An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (1/2758)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

Analysis of the effects of food and of digestive secretions on the small intestine of the rat. 1. Mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement. (2/2758)

A modified Roux-en-Y repositioning of rat small intestine was performed so that the proximal segment of bowel (A) received only bile and pancreastic secretions, the second (B) received food direct from the stomach, and these two segments drained into a third (C). Four to five weeks after operation, cell production was assessed by injection of vincristine into operated, sham-operated and unoperated rats, and counts of blocked metaphases were made on isolated microdissected crypts. Villus height, crypt depth, and the number of crypts per villus (crypt/villus ratio) were also measured. Most of segment A showed no significant differences from sham-operated intestine, although the normal proximo-distal gradient of villus height was abolished. At the distal end (near the anastomosis with segments B and C), crypt depth and cell production were increased. The villus height gradient in segment B was also abolished, although crypt depth and cell production were significantly increased, especially at the proximal end. Crypt/villus ratio was also increased. Segment C showed all the characteristics of small bowel promoted to a more proximal position: increased villus height, crypt depth and cell production. Increased crypt/villus ratio was also observed. These results are discussed in terms of the role of food and of digestive secretions in the control of mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement.  (+info)

Progesterone alters biliary flow dynamics. (3/2758)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that progesterone alters sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder function and, therefore, bile flow dynamics. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the effects of progesterone on the biliary tract have been implicated in the increased incidence of gallstones among women, the specific effects of prolonged elevation of progesterone levels, such as occurs with contraceptive progesterone implants and during pregnancy, on the sphincter of Oddi and biliary flow dynamics are still incompletely understood. METHODS: Adult female prairie dogs were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous implants containing either progesterone or inactive pellet matrix only. Hepatic bile partitioning and gallbladder emptying were determined 14 days later using 99mTc-Mebrofenin cholescintigraphy. RESULTS: Significantly less hepatic bile partitioned into the gallbladder in progesterone-treated than in control animals. The gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly reduced from 73+/-6% in controls to 59+/-3% in the progesterone-treated animals. The rate of gallbladder emptying was significantly reduced from 3.6+/-0.3%/minute to 2.9+/-0.1%/minute. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone administered as subcutaneous implants alters partitioning of hepatic bile between gallbladder and small intestine and, therefore, gallbladder filling. Progesterone also significantly impairs gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin. The effects of progesterone on the sphincter of Oddi and the gallbladder may contribute to the greater prevalence of gallstones and biliary motility disorders among women.  (+info)

A new bile acid conjugate, ciliatocholic acid, from bovine gall bladder bile. (4/2758)

This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of ciliatocholic acid in bovine gall bladder bile. Ciliatocholic acid was synthesized according to the method described by Bergstrom and Norman for the synthesis of taurocholic acid. Elemental analysis, melting point, and the infrared spectrum of this substance were determined. An isolation procedure for ciliatocholic acid was established by stepwise elution with an HCl-ethanol solvent system using a Dowex-1 anion exchange resin column chromatographic technique. Ciliatocholic acid amounting to 158 mug (as ciliatine) per 100 ml of gall bladder bile was found in the fraction eluted with 0.01 N HCl in 50% ethanol. This coumpound was purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography and confirmed to be ciliatocholic acid from the hydrolytic stability, phosphorus determination, and chromatographic behavior. Thus, bovine gall bladder bile contains a small amount of ciliatocholic acid.  (+info)

An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease. (5/2758)

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

Influence of renal failure on intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin in rats. (6/2758)

Following intravenous doses, ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in control and nephrectomized rats were studied. There were no differences between control and nephrectomized rats for area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or biliary clearance. The intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin was increased in nephrectomized rats. Intestinal elimination seems to compensate partially for the decrease in urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in nephrectomized rats.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (7/2758)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (8/2758)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

The effect of a new potent choleretic drug (Febuprol) on lipid composition and cholesterol nucleation time in gallbladder bile was studied in 8 patients with cholesterol gallstones. Nine untreated patients with cholesterol cholecystolithiasis and functioning gallbladder served as controls. Under Febuprol treatment (3 X 100 mg for 6-10 days) mean concentrations of total bile acids (125.4 vs. 59.5 mmol/l), phospholipids (46.1 vs. 25.6 mmol/l) and total lipids (10.4 vs. 5.9 g/dl) were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than in controls. No significant difference between both groups was calculated for the mean values of cholesterol (17.8 vs. 13.3 mmol/l), cholesterol saturation index (1.5 vs. 2.1) and cholesterol nucleation time (2.1 vs. 2.6 days). Our findings are compatible with a choleretic effect of Febuprol but no alteration of the rapid cholesterol crystallisation in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol gallstones was found. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alteration of the Degree of Biliary Cholesterol Saturation in the Hamster and Rat by Manipulation of the Pools of Preformed and Newly Synthesized Cholesterol. AU - Turley, S. D.. AU - Spady, D. K.. AU - Dietschy, J. M.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Our studies compared the effects of changing the availability of newly synthesized and preformed cholesterol by various dietary manipulations on biliary cholesterol secretion in the hamster and rat. In hamsters fed a plain pelleted diet, only 2%-5% of biliary cholesterol was derived directly from newly synthesized sterol. Cholestyramine feeding, through a stimulation of hepatic sterol synthesis, increased this fraction fivefold but did not change total biliary cholesterol output. The relative cholesterol content increased significantly due to a reduction in bile acid and phospholipid output. In contrast, biliary cholesterol output was increased several-fold in hamsters fed a fat-free diet. These animals also manifested a pronounced ...
Epomediol (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2.)octan-6,7-endo,endo-diol) (EPO) is a terpenoid compound shown to reverse 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis in rat. The effect is related to the restoration of normal liver plasma membrane fluidity values. To further characterize the effect of EPO, bile flow and biliary lipid composition were measured in rats treated either with EE or EE associated with EPO. EE significantly reduced the bile flow; this reduction was prevented by concomitant treatment with EPO with an increase in the bile salt secretion rate. EPO alone showed a choleretic effect. The biliary secretion rate of cholesterol was also significantly reduced by EE while being comparable to controls in EE-EPO-treated animals. Phospholipid (PL) biliary excretion was significantly (P less than 0.002) increased by EE either alone or combined with EPO. After EE treatment, the biliary PL composition showed a reduction in phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration with a parallel ...
2H2O affects many membrane transport processes by solvent and kinetic isotope effects. Since bile formation is a process of osmotic filtration where such effects could be important, we investigated the effects of 2H2O on bile formation in the in situ perfused rat liver. Dose finding experiments showed that at high concentrations, 2H2O increased vascular resistance and induced cholestasis; at 60% 2H2O however, a clear dissociation between the vascular and biliary effects was observed. Therefore, further experiments were carried out at this concentration. The main finding was a reduction in bile salt-independent bile flow from 0.99 +/- 0.04 to 0.66 +/- 0.04 microliters.min-1.g-1 (P , 0.001). This was associated with a 40% reduction in biliary bicarbonate concentration (P , 0.001). Choleretic response to neither taurocholate nor ursodeoxycholate was altered by 2H2O; in particular, there was a similar stimulation of bicarbonate secretion by ursodeoxycholate in the presence of 60% 2H2O. To further ...
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile). After eating, this stored bile is discharged into the duodenum. The composition of gallbladder bile is 97% water, 0.7% bile salts, 0.2% bilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids and lecithin), and 200 meq/l inorganic salts. Bile was the yellow bile in the four humor system of medicine, the standard of medical practice in Europe from 500 B.C. to the early nineteenth century. About 400 to 800 ml of bile is produced per day in adult humans. Bile acts to some extent as a surfactant, helping to emulsify the lipids in food. Bile salt anions are hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other side; consequently, they tend to aggregate around droplets of lipids (triglycerides and phospholipids) to form ...
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Chemicals. MRL-I, [ethyl-14C]MRL-I, MRL-II, [13CD3]MRL-II, and [methyl-14C]MRL-II (Fig. 1) were synthesized at Merck Research Laboratories and were provided as their arginine salts. Alamethicin, saccharolactone, and UDPGA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Acetonitrile and methanol (HPLC grade) were obtained from Fisher Scientific Co. (Pittsburgh, PA). All other reagents were of analytical or HPLC grade.. Animals. Male Sprague-Dawley and obese Zucker rats were obtained from Charles River Laboratories Inc. (Wilmington, MA). They were housed in cages and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Access to food and water was allowed ad libitum. Rats used in this study were 14 to 16 weeks old; the Sprague-Dawley rats weighed ∼300 g and the obese Zucker rats weighed ∼600 g. All procedures for animal experiments were approved by the Merck Research Laboratories Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.. Studies in Bile Duct-Cannulated Rats. [14C]MRL-I (1 mg/kg) or [14C]MRL-II (0.5 ...
Andrews, W and Iwatsuki, S and Shaw, BW and Starzl, TE (1985) Bile diversion and cyclosporine dosage (Letter). Transplantation, 39. 338 - ?. ISSN 0041-1337 ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Elevation of pancreatic enzymes in bile of PBM. AU - Fujimoto, Takaaki. AU - Ohtsuka, Takao. AU - Nakamura, Masafumi. PY - 2018/6/5. Y1 - 2018/6/5. N2 - Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a congenital anomaly in which the reciprocal reflux between pancreatic and bile juice occurs because the conflu- ence of the pancreatic and bile ducts lies outside of the area of contractile influence of the sphincter of Oddi. The reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct and subse- quent elevated pancreatic enzyme level in bile are usually recognized in PBM. Amylase is the most popular pancreatic enzyme for assessment in daily prac- tice, and assessment of amylase level in bile is useful to definitively confirm the presence of PBM, and the mixture of pancreatic and bile juices may produce various physiological and pathological alterations. In PBM, the amylase level in bile in patients with biliary cancers has been reported to be higher than that with benign biliary diseases; however, ...
Bile is secreted by the hepatocytes and its water and electrolyte composition altered during its passage down the biliary system. Between meals much of the bile is diverted to the gallbladder where it is concentrated by the removal of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and water. In response to food, the gallbladder contracts, emptying bile into the duodenum. Apart from water (97%) the major components of bile are bile acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Bile is also the major excretory route of other compounds including bilirubin and certain drugs and their metabolites. Cholesterol is insoluble in water but is held in solution by the detergent action of bile acids with the aid of phospholipids.. Cholesterol is synthesized primarily in the liver and small intestine. The rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol production is hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (EC, which catalyses the first step, the conversion of acetate to mevalonate. Subsequently, nonesterified (free) cholesterol is ...
