Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that is expressed primarily in IMMUNE SYSTEM cells. It has specificity for membrane-bound form of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and mediates intracellular-signaling through TNF RECEPTOR ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Fat Necrosis: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.Femur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Kidney Papillary Necrosis: A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.Kidney Cortex Necrosis: Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tumor Necrosis Factors: A family of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to cause NECROSIS of NEOPLASMS. Their necrotic effect on cells is mediated through TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS which induce APOPTOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus: The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.Lymphotoxin-alpha: A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors: A subclass of tumor necrosis family receptors that lack cell signaling domains. They bind to specific TNF RECEPTOR LIGANDS and are believed to play a modulating role in the TNF signaling pathway. Some of the decoy receptors are products of distinct genes, while others are products of ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the active receptor.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute: Mild to fulminant necrotizing vaso-occlusive retinitis associated with a high incidence of retinal detachment and poor vision outcome.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: The type species of NOVIRHABDOVIRUS, in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE. It is a major pathogen of TROUT and SALMON.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins: Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind directly or indirectly to the cytoplasmic portion of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in TNF RECEPTOR feedback regulation. It is similar in structure and appears to work in conjunction with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 1 to inhibit APOPTOSIS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in TNF RECEPTOR feedback regulation. It is similar in structure and appears to work in conjunction with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 to inhibit APOPTOSIS.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.GalactosamineMacrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Inbred C3HI-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 25: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype with specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 15. It is found in tissues containing LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis and APOPTOSIS. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 6b: A secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that has specificity FAS LIGAND and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. It plays a modulating role in tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.TNF Receptor-Associated Death Domain Protein: A 34 kDa signal transducing adaptor protein that associates with TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE 1. It facilitates the recruitment of signaling proteins such as TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2 and FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN to the receptor complex.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sainuddin, Sajid; Saeed, Nadeem R. (2008). "Acute bilateral tongue necrosis - a case report". British Journal of Oral and ... "A 78-year-old woman with bilateral tongue necrosis". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and ... and necrosis reduced visual acuity (blurred vision) acute visual loss (sudden blindness) diplopia (double vision) acute ...
There may also be hemorrhage and necrosis. It is well documented that malignancy may be only focally present in mucinous ... Rarely, the tumor is seen bilaterally; approximately 5% of primary mucinous tumors are bilateral. Benign mucinous tumors are ... and necrosis. The appearance can look similar to colonic cancer. Clear stromal invasion is used to differentiate borderline ...
"Conservative management of bilateral asynchronous adnexal torsion with necrosis in a prepubescent girl". Journal of Pediatric ... In severe cases, where blood flow is cut off to the ovary for an extended period of time, necrosis of the ovary can occur. In ...
Teeth most affected are maxillary lateral incisors and bilateral occurrence is not uncommon. The malformation shows a broad ... spectrum of morphologic variations and frequently results in early pulp necrosis. Root canal therapy may present severe ...
Menni S, Pistritto G, Gianotti R, Ghio L, Edefonti A (1997). "Ear lobe bilateral necrosis by levamisole-induced occlusive ... Bradford, M., Rosenberg, B., Moreno, J., Dumyati, G. (June 2010). "Bilateral necrosis of earlobes and cheeks: another ... Levamisole has also been linked to a risk of vasculitis, and two cases of vasculitic skin necrosis have been reported in users ... There have also been reports of levamisole induced necrosis syndrome in which erythematous painful papules can appear almost ...
Bilateral testicle involvements are common and occur in 8.5% to 18% of cases. At sonography, most lymphomas are homogeneous and ... Many choriocarcinomas show extensive hemorrhagic necrosis in the central portion of the tumor; this appears as mixed cystic and ... The sonographic appearance of leukemia of the testis can be quite varied, as the tumors may be unilateral or bilateral, diffuse ... Images of both scrotum and bilateral inguinal regions are obtained in both transverse and longitudinal planes. Color Doppler ...
Failure to treat a SCFE may lead to: death of bone tissue in the femoral head (avascular necrosis), degenerative hip disease ( ... Over half of cases may have involvement on both sides (bilateral). Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome - another cause of avascular ... A SCFE is an orthopaedic emergency, as further slippage may result in occlusion of the blood supply and avascular necrosis ( ... necrosis of the femoral head, seen in younger children than SCFE. Peck, D. (2010). "Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: ...
