports bile and is considered to be supernumerary or auxiliary to the biliary tree ... Often diagnosed by HIDA scan, a bile leak from an accessory bile duct post-op can be treated with a temporary biliary stent[ ... Originating from the hepatic parenchyma the accessory bile duct may enter a large bile duct or the gallbladder at any location ... ISBN 978-0-7817-7165-8. Sharif, K; De Ville De Goyet, J (2003). "Bile duct of luschka leading to bile leak after ...
The bile duct (formerly known as the common bile duct) is a part of the biliary tract. It is formed by the union of the common ... It possesses its own sphincter to enable regulation of bile flow. The bile duct is some 6-8 cm long, and normally up to 8 mm in ... The bile duct terminates by uniting with the pancreatic duct (at an angle of about 60°) to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla. ... Tumours in the head of the pancreas may come to obstruct the distal bile duct. If obstructed by a gallstone, a condition called ...
... (BEA) is a selective differential agar used to isolate and identify members of the genus Enterococcus, ... Bile Esculin Agar is used primarily to differentiate Enterococcus from Streptococcus. Members of the genus Enterococcus are ... When new techniques are produced to identify enterococci, they are often compared to the use of bile esculin agar. Rollins, ... Bile Esculin Agar Description & Formulation (Articles needing additional references from August 2023, All articles needing ...
... (English: Even If They Turn Off the Lights) is the fourth album by Turkish rock band maNga. It was ...
... (Somali: Cabdulaahi Bile Nuur, Arabic: ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ بيلي ﻧﻮﺭ), better known as Bile, is a Somali politician. He ... Bile is originally from northeastern Puntland. He hails Dishiishe clan and was born in the coastal town of Bosaso in the ... On August 13, 2000, Bile was selected as a member of the newly installed transitional parliament of Somalia; he still holds ... He is one of Somalia's longest serving national legislators.[citation needed] Bile served for the government for many years and ...
... s exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester ... Bile salt diarrhea can also be a side-effect of gallbladder removal. Bile acid sequestrants are the principal therapy for bile ... Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the ... The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. They ...
... also known as hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (HST) or sulfotransferase 2A1 (ST2A1) is an enzyme ... This gene is primarily expressed in liver and adrenal tissues where the encoded protein sulfonates steroids and bile acids. ... 1991). "Human liver steroid sulphotransferase sulphates bile acids". Biochem. J. 272 (3): 597-604. doi:10.1042/bj2720597. PMC ...
The pH of common duct bile (7.50 to 8.05) is higher than that of the corresponding gallbladder bile (6.80 to 7.65). Bile in the ... "yellow bile"). Excesses of black bile and yellow bile were thought to produce depression and aggression, respectively, and the ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". www.vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-05. "Secretion of Bile ... two of which related to bile: blood, phlegm, "yellow bile" (choler), and "black bile". These "humors" are believed to have ...
Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ... Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ... Bile helps with digestion. It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. ... Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ...
... (BDI) can be a devastating complication of cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical ... Please click on the link for strategies for minimizing bile duct injuries and a video by Dr. Michael Brunt introducing the ... Iatrogenic bile duct injury-a cost analysis. Andersson R1, Eriksson K, Blind PJ, Tingstedt B. ... SAGES Launches Program to Reduce Bile Duct Injury. November 12, 2014. by L. Michael Brunt ...
Rush puts you at the center of your treatment for bile duct cancer, using the most advanced surgery and targeted radiation ... Meet our bile duct cancer providers Meet our bile duct cancer providers Rush Excellence in Bile Duct Cancer Care. *Nationally ... Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer. You are at higher risk for bile duct cancer if you have any of the following conditions:. * ... Bile Duct Cancer. At Rush, we work with you to personalize your treatment for bile duct cancer using the most advanced surgery ...
High Fat Diet Alters Gut Bacteria and Bile Acids in Mice, Increasing Colorectal Cancer Risk ... Colorectal Cancer Stem Cell Growth Driven by High-Fat Diet and Altered Bile Acid Profile ...