Shop the best NutriCology Allergy Research Ox Bile 100 Veg Caps products at Swanson Health Products. Trusted since 1969, we offer trusted quality and great value on NutriCology Allergy Research Ox Bile 100 Veg Caps products.. Dec 22, 2012 · 7-Keto DHEA; Vitamin. ox bile Extracts or Beef Bile Supplements are a combination of bile salts and bile acids that enhance or. why do we need ox bile.. For informational purposes only. Please consult your health care practitioner before.. Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends.. Feb 3, 2012. But she had a gallstone blocking her common bile duct - extremely painful and impossible to eat ANY foods. Not long after, in her. As a result, I cant do a ketogenic diet. Even the 21. I dont overdo this, maybe 3-4 times a week Ill have either kombucha (4-6 oz) or raw sauerkraut (1/3 cup). Adding the.. Sep 10, 2017. Post-meal constipation and other bathroom problems could be a ...
Lets review. The liver is a large organ that produces bile. Bile plays a role in the breakdown of fats and, more specifically, is defined as a yellowish-green fluid that aids in the emulsification of fats. When a large fat droplet is emulsified, it is essentially broken down into smaller droplets.. Bile enters the duodenum when dietary fats are present. If any bile remains after the fat has been digested, it is taken back up by the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small sac-shaped organ that stores and concentrates bile.. The common bile duct is a common duct that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum. If this duct is blocked, it can cause the yellowish-colored bile to back up and enter the bloodstream. This can lead to a yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, known as jaundice.Hormones play a role in the release of digestive secretions.. For example, secretin is a hormone produced in the walls of the small intestine that stimulates the liver to produce ...
Bile culture is a laboratory test to detect disease-causing germs in the biliary system. Alternative Names: Culture - bile. A sample of bile is needed.
This study compares the biliary and urinary metabolic profiles of 1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (CP94), an orally active iron chelator, in the normal rat. Surprisingly, CP94 was found to form two phase II metabolites, the 3-O- and 4-O-glucuronides. These glucuronides accounted for 38 and 28% of the administered CP94 dose, in bile and urine, respectively. Unchanged CP94 accounted for 5% of the CP94 dose in both bile and urine. The 2-(1′-hydroxy) metabolite of CP94 was found to be the dominant metabolite in urine. In addition, an unstable metabolite was detected in the bile although its structure remains unknown at the present stage. The excretion of iron in bile, after administration of CP94, was found to parallel the biliary elimination of CP94 together with its hydroxylated derivatives, indicating the importance of metabolites in iron excretion.. ...
Using improved physiological and chemical methods, we have investigated the effects on bile secretion of a high fat diet, of bile salt preparations, and of
Fig. 1 Chemical structure of norfioxacin (AM-715) Table 1 Serum and biliary concentration of norfloxacin (AM-715) Table 2 Protocol for clinical evaluation of norfloxacin (AM-715) in the treatment of biliary
To establish a HPLC-MS/MS quantitative method for analysis of 8 constituents in rat bile. The method was applied in the biliary excretion study after oral administration of Desmodii Styracifolii Herba extract. The rat bile samples were collected during 0-1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-12, 12-24 h. Diamonsil C₁₈column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) was adopted and eluted with methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in a gradient mode. The flow rate was 0.8 mL•min⁻¹, and the column temperature was set at 40 ℃. The detection was carried out by a triple quadrupole linearion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode with an electrospray source ...
FIG. 5. (A) Analysis of expression and regulation of bsh, pva, and btlB genes by using RT-PCR. cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from L. monocytogenes LO28 wild-type and prfA and sigB mutant cells grown anaerobically to exponential and stationary phases in BHI broth at 37°C. (B) Expression of sigB in cells grown to exponential phase either aerobically or anaerobically in BHI broth at 37°C. (C) Expression of sigB during murine infection. cDNA was synthesized from RNA that was extracted from intestines 2 h after oral infection with 1010 L. monocytogenes LO28 cells. In all cases, control PCRs were performed with 16S RNA primers to confirm identical template DNA levels. The number of PCR cycles are shown in parentheses. ...
J.S. Dooley, H.C. Thomas, S. Sherlock; Failure to Demonstrate Hepatic Transport of Dimeric Immunoglobulin a into Bile in Man. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 1981; 61 (3): 23P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Bile, sometimes called bile juice, is a digestive fluid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It contains bile acid, which promotes fat absorption.
A protein that binds to bile in the small intestine may hold the key t... What weve identified is one of the mechanisms for how the body keeps...Bile which is generated by the liver and flows into the small intesti...When theres no bile in the intestine as happens in people with obstr...The researchers focused on a molecule ?FXR ?in the wall of the lining...,Gut,protein,found,to,protect,against,infection,and,intestinal,breakdown,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
So right now, what were dealing with is I just have a lot of fluid built up in there, Biles revealed on the show, according to CNN. Theres nothing we can do at this point. We dont have time for rest, we dont have time for shots and all of that stuff - so tape it is.. Biles had originally planned on competing for six gold medals during the Tokyo games - the all-around and team competition, as well as the beam, bars, floor and vault.. No word yet on the extent of Biles injury or whether it will impact the other events she has qualified for.. ...
Bile definition is - either of two humors associated in old physiology with irascibility and melancholy. How to use bile in a sentence.
Do you want to learn about bile? Discover what bile is at 10FAQ Health and stay better informed to make healthy living decisions.
Biotech Support Group reports on a recent research article describing the simplicity and efficiency of their lipid clearance sample preparation technology for bile fluid.
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Shannon Biles has stated she has been sober since 2007 and wants to have a closer relationship with her daughter. Simone Biless mother is Shannon Biles
Horses do not have a gall bladder. This means they have no where to store the bile that is produced by the liver. This bile is what helps break down and digest food in the intestines. In humans, dogs, goats and sheep, this bile is released by the gall bladder as needed. This is not the case for horses. So what happens when there is no place to store this bile? It is constantly released into the small intestine, regardless of whether there is food to digest or not. If your horse has gone a prolonged amount of time without eating, they may start to look a bit jaundiced (yellowish in the whites of eyes and gums) from the build-up of bile in the bloodstream ...
Bile. Dark green stools from bile may look black under poor lighting. Smear a piece of stool on white paper. Look at it under a bright light. This often confirms that the color is really dark green ...
If youve been indulging in processed foods and sugar, here are 7 steps to encourage natural detoxification by supporting your livers secretion of bile!
Made up of water, electrolytes, cholesterol and phospholipids, bile is a green fluid your liver makes that helps you digest fat. As a source of cholesterol, bile has an impact on blood cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber found in certain foods helps lower cholesterol by preventing your body from reabsorbing bile.
Nutripur Flux O Bile Seasonal Cleanse 20 Day Program - Cleanse, purify and regenerate your liver with this 100% Organic liver cleanse system! Flux-O-Bile i
My eyes are spent with weeping; my stomach churns; my bile is poured out to the ground because of the destruction of the daughter of my people, because infants and babies faint in the streets of the…
In the first article of The Gentlemans Reserve, Vito discusses the vile character of Fabius Bile and why he should be considered one of the most dangerous villains in all of the 40k universe.
Lyrics to Solitude Is Bliss.. by Bile: So as you cry, as the tears slowly slip from your eyes. / I watch, standing, laughing above
According to Sacred Medical Order Church of Hope, a bilious attack or biliousness is related to various unpleasant symptoms due to bile secretion or digestion disturbance. Causes of a bilious...
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
Still openminded, and waiting for a AMA sanctioned study and supporting facts. Very interested in your documented info. When will it be available ?
Med najbolj izpostavljenimi vsebinami v okviru javnih posvetovanj so bile: prenos sredstev iz I. v II. steber, vavčersko svetovanje, dobrobit živali, velike zveri, sredstva za krave dojilje, mladi kmetje, kapica in degresija na območjih z omejenimi dejavniki (OMD), shema za okolje in podnebje (SOPO, kmetijsko-okoljsko-podnebna plačila (KOPOP), ekološko kmetijstvo, integrirana pridelava, urejanje hudournikov, kot tudi neustrezna merila za naložbe, pobuda za združevanje intervencij ter posamezne intervencije kot na primer Traviščni habitati.. Zainteresirani posamezniki in institucije so lahko podali pripombe in predloge na predlog SN 2023-2027 tudi preko spletnega obrazca na spletni strani oziroma na elektronski naslov [email protected] V času javne razprave je prispelo več kot 90 pisnih pripomb, pobud oz. vprašanj različnih deležnikov in zainteresirane javnosti. Med prejetimi pisnimi pripombami, vprašanji in pobudami so bile največkrat izpostavljene vsebine pristopa ...
Dr. Gabriel Purice answered: Gallbladder: Sometimes may cause this. If this recurs one may need a ultrasound to rule out gallston...
Fingerprint Fingerprint is based on mining the text of the persons scientific documents to create an index of weighted terms, which defines the key subjects of each individual researcher. ...
My goal is to pique your interest, to get you to stay a minute or more, so you dont even realize you are doing something that advances your English.. ...
Reduce steroid and drug-related toxicity. Support optimal liver health and bile flow. • High-potency blend of two cytoprotective ingredients. Ideal for people exposed to environmental toxins or hepatotoxic oral androgens.
noun - (វេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ) ពណ៌ឃ្លាដែលទាក់ទងbile pigment- ជាតិពណ៌ទឹកប្រម៉ាត់cutaneous pigment- ជាតិពណ៌ស្បែកrespiratory pigment- ឈាមដែលដឹកនាំអុកស៊ីសែនពីសួតទៅឲ្យក
Saj o tem razlagam - psi se požvižgajo na to, da imajo na ksihtu ali kjer koli na telesu pobarvano piko. Se ne zanašajo na vid v tolikšni meri, da bi jim bile vizualne informacije primarno pomembne za modeliranje sveta. Se pa zanašajo pri tem na vonje. Ljudje si pač ne znamo (zlahka?) predstavljat, kako to funkcionira, kako je biti pes in svet razumet v vonjih. Ko se vživljamo v psa, njegovo doživljanje sveta takoj antropomorfiziramo. Zato sem polinkal tisto, What is it like to be a bat? - netopir svet doživlja skozi eholokacijo. Če se vrnemo na mirror-test, netopir je kamot lahko self-aware, ampak z eholokocijo nikoli ne bo v ogledalu videl, da si mu na ksiht narisal piko. Očitno je tak test potem zanič pri določanju, a je netopir self-aware, ane ...
To so ugotovili v raziskavi, kjer so ugotavljali povezavo med depresijo in (ne)uporabo kondomov pri enskah. tudija dokazuje, da enske, ki so bile (ve krat) izpostavljene semenu, redkeje zapadajo v depresije. Izvajalci tudije kljub temu ne zagovarjajo neuporabe kondomov, saj bi neza elena zanositev ali spolno nalezljiva bolezen poslab ala psihi no po utje veliko bolj kot pomanjkanje sperme.. Raziskava je bila narejena na vzorcu 293 tudentk. e je testiranka nabrala ve kot 17 to k, je to pomenilo, da je depresivna ...
