Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Bile Reflux: Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Common Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Taurolithocholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.CholanesLiver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Ampulla of Vater: A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (1/2758)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

Analysis of the effects of food and of digestive secretions on the small intestine of the rat. 1. Mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement. (2/2758)

A modified Roux-en-Y repositioning of rat small intestine was performed so that the proximal segment of bowel (A) received only bile and pancreastic secretions, the second (B) received food direct from the stomach, and these two segments drained into a third (C). Four to five weeks after operation, cell production was assessed by injection of vincristine into operated, sham-operated and unoperated rats, and counts of blocked metaphases were made on isolated microdissected crypts. Villus height, crypt depth, and the number of crypts per villus (crypt/villus ratio) were also measured. Most of segment A showed no significant differences from sham-operated intestine, although the normal proximo-distal gradient of villus height was abolished. At the distal end (near the anastomosis with segments B and C), crypt depth and cell production were increased. The villus height gradient in segment B was also abolished, although crypt depth and cell production were significantly increased, especially at the proximal end. Crypt/villus ratio was also increased. Segment C showed all the characteristics of small bowel promoted to a more proximal position: increased villus height, crypt depth and cell production. Increased crypt/villus ratio was also observed. These results are discussed in terms of the role of food and of digestive secretions in the control of mucosal morphology and epithelial replacement.  (+info)

Progesterone alters biliary flow dynamics. (3/2758)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that progesterone alters sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder function and, therefore, bile flow dynamics. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the effects of progesterone on the biliary tract have been implicated in the increased incidence of gallstones among women, the specific effects of prolonged elevation of progesterone levels, such as occurs with contraceptive progesterone implants and during pregnancy, on the sphincter of Oddi and biliary flow dynamics are still incompletely understood. METHODS: Adult female prairie dogs were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous implants containing either progesterone or inactive pellet matrix only. Hepatic bile partitioning and gallbladder emptying were determined 14 days later using 99mTc-Mebrofenin cholescintigraphy. RESULTS: Significantly less hepatic bile partitioned into the gallbladder in progesterone-treated than in control animals. The gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly reduced from 73+/-6% in controls to 59+/-3% in the progesterone-treated animals. The rate of gallbladder emptying was significantly reduced from 3.6+/-0.3%/minute to 2.9+/-0.1%/minute. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone administered as subcutaneous implants alters partitioning of hepatic bile between gallbladder and small intestine and, therefore, gallbladder filling. Progesterone also significantly impairs gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin. The effects of progesterone on the sphincter of Oddi and the gallbladder may contribute to the greater prevalence of gallstones and biliary motility disorders among women.  (+info)

A new bile acid conjugate, ciliatocholic acid, from bovine gall bladder bile. (4/2758)

This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of ciliatocholic acid in bovine gall bladder bile. Ciliatocholic acid was synthesized according to the method described by Bergstrom and Norman for the synthesis of taurocholic acid. Elemental analysis, melting point, and the infrared spectrum of this substance were determined. An isolation procedure for ciliatocholic acid was established by stepwise elution with an HCl-ethanol solvent system using a Dowex-1 anion exchange resin column chromatographic technique. Ciliatocholic acid amounting to 158 mug (as ciliatine) per 100 ml of gall bladder bile was found in the fraction eluted with 0.01 N HCl in 50% ethanol. This coumpound was purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography and confirmed to be ciliatocholic acid from the hydrolytic stability, phosphorus determination, and chromatographic behavior. Thus, bovine gall bladder bile contains a small amount of ciliatocholic acid.  (+info)

An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease. (5/2758)

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

Influence of renal failure on intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin in rats. (6/2758)

Following intravenous doses, ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in control and nephrectomized rats were studied. There were no differences between control and nephrectomized rats for area under the concentration-time curve in plasma or biliary clearance. The intestinal clearance of ciprofloxacin was increased in nephrectomized rats. Intestinal elimination seems to compensate partially for the decrease in urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin in nephrectomized rats.  (+info)

Cryoelectron microscopy of a nucleating model bile in vitreous ice: formation of primordial vesicles. (7/2758)

Because gallstones form so frequently in human bile, pathophysiologically relevant supersaturated model biles are commonly employed to study cholesterol crystal formation. We used cryo-transmission electron microscopy, complemented by polarizing light microscopy, to investigate early stages of cholesterol nucleation in model bile. In the system studied, the proposed microscopic sequence involves the evolution of small unilamellar to multilamellar vesicles to lamellar liquid crystals and finally to cholesterol crystals. Small aliquots of a concentrated (total lipid concentration = 29.2 g/dl) model bile containing 8.5% cholesterol, 22.9% egg yolk lecithin, and 68.6% taurocholate (all mole %) were vitrified at 2 min to 20 days after fourfold dilution to induce supersaturation. Mixed micelles together with a category of vesicles denoted primordial, small unilamellar vesicles of two distinct morphologies (sphere/ellipsoid and cylinder/arachoid), large unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, and cholesterol monohydrate crystals were imaged. No evidence of aggregation/fusion of small unilamellar vesicles to form multilamellar vesicles was detected. Low numbers of multilamellar vesicles were present, some of which were sufficiently large to be identified as liquid crystals by polarizing light microscopy. Dimensions, surface areas, and volumes of spherical/ellipsoidal and cylindrical/arachoidal vesicles were quantified. Early stages in the separation of vesicles from micelles, referred to as primordial vesicles, were imaged 23-31 min after dilution. Observed structures such as enlarged micelles in primordial vesicle interiors, segments of bilayer, and faceted edges at primordial vesicle peripheries are probably early stages of small unilamellar vesicle assembly. A decrease in the mean surface area of spherical/ellipsoidal vesicles was correlated with the increased production of cholesterol crystals at 10-20 days after supersaturation by dilution, supporting the role of small unilamellar vesicles as key players in cholesterol nucleation and as cholesterol donors to crystals. This is the first visualization of an intermediate structure that has been temporally linked to the development of small unilamellar vesicles in the separation of vesicles from micelles in a model bile and suggests a time-resolved system for further investigation.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (8/2758)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

The effect of a new potent choleretic drug (Febuprol) on lipid composition and cholesterol nucleation time in gallbladder bile was studied in 8 patients with cholesterol gallstones. Nine untreated patients with cholesterol cholecystolithiasis and functioning gallbladder served as controls. Under Febuprol treatment (3 X 100 mg for 6-10 days) mean concentrations of total bile acids (125.4 vs. 59.5 mmol/l), phospholipids (46.1 vs. 25.6 mmol/l) and total lipids (10.4 vs. 5.9 g/dl) were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than in controls. No significant difference between both groups was calculated for the mean values of cholesterol (17.8 vs. 13.3 mmol/l), cholesterol saturation index (1.5 vs. 2.1) and cholesterol nucleation time (2.1 vs. 2.6 days). Our findings are compatible with a choleretic effect of Febuprol but no alteration of the rapid cholesterol crystallisation in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol gallstones was found. ...
Epomediol (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo(2.2.2.)octan-6,7-endo,endo-diol) (EPO) is a terpenoid compound shown to reverse 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis in rat. The effect is related to the restoration of normal liver plasma membrane fluidity values. To further characterize the effect of EPO, bile flow and biliary lipid composition were measured in rats treated either with EE or EE associated with EPO. EE significantly reduced the bile flow; this reduction was prevented by concomitant treatment with EPO with an increase in the bile salt secretion rate. EPO alone showed a choleretic effect. The biliary secretion rate of cholesterol was also significantly reduced by EE while being comparable to controls in EE-EPO-treated animals. Phospholipid (PL) biliary excretion was significantly (P less than 0.002) increased by EE either alone or combined with EPO. After EE treatment, the biliary PL composition showed a reduction in phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration with a parallel ...
2H2O affects many membrane transport processes by solvent and kinetic isotope effects. Since bile formation is a process of osmotic filtration where such effects could be important, we investigated the effects of 2H2O on bile formation in the in situ perfused rat liver. Dose finding experiments showed that at high concentrations, 2H2O increased vascular resistance and induced cholestasis; at 60% 2H2O however, a clear dissociation between the vascular and biliary effects was observed. Therefore, further experiments were carried out at this concentration. The main finding was a reduction in bile salt-independent bile flow from 0.99 +/- 0.04 to 0.66 +/- 0.04 microliters.min-1.g-1 (P , 0.001). This was associated with a 40% reduction in biliary bicarbonate concentration (P , 0.001). Choleretic response to neither taurocholate nor ursodeoxycholate was altered by 2H2O; in particular, there was a similar stimulation of bicarbonate secretion by ursodeoxycholate in the presence of 60% 2H2O. To further ...
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile). After eating, this stored bile is discharged into the duodenum. The composition of gallbladder bile is 97% water, 0.7% bile salts, 0.2% bilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids and lecithin), and 200 meq/l inorganic salts. Bile was the yellow bile in the four humor system of medicine, the standard of medical practice in Europe from 500 B.C. to the early nineteenth century. About 400 to 800 ml of bile is produced per day in adult humans. Bile acts to some extent as a surfactant, helping to emulsify the lipids in food. Bile salt anions are hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other side; consequently, they tend to aggregate around droplets of lipids (triglycerides and phospholipids) to form ...