Subcellular organization of bile acid amidation in human liver: a key issue in regulating the biosynthesis of bile salts. J ... Alnouti Y. Bile Acid sulfation: a pathway of bile acid elimination and detoxification. Toxicol Sci 2009; 108: 225-46. ... Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein- Coupled Bile Acid Receptors. ... Bile Acid Physiology Di Ciaula A, Garruti G, Lunardi BR, Molina-Molina E, Bonfrate L, Wang DQH, Portincasa P ...
BD BBL™ Enterococcosel™ Agar (Bile Esculin Azide Agar) 500g. BD Schaedler Agar Base, Bottle, 500g ...
Unfortunately, most benign bile duct strictures (biliary strictures) are iatrogenic, resulting from operative trauma (see ... Bile duct stricture (biliary stricture) is an uncommon but challenging clinical condition that requires a coordinated ... causing a narrowing of the bile duct lumen and obstructing the flow of bile) or extrinsic compression of the bile ducts by a ... Strictures of the bile duct can be benign or malignant. Benign strictures develop when the bile ducts are injured in some way. ...
Simone Biles became Americas most decorated gymnast - male or female - in 2019 when she won her 24th and 25th medals at the ... But Biles kept a terrible secret for a long time. She came forward in 2018 to say she was among the hundreds of girls and women ... Biles applauds the efforts of other female athletes, such as the U.S. womens soccer and hockey teams, to secure better pay and ... Biles, 22, became Americas most decorated gymnast - male or female - in 2019 when she won her 24th and 25th medals at the ...
... all of Simone Biles most adorable Instagram moments. ... See Simone Biles road to Rio unfold on Instagram -- ... See Simone Biles road to Rio unfold on Instagram.. Simone Biles Most Adorable Instagram Moments was originally published on ...
... innovative care for bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Each one is an expert in the disease. ... Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) More About Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) ... Select from the list below to learn more about our gallbladder and bile duct cancer specialists, their education, training, ... At Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, patients with gallbladder and bile duct cancer are treated by a multidisciplinary ...
Home , Patient Care , Conditions and Treatment , Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancer) Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancer) ... Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancer) - How to prevent? ​There are no known ways to prevent most bile duct cancers. Many of ... Bile ducts within the liver join together to form one main bile duct, located just outside the liver (at the hilum), which ... Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancer) - Causes and Risk Factors Any cause of chronic inflammation and/or infection to the bile ...
Jonathan Owens went through how he met Simone Biles on Raya. ... Simone BilesJonathan OwensMarriageRyan Clark. SHARE THIS STORY ... Simone Biles, Aly Raisman Among 90 Larry Nassar Victims Suing FBI for $1 Billion for Botched Investigation Joe Price · June 8, ... Biles smiled at his mention of her liking his Instagram posts, but he maintained that he wanted to wait before hitting her up ... Simone Biles Officially Ties The Knot With Houston Texans Jonathan Owens in Cabo Mark Elibert · May 7, 2023 ...
Tag: radio bile Al Byrnes Radio Bile. by Al Byrne in Columns, Feature, Pop Share this Twitter. Facebook. ... Al Byrnes Radio Bile. by Al Byrne in Columns, Feature, O.S.T Share this Twitter. Facebook. ... Al Byrnes Radio Bile. by Al Byrne in Columns, Feature, Pop Share this Twitter. Facebook. ... Al Byrnes Radio Bile. by Al Byrne in Columns, Feature, Rock Share this Twitter. Facebook. ...
The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and ... "Bile Acids and Salts" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Serum Bile Acids Improve Prediction of Alzheimers Progression in a Sex-Dependent Manner. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2024 Mar; 11(9): ... The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. ...
... bile acids (BAs) are tightly regulated signalling molecules. Their levels in the intestinal lumen, circulation and tissues ... Neuro-humoral signalling by bile acids and the TGR5 receptor in the gastrointestinal tract J Physiol. 2014 Jul 15;592(14):2943- ... In addition to their role in the digestion and absorption of dietary fats, bile acids (BAs) are tightly regulated signalling ... bile formation and secretion, sensory transduction and inflammation. TGR5 agonists have been developed as treatments for ...