Ves čas obstoja področja zelišč na inštitutu preizkušamo pridelovanje zelišč na večji površini. V preteklosti so bile to kamilice, rženi rožički, meta, mel
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of the stimulatory effect of pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile on biliary cholesterol output in the rat by manipulation of the rate of hepatic cholesterol synthesis. AU - Turley, Stephen D.. AU - Dietschy, John M.. PY - 1984/8. Y1 - 1984/8. N2 - In female rats fed a plain ground diet containing pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile, biliary cholesterol output increased twofold, whereas bile acid and phospholipid output either remained unchanged or decreased slightly. There was a 32% increase in liver weight, a 3.5-fold increase in cholesteryl esters, and a 45% decrease in the rate of hepatic sterol synthesis. When pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile was fed with AOMA, an agent that blocks cholesterol absorption, there was less of an increase in cholesteryl esters, the inhibitory effect of pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile on hepatic sterol synthesis was abolished, and biliary cholesterol output was increased to an even greater extent. In contrast, when pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile was ...
Irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11), is a potent anticancer drug that is increasingly used in chemotherapy. A frequent limiting side effect involves gastrointestinal toxicity (diarrhea), which is thought to be related to the biliary excretion of CPT-11 and its metabolites. Accordingly, the biliary excretion mechanisms for both the lactone and carboxylate forms of CPT-11 and its metabolites, SN-38 and its glucuronide (SN38-Glu), were investigated using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR), with the latter being mutant rats with a genetic deficiency of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter. After i.v. administration of CPT-11, the biliary excretion clearance, defined as the biliary excretion rate normalized to the hepatic concentration, of both the lactone and carboxylate forms of SN38-Glu was much lower in EHBR. The biliary excretion clearance for the carboxylate form of both CPT-11 and SN-38 was ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total bile acids tests are also widely used to screen pregnant women for the condition of obstetric cholestasis, a disease that is caused by elevated total bile acids in the bloodstream ...
Since the last International Bile Acid Meeting in Freiburg in 1996, considerable progress has been made in several areas of bile acid research. The different pathways of bile acid synthesis and their regulation have been further characterized. The molecular mechanisms for biliary secretion of bile acids have been elucidated and genetic defects of bile acid transport have been defined. Injurious as well as protective effects of different bile acids on the liver have been further studied. Finally, the beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver diseases have been substantiated and the potential mechanisms of action have been explored. This book, the proceedings of the Falk Symposium No. 108 (XV International Bile Acid Meeting), held in Titisee, Germany, October 12-13, 1998, is dedicated to both basic and clinical aspects of bile acid research with a focus on bile acids and cholestasis.Bile Acids and Cholestasis - XV International Bile Acid Meeting, 1 was published 1999 under ...
For the past year we have employed a mixture of oleic acid and bile salts for the treatment of patients suffering from various forms of gall-bladder disease. The results obtained, which were reported elsewhere15 were gratifying in a large number of cases. We then decided to undertake an experimental study of the choleretic effect of bile salts and of oleic acid with bile salts to ascertain whether oleic acid which has a direct action on the gall-bladder also enhances the well known choleretic effect of bile salts. Theoretically, as will be shown later, it appeared plausible that such would be ...
Purpose. Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, a so-called canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). As there appear to be many canalicular organic anion transports, we examined the effects of various organic anions and bile acid conjugates on the biliary excretion of pravastatin in rats. Methods. [l4C]pravastatin was intravenously injected into rats with bile drainage in the presence and absence of the continuous infusion of organic anions and bile acids, and radioactivity of its biliary excretion was studied. Results. Biliary excretion of [14C]pravastatin was markedly inhibited by sulfobromophthalein-glutathione, taurolithocholate-3-sulfate, ursodeoxycholate-3,7-sulfate, and ursodeoxycholate-3-O-glucuronide. In contrast, dibromosulfophthalein only slightly inhibited biliary pravastatin excretion, and cefpiramide did not affect biliary pravastatin excretion. Conclusions. These findings further support the multiplicity of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dissociation of bile flow and biliary lipid secretion from biliary lysosomal enzyme output in experimental cholestasis. AU - Lopez del Pino, V. H.. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 6787157. AN - SCOPUS:0019429543. VL - 22. SP - 229. EP - 235. JO - Journal of Lipid Research. JF - Journal of Lipid Research. SN - 0022-2275. IS - 2. ER - ...
The presence of a renal bile fistula with escape of all bile into the urinary tract seriously impairs the capacity of an anemic dog to form new hemoglobin on standard diets. These bile fistula dogs will produce about one-half as much hemoglobin in anemia on standard diets as during earlier control periods without a bile fistula. Iron given by mouth to an anemic bile fistula dog will effect the production of about one-half the amount of new hemoglobin as in control periods. Iron given by vein to an anemic bile fistula dog will approximate the theoretical 100 per cent return of new hemoglobin. Obviously absorption is a very important factor in the utilization of iron by these dogs. The reaction to liver feeding is much like the reaction to iron feeding but we have no proof of inadequate protein digestion and absorption in these bile fistula dogs. In fact the uniform body weight and normal clinical state over periods of years speak for adequate absorption of protein digestion products. Evidence ...
Bile acids are steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. Individual bile acid carriers have now been cloned from several species. Na(+)-dependent transporters that mediate uptake into hepatocytes and reabsorption from the intestine and biliary epithelium and an ATP-dependent transporter that pumps bile acids into bile comprise the classes of transporter that are specific for bile acids. In addition, at least four human and five rat genes that code for Na(+)-independent organic anion carriers with ...
50% cholesterol monohydrate plus an admixture of calcium salts, bile pigments, and proteins. Pigment stones are composed primarily of calcium bilirubinate; -There are several important mechanisms in the formation of lithogenic (stone-forming) bile. The most important is increased biliary secretion of cholesterol. This may occur in association with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, high-caloric and cholesterol-rich diets. cholesterol gallstone disease occurs because of several defects, which include:- (1) bile supersaturation with cholesterol, (2) nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate with subsequent crystal retention and stone growth, and (3) abnormal gallbladder motor function with delayed emptying and stasis. Gallbladder hypomotility leading to stasis and formation of Sludge in:- a. Prolonged parenteral nutrition b. Fasting c. Pregnancy d. Drugs such as octreotide Excess Weight loss: Mobilization of tissue cholesterol leads to increased biliary cholesterol secretion while enterohepatic ...
To study the effect of steroid hormones on bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes, cells were incubated with various amounts of these compounds during 72 h and conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids was measured. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated in a dose-dependent way by glucocorticoids, but not by sex steroid hormones, pregnenolone or the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in concentrations up to 10 microM. Dexamethasone proved to be the most efficacious inducer, giving 3-fold and 7-fold increases in bile acid synthesis during the second and third 24 h incubation periods respectively, at a concentration of 50 nM. Mass production of bile acids as measured by g.l.c. during the second day of culture (28-52 h) was 2.2-fold enhanced by 1 microM-dexamethasone. No change in the ratio of bile acids produced was observed during this period in the presence of dexamethasone. Conversion of [4-14C]7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, an intermediate of the bile acid pathway, to bile acids was not ...
1. Coeliac patients are known to have an expanded bile salt pool which recirculates slowly due, at least in part, to impaired gall bladder contractility. We have investigated the possibility that delayed small bowel transit of chyme and bile may also contribute to this sluggish recycling.. 2. Plasma cholylglycine, total bile acids and cholecystokinin concentrations were measured after a lactulose-labelled test meal whose mouth-caecum transit time (M-C TT) was assessed by the breath hydrogen technique.. 3. Overall there were no significant differences in plasma bile acid profiles between seven healthy controls and a group of 25 coeliac patients. However, when subjects were divided according to their M-C TT, the 10 with the slowest transit were found to have significant elevation of fasting levels when compared with the 10 with the fastest transit, fasting total bile acids being 3.4 ± 1.3 versus 0.7 ± 0.6 μmol/l (P , 0.02) and fasting cholylglycine being 0.43 ± 0.17 versus 0.06 ± 0.04 μmol/l ...
Bile acids are usually found conjugated to glycine or taurine, a derivative of cysteine. Cells require the presence of an active bile acid transporter for uptake of these conjugated derivatives (10). To test whether conjugated bile acids would also activate FXR, we coexpressed the human ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) with FXR in CV-1 cells (11). FXR was strongly activated by 3 μM of the taurine or glycine conjugates of CDCA, LCA, and DCA (Fig. 2G). Weaker activation was seen with the conjugated forms of CA, and tauro-MCA was inactive (Fig. 2G). These data indicate that FXR can be activated by conjugated bile acids in tissues that express bile acid transporters such as the terminal ileum, liver, and kidney. The relation between the chemical structure of bile acids and their activation of FXR is in close agreement with the reported effects of bile acids on induction of I-BABP expression in Caco-2 cells and inhibition of Cyp7a expression in hepatocytes (3, 12). Coactivator proteins interact ...
We investigated whether bile salts (BS) with different hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties interact with ethanol on bile secretion, enzyme (aspartate transaminase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) release in the perfusate, liver ultrastructure, and vesicular exocytosis in the isolated perfused rat liver. Ethanol (0.1 or 1%) promoted a rapid decrease of bile flow and BS secretion in livers perfused with taurocholate (TCA), the physiologic BS in the rat (−28% decrease of baseline values with 0.1% and −34% with 1% ethanol). The inhibitory effect of ethanol on bile flow and BS secretion was significantly (P , .02) attenuated by perfusing liver with the hydrophilic BS, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and it was exacerbated (P , .02) by perfusion with the hydrophobic BS, taurodeoxycholate (TDCA). The release of AST and LDH in the perfusate was unaffected by 0.1% ethanol, but increased threefold to fivefold by 1% ethanol in TCA-perfused livers. This cytolitic effect of ethanol was not observed in ...
This morning Kay went to the interventional radiology suite at Good Sam, and John, the self described candy man who administers the drugs for conscious sedation, and Dr. Frood were able to safely drain Kays obstructed biliary system. There was a very high grade obstruction of the common bile duct, allowing very little bile to drain into the intestine. One advantage of being thin is that he was able to access the bile ducts through the left lobe of the liver, through the abdominal wall beside her prior surgical incision. This avoids the need to go from the right side between the ribs, the usual approach, and avoids the pain of this tube moving with each breath causing a lot of pain. They drained a large amount of bile, and were able to pass a small drainage tube down through the bile ducts into the duodenum. The tube has small holes above the blockage, and in the tube into the duodenum, so bile can drain into the gut. What bile does not drain that direction, can drain out into a small bag ...
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
In addition to their well-known function as dietary lipid detergents, bile acids have emerged as important signalling molecules that regulate energy homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted that disrupted bile acid metabolism is associated with metabolism disorders such as dyslipidaemia, intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases and obesity. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications in bile acid metabolism. Bile acids bind and modulate the activity of transmembrane and nuclear receptors (NR). Among these receptors, the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) and the NR farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis. The role of these receptors in the intestine... in energy metabolism regulation has been recently highlighted. More precisely, recent studies have shown that FXR is important for glucose homeostasis in particular in metabolic disorders such as T2D and ...