A bilateral persistent nasal obstruction may also be present. Potential complications of a nasal septal abscess include ... cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis, septal perforation, or saddle deformity due to cartilage necrosis. Treatment for a nasal ...
Thanka, J; Kuruvilla, S; Abraham, G; Shroff, S; Kumar, BA; Ranjitham, M (2003). "Bilateral renal papillary necrosis due to ...
... bilateral) glioma. The tumor may take on a variety of appearances, depending on the amount of hemorrhage, necrosis, or its age ... About 50% of GBMs occupy more than one lobe of a hemisphere or are bilateral. Tumors of this type usually arise from the ... Chamberlain, Marc C.; Glantz, Michael J.; Chalmers, Lisa; Horn, Alixis; Sloan, Andrew E. (2006). "Early necrosis following ... and the highly variable appearance due to the presence of necrosis, hemorrhage and cysts (multiform). A 2014 investigation made ...
Patients with BBGD have bilateral necrosis in the head of the caudate nucleus and in the putamen. Administration of high doses ...
In a rare case published in 2003, a patient presented with bilateral necrosis of both upper and lower eyelids. Upon microbial ...
... skin necrosis, and fever. The skin necrosis associated with levamisole toxicity ranges from leukocytoclastic vasculitis to ... With the recently recognized dermal disease, the face and ears are commonly affected, especially the bilateral helices and ... There was prominent necrosis of the malar region, nose, and lips with complete sparing of the back. Skin biopsy revealed ... Levamisole Induced Necrosis Syndrome (LINES) is a complication of adulterated cocaine recognized in 2011, caused by the use of ...
A condition called familial bilateral striatal necrosis, which is similar to Leigh syndrome, can also result from changes in ... determined why MT-ATP6 mutations result in this combination of signs and symptoms in children with bilateral striatal necrosis ...
One leg was amputated because of extensive muscle and cutaneous necrosis. Seven months after the onset of the illness the ... bilateral conjunctivitis and meningismus. The next day the patient became hypotensive and delirious. Later respiratory failure ... seizures and necrosis of the fingers and toes occurred. ...
Developmental delay may occur, even before the first acute episode, and bilateral striatal necrosis of the basal ganglia has ...
... and necrosis and inflammation of cancellous bone. The disease is usually bilateral in the limb bones, especially the distal ... Limb involvement is usually bilateral, typically involves the distal radius and ulna, and may be episodic. There is evidence to ...
The disease is bilateral in 12 to 16% of cases. X-rays are necessary to make the diagnosis and show increased opacity and focal ... LCP disease is an avascular necrosis of the femoral head in small-breed dogs, usually those weighing up to 25 lbs. LCP disease ... Bilateral Perthes, which means both hips are affected, should always be investigated thoroughly to rule out multiple epiphyseal ... Typically, the disease is only seen in one hip, but bilateral Perthes is seen in about 10% of children diagnosed. Legg believed ...
Perinatal asphyxia can cause bilateral ganglial lesions and damage to the thalamus, which are similar to the signs seen with ... The lesions take on different forms, including areas of demyelination, spongiosis, gliosis, necrosis, and capillary ... The characteristic symptoms of Leigh disease are at least partially caused by bilateral, focal lesions in the brainstem, basal ...
Severe ipsilateral or bilateral carotid artery stenosis or occlusion is the most common cause of ocular ischemic syndrome. The ... iris necrosis, and cataract. The condition leads to neovascularization in various eye tissues due to the ischemia. The eye ... Given the bilateral nature of diabetic retinopathy, however, one should suspect ocular ischemic syndrome when retinal ischemia ... Koz OG, Ates A, Numan Alp M, Gultan E, Karaaslan Y, Kural G (January 2007). "Bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome as an initial ...
... intracerebral hemorrhage and renal failure secondary to hypotension and bilateral cortical necrosis. There is usually some ... Common complications include necrosis and renal failure secondary to shock and the toxic effects of the venom. *) Not including ... local necrosis, bleeding from the nose and gums, ecchymosis, erythemia, hypotension, tachycardia, coagulopathy with ...