Although the Tokyo Olympics did not go as planned for Simone Biles, the Catholic 24-year-old gymnast made a triumphant return ... Biles had been favored to win as many as five gold medals in Tokyo, but withdrew from four events after revealing that she was ... Biles has spoken about her Catholic faith in the past, and she keeps a rosary in her gymnastics bag and prays prior to ... Biles told reporters that she was not injured, but instead was going to focus on her mental health and would make decisions on ...
Biles’ own assessment was that her performance on the second and final night of the […] ... Martha Karolyi said five words to Simone Biles as she draped yet another medal around the neck of the 4-foot, 8-inch dynamo on ... "So far, in my life, yes," Biles said. "Hopefully, it will get better." Biles recorded her best-ever scores at a P&G ... Biles own assessment was that her performance on the second and final night of the P&G Championships was better than shes ...
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Simultaneous Analysis of Transport of Monomeric and Polymeric IgA between Blood and Bile in Man D. Delacroix; D. Delacroix ... Simultaneous Analysis of Transport of Monomeric and Polymeric IgA between Blood and Bile in Man. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September ...
Transmission Electron Microscopy Confirmation of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Human Bile Yujeong Lee1, Seung Il Kim1, Yoon-sun Yi ... B) Human bile collected through percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage in the gallbladder of a patient affected with ... C-F) Transmission electron microscopy images of Orientia tsutsugamushi in the bile. Bacteria (black asterisks); outer membrane ... Transmission Electron Microscopy Confirmation of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Human Bile. ...
The rhythm of bile acid metabolism can also be affected by uridine, whose metabolism exhibits a daily rhythm. However, the ... is demonstrated to disturb the bile acid metabolism. ... The rhythm of bile acid metabolism can also be affected by ... Importantly, the mRNA expression of bile acids nuclear receptors, bile acid synthesis, and transporters in the liver showed ... Diurnal rhythm; Uridine; Dynamic; Bile acids metabolism; High-fat diet Cite This Article. ZHOU, T., ZHANG, Y., ZHANG, J., XIE, ...
Simone Biles glides to 4th straight U.S. gymnastics title Biles, Douglas headline US womens gymnastics team Final Five Win One ... Biles spent the night before qualifying in the hospital dealing with pain from a kidney stone. The stone was too big to pass ... DOHA, Qatar - Simone Biles returned to training last November wondering if she could ever return to the form that made her an ... Biles believes its just the beginning. Shell visit with doctors to treat the kidney stone, go on a short vacation and then ...
A 10 year single centre experience of percutaneous and endoscopic extraction of bile duct stones with T tube in situ. ... A 10 year single centre experience of percutaneous and endoscopic extraction of bile duct stones with T tube in situ. ... A non-randomised single centre study of 226 consecutive patients referred over 10 years with retained common bile duct stones ... It is concluded that percutaneous and endoscopic methods of bile duct clearance in patients with a T tube in situ are equally ...
... Cancer has spread to (1) the portal vein (blood vessel that carries blood to the liver ...
"https://kn.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=bile&oldid=623137" ಇಂದ ಪಡೆಯಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ ...
Meaning of bile. 1 definition found From WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006) [wn]: bile n 1: a digestive juice secreted by the liver and ... stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats [syn: {bile}, {gall}] Source : WordNet ® Princeton University. 2010. ...
Youre not how much money you have in the bank." © RAGING Bile Duct 2008 - 2009 ... Fight Club (1999) New Post Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy About RAGING Bile Duct ... RAGING Bile Duct is hosted by the excellent IdleServ Web Hosting Solutions. ...
Black Bile, Yellow Bile: An Essay on Warrior Dysfunctionality and the Prehistory of Greek Medicine Read more ...
