BiguanidesPhenformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.Sparteine: A quinolizidine alkaloid isolated from several FABACEAE including LUPINUS; SPARTIUM; and CYTISUS. It has been used as an oxytocic and an anti-arrhythmia agent. It has also been of interest as an indicator of CYP2D6 genotype.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Acanthamoeba Keratitis: Infection of the cornea by an ameboid protozoan which may cause corneal ulceration leading to blindness.Amebicides: Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Sulfonylurea CompoundsMephenytoin: An anticonvulsant effective in tonic-clonic epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). It may cause blood dyscrasias.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Deodorants: Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.EthylenediaminesPoloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.UracilDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde. (1/239)

There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units.  (+info)

Spermine and arcaine block and permeate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels. (2/239)

Polyamines such as spermine are thought to be endogenous regulators of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate)-type glutamate receptors. Polyamine block of NMDA receptors was studied in excised outside-out patches from rat hippocampal neurons and Xenopus oocytes expressing recombinant receptors. Extracellular spermine and arcaine reduced NMDA single-channel conductance in a voltage-dependent manner, with partial relief of block evident at large inside negative membrane potentials. Reducing extracellular Na+ concentration increased the apparent affinities for spermine and arcaine, indicating strong interaction between spermine and permeant ions. Internal spermine also blocked NMDA channels in a voltage-dependent manner, with relief of block evident at large inside positive potentials. The Woodhull model of channel block by an impermeant ion adequately described the actions of external spermine from -60 to +60 mV, but failed for more negative potentials. Eyring rate theory for a permeable blocker with two barriers and one binding site adequately described the voltage-dependent block and relief from block by both external and internal spermine over the range of -120 to +60 mV. These findings indicate that polyamines block and permeate neuronal NMDA receptor channels from the extracellular and intracellular sides, although sensitivity to internal spermine is probably too low to be physiologically relevant.  (+info)

Human retina contains polyamine sensitive [3H]-ifenprodil binding sites: implications for neuroprotection? (3/239)

AIMS: This study characterised the pharmacology of [3H]-ifenprodil binding to the polyamine binding sites (PBS) on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel complex on human retinas. These data were correlated with the known neuroprotective effects of ifenprodil and eliprodil. METHODS: Specific binding of [3H]-ifenprodil (under sigma site blockade) was investigated using human retinal homogenates and radioligand binding techniques. Scatchard and competition analyses were utilised to define the pharmacology of the [3H]-ifenprodil binding sites. RESULTS: Specific binding of [3H]-ifenprodil comprised 73% (SEM 3%) of total and reflected interaction with two affinity sites (Kds = 0.39 and 4.3 microM) of different densities (Bmax = 14.4 and 105 pmol/mg protein) (n = 5). The rank order of affinity of compounds competing for [3H]-ifenprodil binding to the high affinity PBS was: ifenprodil > eliprodil > arcaine > spermine > diaminodecane > spermidine > putrescine >> MK-801 (n = 3-7). However, [3H]-ifenprodil binding was minimally inhibited by glutamate, NMDA, and kainate. CONCLUSION: These studies have shown, for the first time, the presence of specific [3H]-ifenprodil binding sites in the human retina with pharmacological characteristics of PBS associated with the NMDA receptor ionophore complex. The neuroprotective effects of eliprodil and ifenprodil may, in part, be mediated via these [3H]-ifenprodil labelled sites.  (+info)

Modulation of afferent-evoked neurotransmission by 5-HT3 receptors in young rat dorsal horn neurones in vitro: a putative mechanism of 5-HT3 induced anti-nociception. (4/239)