In 1978, Young and Bird named the disease when presented in both eyes, Bilateral Acute Retinal Necrosis, otherwise known as ... "Acute Retinal Necrosis - Ophthalmology". www.aaojournal.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27. "Acute Retinal Necrosis: Background, ... Cytomegalovirus retinitis Progressive outer retinal necrosis Forster, David (1990). "Rapidly Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis ... Acute Retinal Necrosis (ARN), is a medical inflammatory condition of the eye. The condition presents itself as a necrotizing ...
Kim, J. O.; Kim, G. H.; Kang, C. M.; Park, J. S. (2011). "Bilateral Acute Renal Cortical Necrosis in SLE-Associated ... Huang, C. C.; Huang, J. K. (2011). "Sepsis-Induced Acute Bilateral Renal Cortical Necrosis". Nephrology. 16 (8): 787. doi: ... "Bilateral Renal Cortical Necrosis Following Binge Drinking". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 47 (2): 140-142. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agr154 ... "Bilateral renal cortical necrosis in acute pancreatitis". Indian Journal of Nephrology. 19 (3): 125. doi:10.4103/0971- ...
Chest radiograph will often show unilateral or bilateral infiltrates similar to pulmonary edema. Treatment includes ... Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. The ...
Horses - Retinal dysplasia is bilateral, not inherited, and appears as multifocal or geographic disease. It is usually ... which cause necrosis and disorganization of the retina. It appears as folds and rosettes. Cattle - Retinal dysplasia occurs in ...
A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence ... Necrosis: the (premature) death of cells, caused by external factors such as infection, toxin or trauma. Necrotic cells send ...
Kim, J. O.; Kim, G. H.; Kang, C. M.; Park, J. S. (2011). "Bilateral Acute Renal Cortical Necrosis in SLE-Associated ... Huang, C. C.; Huang, J. K. (2011). "Sepsis-Induced Acute Bilateral Renal Cortical Necrosis". Nephrology. 16 (8): 787. doi: ... "Bilateral Renal Cortical Necrosis Following Binge Drinking". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 47 (2): 140-142. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agr154 ... "Bilateral renal cortical necrosis in acute pancreatitis". Indian Journal of Nephrology. 19 (3): 125. doi:10.4103/0971- ...
Renal cortical necrosis is a rare cause of acute renal failure secondary to ischemic necrosis of the renal cortex. The lesions ... Bilateral renal cortical necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Indian J Nephrol. 2009 Jul. 19(3):125. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Bilateral acute renal cortical necrosis in SLE-associated antiphospholipid syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Jun. 57(6):945-7. [ ... Sepsis-induced acute bilateral renal cortical necrosis. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011 Nov. 16(8):787. [Medline]. ...
In renal cortical necrosis, which may be patchy or diffuse, bilateral renal arteriolar injury results in destruction of ... Renal Cortical Necrosis By Zhiwei Zhang, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine;Attending Nephrologist, Loma Linda University;VA ... Renal cortical necrosis is rare, typically occurring in neonates and in pregnant or postpartum women with sepsis or pregnancy ... Renal cortical necrosis is destruction of cortical tissue resulting from renal arteriolar injury and leading to chronic kidney ...
To report a case of acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus 2 in an otherwise healthy patient.A 45-year-old man ... Bilateral herpes simplex-2 acute retinal necrosis with encephalitis in premature twins.. Research paper. by Amit A Gupta, ... Bilateral involvement can occur in the fellow eye, even with a long delay. Acute retinal necrosis is a severe ocular ... Acute retinal necrosis in a patient with remote severe herpes simplex encephalitis.. Research paper. by Takaaki T Kobayashi, ...
BILATERAL CORTICAL NECROSIS OF THE KIDNEYS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF AN UNUSUAL CASE OF HEART BLOCK1 DAVID E. HAFT, M.D.; JOHN T. ... BILATERAL CORTICAL NECROSIS OF THE KIDNEYS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF AN UNUSUAL CASE OF HEART BLOCK1. Ann Intern Med. ;34:1483- ... Bilateral necrosis of the renal cortex, which presents such a distinct clinical and striking pathologic picture, was first ... pathology and clinical course of bilateral cortical necrosis. These considerations have been excellently reviewed by Ash3 and ...