Bile Vibratoare GoGasm Vaginale Si Anale Mov. Lungime: 21.0 cm, Diametru: 2.9-3.7 cm ... Bile Vaginale Nalone Miu Miu Kegel Exerciser Alb. Diametru: 3.6 cm, Alb, Marca: Nalone ... Bile Cu Vibratii Pretty Love Willie Mov. Lungime: 20.5 cm, Diametru: 3.4 cm ... Bile Sweet Smile RC Love Roz. Lungime: 16.4 cm, Diametru: 1.5-3.3 cm ...
  • Biliary obstruction refers to a condition when bile ducts which deliver bile from the gallbladder or liver to the duodenum become obstructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benign strictures develop when the bile ducts are injured in some way. (medscape.com)
  • Atrophy of the hepatic segment or lobe drained by the involved bile ducts, associated with hypertrophy of the unaffected segments, can occur, especially with chronic high-grade strictures. (medscape.com)
  • Malignant strictures are usually the result of either a primary bile duct cancer (ie, causing a narrowing of the bile duct lumen and obstructing the flow of bile) or extrinsic compression of the bile ducts by a neoplasm in an adjacent organ, such as the gallbladder, pancreas, or liver (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • Injury to bile ducts can occur during either laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy. (medscape.com)
  • The causes of benign bile duct strictures are usually surgical inexperience, failure to recognize abnormal biliary anatomy and congenital anomalies, acute inflammation, misplacement of clips, excessive use of cautery, and excessive dissection around the major bile ducts, resulting in ischemic injury. (medscape.com)
  • Bile duct cancer can develop in bile ducts that are located inside or outside your liver - or in both. (rush.edu)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure that uses X-rays and an endoscope (a lighted, flexible tube containing a camera) to diagnose or treat problems in the bile ducts, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. (rush.edu)
  • Bile ducts within the liver join together to form one main bile duct, located just outside the liver (at the hilum), which carries bile to the small intestine. (cgh.com.sg)
  • It arises from cells lining the bile ducts (cholangiocytes). (cgh.com.sg)
  • Any cause of chronic inflammation and/or infection to the bile ducts can increase the risk of developing CCA due to long-standing repeat damage, these include bile duct stones or parasites. (cgh.com.sg)
  • Congenital Bile Duct Cysts (Choledochal Cysts) - These are abnormal dilated bile ducts, they are usually congenital in nature and are typically diagnosed in childhood but may develop or be detected in adulthood. (cgh.com.sg)
  • Blood tests and imaging studies revealed a 70-mm occupying lesion in the right lobe of the liver and dilated intrahepatic bile ducts . (bvsalud.org)
  • Focal intrahepatic benign bile duct stricture after cholecystectomy. (medscape.com)
  • Bile (from Latin bilis), or gall, is a yellow-green fluid produced by the liver of most vertebrates that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, bile is primarily composed of water, produced continuously by the liver, and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since bile increases the absorption of fats, it is an important part of the absorption of the fat-soluble substances, such as the vitamins A, D, E, and K. Besides its digestive function, bile serves also as the route of excretion for bilirubin, a byproduct of red blood cells recycled by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are diagnosed with bile duct cancer, your doctor will likely refer you liver and GI cancer specialists who can determine the next best steps to confirm the diagnosis and treatment. (rush.edu)
  • The continuing importance of bile acids in liver and intestinal disease. (medigraphic.com)
  • Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (Bile Duct Cancer) is next most common primary cancer of the liver, after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (cgh.com.sg)
  • The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. (harvard.edu)
  • Bile acid-induced IRF3 phosphorylation mediates cell death, inflammatory responses, and fibrosis in cholestasis-induced liver and kidney injury via regulation of ZBP1. (harvard.edu)
  • Importantly, the mRNA expression of bile acids nuclear receptors, bile acid synthesis, and transporters in the liver showed significantly rhythmically changed ( P CYP7A1 ), fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 ( FGFR4 ), Na+/taurocholate co transporting polypeptide ( NTCP ), and bile salt export pump ( BSEP ) mRNAs of mice with uridine administration increased significantly ( P (techscience.com)
  • In conclusion, dynamic administration of uridine could regulate the rhythm of gene expression of pyrimidine and bile acid metabolism in the liver and ileum of HFD-fed mice, which contributed to the further study of circadian rhythmic physiological and pathological changes of bile acids. (techscience.com)