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Bile reflux. Endoscope view of bile (yellow, lower centre) in the stomach. Bile reflux is a condition that occurs when bile flows upward (refluxes) from the small intestine into the stomach and oesophagus. Bile, a digestive juice made in the liver, aids the digestion of lipids in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). Symptoms include nausea, heartburn and vomiting bile. Unlike acid reflux, it usually cannot be completely controlled by changes in diet or lifestyle. Instead, it is most often managed with medication or, in severe cases, with surgery. - Stock Image C001/2842
Bile Glucose Magazines, Bile Glucose eBooks, Bile Glucose Publications, Bile Glucose Publishers Description: Read interactive Bile Glucose publications at FlipHTML5, download Bile Glucose PDF documents for free. Upload and publish your own book in minutes.
Bile is the green liquid that is made by the liver and is essential for digesting fat. Without some fat in the diet we would not be able to survive as it is essential for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins, so bile is therefore essential for health. Bile is made by the cells of the liver and is collected within a series of tubes within the liver itself called the bile ducts. These run down into one main tube called the common bile duct which delivers the bile into the gut (duodenum) where it is mixed with the food. Off the common bile duct is a side branch and at the end of the side branch is the gallbladder. Under normal circumstances bile passes straight down the common bile duct into the gut but during fasting, typically, some of the bile is bypassed down the side branch where it is stored within the gallbladder. So in effect the gallbladder acts as a storage organ for the bile and when food is taken in the gallbladder contracts and any bile that is stored within it is forced out down the ...
A metabolic disorder results when an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of our food is defective which results in compounds, also known as metabolites, accumulating in blood or urine. Incorrect metabolism means your body might have too much or too little of a metabolite which can have detrimental impacts on normal growth and development.. For cholestasis of pregnancy patients: qualitative urine bile acids is not the first-line test for the diagnosis/monitoring of cholestasis of pregnancy. Serum total bile acids should be performed in preference. VCGS does not perform serum total bile acids testing.. ...
A group from the University Hospital in Heidelberg, Germany performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for herpesvirus 1-8 DNA in bile, blood, and liver tissue of 73 patients after first liver transplantation (LT). They determined that CMV, EBV, HHV-6, and HHV-7 were all more prevalent in biliary fluid than in liver biopsy tissue or serum. HHV-6 was detected in 34.2% of bile samples while in only 15.1% of biopsy and 2.4% of serum samples. Currently, serum is most often used to test for possible HHV-6 reactivation in transplant patients, but the German study suggests that bile fluid could serve as a more effective marker. The group also found that HHV-6 positivity in bile was significantly associated with allograft complications (including graft rejection and death) but serum positivity was not. This association was found only for HHV-6 and held true even when DNA copies levels were relatively low.. All the patients in this study were treated with prophylactic valganciclovir to prevent CMV ...
The biliary excretion of the major methadone metabolites was studied after the administration of purified 14C-labeled metabolites of methadone. The three methadone metabolites administered to rats were the pyrrolidine and pyrroline metabolites and the glucuronide conjugate of the hydroxylated pyrroline metabolite. We found that the excretion of 14C into bile was greater after administration of the metabolites which underwent fewer metabolic steps prior to biliary excretion. Phenobarbital pretreatment of rats increased the biliary excretion of 14C after the administration of the 14C-labeled pyrrolidine and pyrroline metabolites, both of which undergo further metabolism. Phenobarbital pretreatment did not change the biliary excretion of 14C-labeled glucuronide of the pyrroline metabolite which does not undergo further metabolism in the liver. Analysis of bile samples showed that the increased biliary excretion of 14C in phenobarbital-pretreated rats after administration of the labeled pyrrolidine ...
The key components of bile are; bile salts that facilitate enzymatic fat digestion; bile pigments, such as bilirubin, that are the waste product of hemoglobin
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue ...
A bile acid test is a blood test taken after the dogs body has been deprived of dog food for a certain period of time, and then fed. Fasting essentially creates a clean slate in the bloodstream. An initial blood sample is taken, and then the patient is given a small amount of dog food and, two hours after finishing his meal, a second blood sample is taken. The two blood samples are compared to determine the efficiency of the liver in removing bile from the bloodstream. A bile acid test merely indicates if there is or is not a problem with the liver-it does not provide enough information to make a diagnosis. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about bile at Make research projects and school reports about bile easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Bile acids are water-soluble and, when ionized, amphipathic end products of cholesterol metabolism formed in the liver.? In their molecular form, they are weak acids, however, after the biosynthesis process, the bile acid molecules are conjugated with glycine and taurine, converting them into strong amino acids before being excreted from the hepatocyte.. The fundamental role of bile acids is to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. ...
The invention relates to tetrazole derivatives of bile acids, processes for their preparation, and use of these compounds as medicaments and cholesterol lowering agents. The tetrazole-bile acid derivatives are of the formula G1--X--G2, where G1 is H, a bile acid radical, or a bile acid radical which is modified on the hydroxyl functions and/or on the carboxyl group, X is a single bond or a bridge group between G1 and G2, and G2 is of the formula: ##STR1##
Receptor for bile acid. Bile acid-binding induces its internalization, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and intracellular cAMP production. May be involved in the suppression of macrophage functions by bile acids.
Bile Acid Factors™ consists of a mixture of highly concentrated bile acids (also called bile salts), mostly in the conjugated form, from U.S. and/or New Zealan
Pancreas and bile in the human body can be figuratively in good or in very bad relationship.They can be the friends in healthy situation, but can be worst enemy causing diseases of each other.. They have much similarity: without both pancreatic juice and bile we cannot digest the food, especially fat.. Bile and pancreatic juice both have a big amount of minerals and bicarbonates and in normal condition are alkaline.. Both bile and pancreatic juice go to the duodenum (beginning of small intestine) using special pathways: bile and pancreatic ducts. They merge each other before entering the duodenum and mix of pancreatic juice and bile enter in the duodenum throughout special valve called sphincter Oddi.. Negative changing of the biochemistry of bile or pancreatic juice, structure of ducts, possible back ups of these fluids can lead to diseases, some of them fatal.. There are simple examples. Pancreatic cancer causes severe damage of liver because the tumor squeezes the bile duct, developing back ...
There are two different ways to connect the bile duct to the intestine, depending on the liver disease of the patient. The first way is connecting the patients own bile duct to the donor bile duct. If this is done, a small tube called a T-tube, is placed between the bile duct connections. The tube will then exit through the skin but is easily concealed by clothing. This allows the team to monitor the amount and consistency of bile being made by the liver. This tube is tied off within the first week and removed six months after transplantation. The second way to connect the bile duct to the intestine is used if a patients own bile duct is diseased. In this situation, the new bile duct will be connected with the patients intestine. A small tube called a stent, is placed at the connection site. It later falls out of the duct on its own and is passed in the stool sometime after the operation ...
Bile - What causes green bile? Chemical properties. Biliverdin is a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, and is a product of heme/redcell breadown. Biliverdin is further broken down to bilirubin for easier excretion to the outside world (also into urobilinogen in urine-as mild yellow). This compound absorbs green light, thus appears green to your eyes! (put in dard room=brown/black). I think u maybe asking why u threw up green? Consult doc. Good luck.
Se extirpã paråial leziunile papilomatoase fibromina, is a protein involved in controlling cell differentia- æi se practicã coledoco-duodeno-anastomozã L-L, în åesut sãnã- tion and proliferation.
Ox Bile (enteric coated): Bile is a substance made in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and secreted into the intestines to break down fats. It also carries toxins, foreign chemicals, and hormones out of the body. Bile is composed of lecithin, salts, and cholesterol, and gallstones can form when these ingredients are out of balance. When bile cannot be properly delivered from the liver and gallbladder to the intestines, diarrhea, constipation, indigestion, cramping, bloating, pain, and other abdominal distress can occur. Low levels of bile can also lead to deficiencies in Vitamins A, D, E, and K, which depend on the absorption of fat and which impact a number of other health issues. Gallstone blockage and poor contractility from a sick and weak gallbladder are common reasons for poor delivery of bile to the intestines. In addition to assisting digestions, ox bile can protect the gut from infection, reduce the occurrence of gallstones, improve the systemic balance of cholesterol, and reduce ...
Evidence exists that dietary factors play a regulatory role in plasma lipid levels1, biliary lipid composition2-4 and bile acid kinetics5-7. Dietary habits of gallstone subjects have been compared...
Yes, gall stones can form from the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid. Bile ducts carry the bile, a yellow-green fluid produced by the liver and stores it in the gallbladder. During eating, the gallbladder contracts and empties bile into the small intestine, called the duodenum. Bile has a central role in helping the body digest fat. It acts as a detergent, breaking up the fat from food into very small droplets, so that it can be absorbed. However, this bile that the liver produces can harden - ProProfs Discuss
Just to note, in bile-green-brown. Bile plays a role in the process of absorption of fat and some vitamins such as A, D, E and K. Because the fat is usually a lot. Importance of bile in digestion especially the absorption of fat, said dr Prasna. The liquid stored in the gallbladder bile is stored in the gallbladder which lies below the liver. Shaped like a pear. Gallbladder accommodate as many as 50 ml of bile. Length is about 70-10 cm. These organs are connected with the liver and duodenum through the bile ducts ...
Something had me thinking about bile recently. I cant be sure what it was and I wouldnt want to date this blog post by relating it to any recent news events to take a guess. It seems to me that it has something of an unfair reputation. Bile that is. Obviously. In language and to…
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps t …
Primary biliarycirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive disease of the liver caused by a buildup of bile within the liver (cholestasis) that results in damage to the small bile ducts that drain bile from the liver. Over time, this pressure build-up destroys the bile ducts leading to liver cell damage. As the disease progresses and enough liver cells die, cirrhosis and liver failure occur.. Bile is manufactured in the liver and then transported through the bile ducts to the gallbladder and intestine where it helps digest fats and fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K). When bile cannot be drained from the liver, it causes inflammation that leads to cell death. Scar tissue gradually replaces the areas of damaged liver and then the body cannot perform necessary functions.. ...
The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary phy
Background:. Biliary obstruction and cholangitis are common problems in gastroenterology and need specific therapeutic interventions. Besides a variety of potential causes, infections of the biliary tract with Candida and other fungal species have increasingly been reported in the last few years [1-6]. Fungal infections can even lead to common bile duct (CBD) obstruction, as previously reported [7]. Because of the difficulty of gaining bile samples, little is known about the microbial flora of the bile. In a first prospective, observational study, 123 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for various indications were screened for fungal species [8]. According to this data Candida species may be very frequently be detected in the bile (54/123 patients, 44 % of the cases). As significant risk factors immunosuppression and long-term antibiotic therapy were identified. The main issue in this context is whether positive diagnostic findings represent fungal infection or fungal colonization. Especially ...
Bile Salts are a must for your gallbladder health. Read the blog to learn about the various bile salt functions and its benefits.
Basal-cell Carcinoma; Bedside Communication Controller; Biliary Cholesterol Concentration; Birth Control Clinic; Business Card ...