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Chemicals. MRL-I, [ethyl-14C]MRL-I, MRL-II, [13CD3]MRL-II, and [methyl-14C]MRL-II (Fig. 1) were synthesized at Merck Research Laboratories and were provided as their arginine salts. Alamethicin, saccharolactone, and UDPGA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Acetonitrile and methanol (HPLC grade) were obtained from Fisher Scientific Co. (Pittsburgh, PA). All other reagents were of analytical or HPLC grade.. Animals. Male Sprague-Dawley and obese Zucker rats were obtained from Charles River Laboratories Inc. (Wilmington, MA). They were housed in cages and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Access to food and water was allowed ad libitum. Rats used in this study were 14 to 16 weeks old; the Sprague-Dawley rats weighed ∼300 g and the obese Zucker rats weighed ∼600 g. All procedures for animal experiments were approved by the Merck Research Laboratories Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.. Studies in Bile Duct-Cannulated Rats. [14C]MRL-I (1 mg/kg) or [14C]MRL-II (0.5 ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Elevation of pancreatic enzymes in bile of PBM. AU - Fujimoto, Takaaki. AU - Ohtsuka, Takao. AU - Nakamura, Masafumi. PY - 2018/6/5. Y1 - 2018/6/5. N2 - Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a congenital anomaly in which the reciprocal reflux between pancreatic and bile juice occurs because the conflu- ence of the pancreatic and bile ducts lies outside of the area of contractile influence of the sphincter of Oddi. The reflux of pancreatic juice into the bile duct and subse- quent elevated pancreatic enzyme level in bile are usually recognized in PBM. Amylase is the most popular pancreatic enzyme for assessment in daily prac- tice, and assessment of amylase level in bile is useful to definitively confirm the presence of PBM, and the mixture of pancreatic and bile juices may produce various physiological and pathological alterations. In PBM, the amylase level in bile in patients with biliary cancers has been reported to be higher than that with benign biliary diseases; however, ...
Shop the best NutriCology Allergy Research Ox Bile 100 Veg Caps products at Swanson Health Products. Trusted since 1969, we offer trusted quality and great value on NutriCology Allergy Research Ox Bile 100 Veg Caps products.. Dec 22, 2012 · 7-Keto DHEA; Vitamin. ox bile Extracts or Beef Bile Supplements are a combination of bile salts and bile acids that enhance or. why do we need ox bile.. For informational purposes only. Please consult your health care practitioner before.. Yahoo Lifestyle is your source for style, beauty, and wellness, including health, inspiring stories, and the latest fashion trends.. Feb 3, 2012. But she had a gallstone blocking her common bile duct - extremely painful and impossible to eat ANY foods. Not long after, in her. As a result, I cant do a ketogenic diet. Even the 21. I dont overdo this, maybe 3-4 times a week Ill have either kombucha (4-6 oz) or raw sauerkraut (1/3 cup). Adding the.. Sep 10, 2017. Post-meal constipation and other bathroom problems could be a ...
Bile culture is a laboratory test to detect disease-causing germs in the biliary system. Alternative Names: Culture - bile. A sample of bile is needed.
This study compares the biliary and urinary metabolic profiles of 1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (CP94), an orally active iron chelator, in the normal rat. Surprisingly, CP94 was found to form two phase II metabolites, the 3-O- and 4-O-glucuronides. These glucuronides accounted for 38 and 28% of the administered CP94 dose, in bile and urine, respectively. Unchanged CP94 accounted for 5% of the CP94 dose in both bile and urine. The 2-(1′-hydroxy) metabolite of CP94 was found to be the dominant metabolite in urine. In addition, an unstable metabolite was detected in the bile although its structure remains unknown at the present stage. The excretion of iron in bile, after administration of CP94, was found to parallel the biliary elimination of CP94 together with its hydroxylated derivatives, indicating the importance of metabolites in iron excretion.. ...
Using improved physiological and chemical methods, we have investigated the effects on bile secretion of a high fat diet, of bile salt preparations, and of
To establish a HPLC-MS/MS quantitative method for analysis of 8 constituents in rat bile. The method was applied in the biliary excretion study after oral administration of Desmodii Styracifolii Herba extract. The rat bile samples were collected during 0-1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-12, 12-24 h. Diamonsil C₁₈column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) was adopted and eluted with methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in a gradient mode. The flow rate was 0.8 mL•min⁻¹, and the column temperature was set at 40 ℃. The detection was carried out by a triple quadrupole linearion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode with an electrospray source ...
FIG. 5. (A) Analysis of expression and regulation of bsh, pva, and btlB genes by using RT-PCR. cDNA was synthesized from RNA isolated from L. monocytogenes LO28 wild-type and prfA and sigB mutant cells grown anaerobically to exponential and stationary phases in BHI broth at 37°C. (B) Expression of sigB in cells grown to exponential phase either aerobically or anaerobically in BHI broth at 37°C. (C) Expression of sigB during murine infection. cDNA was synthesized from RNA that was extracted from intestines 2 h after oral infection with 1010 L. monocytogenes LO28 cells. In all cases, control PCRs were performed with 16S RNA primers to confirm identical template DNA levels. The number of PCR cycles are shown in parentheses. ...
Bile, sometimes called bile juice, is a digestive fluid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It contains bile acid, which promotes fat absorption.
A protein that binds to bile in the small intestine may hold the key t... What weve identified is one of the mechanisms for how the body keeps...Bile which is generated by the liver and flows into the small intesti...When theres no bile in the intestine as happens in people with obstr...The researchers focused on a molecule ?FXR ?in the wall of the lining...,Gut,protein,found,to,protect,against,infection,and,intestinal,breakdown,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Biotech Support Group reports on a recent research article describing the simplicity and efficiency of their lipid clearance sample preparation technology for bile fluid.
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Bile. Dark green stools from bile may look black under poor lighting. Smear a piece of stool on white paper. Look at it under a bright light. This often confirms that the color is really dark green ...
If youve been indulging in processed foods and sugar, here are 7 steps to encourage natural detoxification by supporting your livers secretion of bile!
Made up of water, electrolytes, cholesterol and phospholipids, bile is a green fluid your liver makes that helps you digest fat. As a source of cholesterol, bile has an impact on blood cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber found in certain foods helps lower cholesterol by preventing your body from reabsorbing bile.
Nutripur Flux O Bile Seasonal Cleanse 20 Day Program - Cleanse, purify and regenerate your liver with this 100% Organic liver cleanse system! Flux-O-Bile i
Lyrics to Solitude Is Bliss.. by Bile: So as you cry, as the tears slowly slip from your eyes. / I watch, standing, laughing above
According to Sacred Medical Order Church of Hope, a bilious attack or biliousness is related to various unpleasant symptoms due to bile secretion or digestion disturbance. Causes of a bilious...
Fingerprint Fingerprint is based on mining the text of the persons scientific documents to create an index of weighted terms, which defines the key subjects of each individual researcher. ...
Reduce steroid and drug-related toxicity. Support optimal liver health and bile flow. • High-potency blend of two cytoprotective ingredients. Ideal for people exposed to environmental toxins or hepatotoxic oral androgens.
noun - (វេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ) ពណ៌ឃ្លាដែលទាក់ទងbile pigment- ជាតិពណ៌ទឹកប្រម៉ាត់cutaneous pigment- ជាតិពណ៌ស្បែកrespiratory pigment- ឈាមដែលដឹកនាំអុកស៊ីសែនពីសួតទៅឲ្យក
Irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11), is a potent anticancer drug that is increasingly used in chemotherapy. A frequent limiting side effect involves gastrointestinal toxicity (diarrhea), which is thought to be related to the biliary excretion of CPT-11 and its metabolites. Accordingly, the biliary excretion mechanisms for both the lactone and carboxylate forms of CPT-11 and its metabolites, SN-38 and its glucuronide (SN38-Glu), were investigated using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR), with the latter being mutant rats with a genetic deficiency of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter. After i.v. administration of CPT-11, the biliary excretion clearance, defined as the biliary excretion rate normalized to the hepatic concentration, of both the lactone and carboxylate forms of SN38-Glu was much lower in EHBR. The biliary excretion clearance for the carboxylate form of both CPT-11 and SN-38 was ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total bile acids tests are also widely used to screen pregnant women for the condition of obstetric cholestasis, a disease that is caused by elevated total bile acids in the bloodstream ...
Since the last International Bile Acid Meeting in Freiburg in 1996, considerable progress has been made in several areas of bile acid research. The different pathways of bile acid synthesis and their regulation have been further characterized. The molecular mechanisms for biliary secretion of bile acids have been elucidated and genetic defects of bile acid transport have been defined. Injurious as well as protective effects of different bile acids on the liver have been further studied. Finally, the beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver diseases have been substantiated and the potential mechanisms of action have been explored. This book, the proceedings of the Falk Symposium No. 108 (XV International Bile Acid Meeting), held in Titisee, Germany, October 12-13, 1998, is dedicated to both basic and clinical aspects of bile acid research with a focus on bile acids and cholestasis.Bile Acids and Cholestasis - XV International Bile Acid Meeting, 1 was published 1999 under ...
For the past year we have employed a mixture of oleic acid and bile salts for the treatment of patients suffering from various forms of gall-bladder disease. The results obtained, which were reported elsewhere15 were gratifying in a large number of cases. We then decided to undertake an experimental study of the choleretic effect of bile salts and of oleic acid with bile salts to ascertain whether oleic acid which has a direct action on the gall-bladder also enhances the well known choleretic effect of bile salts. Theoretically, as will be shown later, it appeared plausible that such would be ...