  • The dispersion of food fat into micelles provides a greatly increased surface area for the action of the enzyme pancreatic lipase, which digests the triglycerides, and is able to reach the fatty core through gaps between the bile salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without bile salts, most of the lipids in food would be excreted in feces, undigested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile salts also act as bactericides, destroying many of the microbes that may be present in the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile Acids and Salts" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bile Acids and Salts" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bile Acids and Salts" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bile Acids and Salts" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Surfactants prepared by chemical modification of bile salts, e.g. sodium cholate derivatives, show a rich self-assembly in aqueous solution. (lu.se)
  • The most common cause of bile duct obstruction is when gallstone(s) are dislodged from the gallbladder into the cystic duct or common bile duct resulting in a blockage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cystic duct joins the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, and the combined duct is called the common bile duct. (cgh.com.sg)
  • A non-randomised single centre study of 226 consecutive patients referred over 10 years with retained common bile duct stones and a T tube in situ or a cholecystostomy tube are reported. (bmj.com)
  • Simone Biles, photographed at Shutters on the Beach in Santa Monica, is America's most decorated gymnast. (latimes.com)
  • Biles, 22, became America's most decorated gymnast - male or female - in 2019 when she won her 24th and 25th medals at the world championships. (latimes.com)
  • The Houston Texans safety appeared alongside Biles-who is now the most-decorated gymnast of all time after winning her sixth all-around world championship gold in October-on the podcast , and was asked how he managed to "pull" his now wife. (complex.com)
  • Although the Tokyo Olympics did not go as planned for Simone Biles, the Catholic 24-year-old gymnast made a triumphant return to competition on Tuesday and will leave Japan with two medals. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Many of the known risk factors for bile duct cancer, such as age, ethnicity, genetics and bile duct abnormalities are beyond our control. (cgh.com.sg)
  • There are several potential causes for biliary obstruction including gallstones, cancer, trauma, choledochal cysts, or other benign causes of bile duct narrowing. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAGES seeks to create a universal culture of safety in cholecystectomy by educating residents, fellows, and practicing surgeons about technical steps to prevent bile duct injury, such as the Critical View of Safety and intraoperative biliary imaging. (sages.org)
  • Bile duct stricture (also called biliary stricture) is an uncommon but challenging clinical condition that requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach involving gastroenterologists, radiologists, and surgical specialists. (medscape.com)
  • These agents enhance bile salt-dependent biliary flow. (medscape.com)
  • Shown to promote bile flow in cholestatic conditions associated with a patent extrahepatic biliary system. (medscape.com)
  • Although their role in the postoperative management of biliary atresia has never been established, some centers have found that short-term, high-dose therapy in the immediate postoperative period may improve the likelihood of achieving adequate bile drainage, particularly for infants in whom bile flow is not immediately apparent following portoenterostomy. (medscape.com)
  • A 10 year single centre experience of percutaneous and endoscopic extraction of bile duct stones with T tube in situ. (bmj.com)
  • Biles will be joined at the event by another Olympic all-around gold medalist, Sunisa Lee, who won the title for the US at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, which was held in 2021 due to COVID-19 pandemic precautions. (aljazeera.com)
  • But during the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, Biles voluntarily removed herself from several events in order to focus on her mental health. (aljazeera.com)
  • Postprandial serum concentrations of conjugates of cholic acid in health, cholecystectomized patients, and patients with bile acid malabsorption. (medigraphic.com)
  • To investigate whether obeticholic acid, a potent FXR agonist, could increase FGF19 in patients with bile acid diarrhoea, and produce clinical benefits. (nih.gov)