Interleukin 6 is not a crucial regulator in an animal model of tumour necrosis factor-mediated bilateral sacroiliitis ... Interleukin 6 is not a crucial regulator in an animal model of tumour necrosis factor-mediated bilateral sacroiliitis ... in the pathogenesis of bilateral erosive sacroiliitis in human tumour necrosis factor transgenic (hTNFtg) mice, an animal model ... Conclusions IL-6 is not a crucial regulator in an animal model of TNF-mediated bilateral, erosive sacroiliitis. This finding ...
Bilateral striatal necrosis associated with a novel mutation in the mitochondrial ND6 gene. Ann Neurol 2003;54:527-30. ... Bilateral striatal necrosis and MELAS associated with a new T3308C mutation in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Biochem Biophys Res ... Background We recently observed mutations in ADAR1 to cause a phenotype of bilateral striatal necrosis (BSN) in a child with ... Homozygous missense mutation of NDUFV1 as the cause of infantile bilateral striatal necrosis. Neurogenetics 2013;14:85-7. ...
BILATERAL PUTAMEN HAEMORRHAGIC NECROSIS DUE TO METHANOL INTOXICATION. Muhammad Imran Ibrahim, Khalid Azam, Abdul Qayyum, Akhtar ...
Bilateral extended necrosis in the amygdala forming a cavitary lesion and typical HS were observed. Those results suggested ... A Dog Showing KLüVER-BUCY Syndrome-like Behavior and Bilateral Limbic Necrosis After Status Epilepticus (2005) ... and were consistent with bilateral injury to the amygdalae and temporal lobes. KBS was reported to result from bilateral ... which results from bilateral limbic lesion in primates after severe SE. Previous cases of EBD in small animals have shown rage ...
Infantile bilateral striatal necrosis. Familial bilateral striatal necrosisInfantile striatonigral degeneration Get Update ... Infantile bilateral striatal necrosis (IBSN) is a rare genetic condition. It can appear as either a familial condition that is ... If you or a family member has been diagnosed with infantile bilateral striatal necrosis, talk with your doctor about the most ...
Compared to Staged Procedure for Sickles Hip Avascular Necrosis., Mohammed Lafi Shaher Al-Otaib ... Simultaneous Bilateral Birmingham Mid Head Resection Resurface Arthroplasty (BMHR) ... Ilyas and Moreau [18] reported in simultaneous bilateral uncemented total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the ... There were two groups bilateral or unilateral. A total of 2 patients had a one-stage bilateral Total Hip arthroplasty (THA) and ...
Bilateral ureteral obstruction from papillary necrosis secondary to household cleaner ingestion Amuluru Krishna, Erickson A. ... We report a case of a patient who developed bilateral hydroureteronephrosis from papillary necrosis secondary to ingestion of ... Emergent bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy tubes were placed and subsequent ureteroscopy revealed a large amount of ... The etiology of this patient?s papillary necrosis was likely due to a combination of hypovolemia, systemic acidosis from the ...
Bilateral aseptic bone necrosis of the 2nd metatarsal head, Freiberg-Köhler type (II)]. by P Wüest ... What is your diagnosis? Bilateral aseptic bone necrosis of the 2nd metatarsal head, Freiberg-Köhler type (II)].. @article{ ... Bilateral aseptic bone necrosis of the 2nd metatarsal head, Freiberg-K{\o}hler type (II)].}, author={P W{\u}est}, journal={ ...
Familial Bilateral Striatal Necrosis family:. Familial Infantile Bilateral Striatal Necrosis Sporadic Infantile Bilateral ... Articles related to Sporadic Infantile Bilateral Striatal Necrosis:. #. Title. Authors. Year. 1. Acute bilateral striatal ... MalaCards integrated aliases for Sporadic Infantile Bilateral Striatal Necrosis:. Name: Sporadic Infantile Bilateral Striatal ... Human phenotypes related to Sporadic Infantile Bilateral Striatal Necrosis:. 60 33 (show all 38) #. Description. HPO Frequency ...