Purpose. Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, a so-called canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). As there appear to be many canalicular organic anion transports, we examined the effects of various organic anions and bile acid conjugates on the biliary excretion of pravastatin in rats. Methods. [l4C]pravastatin was intravenously injected into rats with bile drainage in the presence and absence of the continuous infusion of organic anions and bile acids, and radioactivity of its biliary excretion was studied. Results. Biliary excretion of [14C]pravastatin was markedly inhibited by sulfobromophthalein-glutathione, taurolithocholate-3-sulfate, ursodeoxycholate-3,7-sulfate, and ursodeoxycholate-3-O-glucuronide. In contrast, dibromosulfophthalein only slightly inhibited biliary pravastatin excretion, and cefpiramide did not affect biliary pravastatin excretion. Conclusions. These findings further support the multiplicity of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dissociation of bile flow and biliary lipid secretion from biliary lysosomal enzyme output in experimental cholestasis. AU - Lopez del Pino, V. H.. AU - La Russo, Nicholas F. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019429543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019429543&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6787157. AN - SCOPUS:0019429543. VL - 22. SP - 229. EP - 235. JO - Journal of Lipid Research. JF - Journal of Lipid Research. SN - 0022-2275. IS - 2. ER - ...
The presence of a renal bile fistula with escape of all bile into the urinary tract seriously impairs the capacity of an anemic dog to form new hemoglobin on standard diets. These bile fistula dogs will produce about one-half as much hemoglobin in anemia on standard diets as during earlier control periods without a bile fistula. Iron given by mouth to an anemic bile fistula dog will effect the production of about one-half the amount of new hemoglobin as in control periods. Iron given by vein to an anemic bile fistula dog will approximate the theoretical 100 per cent return of new hemoglobin. Obviously absorption is a very important factor in the utilization of iron by these dogs. The reaction to liver feeding is much like the reaction to iron feeding but we have no proof of inadequate protein digestion and absorption in these bile fistula dogs. In fact the uniform body weight and normal clinical state over periods of years speak for adequate absorption of protein digestion products. Evidence ...
Bile acids are steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. Individual bile acid carriers have now been cloned from several species. Na(+)-dependent transporters that mediate uptake into hepatocytes and reabsorption from the intestine and biliary epithelium and an ATP-dependent transporter that pumps bile acids into bile comprise the classes of transporter that are specific for bile acids. In addition, at least four human and five rat genes that code for Na(+)-independent organic anion carriers with ...
50% cholesterol monohydrate plus an admixture of calcium salts, bile pigments, and proteins. Pigment stones are composed primarily of calcium bilirubinate; -There are several important mechanisms in the formation of lithogenic (stone-forming) bile. The most important is increased biliary secretion of cholesterol. This may occur in association with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, high-caloric and cholesterol-rich diets. cholesterol gallstone disease occurs because of several defects, which include:- (1) bile supersaturation with cholesterol, (2) nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate with subsequent crystal retention and stone growth, and (3) abnormal gallbladder motor function with delayed emptying and stasis. Gallbladder hypomotility leading to stasis and formation of Sludge in:- a. Prolonged parenteral nutrition b. Fasting c. Pregnancy d. Drugs such as octreotide Excess Weight loss: Mobilization of tissue cholesterol leads to increased biliary cholesterol secretion while enterohepatic ...
To study the effect of steroid hormones on bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes, cells were incubated with various amounts of these compounds during 72 h and conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids was measured. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated in a dose-dependent way by glucocorticoids, but not by sex steroid hormones, pregnenolone or the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in concentrations up to 10 microM. Dexamethasone proved to be the most efficacious inducer, giving 3-fold and 7-fold increases in bile acid synthesis during the second and third 24 h incubation periods respectively, at a concentration of 50 nM. Mass production of bile acids as measured by g.l.c. during the second day of culture (28-52 h) was 2.2-fold enhanced by 1 microM-dexamethasone. No change in the ratio of bile acids produced was observed during this period in the presence of dexamethasone. Conversion of [4-14C]7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, an intermediate of the bile acid pathway, to bile acids was not ...
Bile acids are usually found conjugated to glycine or taurine, a derivative of cysteine. Cells require the presence of an active bile acid transporter for uptake of these conjugated derivatives (10). To test whether conjugated bile acids would also activate FXR, we coexpressed the human ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) with FXR in CV-1 cells (11). FXR was strongly activated by 3 μM of the taurine or glycine conjugates of CDCA, LCA, and DCA (Fig. 2G). Weaker activation was seen with the conjugated forms of CA, and tauro-MCA was inactive (Fig. 2G). These data indicate that FXR can be activated by conjugated bile acids in tissues that express bile acid transporters such as the terminal ileum, liver, and kidney. The relation between the chemical structure of bile acids and their activation of FXR is in close agreement with the reported effects of bile acids on induction of I-BABP expression in Caco-2 cells and inhibition of Cyp7a expression in hepatocytes (3, 12). Coactivator proteins interact ...
We investigated whether bile salts (BS) with different hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties interact with ethanol on bile secretion, enzyme (aspartate transaminase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) release in the perfusate, liver ultrastructure, and vesicular exocytosis in the isolated perfused rat liver. Ethanol (0.1 or 1%) promoted a rapid decrease of bile flow and BS secretion in livers perfused with taurocholate (TCA), the physiologic BS in the rat (−28% decrease of baseline values with 0.1% and −34% with 1% ethanol). The inhibitory effect of ethanol on bile flow and BS secretion was significantly (P , .02) attenuated by perfusing liver with the hydrophilic BS, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and it was exacerbated (P , .02) by perfusion with the hydrophobic BS, taurodeoxycholate (TDCA). The release of AST and LDH in the perfusate was unaffected by 0.1% ethanol, but increased threefold to fivefold by 1% ethanol in TCA-perfused livers. This cytolitic effect of ethanol was not observed in ...
This morning Kay went to the interventional radiology suite at Good Sam, and John, the self described "candy man" who administers the drugs for conscious sedation, and Dr. Frood were able to safely drain Kays obstructed biliary system. There was a very high grade obstruction of the common bile duct, allowing very little bile to drain into the intestine. One advantage of being thin is that he was able to access the bile ducts through the left lobe of the liver, through the abdominal wall beside her prior surgical incision. This avoids the need to go from the right side between the ribs, the usual approach, and avoids the pain of this tube moving with each breath causing a lot of pain. They drained a large amount of bile, and were able to pass a small drainage tube down through the bile ducts into the duodenum. The tube has small holes above the blockage, and in the tube into the duodenum, so bile can drain into the gut. What bile does not drain that direction, can drain out into a small bag ...
In addition to their well-known function as dietary lipid detergents, bile acids have emerged as important signalling molecules that regulate energy homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted that disrupted bile acid metabolism is associated with metabolism disorders such as dyslipidaemia, intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases and obesity. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications in bile acid metabolism. Bile acids bind and modulate the activity of transmembrane and nuclear receptors (NR). Among these receptors, the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) and the NR farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis. The role of these receptors in the intestine... in energy metabolism regulation has been recently highlighted. More precisely, recent studies have shown that FXR is important for glucose homeostasis in particular in metabolic disorders such as T2D and ...
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Bile reflux. Endoscope view of bile (yellow, lower centre) in the stomach. Bile reflux is a condition that occurs when bile flows upward (refluxes) from the small intestine into the stomach and oesophagus. Bile, a digestive juice made in the liver, aids the digestion of lipids in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). Symptoms include nausea, heartburn and vomiting bile. Unlike acid reflux, it usually cannot be completely controlled by changes in diet or lifestyle. Instead, it is most often managed with medication or, in severe cases, with surgery. - Stock Image C001/2842
Bile is the green liquid that is made by the liver and is essential for digesting fat. Without some fat in the diet we would not be able to survive as it is essential for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins, so bile is therefore essential for health. Bile is made by the cells of the liver and is collected within a series of tubes within the liver itself called the bile ducts. These run down into one main tube called the common bile duct which delivers the bile into the gut (duodenum) where it is mixed with the food. Off the common bile duct is a side branch and at the end of the side branch is the gallbladder. Under normal circumstances bile passes straight down the common bile duct into the gut but during fasting, typically, some of the bile is bypassed down the side branch where it is stored within the gallbladder. So in effect the gallbladder acts as a storage organ for the bile and when food is taken in the gallbladder contracts and any bile that is stored within it is forced out down the ...
A group from the University Hospital in Heidelberg, Germany performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction for herpesvirus 1-8 DNA in bile, blood, and liver tissue of 73 patients after first liver transplantation (LT). They determined that CMV, EBV, HHV-6, and HHV-7 were all more prevalent in biliary fluid than in liver biopsy tissue or serum. HHV-6 was detected in 34.2% of bile samples while in only 15.1% of biopsy and 2.4% of serum samples. Currently, serum is most often used to test for possible HHV-6 reactivation in transplant patients, but the German study suggests that bile fluid could serve as a more effective marker. The group also found that HHV-6 positivity in bile was significantly associated with allograft complications (including graft rejection and death) but serum positivity was not. This association was found only for HHV-6 and held true even when DNA copies levels were relatively low.. All the patients in this study were treated with prophylactic valganciclovir to prevent CMV ...