  • Last year, Biles was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honour in the US. (aljazeera.com)
  • According to SAGES President, Dr. Michael Brunt , "After 25 years of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, it is time to undertake the difficult issue of reducing bile duct injuries for this common procedure. (sages.org)
  • However, they can sometimes be dissolved by increasing the concentration of certain naturally occurring bile acids, such as chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic cholangiogram demonstrating a long bile duct stricture that represents external compression by gallbladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • It is concluded that percutaneous and endoscopic methods of bile duct clearance in patients with a T tube in situ are equally effective, carrying similar complication rates. (bmj.com)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma treated with radical resection after endoscopic diagnosis of the extent of bile duct invasion: A case report. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bile duct invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma is rare and often difficult to diagnose by computed tomography or conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography . (bvsalud.org)
  • Biles, who won four gold medals and one bronze at the 2016 Rio Olympics, hasn't lost an all-around competition since 2013. (latimes.com)
  • In a statement on Wednesday, USA Gymnastics announced that Biles, a seven-time Olympic medalist and 2016 Olympic champion, would participate in the US Classic in August after a nearly two-year hiatus. (aljazeera.com)
  • Biles nabbed the all-around gold in 2016, at the Olympic competition in Rio de Janeiro. (aljazeera.com)
  • After a human eats, this stored bile is discharged into the first section of their small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somjen GJ, Marikovsky Y, Lelkes P, Gilat T. Cholesterolphospholipid vesicles in human bile: an ultrastructural study. (medigraphic.com)
  • Somjen GJ, Gilat T. Contribution of vesicular and micellar carriers to cholesterol transport in human bile. (medigraphic.com)
  • Liquid crystals in human bile. (medigraphic.com)
  • B) Human bile collected through percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage in the gallbladder of a patient affected with scrub typhus. (cdc.gov)
  • Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria. (medigraphic.com)
  • The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. (harvard.edu)
  • Extrahepatic CCAs usually become symptomatic when the tumour obstructs the bile duct drainage system. (cgh.com.sg)
  • The cholesterol contained in bile will occasionally accrete into lumps in the gallbladder, forming gallstones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physical chemistry of cholesterol solubility in bile. (medigraphic.com)
  • Holzbach RT, Corbusier C. Liquid crystals and cholesterol nucleation during equilibration in supersaturated bile analogs. (medigraphic.com)
  • The mRNA expression of the transporters of cholesterol and bile acids in the ileum was also affected by ZT ( P P (techscience.com)
  • Simone Biles is dynamite dressed in a glittery gymnastics leotard. (latimes.com)
  • Biles, shown at Shutters on the Beach in Santa Monica, started gymnastics as a child after a daycare field trip was canceled because of bad weather. (latimes.com)
  • Biles has spoken about her Catholic faith in the past, and she keeps a rosary in her gymnastics bag and prays prior to competitions. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • In the qualifying round of the Women's Artistic Gymnastics competition, Biles performed as expected, qualifying for the event finals for each apparatus and winning first place for the all-around final. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • The United States gymnastics phenomenon Simone Biles will compete in an event later this year, marking her first return to competition since the Tokyo Olympics. (aljazeera.com)
  • After a 2 week run-in when bile acid sequestrants were discontinued, patients with previously diagnosed primary bile acid diarrhoea (n = 10), secondary bile acid diarrhoea (n = 10) or idiopathic chronic diarrhoea (n = 8), received oral obeticholic acid 25 mg daily for 2 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • In primary bile acid diarrhoea, obeticholic acid increased median fasting FGF19 (133-237 pg/mL, P = 0.007) and significantly reduced fasting C4 and bile acid responses. (nih.gov)
  • Many patients have reduced levels of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), an inhibitory regulator of hepatic bile acid synthesis, secreted in response to farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation. (nih.gov)
  • This proof-of-concept study indicates that obeticholic acid stimulates FGF19, reduces bile acid synthesis and produces clinical benefits in bile acid diarrhoea. (nih.gov)