The pH of common duct bile (7.50 to 8.05) is higher than that of the corresponding gallbladder bile (6.80 to 7.65). Bile in the ... After eating, this stored bile is discharged into the duodenum. The composition of hepatic bile is (97-98)% water, 0.7% bile ... "yellow bile"). Excesses of black bile and yellow bile were thought to produce depression and aggression, respectively, and the ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". Retrieved 2016-06-05. "Secretion of Bile ...
... (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by ... The bile canaliculi empty into a series of progressively larger bile ductules and ducts, which eventually become common hepatic ... The bile canaliculi empty directly into the Canals of Hering. Hepatocytes are polyhedral in shape, therefore having no set ... Microvilli are present in the canaliculi.[citation needed] Bile+Canaliculi at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile is ... The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right ... The top half of the common bile duct is associated with the liver, while the bottom half of the common bile duct is associated ... It joins the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct which then opens into the ...
The bile acid pool size is between 4-6 g, which means that bile acids are recycled several times each day. About 95% of bile ... These conjugated bile acids are often referred to as bile salts. The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, ... Bile acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine residues to give anions called bile salts. Primary bile acids are those ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. Diverse bile acids are ...
A Bile Bean Puzzle Book was published during the early 1930s and also freely distributed. By that time advertising for Bile ... Despite the Bile Beans Manufacturing Company having lost the Scottish court case in 1906, Bile Beans remained popular through ... The product sold by Fulford and Gilbert was not the first patent medicine marketed as "Bile Beans". A different type of Bile ... In the early years Bile Beans were marketed as "Charles Forde's Bile Beans for Biliousness", and sales relied heavily on ...
The bile up (or boil-up) is considered the cultural dish of the Kriols of Belize. It is a combination of boiled eggs, fish and/ ...
As of the 2020s, Bile has the 17th fastest kilometer race of all time with a time of 2:14.50. Bile has won gold medals in the ... Abdi Bile (Somali: Cabdi Bile Cabdi, Arabic: عبد بلي عبد; born 28 December 1962) is a former middle distance runner. He holds ... Bile graduated from George Mason University with a BSc in marketing management. At George Mason, Bile was team captain and a ... His brother, Jama Bile, ran competitively for Northern Arizona University. His son Ahmed Bile ran competitively for Georgetown ...
A Bucket of Bile, Best of Bile (2004) Camp Blood (2005) Hate Radio (2009) Built to Fuck, Born to Kill (2013) Sharks and Covid, ... Bile. Krztoff coined the phrase "Demonic Electronic" to best describe their sound and live show. Bile has played and toured the ... Bile is an American industrial metal project based in New York City. Although there have been many different members throughout ... When performing live, Bile consists of Krztoff (vocals, lead guitar), R.H. Bear (bass, effects), Dave Sussman (guitar), former ...
... (Ukrainian: Біле озеро, means 'white lake') is a lake in the south-western Ukraine, in the delta of the Dniester ... Similar to the other lakes of the Dniester River delta, Lake Bile is the unique biotope, inhabited by a lot of rare plant ... the Dniester wetlands (in Russian) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lake Bile. ...
The Bile River is a river in the United States territory of Guam. List of rivers of Guam U.S. Geological Survey Geographic ... Names Information System: Bile River v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
Bile Style Records FORMAT: LP INFO: Full title: "Regurge: A Bucket of Bile Best Of." This is a best of compilation containing ... Bile Style Records FORMAT: LP INFO: A collection of Bile's cover songs. All songs recorded, mixed, and mastered by Krztoff. ... The Devil's Bile Legion Demonic Electronic Celebrity Prime Time Loser Bad Karma The Hatred Acid Buried in the Back Demons Jerk ... LABEL: Bile Style Records FORMAT: LP INFO: "Demonic Electronic" was written, performed, produced, recorded, mixed, engineered, ...
Consumers of bear bile have a strong preference for bile produced from wild bears; bile from farms may, therefore, not be a ... Bear species farmed for collecting bile Bear bile and gallbladders, which store bile, are ingredients in traditional Chinese ... "Ending the bear bile industry" World Animal Protection Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bear bile. "New home for bile ... Some bears may be kept in cages for bile extraction for 20 years or more. A bear can produce 2.2 kg of bile over a 5-year ...
... birthname Bile), 19th century Cameroonian ruler Bile River, Guam Birecik, Turkey, a city called Bile during the Crusades Bile, ... Bile is a greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted from the liver of most vertebrates. Bile may also refer to: Abdi Bile (born ... BiLE) All pages with titles containing bile Biles, a surname This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ... a Southern Bantoid Jarawan language of Nigeria Black bile, a humor in ancient and pre-modern medicine Yellow bile, a humor in ...
Bile (Bille) is one of the few Bantu languages of Nigeria. Bile at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required) Blench, ...
"Mingo Bile Régio Francisco Congo Zalata". National Football Teams. Retrieved 16 November 2018. Mingo Bile at National-Football- ... Mingo Bile started his career at Primeiro de Agosto in 2003. In 2006, he transferred to Desportivo da Huíla to earn more game ... Mingo Bile was first called into the National Team in 2010 and has now gained 36 caps. Scores and results list Albania's goal ... "Mingo Bile". Retrieved 2017-07-27. "Futebol: Plantel do 1º de Agosto para época 2019/20" (in Portuguese). ...
Micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome stain. Intermediate magnification Micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome ... A bile duct hamartoma or biliary hamartoma, is a benign tumour-like malformation of the liver. They are classically associated ... At CT scans, bile duct hamartomas appear as small, well-defined hypo- or isoattenuating masses with little or no enhancement ... Due to failure of regression of embryonic biliary duct.[citation needed] Histopathology of a bile duct hamartoma, high ...
The interlobular bile ducts (or interlobular ductules) carry bile in the liver between the Canals of Hering and the interlobar ... STRAZZABOSCO, MARIO; FABRIS, LUCA (2008-06-01). "Functional Anatomy of Normal Bile Ducts". Anatomical Record. 291 (6): 653-660 ... bile ducts. They are part of the interlobular portal triad and can be easily localized by looking for the much larger portal ...
Primary bile acid diarrhea (Type 2 bile acid "malabsorption") may be caused by an overproduction of bile acids. Several groups ... It has also been called bile acid-induced diarrhea, cholerheic or choleretic enteropathy, bile salt diarrhea or bile salt ... Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being ... Bile acids (also called bile salts) are produced in the liver, secreted into the biliary system, stored in the gallbladder and ...
... s (BSH) are microbial enzymes that deconjugate primary bile acids. They catalyze the first step of bile acid ... which regulates bile acid synthesis and transport. Upon activation, FXR can repress bile acid synthesis and alter the bile acid ... bile acid reconjugation involves the addition of amino acids to an unconjugated bile acid. Additionally, microbial bile acid ... One consequence of bile acid metabolism is the variety of effects on the host. In the case of BSHs, deconjugated bile acids can ...
Bile (Ukrainian: Біле) is an urban-type settlement in Alchevsk Raion (district) in Luhansk Oblast of eastern Ukraine. Native ... language distribution as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001: Ukrainian: 44.55% Russian: 55.05% Others: 0.23% "Bile (Luhansk Oblast ...
... compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. They can be divided into: Lobar ... Interlobular bile ducts (between the interlobar ducts and the lobules) - simple columnar epithelium. Intralobular bile ducts ( ... cholangioles or Canals of Hering) - simple cuboidal epithelium, then by hepatocytes Bile canaliculi - two half-canaliculi ...
An accessory bile duct is a conduit that transports bile and is considered to be supernumerary or auxiliary to the biliary tree ... Often diagnosed by HIDA scan, a bile leak from an accessory bile duct post-op can be treated with a temporary biliary stent[ ... Originating from the hepatic parenchyma the accessory bile duct may enter a large bile duct or the gallbladder at any location ... ISBN 978-0-7817-7165-8. Sharif, K; De Ville De Goyet, J (2003). "Bile duct of luschka leading to bile leak after ...
This conduction of bile is the main function of the common bile duct. The hormone cholecystokinin, when stimulated by a fatty ... newly synthesized bile from the liver is forced into storage in the gallbladder. When open, the stored and concentrated bile ( ... promotes bile secretion by increased production of hepatic bile, contraction of the gallbladder, and relaxation of the ... The flow of bile from the ampulla of Vater into the duodenum is under the control of the sphincter of Oddi.[citation needed] ...
... (BEA) is a selective differential agar used to isolate and identify members of the genus Enterococcus, ... Bile Esculin Agar is used primarily to differentiate Enterococcus from Streptococcus. Members of the genus Enterococcus are ... When new techniques are produced to identify enterococci, they are often compared to the use of bile esculin agar. Rollins, ... Lindell SS, Quinn P (May 1975). "Use of bile-esculin agar for rapid differentiation of Enterobacteriaceae". J. Clin. Microbiol ...
... (English: Even If They Turn Off the Lights) is the fourth album by Turkish rock band maNga. It was ...
... (Somali: Cabdulaahi Bile Nuur, Arabic: ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ بيلي ﻧﻮﺭ), better known as Bile, is a Somali politician. He ... Bile is originally from northeastern Puntland. He hails Dishiishe clan and was born in the coastal town of Bosaso in the ... On August 13, 2000, Bile was selected as a member of the newly installed transitional parliament of Somalia; he still holds ... He is one of Somalia's longest serving national legislators.[citation needed] Bile served for the government for many years and ...
... s exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester ... Bile salt diarrhea can also be a side-effect of gallbladder removal. Bile acid sequestrants are the principal therapy for bile ... Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the ... The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. They ...
... also known as hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (HST) or sulfotransferase 2A1 (ST2A1) is an enzyme ... This gene is primarily expressed in liver and adrenal tissues where the encoded protein sulfonates steroids and bile acids. ... 1991). "Human liver steroid sulphotransferase sulphates bile acids". Biochem. J. 272 (3): 597-604. doi:10.1042/bj2720597. PMC ...
Bilé is a character in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Christian history of Ireland and the Irish (or Gaels), and in the genealogies of John O'Hart based on this tradition. He is described as a king of Galicia, an ancestor of the Gaels, the son of Breogan, and the father of Milesius. The Lebor Gabála purports to be an account of the Gaels' descent from Adam through the sons of Noah and how they came to Ireland. The tale relates that the Gaels spent 440 years wandering the Earth and underwent a series of tribulations.[citation needed] Eventually, the Gaels sailed to Iberia and conquered it. There, one of their leaders, Breogán, founded a city called Brigantia and built a great tower. From the top of the tower, his son Íth glimpses Ireland. The Gaels-including some of Breogán's sons-sailed to Ireland from Brigantia and took it from the Tuatha Dé Danann, the Irish pagan gods. Brigantia likely refers to A Coruña in Galicia (which was then known as Brigantium) and Breogán's tower is ...
Bile (Ukrainian: Біле, romanized: Bile) is the only village on Snake Island, in the Vylkove hromada, part of the Izmail Raion ... The village of Bile only consists of a few houses of the Ukrainian soldiers stationed there, as well as a monument to 25 ... Bile was founded in 2007 on Snake Island to serve Ukraine in a then ongoing dispute with Romania regarding the territorial ... Media related to Bile, Odesa Oblast at Wikimedia Commons (CS1 Ukrainian-language sources (uk), CS1 Romanian-language sources ( ...
Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ... Bile helps with digestion. It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. ... Bile is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. ...
Bile ducts act as the livers waste disposal system, and malfunctioning bile ducts are behind a third of adult and 70 percent ... Scientists were able to use lab grown bile ducts to repair damaged mouse livers and in donor human livers cultured outside of ... Bile ducts act as the livers waste disposal system, and malfunctioning bile ducts are behind a third of adult and 70 percent ... be converted to the cells of the bile ducts usually destroyed in disease and vice-versa using a component of bile known as bile ...
Try to pack everything in, the heroine of Nuala OFaolains mammoth first novel tells herself, paraphrasing Keatss famous advice to Shelley to load every rift with ore.
... is used to examine the bile duct and pancreatic ducts for the presence of gallstones, tumours, or inflammation. In this ... Other articles where bile duct is discussed: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy: … ... The common bile duct averages about 10 cm in length, and flow of bile from its lower end into the intestine is controlled by ... it may block the common bile duct, which leads to a buildup of bilirubin in the blood and causes jaundice (a yellowing of the ...
Observational data show that low-dose aspirin users have reduced risk for bile duct cancer in all three subtypes of ... People who take low-dose aspirin have a significantly lower risk of developing bile duct cancer than nonusers, new research ... "We know that continuous, unremitting inflammation is one of the main factors that promotes cancer of the bile ducts," Dr ... The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) in favor of aspirin users being protected against bile duct cancer were also relatively ...
Liver and Intra-Hepatic Bile Ducts NOMS PMRs for Manufacturing Sector. Data from 1999, 2003-2004, 2007-2010. Suggested Citation ...
The Politics of Downtown Renewal Since 1945 will be the topic of our May 11 author talk by historians Roger Biles and Mark Rose ... Author Talk: Roger Biles and Mark Rose. Author Talk: Roger Biles and Mark Rose. A Good Place to Do Business: The Politics of ... Mark Rose is a Professor of History at Florida Atlantic University, and Roger Biles is a professor emeritus of history at ... The Politics of Downtown Renewal Since 1945 will be the topic of our May 11 author talk by historians Roger Biles and Mark Rose ...
The best documented and most common entity is represented by type I bile acid malabsorption, which occurs as the result of a ... Type II bile acid malabsorption is found in the setting of a m … ... Three types of bile acid-induced diarrhoea can be distinguished. ... Type II bile acid malabsorption is found in the setting of a ... Severe bile acid malabsorption is relatively uncommon in the type III syndrome. Even in the presence of severe bile acid ...
Posts about bile duct injury written by What Doctors Dont Tell You ... Even if the repair operation is a technical success, bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (gallbladder ...
Learn about bile duct cancer diagnosis from the National Cancer Institute. ... Tests that examine the bile ducts and nearby area are used to detect and diagnose bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). ... How is bile duct cancer diagnosed?. Procedures that make pictures of the bile ducts and the nearby area help diagnose bile duct ... If the bile duct is blocked, a thin, flexible tube called a stent may be left in the liver to drain bile into the small ...
pertaining to bile, 1731, from French biliaire, from bile bile; peevishness (see bile). The meaning bilious in mood or ... bile. (n.). yellow bitter liquid secreted by the liver that aids in digestion, 1660s, from French bile (17c.) bile, also, ... bile, liver secretion, Old English galla (Anglian), gealla (West Saxon) gall, bile, from Proto-Germanic *gallon bile ( ... 1540s, pertaining to bile, biliary, from French bilieux, from Latin biliosus pertaining to bile, from bilis bile; ...
How Simone Biles performs her four Olympic events. ... HOW GOOD IS BILES?. Biles hasnt lost an all-around competition ... Why is Simone Biles the greatest of all time? These amazing moves help her push for Olympics gold. Why Simone Biles is. the G O ... This is Biles "weakest event," and her least favorite. Despite that, she has one of the most difficult routines in the world, ... The second pass, the Biles I, is a double layout (double somersault in a laid-out position) with a half-twist. Shes been doing ...
Biles explained she was focusing on her mental health, and that her mind and body were not in sync as she performed skills, ... American gymnast Simone Biles won her seventh career Olympic medal Tuesday, earning bronze on the balance beam in a return to ... Bronze medalist Simone Biles of the United States celebrates on the podium, Aug.. 3, 20221. ... Biles wore a huge smile after landing a double pike dismount at the end of her routine. ...
Kathleen Sebelius reached landmark legal ground Friday when Shawnee lawyer Dan Biles formally joined the Kansas Supreme Court. ...
However, if youre experiencing symptoms like fatigue, weight loss, or jaundice, you may need to increase the amount of bile in ... Bile production is an important bodily function that people dont often think about in their day-to-day lives. ... Consider taking bile salt supplements. Bile salts may help to regulate your bodys bile production if you have gallbladder ... Be sure to stay hydrated throughout the day. Since bile is composed primarily of water, your bile production tends to suffer ...
Simone Biles (@Simone_Biles) April 11, 2020. The challenge calls for a person to put on a T-shirt while doing a handstand. ... Yet Biles managed to upstage them all. She did it without using a wall for support. ... If anyones going to crush a handstand challenge, its going to be Simone Biles. ...
Simone Biles decision to exit the womens team final has prompted comments from around the world. Heres the transcript of ... Read What Simone Biles Said After Her Withdrawal From The Olympic Final ... Simone Biles decision to pull out of the womens team final has prompted comments and analysis around the world, including ... Simone Biles spoke at length about the reasons behind her withdrawal from the gymnastics team final. Shes seen here on ...
Kurtz: Why does the Boston Globe publish bile?. Howard Kurtz weighs in ...
NEW YORK - Mix blatant bigotry with poor spelling. Add a dash of ALL CAPS. Top it off with a violent threat. And the...
Simone Biles is a famous gymnast who is not only popular for her prowess in sports but also for her fashion sense. The Ohio ... Biles has dominated the world of gymnastics for years, and now, she has decided to try new things. According to NBC Sports, the ... Biles dominated the gymnastic world and has a combination of about 32 Olympic and World Championship medals. She is famous as ... Also, she was an executive producer for the 2018 biopic, "The Simone Biles Story: Courage to Soar and she also appeared in ...
... said Team USAs high-performance team coordinator Tom Forster of Simone Biles ... MyKayla Skinner Says Simone Biles Ensured She Stayed in Japan in Case, Thinks Biles Will Compete in Beam ... Biles, who also made the event finals in vault, floor, bars and beam, and who still could win a record five golds, leads on ... Biles, the reigning Olympic all-around champion, and Lee will be the two qualifiers to the all-around from Team USA. Both are ...
Biles probably will launch another generation of gymnastics-mania in America, like Mary Lou Retton did in the 1980s. Biles has ... Biles has a chance to win gold in vault (Sunday), balance beam (Monday) and floor (Tuesday). She was the top scorer in all ... Biles won the womens all-around gold in a performance that will have people talking for years. She will become the Nadia ... When Biles finished and the packed house gave her a standing ovation, her all-business demeanor cracked and she burst into ...
Simone Biles on the balance beam.. Getty Images. The Americans entered the Games as odds-on favorites, touted as perhaps the ... "It wasnt an easy day or my best but I got through it," Biles wrote in an Instagram post Monday morning. "I truly do feel like ... Biles, though, still finished first overall for the all-around competition. On Tuesday, shell have a chance to start anew amid ... Biles contributed to her teams struggles with a slew of uncharacteristic errors. In the floor routine, she finished in second ...
Tags: Health, Lifestyle, Larry Nassar, Michael Phelps, Simone Biles, Breonna Taylor, Olympics, Naomi Osaka, Ahmaud Arbery, ... Tags: Health, Lifestyle, Larry Nassar, Michael Phelps, Simone Biles, Breonna Taylor, Olympics, Naomi Osaka, Ahmaud Arbery, ... Biles and Osaka, born months apart in 1997, are members of Gen Z, the first generation whose entire lives have been online. Gen ... Biles and Naomi Osaka are prominent young Black women under the pressure of a global Olympic spotlight that few human beings ...
Simone Biles will not defend her title in the womens all-around competition at the Tokyo Games. ... Biles, who had qualified first overall on Sunday, will be replaced by Jade Carey, who came in ninth overall. Sunisa Lee, who ... The issue prevented Biles from being able to focus mentally on the complex aspects of her routine. On Tuesday she attempted a ... TOKYO - Simone Biles will not compete in Thursdays all-around competition, where she was expected to defend the gold medal she ...
3 Abstracts with Bile Duct Injury Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Diseases : Bile Duct Injury, Chemically-Induced Liver Damage, Cholestasis, Statin-Induced Pathologies ... Diseases : Alkaline Phosphatase: Elevated, Bile Duct Injury, Bilirubin: Elevated, Cholangiolitis, Cholestasis, Hepatitis: ... A case of atorvastatin-induced prolonged cholestasis with bile duct damage has been reported.Jan 01, 2010. ...
Bile duct cysts in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). ... Bile duct cyst-multiloculated cyst in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. ... Bile duct cysts in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. ... Bile duct cysts in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. ...
Important information from Karmanos Cancer Institute about bile duct cancer, its causes, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. ... What is bile duct cancer?. Bile duct cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the bile ducts. Bile ... Intrahepatic bile duct cancer: This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts inside the liver. Only a small number of bile duct ... Extrahepatic bile duct cancer: This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts outside the liver. The extrahepatic bile duct is ...
Simone Biles has a new element to do at the world championships, but the value of it is being watered down to keep other ...