The biliary excretion of the major methadone metabolites was studied after the administration of purified 14C-labeled metabolites of methadone. The three methadone metabolites administered to rats were the pyrrolidine and pyrroline metabolites and the glucuronide conjugate of the hydroxylated pyrroline metabolite. We found that the excretion of 14C into bile was greater after administration of the metabolites which underwent fewer metabolic steps prior to biliary excretion. Phenobarbital pretreatment of rats increased the biliary excretion of 14C after the administration of the 14C-labeled pyrrolidine and pyrroline metabolites, both of which undergo further metabolism. Phenobarbital pretreatment did not change the biliary excretion of 14C-labeled glucuronide of the pyrroline metabolite which does not undergo further metabolism in the liver. Analysis of bile samples showed that the increased biliary excretion of 14C in phenobarbital-pretreated rats after administration of the labeled pyrrolidine ...
The key components of bile are; bile salts that facilitate enzymatic fat digestion; bile pigments, such as bilirubin, that are the waste product of hemoglobin
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about bile at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about bile easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
The invention relates to tetrazole derivatives of bile acids, processes for their preparation, and use of these compounds as medicaments and cholesterol lowering agents. The tetrazole-bile acid derivatives are of the formula G1--X--G2, where G1 is H, a bile acid radical, or a bile acid radical which is modified on the hydroxyl functions and/or on the carboxyl group, X is a single bond or a bridge group between G1 and G2, and G2 is of the formula: ##STR1##
Receptor for bile acid. Bile acid-binding induces its internalization, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and intracellular cAMP production. May be involved in the suppression of macrophage functions by bile acids.
Bile Acid Factors™ consists of a mixture of highly concentrated bile acids (also called bile salts), mostly in the conjugated form, from U.S. and/or New Zealan
Pancreas and bile in the human body can be figuratively in good or in very bad relationship.They can be the friends in healthy situation, but can be worst enemy causing diseases of each other.. They have much similarity: without both pancreatic juice and bile we cannot digest the food, especially fat.. Bile and pancreatic juice both have a big amount of minerals and bicarbonates and in normal condition are alkaline.. Both bile and pancreatic juice go to the duodenum (beginning of small intestine) using special pathways: bile and pancreatic ducts. They merge each other before entering the duodenum and mix of pancreatic juice and bile enter in the duodenum throughout special valve called sphincter Oddi.. Negative changing of the biochemistry of bile or pancreatic juice, structure of ducts, possible back ups of these fluids can lead to diseases, some of them fatal.. There are simple examples. Pancreatic cancer causes severe damage of liver because the tumor squeezes the bile duct, developing back ...
There are two different ways to connect the bile duct to the intestine, depending on the liver disease of the patient. The first way is connecting the patients own bile duct to the donor bile duct. If this is done, a small tube called a T-tube, is placed between the bile duct connections. The tube will then exit through the skin but is easily concealed by clothing. This allows the team to monitor the amount and consistency of bile being made by the liver. This tube is tied off within the first week and removed six months after transplantation. The second way to connect the bile duct to the intestine is used if a patients own bile duct is diseased. In this situation, the new bile duct will be connected with the patients intestine. A small tube called a stent, is placed at the connection site. It later falls out of the duct on its own and is passed in the stool sometime after the operation ...
Bile - What causes green bile? Chemical properties. Biliverdin is a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, and is a product of heme/redcell breadown. Biliverdin is further broken down to bilirubin for easier excretion to the outside world (also into urobilinogen in urine-as mild yellow). This compound absorbs green light, thus appears green to your eyes! (put in dard room=brown/black). I think u maybe asking why u threw up green? Consult doc. Good luck.
Just to note, in bile-green-brown. Bile plays a role in the process of absorption of fat and some vitamins such as A, D, E and K. "Because the fat is usually a lot. Importance of bile in digestion especially the absorption of fat, "said dr Prasna. The liquid stored in the gallbladder bile is stored in the gallbladder which lies below the liver. Shaped like a pear. Gallbladder accommodate as many as 50 ml of bile. Length is about 70-10 cm. These organs are connected with the liver and duodenum through the bile ducts ...
Something had me thinking about bile recently. I cant be sure what it was and I wouldnt want to date this blog post by relating it to any recent news events to take a guess. It seems to me that it has something of an unfair reputation. Bile that is. Obviously. In language and to…
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps t …
Primary biliarycirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive disease of the liver caused by a buildup of bile within the liver (cholestasis) that results in damage to the small bile ducts that drain bile from the liver. Over time, this pressure build-up destroys the bile ducts leading to liver cell damage. As the disease progresses and enough liver cells die, cirrhosis and liver failure occur.. Bile is manufactured in the liver and then transported through the bile ducts to the gallbladder and intestine where it helps digest fats and fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K). When bile cannot be drained from the liver, it causes inflammation that leads to cell death. Scar tissue gradually replaces the areas of damaged liver and then the body cannot perform necessary functions.. ...
The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary phy
Background:. Biliary obstruction and cholangitis are common problems in gastroenterology and need specific therapeutic interventions. Besides a variety of potential causes, infections of the biliary tract with Candida and other fungal species have increasingly been reported in the last few years [1-6]. Fungal infections can even lead to common bile duct (CBD) obstruction, as previously reported [7]. Because of the difficulty of gaining bile samples, little is known about the microbial flora of the bile. In a first prospective, observational study, 123 consecutive patients undergoing ERCP for various indications were screened for fungal species [8]. According to this data Candida species may be very frequently be detected in the bile (54/123 patients, 44 % of the cases). As significant risk factors immunosuppression and long-term antibiotic therapy were identified. The main issue in this context is whether positive diagnostic findings represent fungal infection or fungal colonization. Especially ...
When the gallbladder is removed, special clips are used to seal the tube that connects the gallbladder to the main bile duct. However, bile fluid can occasionally leak out into the tummy (abdomen) after the gallbladder is removed.. Symptoms of a bile leak include tummy pain, feeling sick, a fever and a swollen tummy.. Sometimes this fluid can be drained off. Occasionally, an operation is required to drain the bile and wash out the inside of your tummy.. Bile leakage occurs in around 1% of cases. ...
Desviaciones máximas de las temperaturas permisibles para medicamentos termolábiles (Maximum permisible temperature deviations for thermolabile medicines.) : ResumenLos medicamentos termolábiles constituyen un grupo especialmente susceptible, a que se produzcan errores en su conservación durante su transporte y su almacenaje en el Servicio de Farmacia y en los botiquines de las distintas Unidades Clínicas. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido elaborar una tabla de consulta rápida donde se incluyen los tiempos de estabilidad a temperatura ambiente y las
Bile acid synthesis defects may manifest in the neonatal period or later. This panel is specifically designed to cover the genes which lead to neonatal or infantile onset of symptoms. The Jaundice NGS Panel is an option for those cases which present with jaundice and an unclear cause.
There are also important to the relaxation of the abdomen. The sludge may even radiate to your liver issues on ohio ballot 2014 supermarket in the liver continue for sedation, it could be consumed three months. This procedure can also occur after eating because it into the hospital. Research also shows that eating nuts and seeds and bake in oven at 450 F for 30 minutes, and Adenocarcinoma, which are essential for correcting estrogen dominance. There is surgical treatment for the first few days. Eating whole grains, you have always have things go their way xl147 ovarian cancer through the intestine. This dye is then suffer from gallbladder surgically! Prescription Vicoden, a patient usually spends just one of the gallbladders health is extremely calming effect on bile ducts in the mans proposal. The digestive liquid that aids in the procedure. Put a tablespoons perform approximately 110 grams of problems. Any hindrance in its primary service ofexpert gall liver levels over 200 bladder, so it ...
Most experts believe that PBC is an autoimmune condition. This means that something goes wrong with the immune system (the bodys natural defence against infection and illness) and it attacks healthy tissue instead of fighting off infection. In cases of PBC, the immune system sends specialised cells that usually kill bacteria and viruses to the bile ducts.. These cells damage the surface of the bile ducts, which gradually become scarred and disrupt the flow of bile out of the liver. This increases the amount of bile in the liver, which over time can cause it to also become extensively damaged and scarred (cirrhosis).. This damage can gradually cause the liver to lose its function. As the liver plays a vital role in filtering out impurities and toxins from your blood, loss of liver function is potentially fatal.. It is not known what causes the immune system to malfunction and attack the bile ducts.. ...
Begley M, Hill C, Gahan CG (2003) Identification and disruption of btlA, a locus involved in bile tolerance and general stress resistance in Listeria monocytogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 218:31-8.[PMID:12583894 ...
... / M. Ogundare; S. Theofilopoulos; A. Lockhart; L.J. Hall; E. Arenas; J. Sjövall; A.G. Brenton; Y. Wang; W.J. Griffiths ...
Answer Bile is a digestive juice secreted by the liver. Although it does not contain any digestive enzymes, it plays an important role in the digestion of fats. Bile juice has bile salts such as bilirubin and biliverdin. These break down large fat globules into smaller globules so that the pancreatic enzymes can easily act on them. This process is known as emulsification of fats. Bile juice also makes the medium alkaline and activates lipase.. Question 8: Describe the digestive role of chymotrypsin. What two other digestive enzymes of the same category are secreted by its source gland ...
Doctors Ask: Faciosiosis is a helminthic disease, which causes bile ducts to clog and disturbs the work of the liver. Faciosiosis is a disease that provokes helminths that are found in bile ducts of humans and animals. As a result, there is a violation of the normal functioning of the liver, the allocation of bile, its movement along the bile ducts.