  • In patients with chronic cholestatic conditions and bile duct patency, ursodeoxycholic acid (ie, ursodiol, UDCA) has also been shown to enhance bile flow. (medscape.com)
  • The two main pigments of bile are bilirubin, which is yellow, and its oxidised form biliverdin, which is green. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no definitive data are available, methylprednisolone blast therapy (ie, high dose, short duration) has been used in the immediate postoperative period in an effort to establish bile drainage, in part by (theoretically) enhancing bile salt-independent bile flow. (medscape.com)
  • Biles had been favored to win as many as five gold medals in Tokyo, but withdrew from four events after revealing that she was suffering from "the twisties. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Biles explained that after her uncharacteristically poor showing on vault, she withdrew from the competition to preserve the team's chance at a medal of any color. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Biles withdrew from the individual all-around, vault, uneven bars, and floor finals, but announced on August 2 that she would be competing in the following day's balance beam final. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Biles made headlines yesterday (July 27) when she withdrew from the Women's Team competition following her performance on the vault. (wgac.com)
  • It is not clear whether Biles plans to participate in the 2024 Olympics in Paris, although she has hinted that she hopes to do so. (aljazeera.com)
  • Iatrogenic bile duct injury-a cost analysis. (sages.org)
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma invasion of the bile duct is rare and has a poor prognosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Ulcerative Colitis - This is chronic inflammation of the large intestine that is often associated with inflammation of the bile duct (a condition known as sclerosing cholangitis). (cgh.com.sg)
  • Bile acid diarrhoea is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea, occurring as a primary condition or secondary to ileal disease or resection. (nih.gov)
  • However, not all bile duct strictures are benign. (medscape.com)
  • Nonetheless, both benign and malignant bile duct strictures can be associated with distressing symptoms and excessive morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • Strictures of the bile duct can be benign or malignant. (medscape.com)
  • Bile may be forced into the stomach secondary to a weakened valve (pylorus), the presence of certain drugs including alcohol, or powerful muscular contractions and duodenal spasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the secondary bile acid diarrhoea group, significant clinical improvements were found predominantly in patients with shorter ileal resections. (nih.gov)
  • The secondary bile acid isoursodeoxycholate correlates with post-prandial lipemia, inflammation, and appetite and changes post-bariatric surgery. (harvard.edu)
  • Bile Acids Control Inflammation and Metabolic Disorder through Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome. (medigraphic.com)
  • Zhu C, Fuchs CD, Halilbasic E, Trauner M. Bile acids in regulation of inflammation and immunity: friend or foe? (medigraphic.com)
  • Simone Biles competes in Germany in 2019. (latimes.com)
  • See Simone Biles' road to Rio unfold on Instagram. (globalgrind.com)
  • Jonathan Owens went through how he met Simone Biles on Raya. (complex.com)
  • In an interview on Ryan Clark's The Pivot , Jonathan Owens recounted how he met his wife Simone Biles and revealed that he didn't know who she was before they started dating. (complex.com)
  • nigga yo name is "Simone biles husband" how you the catch? (complex.com)
  • Simone Biles and Katie Ledecky are two of the names to know in this year's summer Olympic games in Rio. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Martha Karolyi said five words to Simone Biles as she draped yet another medal around the neck of the 4-foot, 8-inch dynamo on Saturday night. (ebony.com)
  • DOHA, Qatar - Simone Biles returned to training last November wondering if she could ever return to the form that made her an Olympic champion. (philasun.com)
  • Simone Biles has withdrawn from the Women's All-Around Final at the Olympic Games in Tokyo following her exit from the Women's Team competition. (wgac.com)
  • After further medical evaluation, Simone Biles has withdrawn from the final individual all-around competition at the Tokyo Olympic Games, in order to focus on her mental health. (wgac.com)
  • The blockage of bile might cause a buildup of bilirubin in the bloodstream which can result in jaundice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these patients die of complications of tumor invasion and metastasis rather than from the bile duct stricture per se. (medscape.com)