  • When you eat, your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. (
  • Scientists were able to use lab grown bile ducts to repair damaged mouse livers and in donor human livers cultured outside of the body demonstrating, for the first time, that that lab grown organoids could be used in regenerative medicine to repair damaged donor organs making liver transplants more accessible - more work needs to be done before this can move to the clinic though. (
  • Bile ducts act as the liver's waste disposal system, and malfunctioning bile ducts are behind a third of adult and 70 percent of children's liver transplantations-there are currently no alternative treatments, which is a problem given the shortage of liver donors. (
  • Bile duct diseases affect only certain ducts while sparing others. (
  • Using the techniques of single-cell RNA sequencing and organoid culture, the researchers discovered that, although duct cells differ, biliary cells from the gallbladder-which is usually spared by the disease-could be converted to the cells of the bile ducts usually destroyed in disease and vice-versa using a component of bile known as bile acid. (
  • is used to examine the bile duct and pancreatic ducts for the presence of gallstones, tumours, or inflammation. (
  • flatworm that lives in the bile ducts and causes a condition known as liver rot. (
  • Procedures that make pictures of the bile ducts and the nearby area help diagnose bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) and show how far the cancer has spread. (
  • The process used to find out if cancer cells have spread within and around the bile ducts or to distant parts of the body is called staging. (
  • This surgical procedure is done to look at the organs inside the abdomen, such as the bile ducts and liver, to check for signs of cancer. (
  • This procedure is used to x-ray the liver and bile ducts. (
  • Dye is injected into the liver or bile ducts and an x-ray is taken. (
  • This procedure is used to x-ray the ducts (tubes) that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and from the gallbladder to the small intestine. (
  • Sometimes bile duct cancer causes these ducts to narrow and block or slow the flow of bile, causing jaundice . (
  • Bile duct cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the bile ducts. (
  • This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts inside the liver. (
  • This type of cancer is found in the hilum region, the area where the right and left bile ducts exit the liver and join to form the common hepatic duct. (
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (a progressive disease in which the bile ducts become blocked by inflammation and scarring). (
  • Cysts in the bile ducts (cysts block the flow of bile and can cause swollen bile ducts, inflammation, and infection). (
  • Getting a picture of your liver and bile ducts can help your doctor determine the best course of treatment for your particular cancer. (
  • Biliary - Pertainting to the bile, to the bile ducts or to the gallbladder. (
  • Jaundice may be caused by liver disease ( hepatitis ), blood disorders ( hemolytic anemia ), or blockage of the tubes (bile ducts) that allow bile to pass from the liver to the small intestine . (
  • Find out if something is blocking the bile ducts. (
  • 7. Primary cancer of the Bile ducts. (
  • FILE - In this July 27, 2021 file photo, Simone Biles, of the United States, watches gymnasts perform after she exited the team final at the 2020 Summer Olympics, in Tokyo. (
  • Simone Biles of Team United States watches her team perform on bars after pulling out of the competition after only competing on the vault during the Women's Team Final on day four on day four of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games at Ariake Gymnastics Centre on July 27, 2021, in Tokyo, Japan. (
  • Simone Biles, of the United States, waits to perform on the vault during the artistic gymnastics women's final at the 2020 Summer Olympics, Tuesday, July 27, 2021, in Tokyo. (
  • USA's Simone Biles reacts during the artistic gymnastics women's team final during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games at the Ariake Gymnastics Centre in Tokyo on July 27, 2021. (
  • Simone Biles spoke at length about the reasons behind her withdrawal from the gymnastics team final. (
  • Biles spoke at length about her decision, saying she was shaking before the Olympic team gymnastics final - and that she withdrew after realizing that the "mental's not there. (
  • Biles has dominated the world of gymnastics for years, and now, she has decided to try new things. (
  • On Sunday, the Simone Biles-led team made uncharacteristically sloppy errors during the qualifying round at Ariake Gymnastics Centre in Tokyo. (
  • US gymnast Simone Biles (L) and her compatiot Alexandra Raisman celebrate after the women's individual all-around final of the Artistic Gymnastics at the Olympic Arena during the Rio 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro on August 11, 2016. (
  • Simone Biles and the US women's gymnastics team unexpectedly struggled in Sunday's qualifiers - and the four-time gold medalist is beginning to feel the pressure. (
  • I say put mental health first because if you don't, then you're not going to enjoy your sport and you're not going to succeed as much as you want to," Biles, 24, said after pulling out of the women's team gymnastics final on July 27. (
  • INDIANAPOLIS -- Olympic gymnastics champion Simone Biles is ready to take on the world again. (
  • Reitz's comments come after Biles withdrew from the women's gymnastics team competition after experiencing an issue during a vault attempt. (
  • After U.S. gymnasts Simone Biles and Aly Raisman took home gold and silver respectively in a historic gymnastics event at the Rio Olympic Games, the two superstar athletes celebrated in the sort of way you probably would after a huge victory: with some ice cream and french fries. (
  • Congratulations are in order for Simone Biles , as she is now one of the most decorated Americans in the history of Olympic gymnastics. (
  • When Biles prioritized her mental wellbeing and withdrew from competing in the Olympics gymnastics team and overall individual competitions, other athletes saw that it's OK to say that you are not OK sometimes. (
  • Simone Biles will not defend her Olympic title.The American gymnastics superstar withdrew from Thursday's all-around competition to focus on her mental well-being.USA Gymnastics said on Wednesday that the 24-year-old is opting to not compete. (
  • Her courage shows, yet again, why she is a role model for so many," a statement from USA Gymnastics says.Jade Carey will take Biles' place in the all-around. (
  • International Gymnastics Federation rules limit countries to two athletes per event in the finals.The organization said Biles will be evaluated daily before deciding if she will participate in next week's individual events. (
  • I heard roller coasters may help kidney stones," Biles said, according to the International Gymnastics Federation, "and I am basically my own little roller coaster out there. (
  • According to USA Gymnastics, Biles dropped out due to an undisclosed medical issue after faltering in the vault competition - the first event for the American team on Tuesday. (
  • Cartwheels, handstands, turns and leaps are some of the many skills you can train on the Simone Biles wood beam designed for home gymnastics. (
  • Confidence-wise and consistency, I still think we have a ways to go to get back up to where I was in Rio, but gymnastics-wise, [better than in 2016]," Biles said. (
  • I truly do feel like I have the weight of the world on my shoulders at times," wrote US gymnast Simone Biles to her 5.8 million Instagram followers, after an uncharacteristically flawed performance at Sunday's women's gymnastics qualifications. (
  • The common bile duct averages about 10 cm in length, and flow of bile from its lower end into the intestine is controlled by the muscular action of the hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi), located in the duodenal papilla. (
  • In the absence of symptoms of the primary disease, most patients with bile duct strictures remain asymptomatic until the lumen of the bile duct is sufficiently narrowed to cause resistance to the flow of bile. (
  • US gymnast Simone Biles won the event ahead of her compatiot Alexandra Raisman and Russia's Aliya Mustafina. (
  • Raisman and Biles kept each other company and calm throughout the competition, telling each other they loved each other and exchanging high fives and hugs. (
  • On Monday night, Biles' former teammate Aly Raisman tweeted in support of all athletes competing, noting the toll it takes on their psyche. (
  • Speaking to NBC's " Today " after news broke of Biles dropping out, Raisman said she's "completely devastated" and "so worried" for the gymnast, further noting the importance of taking care of one's mental health. (
  • Aly Raisman , who staged her own successful comeback to make the Rio Olympics, told Biles on Saturday night that she's not human. (
  • RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL - AUGUST 11: Simone Biles of the United States competes on the balance beam during the Women's Individual All Around Final on Day 6 of the 2016 Rio Olympics at Rio Olympic Arena on August 11, 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (
  • 1 of 3 RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL - AUGUST 11: Gold medalist Simone Biles of the United States celebrates after the medal ceremony for the Women's Individual All Around on Day 6 of the 2016 Rio Olympics at Rio Olympic Arena on August 11, 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (
  • The world championship is the first international meet for Biles since the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. (
  • Gold medal gymnast Simone Biles rewrites the laws of physics in an eye-popping new Tokyo Olympics commercial. (
  • Biles' superstar talent has captured all of the globe's attention ever since her first appearance on the Olympics stage in 2016. (
  • Biles will be competing for her second Olympics during an unprecedented year. (
  • The former Dancing With the Stars competitor Biles detailed her intense 'down and dirty' training schedule ahead of the Summer Olympics, and explained why she felt compelled to compete again . (
  • Simone Biles said on Monday the mental health concerns that led to her dramatic withdrawal from several events at the Tokyo Olympics had begun before she even arrived in Japan. (
  • Simone Biles withdrew from competition at the Tokyo Olympics after competing in vault, saying she needed to protect her mental health. (
  • Biles has been vocal in saying that the pressure of being on a global stage like the Olympics has been harder than ever. (
  • Biles hasn't lost an all-around competition since 2013, and will be heavily favored to be the first woman in more than 50 years, and only third overall, to repeat as the Olympic champion. (
  • Though she didn't do it at either nationals or the Olympic trials, Biles has continued working on it and performed it in training in Tokyo. (
  • American gymnast Simone Biles won her seventh career Olympic medal Tuesday, earning bronze on the balance beam in a return to competition after having to withdraw from earlier events. (
  • Biles dominated the gymnastic world and has a combination of about 32 Olympic and World Championship medals. (
  • Biles, the reigning Olympic all-around champion, and Lee will be the two qualifiers to the all-around from Team USA. (
  • We got a taste of what Biles can do at the Olympic trials in San Jose last month. (
  • Biles and Naomi Osaka are prominent young Black women under the pressure of a global Olympic spotlight that few human beings ever face. (
  • After further medical evaluation, Simone Biles has withdrawn from the final individual all-around competition at the Tokyo Olympic Games, in order to focus on her mental health," the statement read. (
  • I felt pretty comfortable coming into the Olympic Games and then I don't know what happened," Biles said. (
  • Biles will be joined by 2017 world all-around champion Morgan Hurd, 2017 U.S. champion and 2016 Olympic alternate Ragan Smith, Riley McCusker, Grace McCallum and Kara Eaker. (
  • Simone Biles will not defend her Olympic title. (
  • Simone Biles will follow Olympic teammate Laurie Hernandez, who won DWTS Season 23. (
  • Olympic gymnast Simone Biles pulled out of the women's team finals at the Tokyo Games Tuesday morning, paving the way for the Russian Olympic Committee to win the gold medal. (
  • Patients with cholestatic liver disease such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) can experience significant impairment of bile flow and may develop neurological symptoms including fatigue and cognitive decline. (
  • For some cancers, we offer a variety of advanced surgical techniques , including embolization therapy, bile duct resection, biliary bypass surgery and liver resection. (
  • Microbiological bile analysis might, however, have a role in patients with complications of orthotopic liver transplantation and those in whom adequate biliary drainage has not been achieved. (
  • Bacteremia as a complication of biliary intervention tends to occur in patients with obstructed bile flow, especially those who have previously undergone orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), surgery to the biliary tree, sphincterotomy, or placement of a biliary stent. (
  • [ 5 ] The researchers collected bile samples from 243 consecutive patients with biliary obstruction, who underwent a total of 400 ERCP or PTC procedures at a single tertiary center over a 13-month period. (
  • The most important risk factors associated with having a positive bile culture were the presence of a biliary stent (97%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (85%), previous OLT (91%) and malignancy (80%), which confirms the findings of previous studies. (
  • Patients with a major surgical injury to the bile duct and those with recurrent strictures and interventions may have evidence of a bile leak in the form of a biliary fistula, biliary peritonitis, or a biloma. (