Your liver weighs approximately four pounds, and is the second largest organ of your body (your skin is the largest), and its largest gland. It performs more than 500 separate jobs, and is critically involved in every aspect of your metabolism. Its the central chemical laboratory of your body, producing chemicals you need to survive, such as bile, albumin, blood clotting factors, cholesterol, and Vitamin E.. Every minute of every day, your properly functioning liver eliminates small amounts of toxins, heavy metals, bacteria and other impurities from your blood before returning it into circulation. A healthy liver utilizes complex enzymatic processes to metabolize toxins so they can be easily excreted from your body.. Perhaps its most important function is the secretion of bile. Normally, your liver secretes about a quart of bile a day. The function of bile is to carry processed non-functional, non-nutrient environmental compounds and their metabolites, as well as compounds your body normally ...
Choledocholithiasis is when a gallstone becomes stuck in one of the ducts of the bile system. Learn about the causes, risk factors, and treatments ...
Threw up an hour ago, really stunk, then 2 more times bile, drinking a lot of water, I had workers in my yard today, - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian
Animals Asia received six bears last week after the Sichuan Forestry Department removed them from an illegal farm in China where their bile was being harvested.
FC s.r.l. is exhibiting the product Total recovery of abrasive at Stone tec 2015 in Nuremberg Germany. Search for further products and novelties.
BILE is produced in the LIVER and stored in the GALL BLADDER then released into the small intestine to make the acidic conditions (hydrochloric acid) there more alkaline so the enzymes can work at there best.. Bile also emulsifies fat (breaks it down into tiny droplets) this gives a larger surface area for the enzyme lipase to work making digestion faster.. ...
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The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body. It performs over 500 functions, including digestion of proteins, mineral storage, bile production and blood filtration. Heres what you need to know about what it is, how it works and how to keep it healthy.
Brief Answer: Food or vitamins intake. Detailed Answer: Hello, Thanks for selecting this forum to ask your query. I have gone through your query in detail and would like to say that improper digestion of bile can be a cause of green stool.Bile is produced in liver and is secreted into intestines...
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Po vjen Republika e Re, po vjen. Është shumë afër, aq afër, sa na duket se po e prekim me dore. Po, po, biles po e ndjejme qe jemi perfshire te tere ne vetdeklarimin, si republikane te rinj. Kështu e bëjmë prezantimin tashme, te qete dhe te ngazellyer nga kenaqesia qe me ne fund, e gjetem vetveten. Na kishte lodhur etiketimi republikane te vjeter, biles na ishin bere xheloze edhe duartrokitesit e 11 janarit 1946, kur krijohej Republika e Pare. Domosdo, qe jane xheloze, se u kemi vjedhur mbiemrin. Pa kane filluar te na shohin venger edhe Dhjetoristet 90. Duken si te pavlere, meqe edhe ata ndjejne te tyren, qe kane krijuar nje Republike te Re, postdiktatoriale.. Por tashme Kryetari Basha, e shpalli Republiken e Re. Te domosdoshme, te nevojshme, cliruese. Nje republike, qe te funksionoje, pa shtet te kapur nga krimi, pa taksidare qeveritare qe rrjepin e vjedhin, pa marreveshje okulte me kriminele e te inkriminuar, pa te denuar qe te kollarisur, pozojne nga foltorja e Parlamentit, pa ...
Shimano foloseste exclusiv sistemul cu bile si conuri pentru toti butucii. Avantajul acestui sistem consta in rezistenta mai mare ca a unui rulment industrial - datorita unghilui de contact intre con, bile si cuvete, acest sistem distribuie mai eficient sarcina laterala si verticala pentru a oferi o rotatie fina si o rezistenta mai mare in timp. Este, de asemenea, mai usor de reglat, servisat si intretinut ...
Shimano foloseste exclusiv sistemul cu bile si conuri pentru toti butucii. Avantajul acestui sistem consta in rezistenta mai mare ca a unui rulment industrial - datorita unghilui de contact intre con, bile si cuvete, acest sistem distribuie mai eficient sarcina laterala si verticala pentru a oferi o rotatie fina si o rezistenta mai mare in timp. Este, de asemenea, mai usor de reglat, servisat si intretinut ...
Its that spooky time of year again, so what better pet to cover than a creepy crawly of Argus? This months pet is red and green so it might ...[read more]
PENGAJARAN: byk manusia skarang melebihkan manusia drpd tuhan. nk jumpa pegawai atasan, pakai habis smart, beli baju baru, pakai wangi2, tp, bile nk solat, nk bertemu Pegawai Atasan kpd segala pegawai atasan, pakai nk x nk. manusia skarang melebihkan manusia drpd tuhan. kalau kwn ajak kuar jln2, sanggup naik bas nk jumpa, tp masjid/surau yg lbih dkat, jarang skali pergi. igtlah! dgn sbb Allah lah kita wujud di bumi ini ...
Ive been had by the world It was so beautiful My home within it Perfectly arranged And ordained by the stars As its best representation What happened? Deceitful entrapments Its conniving gaze through The purdy flowers did Pierce my gut And spill my bile All over A sublime truth I knew what it meant An…
Poznamo več kot 300.000 različnih vrst rastlin. So najrazličnejših oblik in imajo zelo raznovrstne življenjske navade. Tako npr. med rastline uvrščamo nežne, na vlažne življenjske razmere prilagojene mahove iz skupine jetrnjakov, pa tudi kaktuse, ki so sposobni preživeti puščavsko sušo in vročino. Med rastlinami najdemo koruzo in druge zelnate vrste, ki končajo svoj življenjski krog v enem samem letu, in orjaška mamutovčeva drevesa, ki živijo tisoče let. Prav zaradi velike pestrosti oblik so se lahko rastline prilagodile in preživele v različnih okoljih ter naselile skoraj vsa območja našega planeta. V tem so bile najuspešnejše kritosemenke ali prave cvetnice (deblo Angiospermophyta), ki so med približno 250.000 različnimi vrstami najštevilnejša in najbolj razširjena rastlinska skupina. Njeni predstavniki uspevajo od tropskih gozdov do polarnih pustinj. Kljub veliki raznovrstnosti imajo vse rastline nekaj pomembnih skupnih lastnosti. Praviloma so vse prave ...
I drank a lot last night and was throwing up then. Now I keep throwing up bile. I cant hold down anything even water. What should I do?
TY - JOUR. T1 - NPR-C receptors are involved in C-type natriuretic peptide response on bile secretion. AU - Sabbatini, Maria E.. AU - Vatta, Marcelo S.. AU - Vescina, Cristina. AU - Gonzales, Soledad. AU - Fernandez, Belisario. AU - Bianciotti, Liliana G.. PY - 2003/11/15. Y1 - 2003/11/15. N2 - C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family. Previous studies reported the presence of natriuretic peptide receptors and mRNA CNP in the liver. In the present work, we sought to establish the role of CNP in the regulation of bile secretion in the rat and the possible pathways involved. CNP diminished basal as well as bile salt-evoked bile flow and bile acid output in a dose-dependent manner. It also reduced the excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium but did not modify bile pH or the excretion of phospholipids, total proteins, and glutathione. Neither parasympathetic nor sympathetic blockade abolished CNP inhibitory response on bile secretion. The selective NPR-C ...
Disruption of the murine mdr2 gene leads to the complete absence of biliary phospholipids. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in biliary phospholipid output induced by fibrates is mediated via induction of the hepatic mdr2 gene and its encoded product, the P-glycoprotein canalicular flippase. Increased levels of mdr2 mRNA were observed in the liver of mice treated with different fibrates: ciprofibrate, 660±155% (as compared with control group); clofibrate, 611±77%; bezafibrate, 410±47%; fenofibrate, 310±52%; gemfibrozil, 190±25% (P , 0.05 compared with control group). Induction of expression of the mdr gene family was specific to the mdr2 gene. Two- to three-fold increases in P-glycoprotein immunodetection were evident on the canalicular plasma-membrane domain of clofibrate- and ciprofibrate-treated mice. Biliary phospholipid output increased from 4.2±1.2 nmol/min per g of liver in the control group to 8.5±0.6, 7.1±2.9 and 5.8±2.5 in ciprofibrate-, clofibrate- and ...
The serum concentration of TBA in healthy neonates significantly exceeds that in children over 1 year of age, a condition called physiological cholestasis.9 The urinary TBA:creatinine ratio was raised in the first week after birth, then decreased gradually. The high concentration of TBA in urine may be attributable to either an enhanced stimulation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids or an impaired hepatic clearance or excretion.10The highest value for TBA in meconium was in neonates. This value is greatly influenced by events or conditions during pregnancy, such as the presence of biliary bile in the fetal duodenum or the ingestion of amniotic fluid by the fetus.10 11 Ketonic bile acids are usually considered to result from the bacterial oxidation of primary bile acids.12 In this study we detected ketonic bile acids early in life. The intestine may be colonised by bacterial flora during the first week.13 A high concentration of 3-oxo Δ4 bile acids in serum or urine has been ...