Bilateral cortical necrosis is a rare complication of severe acute pancreatitis; only a few cases of bilateral cortical ... Krishna GS, Kishore KC, Sriram NP, Sainaresh VV, Lakshmi AY, Siva Kumar V. Bilateral renal cortical necrosis in acute ... Anandan AK, Balachandran P, Chowksey A, Sankaranarayanan G, Samuel U. Bilateral renal cortical necrosis following acute ... Cortical necrosis commonly results from reduced perfusion within microcirculation of the renal cortex following septic shock or ...
We report a case of a corticosteroid naïve patient presented as bilateral avascular necrosis of femoral head and later ... A case of systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as bilateral avascular necrosis of femur. ... AVN or osteonecrosis is caused by loss of blood supply to a part of bone leading to bone necrosis and collapse [1]. Diverse ... Avascular necrosis occur as a result of diverse etiology. Chronic inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus ...
A Case of Cytomegalovirus-mediated Bilateral Retinal Necrosis Kouzo Harimoto; Shou Ishikawa; HIsashi Watanabe; Sunao Sugita; ... A Case of Cytomegalovirus-mediated Bilateral Retinal Necrosis You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... A Case of Cytomegalovirus-mediated Bilateral Retinal Necrosis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):2787. ... Purpose: : Although varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) are well known causes of acute retinal necrosis ...
Familial Infantile Bilateral Striatal Necrosis (IBSN): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes ... 2002 : Familial infantile bilateral striatal necrosis: clinical features and response to biotin treatment. [wwe.geoscience.net] ... Cerebral MRI showed ventricular dilatation, bilateral polymicrogyria with white matter lesions. [documents.tips] ... Synonym(s): - Familial IBSN - Familial infantile striatonigral degeneration - Familial infantile striatonigral necrosis ...
Bilateral Frontal Hemorrhagic Necrosis Associated with Acute Ethanol Poisoning on the Basis of Chronic Alcoholism: Case Report ... Keywords: Ethanol, poisoning, hemorrhagic necrosis, frontal cortex. rem Ta c , Meryem Bak r. Bilateral Frontal Hemorrhagic ... A brain computed tomography (CT) scan revealed symmetrical hemorrhagic necrosis in bilateral frontal regions. In our case, ... mediated apoptosis and necrosis, thereby resulting in neuronal damage. Acute and chronic use of ethanol has specific effects on ...
Bilateral Gluteal Necrosis and Deep Infection after Transarterial Embolization for Pelvic Bilateral Gluteal Necrosis and Deep ... Necrosis Language: Korean Journal: Journal of the Korean Fracture Society Year: 2019 Type: Article ... Here, we report an experience of the management of gluteal necrosis and infection that occurred after transarterial ... However, transarterial embolization has potential complications, such as gluteal muscle/skin necrosis, deep infection, surgical ...
Bilateral renal cortical necrosis--morbid anatomic study of 8 cases. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 1967 Jan; 13(1): 23-8. ...
One-stage bilateral THA (BTHA) offers many benefits. Howev.. ... One-stage bilateral THA (BTHA) offers many benefits. However, ... Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty in Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis: Functional Outcomes and Complications. Author(s): Afshin ... A total of 60 patients from April 2009 and May 2013, were underwent one-stage bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) in Milad ... Our results recommend the use of one-stage BTHA through Hardinge approach in femoral head avascular necrosis patients. ...
... and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Familial bilateral striatal necrosis ...
Infantile bilateral striatal necrosis; may be AR orInfantile bilateral striatal necrosis; may be AR or mitochondrial, lesions ...
Bilateral symmetry in the fossil record. The bilaterian Ikaria wariootia represents one of the oldest organisms with anterior ... Interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha are costimulators of interferon gamma production by natural killer cells in ... We demonstrate that IFN-gamma production from SCID splenocytes is stimulated by interleukin (IL) 12, tumor necrosis factor ... Interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha are costimulators of interferon gamma production by natural killer cells in ...
  • Interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha are costimulators of interferon gamma production by natural killer cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice with listeriosis, and interleukin 10 is a physiologic antagonist. (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrate that IFN-gamma production from SCID splenocytes is stimulated by interleukin (IL) 12, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-2 but is inhibited by IL-10, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF are induced by heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (hk-LM) from SCID splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • First, unlike subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of proinflammatory such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( ), and -1 and −6, etc. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Results Severe, erosive bilateral sacroiliitis in 14-week-old hTNFtg animals was accompanied by an upregulation of mRNAs related to tissue inflammation such as matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP9 and MMP13 or osteoclast activation such as cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. (bmj.com)
  • In this report, an epileptic dog that had been diagnosed and treated with antiepileptic drugs showed behavioral changes similar to Klüver-Bucy syndrome, which results from bilateral limbic lesion in primates after severe SE. (vin.com)
  • Patients with bilateral severe deformities were booked for the bilateral hip replacement group because we considered that a one-stage procedure gave superior functional recovery, while patients with single hip affection were booked for single procedure. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A highly divergent, non-archetypal strain of T gondii was responsible for causing a severe, atypical bilateral retinochoroiditis in a patient from Brazil. (bmj.com)
  • A 53-year-old man presented with an acute bilateral posterior uveitis with extensive necrotising retinochoroiditis but without chorioretinal scarring. (bmj.com)
  • In August 2016, a 78-year-old man living in the San Juan metropolitan area with a medical history of hypertension (for which he was taking amlodipine), diabetes, asthma, and prostate cancer visited a hospital emergency department with a 4-day history of worsening paresthesia of the lower and upper extremities and progressive bilateral lower and upper extremity weakness ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Objective To evaluate the role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the pathogenesis of bilateral erosive sacroiliitis in human tumour necrosis factor transgenic (hTNFtg) mice, an animal model of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). (bmj.com)
  • 1, 2 We report a case supporting the use of diffusion weighted MRI to differentiate radiation necrosis from tumour recurrence. (bmj.com)
  • While the only diagnostic "gold standard" mechanism of diagnosis en vivo is via kidney biopsy, the clinical conditions and blood clotting disorder often associated with this disease may make it impractical in a clinical setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually bilateral, diffuse or multifocal kidney involvement and results from an extrarenal process. (auanet.org)
  • Among the primary thalamic gliomas, a type known as bilateral thalamic glioma (BTG) has been identified (1-3) in which a large tumor appears symmetrically in both thalami and is accompanied by behavioral impairments varying from personality changes to dementia (3) . (ajnr.org)
  • Bilateral necrosis of the renal cortex, which presents such a distinct clinical and striking pathologic picture, was first recognized by Juhel-Renoy 1 in 1886 in a young female with scarlet fever. (annals.org)
  • In addition to the clinical picture, diagnostic imaging should be performed to confirm the presence and extent of hip avascular necrosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Although non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy MRI, and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI have improved our ability to diagnose radiation necrosis, the definite diagnosis of this condition may be difficult and brain biopsy is often required. (bmj.com)
  • Neurological examinations revealed the behavioral signs described above plus mild bilateral proprioceptive deficits in the pelvic limbs and failure to react to any sounds. (vin.com)
  • However, transarterial embolization has potential complications, such as gluteal muscle/skin necrosis, deep infection, surgical wound breakdown, and internal organ infarction, which are caused by blocked blood flow to surrounding tissues and organs, and many studies on the complications have been reported. (bvsalud.org)
  • Surgical management of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: an update. (ebscohost.com)
  • Improved knowledge on genetics and immunology has improved treatment options with the availability of treatments targeting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-17. (springer.com)
  • Lipase activation produces the necrosis of fat tissue in pancreatic and peripancreatic spaces as well as vessel damage. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Repeat biopsy revealed scant tissue fragments with extensive necrosis (Figures 2(a) and 2(b) ) and multiple vascular channels lined by pleomorphic endothelial cells with increased mitotic figures (Figure 2(c) ). (hindawi.com)
  • a) Scant tissue fragments with extensive necrosis (HE, ×40). (hindawi.com)
  • By 12 weeks, the phenomenon of necrosis still existed but fibrous tissue proliferated prominently and bone reconstruction appeared in certain area. (medsci.org)
  • Most specimens (3/4) got late stage necrosis which presented as synarthrosis in X-ray and mass proliferation of fibrous tissue in histology at the end of 24 weeks. (medsci.org)