  • TOKYO - Simone Biles will not compete in Thursday's all-around competition, where she was expected to defend the gold medal she won at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro games. (
  • Biles qualified for the finals on all four apparatuses, something she didn't even do during her five-medal haul in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. (
  • From Lauren Graham to Simone Biles, there are some obvious choices for the 2016-2017 season. (
  • Biles qualified for the finals on all four apparatuses, something she didn't even do during her five-medal haul in Rio de Janeiro in 2016.The 24-year-old came to Tokyo as arguably the face of the Games following the retirement of swimmer Michael Phelps and sprinter Usain Bolt. (
  • Why is Simone Biles the greatest of all time? (
  • Bronze medalist Simone Biles of the United States celebrates on the podium, Aug.. 3, 20221. (
  • Simone Biles' decision to pull out of the women's team final has prompted comments and analysis around the world, including much praise for Biles' choosing to prioritize her mental health. (
  • If anyone's going to crush a handstand challenge, it's going to be Simone Biles. (
  • Simone Biles is a famous gymnast who is not only popular for her prowess in sports but also for her fashion sense. (
  • According to NBC Sports , the world champion recently started her reality series, "Daring Simone Biles' ' on Snapchat. (
  • Also, she was an executive producer for the 2018 biopic, "The Simone Biles Story: Courage to Soar'' and she also appeared in the series finale of Black-ish . (
  • Simone Biles is the best female gymnast that's ever been," Canadian gymnast Elsabeth Black said. (
  • Simone Biles on the balance beam. (
  • Simone Biles during women's qualification. (
  • Texas' deputy attorney general has apologized for a since-deleted tweet in which he called U.S. gymnast Simone Biles "childish" and a "national embarrassment. (
  • I can't imagine what Simone Biles has gone through," Reitz tweeted. (
  • Simone Biles is a true patriot and one of the greatest gymnasts of our time. (
  • I owe @Simone_Biles an apology. (
  • Simone Biles surely is a showstopper-and it's clear the laws of physics don't apply to her out-of-this-world skills. (
  • When you are Simone Biles, certain laws just don't apply-like gravity,' a commentator states as Biles does a series of flips. (
  • Besides Simone Biles, I was Simone, and people kind of respected that. (
  • A lot of people can learn from what Simone Biles did this week - and the biggest lesson may be for all the sports parents raising young competitors with mantras like "don't be a quitter" and "your team is depending on you. (
  • Simone Biles: I feel like none of us are competitive towards each other because we realize we're stronger as a team, rather than individually. (
  • Simone Biles was in the emergency room past 1 a.m. on Saturday in Qatar. (
  • Simone Biles not competing in the team event is like going to see a Broadway show with an understudy performing. (
  • @Simone_Biles already won. (
  • God bless the great Simone Biles. (
  • Simone Biles appears to defy gravity in slow-motion footage of one of her moves on the floor. (
  • The Simone Biles for Home adjustable wood balance beam grows as your skills and confidence grows. (
  • BOSTON - All the gold medals for Simone Biles . (
  • it may block the common bile duct, which leads to a buildup of bilirubin in the blood and causes jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and eyes). (
  • The distal region is made up of the common bile duct which passes through the pancreas and ends in the small intestine. (
  • Cholangitis occurs in the presence of partial or complete obstruction of the common bile duct (CBD), with increased intraluminal pressures, bacterial infection of the bile with multiplication of the organisms within the duct, and seeding of the bloodstream with bacteria or endotoxin. (
  • They carry the bile to your small intestine. (
  • If the bile duct is blocked, a thin, flexible tube called a stent may be left in the liver to drain bile into the small intestine or a collection bag outside the body. (
  • Additionally, diarrhea may be caused by excess bile salts entering the colon rather than being absorbed at the end of the small intestine, typically shortly after eating. (
  • in addition, the surgeon must remove most of the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), part of the bile duct, the gallbladder, and the lymph nodes in the area of the pancreas. (
  • This event has the distinction of being where she won her 24th medal at the world championships -- a gold in 2019 -- which gave Biles the record for most medals at worlds of any gymnast, male or female. (
  • Biles, Jordan Chiles, Sunisa Lee and Grace McCallum are in second with a score of 170.562. (
  • Jordan Chiles competed for Biles on the uneven bars - the American team's second apparatus in the competition - with Biles cheering on from the sidelines. (
  • This report presents the clinical course and clinicopathological features of neuroendocrine carcinomas arising from the extrahepatic bile duct. (
  • The extrahepatic bile duct is made up of the hilum region and the distal region. (
  • Biles, 24, regarded by many as the greatest gymnast of all time and who had been strongly tipped to win multiple gold medals in Japan, said she had withdrawn in order to prioritize her mental health. (
  • Biles later withdrew from the individual all-around competition, citing a need to focus on her mental health. (
  • Only a small number of bile duct cancers are intrahepatic. (
  • Intrahepatic bile duct cancers are also called intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. (
  • In addition, YYR induced a significantly increased ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 11 (ABCB11) gene expression compared with the placebo, indicating the role of YYR in lowering intrahepatic cholesterol availability by stimulating the bile salt export pump. (
  • Conclusion: These findings suggest that daily YYR supplementation exerted hypocholesterolemic effects in mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects by reducing intrahepatic cholesterol availability through stimulating bile salt export pumps and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. (
  • Carey initially did not qualify because she was the third-ranking American behind Biles and Sunisa Lee. (
  • reddish pigment found in bile,' 1868, from German bilirubin (1864), from bili- 'bile' (see bile ) + Latin ruber 'red' (from PIE root *reudh- 'red, ruddy') + -ine (2). (
  • Water-solubility allows conjugated bilirubin to be excreted into bile. (
  • Bilirubin is a brownish yellow substance found in bile . (
  • It is not determined if Biles will return for any of the four individual finals that she qualified for - vault, balance beam, uneven bars or floor. (
  • Just three floor exercise passes that went out of bounds (because of Biles' otherworldly tumbling power), plus small errors on uneven bars and balance beam Sunday. (
  • Biles won her first national title on uneven bars, the only event on which she did not earn a medal in Rio or at any world championships. (
  • Before Biles, the Landis were known for coaching Madison Kocian to uneven bars silver in Rio. (
  • Ragan Smith , who won the 2017 U.S. all-around in Biles' absence, is in danger of missing that team. (
  • A careful history, the measurement of stool weight and pH, a therapeutic trial of cholestyramine and the performance of a bile acid test, such as a bile acid breath test, can be used to establish the diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea. (
  • The balance beam offered an opportunity for Biles to compete without the twisting skills that are more prevalent in the other events. (
  • Biles went on to win a bronze medal in the balance beam competition on Tuesday. (
  • Correction: An earlier version of this post incorrectly stated that Biles fell off the balance beam at the U.S. Classic three weeks ago. (
  • Bile duct cancer is also called cholangiocarcinoma. (
  • Perihilar bile duct cancer is also called a Klatskin tumor or perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. (
  • The principal aims of the study were to identify risk factors for the presence of bacteria in bile and to examine whether modifying antibiotic therapy according to the results of microbiological analysis of bile affects the outcome of cholangitis treatment. (
  • Bile duct cysts in a female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. (
  • B) Human bile collected through percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage in the gallbladder of a patient affected with scrub typhus. (
  • Sources of proteins in human bile. (
  • The proteins of 46 human bile specimens, collected by several different routes have been studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis, by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and by radioimmunoassay. (
  • Our results show that the majority of human bile proteins derive from plasma although bile specific proteins are always present. (
  • Although the majority of human bile proteins would appear to enter bile by a molecular weight-dependent pathway, four proteins, namely secretory IgA, IgM, haemoglobin and caeruloplasmin, showed significant deviation from the predicted relationship and probably enter bile at least partly by transport across cells. (
  • Three types of bile acid-induced diarrhoea can be distinguished. (
  • Even if the repair operation is a technical 'success', bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal by 'keyhole' surgery) has a strong adverse effect on the patient's quality of life for many years after the. (
  • Bile salt diarrhea is a possible side-effect of gallbladder removal. (
  • Your liver makes a digestive juice called bile. (
  • Although neuroendocrine tumors are most commonly found in the digestive system, neuroendocrine tumors originating from the bile duct are rare, and neuroendocrine carcinomas derived from the perihilar bile duct are extremely rare. (
  • These parts are then "reconnected" in order to restore continuity of the bile system and digestive tract. (
  • Present data suggest that bile acids play no significant role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic diarrhoea. (
  • At Sutter East Bay Medical Foundation, doctors are skilled at treating liver and bile duct cancers using a variety of diagnostic tests, surgical procedures, drug therapies and radiation therapies. (
  • The organization said Biles will be evaluated daily before deciding if she will participate in next week's individual events. (
  • Biles spent a portion of Wednesday evening watching American teammates Sam Mikulak and Brody Malone compete in the men's all-around finals. (
  • Once I came out here (to compete), I was like, 'No mental is, not there so I just need to let the girls do it and focus on myself,'" Biles said following the medal ceremony. (
  • Once I came out here (to compete), I was like, 'No mental is, not there so I just need to let the girls do it and focus on myself,'" Biles said following the medal ceremony.The decision opens the door wide open for the all-around, a title that was long considered a foregone conclusion. (
  • Biles was plagued by an attack of the "twisties" in Tokyo -- a potentially dangerous phenomenon that causes gymnasts to lose their sense of direction when in the air. (
  • Like most gymnasts, 15-year-old Kaiya Connor of North Carolina is a huge fan of Biles. (
  • Mikulak, a three-time Olympian, praised Biles' decision. (
  • It wasn't an easy day or my best but I got through it," Biles wrote in an Instagram post Monday morning . (
  • Biles wore a huge smile after landing a double pike dismount at the end of her routine. (
  • I knew I was capable of [scoring this well], but I kind of thought I was going to be a nervous wreck and maybe fall apart," said Biles, who wore a teal mint leotard in part to stand with fellow Larry Nassar sexual-abuse survivors (teal ribbons were worn at NCAA meets in the winter and spring). (
  • How is bile duct cancer diagnosed? (
  • In order to plan treatment, it is important to know if the bile duct cancer can be removed by surgery. (
  • Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage bile duct cancer are usually done at the same time. (
  • A higher than normal amount of these substances can be a sign of liver disease that may be caused by bile duct cancer. (
  • Increased levels of CEA and CA 19-9 may be a sign of bile duct cancer. (
  • Different procedures may be used to obtain a sample of tissue and diagnose bile duct cancer. (
  • What is bile duct cancer? (
  • What are risk factors for bile duct cancer? (
  • What are signs and symptoms of bile duct cancer? (
  • Treatment for bile duct cancer can include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. (
  • Biles explained she was focusing on her mental health, and that her mind and body were not in sync as she performed skills, especially those involving twists. (
  • Many speculated that Biles' decision to drop was more about her mental health than her physical health. (
  • A few hours later, Biles clarified that her decision was indeed made for the sake of her mental health. (
  • From the histopathological findings, we diagnosed the tumor as a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bile duct (small cell type) with lymph node metastasis. (
  • A case of atorvastatin-induced prolonged cholestasis with bile duct damage has been reported. (
  • Atorvastatin has been reported to have caused severe acute hepatitis with symptomatic cholestasis for more than 3 months and bile duct injury. (
  • bile,' also, informally, 'anger,' from Latin bilis 'fluid secreted by the liver,' also in old medicine one of the four humors (also known as choler ), thus 'bitterness of feeling, peevishness,' supposedly caused by excess of bile (especially as black bile , 1797). (
  • Blockage of the bile duct may also cause the gallbladder to become enlarged. (
  • Biles contributed to her team's struggles with a slew of uncharacteristic errors. (