1. The interference between biliary phospholipid and bilirubin secretion was investigated in rats with bile fistulae, under conditions of normal and maximal bilirubin secretion. The enterohepatic circulation of bile salts was interrupted and the animals received infusions of sodium taurocholate, a micelle-forming physiological bile salt.. 2. Sodium taurocholate infusion (0.19 μmol min−1 100 g−1 body weight) induced an increase in bile flow and phospholipid secretion, while basal bilirubin secretion was not increased.. 3. Bilirubin infusion (0.26 μmol min−1 100 g−1 body weight) induced a decrease in basal and taurocholate-stimulated phospholipid secretion. Biliary mixed micelle formation was presumably altered during bilirubin infusion, although bile taurocholate concentration, taurocholate secretion rate and bile flow were not modified.. 4. When sodium taurocholate was infused during bilirubin-decreased phospholipid secretion, this secretion was restored but maximal biliary bilirubin ...
Cholesterol gallstones are formed when there is an excessive amount of cholesterol present in bile and not sufficient amounts of bile salts present. Cholesterol stones are yellowish in color are the most common occurence of gallstones. Bile salts present in bile are responsible for dissolving the cholesterol brought in by the liver. However if there is an excess amount of cholesterol that cannot be dissolved by the bile salts, it could cause the cholesterol to crystallize into gallstones.. Gallstones can also be formed and cause gallbladder attack if the gallbladder empties out infrequently or if there is a decrease in its contraction . A decrease in the organs contraction would cause an increase in bile concentration and ultimately cause gallstones to form. Eating at random hours or skipping meals may also cause a decrease in its contraction.. ...
A simple, precise and sensitive method for separation and determination of total bile acid sulfates in human urine is described. The sulfate fraction of urinary bile acids was separated with lipophilic anion exchange gel, piperidinohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 after sample clean-up with Sep-Pak C18 cartridge. The obtained sulfate fraction was submitted to solvolysis with a small volume of dimethoxypropane-HCl solution and subjected to enzymatic-fluorimetrical assay using 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and resazurin. In this method, no influence of existing salts in the reaction mixture on fluorescence intensity was observed and solvolysis reaction was almost complete. Overall recoveries of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acid 3-sulfates from normal urine ranged from 90.5 to 93.7% and those of unconjugates from 48.7 to 78.0%. The sensitivity of the described method enabled to estimate total bile acid sulfates with 0.5 ml of normal urine and precision tests showed the satisfactory accuracy. The
Cholesterol gallstones develop when bile contains too much cholesterol and not enough bile salts. Besides a high concentration of cholesterol, two other factors seem to be important in causing gallstones. The first is how often and how well the gallbladder contracts; incomplete and infrequent emptying of the gallbladder may cause the bile to become overconcentrated and contribute to gallstone formation. The second factor is the presence of proteins in the liver and bile that either promote or inhibit cholesterol crystallization into gallstones.. In addition, increased levels of the hormone estrogen as a result of pregnancy, hormone therapy, or the use of combined (estrogen-containing) forms of hormonal contraception, may increase cholesterol levels in bile and also decrease gallbladder movement, resulting in gallstone formation.. No clear relationship has been proven between diet and gallstone formation. However, low-fibre, high-cholesterol diets, and diets high in starchy foods have been ...
Jaundice. This is the yellowing of the whites of the eyes and skin. Its caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow-brown substance in bile. The liver makes bile. Bile travels from the liver through the bile ducts the intestine. Bile digests or breaks down fats from food in the intestine. If the bile ducts are blocked by a tumor or scarring, bile backs up. Jaundice is the most common symptom of bile duct cancer outside the liver (extrahepatic).. ...
Gallbladder troubles with a slightly higher risk. Although it sits in a more invasive surgery to remove your digestion. Low fat diet, but like all of the gallbladder RemovalThe function of the gallbladder and/or in the hospital and to believe that removing your gallstones CholelithiasisGallstones are advised to say to give running on the removal of the major alarming symptoms liver damage treatment zinc acute inflamed liver poisoning associated with digestion. If the infection a gallstone removal without surgery brain tumor in cash deposits in bile components following them to move or flex. You should try a simple flush that specifically for you to lose weight and bile salts after bile salts after gallbladder removal digestive enzymes gallbladder removal digestive enzymes maintaining high and the only truly" curative" treatment is to aid in dissolving gallstones. A Gallstones in the stomach until it is to store bile. I convinced something terrible would have been around since the beginning, a ...
Looking for online definition of bile salts in the Medical Dictionary? bile salts explanation free. What is bile salts? Meaning of bile salts medical term. What does bile salts mean?
The main new results of the present study were that: (I) BPS and CS subgroups had enhanced cholesterol synthesis, (II) in the BPS group, solely serum squalene of the surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis was logically (inversely) related to those of cholesterol absorption, (III) the children with CS had low absorption of cholesterol, (IV) their homeostatic regulation of cholesterol metabolism was intact and (V), in the CS group, serum non-cholesterol sterols reflected their own proportions in the stone content.. Hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol with formation of cholesterol crystals from cholesterol supersaturated bile is considered to be the crucial phenomenon in the pathogenesis of the CS [6]. In general, adult gallstone patients (predominantly with CS) have high synthesis of cholesterol parallel to increased biliary output of cholesterol, but relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance [25]. Opposite to the clinical ...
Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates. Bile, required for the digestion of food, is secreted by the liver into passages that carry bile toward the hepatic duct, which joins with the cystic duct (carrying bile to and from the gallbladder) to form the common bile duct, which opens into the intestine. The biliary tree (see below) is the whole network of various sized ducts branching through the liver. The path is as follows: Bile canaliculi → Canals of Hering → interlobular bile ducts → intrahepatic bile ducts → left and right hepatic ducts merge to form → common hepatic duct exits liver and joins → cystic duct (from gall bladder) forming → common bile duct → joins with pancreatic duct → forming ampulla of Vater → enters duodenum The bile duct is green like the gallbladder, because of bile stains. Inflation of a balloon in the bile duct causes, through the vagus nerve, activation of the brain stem and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeted disruption of the murine mucin gene 1 decreases susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation. AU - Wang, Helen H.. AU - Afdhal, Nezam H.. AU - Gendler, Sandra J. AU - Wang, David Q H. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Gallbladder mucins play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones because of their ability to bind biliary lipids and accelerate cholesterol crystallization. Mucin secretion and accumulation in the gallbladder is determined by multiple mucin genes. To study whether mucin gene 1 (Muc1) influences susceptibility to cholesterol cholelithiasis, we investigated male Muc1-deficient (Muc1-/-) and wild-type mice fed a lithogenic diet containing 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 56 days. Gene expression of the gallbladder Muc1 and Muc5ac was significantly reduced in Muc1-/- mice in response to the lithogenic diet. Muc3 and Muc4 levels were upregulated and were similar between Muc1-/- and wild-type mice. Little or no Muc2 and Muc5b mRNAs ...
1. Human gallbladder mucin has been implicated to play a role in gallstone disease. In spite of this fact relatively little is known about the structure of human gallbladder mucin. In this study we have investigated the possible heterogeneity of mucin. For this purpose polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against gallbladder mucin were raised. All antibodies reacted primarily with carbohydrate antigenic determinants. With these antibodies the immunoreactivity of gallbladder mucin from 60 patients with cholesterol gallstones and 20 subjects without stones was screened. In addition, reactivity with several lectins was studied.. 2. Considerable heterogeneity was found with both antibody and lectin typing, but there was no significant difference in heterogeneity between mucin from patients with gallstones and control subjects. Immunoblotting revealed that there was similarity between the reaction of the polyclonal antibody and the Helix pomatia agglutinin. All mucin preparations reacting with the ...
1. Bile salt metabolism has been studied in seven patients with ileostomy following total proctocolectomy; three of these patients also had various degrees of ileal resection.. 2. The half-life of the cholic acid pool was shortened in the patients with ileal resection.. 3. Rates of bile acid synthesis were raised in two of the three patients with ileal resection. In the third, the rate was normal.. 4. Four of the six patients had low bile acid concentrations in the duodenum after a fatty meal.. 5. Deoxycholic acid could not be detected in the duodenum or ileal effluent of any of the patients.. ...
Define common bile duct. common bile duct synonyms, common bile duct pronunciation, common bile duct translation, English dictionary definition of common bile duct. n. The duct formed by the union of the cystic duct and the hepatic duct that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum. Noun 1.
AIM: To determine associations between enterogastric bile reflux and gastric mucosal pathology. METHOD: A retrospective study using fasting gastric juice bile acid measurements and antral or prestomal biopsy specimens from 350 patients, 66 of whom had previously undergone surgery that either bypassed or disrupted the pyloric sphincter. RESULTS: Bile reflux was positively associated with reactive gastritis and negatively with Helicobacter pylori density. After stratification for previous surgery, age, and H pylori status, the histological feature most strongly associated with bile reflux was intestinal metaplasia, including all its subtypes. The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was greatest in patients with both H pylori infection and high bile acid concentrations. Bile reflux was also positively associated with the severity of glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, lamina propria oedema and foveolar hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Bile reflux is a cause of reactive gastritis. It modifies the ...
Northeastern Thailand has the highest levels bile duct cancer in the world. The determination that plasma IL-6 levels are associated with bile duct fibrosis (a precursor state to bile duct cancer) and early bile duct cancer were done by examining participants in the Khon Kaen Cholangiocarcinoma Cohort, the largest cancer cohort of its type in the world, and an NIH sponsored project in collaboration with George Washington University and Khon Kaen University. In this study, researchers visited nearly 4,000 individuals resident in rural areas of Thailand, where the parasite is endemic to conduct ultrasound studies to detect advanced bile duct fibrosis and early bile duct cancer and then link the ultrasound results with levels of plasma IL-6. This research was done in collaboration with Drs. Banchob Sripa, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Eimorn Mairiang, and Thewarach Laha from the Khon Kaen University School of Medicine and School of Public Health. ...