  • Wahlstr m A, Sayin SI, Marschall H-U, B ckhed F. Intestinal crosstalk between bile acids and microbiota and its impact on host metabolism. (medigraphic.com)
  • Bile Acid Administration Elicits an Intestinal Antimicrobial Program and Reduces the Bacterial Burden in Two Mouse Models of Enteric Infection. (medigraphic.com)
  • Bile acids regulate intestinal cell proliferation by modulating EGFR and FXR signaling. (medigraphic.com)
  • Bile acids modified by the intestinal microbiota promote colorectal cancer growth by suppressing CD8+ T cell effector functions. (harvard.edu)
  • Alnouti Y. Bile Acid sulfation: a pathway of bile acid elimination and detoxification. (medigraphic.com)
  • It is involved in many processes of the body, such as producing bile, essential proteins, nutrients and detoxification among others. (cgh.com.sg)
  • After returning to competition, Biles won a silver medal in the team competition and a bronze on the balance beam. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Biles told reporters that she was not injured, but instead was going to focus on her mental health and would make decisions on the competition day-by-day. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • After a clip of Owens' comments circulated on X, formerly Twitter, some suggested that they were only aware of him because of his relationship with Biles. (complex.com)
  • While allowing it wasn't her best, Biles took to Twitter in between beam and floor exercise to chastise those who criticized her for not winning gold. (philasun.com)
  • The bitter and greenish component may be bile or normal digestive juices originating in the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological factors influencing serum bile acid levels. (medigraphic.com)
  • Please click on the link for strategies for minimizing bile duct injuries and a video by Dr. Michael Brunt introducing the SAGES Safe Cholecystectomy program. (sages.org)
  • Bile duct injury (BDI) can be a devastating complication of cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. (sages.org)
  • Biles smiled at his mention of her liking his Instagram posts, but he maintained that he wanted to wait before hitting her up first. (complex.com)
  • Biles had told her followers on Instagram that the twisties appeared "randomly" the day after the Olympic qualifying round, and that she "literally can not tell up from down" when twisting in the air. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • I had no idea where I was in the air," Biles told reporters at the time. (aljazeera.com)
  • In the absence of bile, fats become indigestible and are instead excreted in feces, a condition called steatorrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Select from the list below to learn more about our gallbladder and bile duct cancer specialists, their education, training, board certification, current publications, and specific areas of clinical expertise. (mskcc.org)
  • Most of the time, having these symptoms does not mean you have bile duct cancer. (rush.edu)
  • Serum FGF19, total bile acids and 7α-OH-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) were measured, symptoms recorded and a diarrhoea index calculated. (nih.gov)
  • Biles' own assessment was that her performance on the second and final night of the P&G Championships was better than she's ever known. (ebony.com)
  • It was also reported on Tuesday that Biles was dealing with the death of her aunt while in Tokyo. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • Her mother, Nellie Biles, was unable to join her in Tokyo this year due to the coronavirus protocols. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • While Biles had previously experienced the twisties on the floor and vault, in Tokyo she felt them during all four events. (catholicnewsagency.com)
  • High-fat diet (HFD) is demonstrated to disturb the bile acid metabolism. (techscience.com)
  • The rhythm of bile acid metabolism can also be affected by uridine, whose metabolism exhibits a daily rhythm. (techscience.com)
  • Biles has since become an outspoken advocate for mental health awareness. (aljazeera.com)
  • About 400 to 800 milliliters (14 to 27 U.S. fluid ounces) of bile is produced per day in adult human beings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is bile acid a determinant of the gut microbiota on a high-fat diet? (medigraphic.com)
  • In the immediate postoperative period, high-dose, pulse therapy with methylprednisolone has been used as both an anti-inflammatory agent and as a nonspecific stimulant of bile salt-independent bile flow. (medscape.com)
  • Biles quickly advanced to a Junior Olympic training program and was invited to the ranch of famed coaches Bela and Martha Karolyi when she was 14. (latimes.com)