Strains of Lactobacillus fermentum have also been tested in different bile concentrations and demonstrated to have good bile ... pH and Bile Tolerance[edit]. Testing of Lactobacillus fermentum against different pH concentration solutions revealed that it ... The pH and bile tolerance that L. fermentum demonstrates is significant in terms of its consideration as a probiotic. It has to ... The stomach has a pH between 1.5 and 3, and the upper intestine contains 3-5 g L-1 of bile. Lactobacillus fermentum has been ...
Diseases of the pancreas, gall bladder, bile duct[edit]. Primary biliary cirrhosis. CD is prevalent in primary biliary ...
Bile elimination follows hepatic and/or extrahepatic metabolism. There does not appear to be any entero-hepatic recirculation. ... Atorvastatin may be used in combination with bile acid sequestrants and ezetimibe to increase the reduction in cholesterol ...
BaP's metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic, and it is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. Chemical agents and related occupations, Volume 10, A review of Human Carcinogens, IARC Monographs, Lyon France 2009 [13] In June 2016, BaP was added as benzo[def]chrysene to the REACH Candidate List of Substances of very high concern for Authorisation.[14] Numerous studies since the 1970s have documented links between BaP and cancers.[15] It has been more difficult to link cancers to specific BaP sources, especially in humans, and difficult to quantify risks posed by various methods of exposure (inhalation or ingestion).[citation needed] A link between vitamin A deficiency and emphysema in smokers was described in 2005 to be due to BaP, which induces vitamin A deficiency in rats.[16] A 1996 study provided molecular evidence linking components in tobacco smoke to lung cancer. BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most ...
Poor feeding, bloating, decreased activity, vomiting of bile[1]. Complications. Short-gut syndrome, intestinal strictures, ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
All groups of dioxin-like compounds are persistent in the environment.[61] Very few soil microbes nor animals are able to break down effectively the PCDD/Fs with lateral chlorines (positions 2,3,7, and 8). This causes very slow elimination. However scientists at Martin Luther University recently found that a type of bacteria Dehalococcoides CBDB1 can extract the chlorine from dioxin compounds in the absence of oxygen.[62][63] Ultraviolet light is able to slowly break down these compounds. Lipophilicity (tendency to seek for fat-like environments) and very poor water solubility make these compounds move from water environment to living organisms having lipid cell structures. This is called bioaccumulation. Increase in chlorination increases both stability and lipophilicity. The compounds with the very highest chlorine numbers (e.g. octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) are, however, so poorly soluble that this hinders their bioaccumulation.[61] Bioaccumulation is followed by biomagnification. Lipid-soluble ...
The pain and discomfort that a patient experiences is due to the reflux of gastric acid, air, or bile. While there are several ...
Indigo was the foundation of centuries-old textile traditions throughout West Africa. From the Tuareg nomads of the Sahara to Cameroon, clothes dyed with indigo signified wealth. Women dyed the cloth in most areas, with the Yoruba of Nigeria and the Mandinka of Mali particularly well known for their expertise. Among the Hausa male dyers, working at communal dye pits was the basis of the wealth of the ancient city of Kano, and they can still be seen plying their trade today at the same pits.[6] In Japan, indigo became especially important in the Edo period, when it was forbidden to use silk, so the Japanese began to import and plant cotton. It was difficult to dye the cotton fiber except with indigo. Even today indigo is very much appreciated as a color for the summer Kimono Yukata, as this traditional clothing recalls Nature and the blue sea. Newton used "indigo" to describe one of the two new primary colors he added to the five he had originally named, in his revised account of the rainbow in ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
negative regulation of bile acid biosynthetic process. • cellular response to fatty acid. • bile acid and bile salt transport. ... The bile acid receptor (BAR), also known as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member ... bile acid binding. • protein binding. • ligand-dependent nuclear receptor binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA ... bile acid metabolic process. • negative regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling. • negative regulation of tumor ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
Benzene, C6H6, is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, and it was the first one named as such. The nature of its bonding was first recognized by August Kekulé in the 19th century. Each carbon atom in the hexagonal cycle has four electrons to share. One goes to the hydrogen atom, and one to each of the two neighbouring carbons. This leaves one electron to share with one of the two neighbouring carbon atoms, thus creating a double bond with one carbon and leaving a single bond with the other, which is why the benzene molecule is drawn with alternating single and double bonds around the hexagon. The structure is alternatively illustrated as a circle around the inside of the ring to show six electrons floating around in delocalized molecular orbitals the size of the ring itself. This depiction represents the equivalent nature of the six carbon-carbon bonds all of bond order 1.5; the equivalency is explained by resonance forms. The electrons are visualized as floating above and below the ring with the ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
... bile, and small intestine and pancreatic contents cause damage to the cells of the lower esophagus. Recently, bile acids were ... Gong L, Debruyne PR, Witek M, Nielsen K, Snook A, Lin JE, Bombonati A, Palazzo J, Schulz S, Waldman SA (2009). "Bile acids ... "Bile acids induce ectopic expression of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C through nuclear factor-kappaB and Cdx2 in human ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
The structure of a PAH influences whether and how the individual compound is carcinogenic.[51][55] Some carcinogenic PAHs are genotoxic and induce mutations that initiate cancer; others are not genotoxic and instead affect cancer promotion or progression.[55][56] PAHs that affect cancer initiation are typically first chemically modified by enzymes into metabolites that react with DNA, leading to mutations. When the DNA sequence is altered in genes that regulate cell replication, cancer can result. Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, usually have four or more aromatic rings as well as a "bay region", a structural pocket that increases reactivity of the molecule to the metabolizing enzymes.[57] Mutagenic metabolites of PAHs include diol epoxides, quinones, and radical PAH cations.[57][58][59] These metabolites can bind to DNA at specific sites, forming bulky complexes called DNA adducts that can be stable or unstable.[53][60] Stable adducts may lead to DNA replication errors, while unstable ...
Bile duct/ Other biliary tree. *Cholangitis *Primary sclerosing cholangitis. *Secondary sclerosing cholangitis ...
... exerts its effects on the human body by downregulating expression of genes. Genes PLK1 and PIN1, both oncogenic, have been shown to be affected by indirubin. Indirubin has, in vitro and in vivo, been shown to reduce expression of the CDC25B gene, which codes for production of CDC25B enzyme. CDC stands for cell-division-cycle, and is used in cellular reproduction. Studies suggest that mouse cells are viable after the CDC25B (and CDC25C) genes are "knocked out", but removal of CDC25A results in non-viable cells. Indirubin has not been shown to prevent or treat cancer in humans.[1] However, it is being studied for treatment of small-cell lung cancer, glioblastoma,[2] and chronic myeloid leukemia, either alone or in conjunction with more typical cancer management treatments. It has also been studied for potential use in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, an immune-modulated disease process.[3] Indirubin shows anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis properties in vitro.[4] ...
in bile. Identifiers. IUPAC name. *(RS)-5-(4-[2-(5-ethylpyridin-2-yl)ethoxy]benzyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione ...
1. Bile ducts: 2. Intrahepatic bile ducts, 3. Left and right hepatic ducts, 4. Common hepatic duct, 5. Cystic duct, 6. Common ... Bile can flow in both directions between the gallbladder and the common bile duct and the hepatic duct. ... The hormone cholecystokinin, when stimulated by a fatty meal, promotes bile secretion by increased production of hepatic bile, ... The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct. It usually lies next to the cystic artery ...
Heterogeneity of Human Gallbladder Mucin in Bile. Michel J. A. van Wijland, J. Henriëtte Klinkspoor, Laurens Th. de Wit, Ronald ... Heterogeneity of Human Gallbladder Mucin in Bile. Michel J. A. van Wijland, J. Henriëtte Klinkspoor, Laurens Th. de Wit, Ronald ...
Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation. Curtis D. Klaassen and Lauren M. Aleksunes ... Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation. Curtis D. Klaassen and Lauren M. Aleksunes ... Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation. Curtis D. Klaassen and Lauren M. Aleksunes ... Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
CONCLUSIONS: Bile reflux is a cause of reactive gastritis. It modifies the features of H pylori associated chronic gastritis. ... Bile reflux was also positively associated with the severity of glandular atrophy, chronic inflammation, lamina propria oedema ... RESULTS: Bile reflux was positively associated with reactive gastritis and negatively with Helicobacter pylori density. After ... The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was greatest in patients with both H pylori infection and high bile acid concentrations ...
32 cases of patients treated with complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration was enrolled in the laparoscopic group,and ... Therefore,complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has a high value in clinical promotion. ... Conclusion Complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has reliable effects in treatment of elderly patients with ... Objective To study the effects of complete laparoscopic common bile duct exploration on elderly patients with complicated ...
Bile acid sequestrants. These drugs disrupt the circulation of bile.. How to Reduce Bile. A medication called ursodeoxycholic ... Bile reflux and gastric acid reflux are separate conditions. Whether bile is important in GERD is controversial. Bile is often ... It is like a pouch which comes off the main bile duct and fills with bile. It is a reservoir which stores bile. ... Bile reflux may accompany acid reflux, but they are two separate conditions. Excess bile remains stored in the gallbladder. Due ...
title = "Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts",. abstract = "Fifty-two patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ... Wei, T. C. ; Wei, P. L. ; Yu, S. C. ; Lee, P. H. ; Hsu, S. C. / Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. In: Journal of ... Wei, T. C., Wei, P. L., Yu, S. C., Lee, P. H., & Hsu, S. C. (1995). Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Journal of ... Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. / Wei, T. C.; Wei, P. L.; Yu, S. C.; Lee, P. H.; Hsu, S. C. ...
... extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of Vater than previously. These lesions are discussed in detail and profusely illustrated. ... extrahepatic bile ducts and Vaterian system. Because of the increasing number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies and Whipple ...
Those who have studied some research data about the bile acids know that there are a lot of unanswered questions about the ... Psoriasis is curable in many people by improving bile flow with bile acids supplements like Ox bile, Artichoke Leaf Extract or ... Ox bile is actually the cheapest from all those three bile acids since it is not one pure isolated acid but freeze-dried bile. ... The natural bile acids seem to make the liver produce own bile acids without metabolizing the supplemental bile acids. ...
Trambert JJ, Frost A, Malasky C. Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal ... Trambert, J. J., Frost, A., & Malasky, C. (2004). Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta ... Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered ... Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered ...
Stages of normal and aberrant intrahepatic bile duct development in a mixed hepatoblastoma.. In: Histopathology, Vol. 42, no.6 ... Stages of normal and aberrant intrahepatic bile duct development in a mixed hepatoblastoma. Primary tabs. *Détail(active tab) ... Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic ; Biomarkers, Tumor ; Hepatoblastoma ; Humans ; Immunohistochemistry ; Infant, Newborn ; Liver ... Home» Stages of normal and aberrant intrahepatic bile duct development in a mixed hepatoblastoma. ...
Bile reflux and gastric acid reflux are separate conditions. Whether bile is important in GERD is controversial. Bile is often ... What leads to bile reflux?. Bile reflux may be caused by:. *Surgery complications. Gastric surgery, including total removal of ... Bile reflux into the stomach. Bile and food mix in the duodenum and enter your small intestine through the pyloric valve, a ... Bile reflux gastritis has been linked to stomach cancer. The combination of bile and acid reflux also increases the risk of the ...
... and cancer can result in bile duct problems. Discover the types, causes, symptoms, and treatment of bile duct diseases. ... your gallbladder pushes the bile into tubes called bile ducts. They carry the bile to your small intestine. The bile helps ... Different diseases can block the bile ducts and cause a problem with the flow of bile:. *Gallstones, which can increase ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Bile Duct Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Cholangitis (National Institutes ...
Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. ... Bile salts help your body break down (digest) fats. Bile passes out of the liver through the bile ducts and is stored in the ... When the bile ducts become blocked, bile builds up in the liver, and jaundice (yellow color of the skin) develops due to the ... Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. ...
Raw bile and bile powder[edit]. Raw bile can sell for as much as US$24,000 per kg, about half the price of gold.[5] ... "Ending the bear bile industry" World Animal Protection. External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bear bile. ... Consumers of bear bile have a strong preference for bile produced from wild bears; bile from farms may, therefore, not be a ... Methods of bile extraction[edit]. Several methods can be used to extract the bile. These all require surgery and include:[18] ...
Bile acid sequestrants exchange anions such as chloride ions for bile acids. By doing so, they bind bile acids and sequester ... Bile salt diarrhea can also be a side-effect of gallbladder removal. Bile acid sequestrants are the principal therapy for bile ... Thus, bile acid sequestrants, along with any bile acids bound to the drug, are excreted via the feces after passage through the ... The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract. They ...
bile* is a greenish-yellow fluid produced by the liver [1], and passing from there into the duodenum [2]; it has a number of ... In composition, bile is 97% water; its other major components are bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipids, bile pigments, and ... Bile may also stimulate gut muscle contraction (peristalsis). Bile also contains the bile pigments, bilirubin and biliverdin, ... Bile, or gall, is composed of water, bile acids and their salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, fatty acids, and inorganic salts. ...
Intrahepatic bile duct cancers (those starting within the liver). *Perihilar (hilar) bile duct cancers (those starting in the ... No matter where they are, nearly all bile duct cancers start in the innermost layer of the wall of the bile duct (called the ... Distal bile duct cancers (those starting farther down the bile duct system) ... Bile Duct Cancer Stages. The stage of a cancer describes how much cancer is in the body. It helps determine how serious the ...
bile duct n.* any of the ducts that convey bile from the liver. Many small ducts drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, ... which unite to form the main bile duct, the common hepatic duct. ... bile duct n. any of the ducts that convey bile from the liver. ... bile duct The tube through which bile passes from the liver or (when present) the gall bladder to the duodenum.. ... bile duct • n. the duct that conveys bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum. ...
... is a bile acids (CHEBI:138366) bile acid (CHEBI:3098) is a hydroxy-5β-cholanic acid (CHEBI:24663) ... antcin C (CHEBI:70312) is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). antcin K (CHEBI:70313) is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). Avicholate (CHEBI:81261 ... is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). beta-Phocaecholate (CHEBI:81249) is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). Bitocholate (CHEBI:81252) is a bile ... Camphoratin E (CHEBI:70304) is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). Camphoratin F (CHEBI:70305) is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098). Camphoratin G ...
Bile, or gall, is composed of water, bile acids and their salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, fatty acids, and inorganic salts. ... Bile, or gall, is composed of water, bile acids and their salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, fatty acids, and inorganic salts. ... which color the bile and are known as the bile pigments. If the flow of bile is impeded by inflammation, gall stones, or other ... The bile is a route of excretion for many drugs and metabolites; cholesterol is excreted almost entirely in the bile, as are ...
... is used to examine the bile duct and pancreatic ducts for the presence of gallstones, tumours, or inflammation. In this ... Other articles where Bile duct is discussed: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy: … ... The common bile duct averages about 10 cm in length, and flow of bile from its lower end into the intestine is controlled by ... The gallbladder and bile ducts in situ.. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Learn about this topic in these articles:. endoscopic ...
... is a treatment of cancer-killing drugs used to kill bile duct cancer cells. Learn more about chemotherapy here. ... Chemotherapy for Bile Duct Cancer. Chemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with cancer-killing drugs that are usually given into a ... Liver and bile duct cancer. In: Neiderhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloffs Clinical ... Chemo can help some people with bile duct cancer, but so far its not clear how useful it is for this type of cancer. Still, ...
For the rare patient who fails despite these efforts, surgical bile duct exploration, percutaneous approach to the bile duct, ... bile duct stones, intrahepatic stones, or impacted stones in the bile duct or cystic duct. The initial approach to the removal ... bile duct stones may be difficult to remove due to challenging access to the bile duct (periampullary diverticulum, Billroth II ... Difficult bile duct stones.. McHenry L1, Lehman G.. Author information. 1. Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and ...
Throwing up bile, a yellow or greenish liquid, can happen for many reasons. Some of the causes may be serious and require ... Bile reflux is not the same as acid reflux, though their symptoms are similar. Bile reflux occurs when bile backs up into a ... Throwing up bile may be a sign of a serious problem. Bile is the greenish-yellow liquid made by the liver and stored in the ... Throwing up bile, a yellow or greenish liquid, can happen for many reasons. Some of the causes of a person throwing up bile may ...
  • Not just that rats biochemistry may be different in one or other particular area but rats have no gallbladder so we have one strong argument for considering major differences of metabolism and even importance of bile flow and acids in rats. (psoriasisdietplan.com)
  • This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. (elsevier.com)
  • Call your doctor if you're throwing up bile and have symptoms of reflux. (sonicusers.com)
  • Lifestyle adjustments and medications can be very effective for acid reflux into the esophagus, but bile reflux is harder to treat. (sonicusers.com)
  • The possible link between bile and acid reflux and esophageal cancer remains controversial, but many experts think a direct connection exists. (sonicusers.com)
  • In animal studies, bile reflux alone has been shown to cause cancer of the esophagus. (sonicusers.com)
  • One possibility is that individuals who have bile reflux also have more duodenogastric reflux. (sonicusers.com)
  • Bile reflux is very infrequent in healthy individuals. (sonicusers.com)
  • Bile reflux and gastric acid reflux are separate conditions. (sonicusers.com)
  • test to check for acid in the esophagus (this would be negative if bile reflux is the only problem), and a test to determine if gas or liquids reflux into the esophagus. (sonicusers.com)
  • Animal studies have also linked bile reflux to the occurrence of Barrett's esophagus. (sonicusers.com)
  • Bile reflux may accompany acid reflux, but they are two separate conditions. (sonicusers.com)
  • Bile acid diarrhoea may also be caused by some medications, including metformin, which is used to treat type 2 diabetes. (sonicusers.com)
  • An alternative explanation is that there is an abnormal collection of acidified gastric-bile fluid in the more proximal part of the stomach, the so-called acid-bile pocket. (sonicusers.com)
  • 41 which has been associated with an increase in the concentration of the toxic unconjugated and dehydroxylated acids in the stomach.37Although no direct relation was shown in this study we believe this is a possible explanation for the detection of unconjugated bile acids in patients with oesophageal injury, the majority of whom had in the past received proton pump inhibitors over prolonged periods. (sonicusers.com)
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