1. The in vitro hemisected spinal cord from young rat was used to investigate the mechanism of serotoninergic modulation of primary afferent-mediated synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn through activation of the 5-HT3 receptor. 2. Dorsal root-evoked excitatory post-synaptic potentials (DR-EPSPs) were recorded intracellularly from dorsal horn neurones. Extracellular recordings of the population primary afferent depolarization (PAD) and the dorsal root-evoked dorsal root reflex (DR-DRR) were made from segmental dorsal roots. 3. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(m-chloro-phenyl)-biguanide hydrochloride (m-ChPB) (10 and 50 microM) induced statistically significant reductions of the DR-EPSP amplitude (P<0.001) and duration (P<0.001) in the majority of dorsal horn neurones. The 5-HT3 receptor selective antagonists 3-Tropanyl-indole-3-carboxylate hydrochloride (Tropisetron, 10 microM) and N-(1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-6-chloro-4-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1 ,4-benzoxazine-8-carboxamide (Y-25130, 10 microM) abolished m-ChPB-induced DR-EPSP attenuation and partially blocked the 5-HT effect. 4. m-ChPB (50 microM)-induced DR-EPSP amplitude and duration attenuation was retained in the presence of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (30 microM), the GABA(B) receptor antagonist saclofen (50 microM) and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (50 microM). 5. Both 5-HT and m-ChPB (10 and 50 microM) induced a PAD but the mean peak amplitude of 5-HT-induced PAD was significantly greater than PAD to m-ChPB (98.6+/-12 microV compared to 51.8+/-10 V for 50 microM of agonist, respectively). Tropisetron partially reduced 5-HT-induced PAD and abolished m-ChPB-induced PAD. 5-HT, but not m-ChPB, significantly (P<0.001) reduced the peak amplitude of the DR-DRR and this action of 5-HT was unaffected by Tropisetron or Y-25130. 6. These data provide experimental evidence for a putative cellular mechanism at the level of the dorsal horn for anti-nociceptive effects of 5-HT3 receptor activation. This 5-HT3-mediated modulation of sensory afferent transmission was evidently independent of inhibitory GABA- or opioid-dependent interneuronal pathways. The extent to which the 5-HT3 receptor could be involved in the operation of endogenous analgesia and sensory modulation by descending monoamine bulbo-spinal pathways is discussed.  (+info)

Effects of various serotonin agonists, antagonists, and uptake inhibitors on the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine in rats. (5/239)

Neurochemical studies indicate that methamphetamine increases central serotonin (5-HT) levels more markedly than other psychomotor stimulants such as amphetamine or cocaine. In the present study, we investigated 5-HT involvement in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg methamphetamine i.p. from saline under a fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation, the effects of selected 5-HT agonists, antagonists, and uptake inhibitors were tested. Fluoxetine (1.8-18.0 mg/kg) and clomipramine (3.0-18.0 mg/kg), selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, did not produce any methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects when administered alone, but fluoxetine (5.6 mg/kg), unlike clomipramine (5.6 mg/kg), significantly shifted the methamphetamine dose-response curve to the left. Both 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin (0.03-0.56 mg/kg), a full agonist, and buspirone (1.0-10.0 mg/kg), a partial agonist at 5-HT(1A) receptors, partially generalized to the training dose of methamphetamine but only at high doses that decreased response rate. This generalization was antagonized by the coadministration of the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg). WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg) also partially reversed the leftward shift of the methamphetamine dose-response curve produced by fluoxetine. (+/-)-1-(2, 5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (0.3 mg/kg), a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist, shifted the methamphetamine dose-response curve to the left, and this leftward shift was antagonized by the coadministration of ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg), a 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist. Ketanserin (3.0 mg/kg) also produced a shift to the right in the methamphetamine dose-response curve and completely reversed the leftward shift in the methamphetamine dose-response curve produced by fluoxetine. In contrast, tropisetron (1.0 mg/kg), a 5-HT(3) antagonist, produced a shift to the left of the methamphetamine dose-response curve, and this effect of tropisetron was antagonized by the coadministration of m-chlorophenyl-biguanide (1.8 mg/kg), a 5-HT(3) agonist. The present data suggest that the 5-HT system plays a modulatory role in the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. These effects appear to be mediated through 5-HT release and blockade of reuptake and subsequent activation of 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors, with limited involvement of other 5-HT receptor subtypes.  (+info)

The pharmacological and functional characteristics of the serotonin 5-HT(3A) receptor are specifically modified by a 5-HT(3B) receptor subunit. (6/239)

While homomers containing 5-HT(3A) subunits form functional ligand-gated serotonin (5-HT) receptors in heterologous expression systems (Jackson, M. B., and Yakel, J. L. (1995) Annu. Rev. Physiol. 57, 447-468; Lambert, J. J., Peters, J. A., and Hope, A. G. (1995) in Ligand-Voltage-Gated Ion Channels (North, R., ed) pp. 177-211, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL), it has been proposed that native receptors may exist as heteromers (Fletcher, S., and Barnes, N. M. (1998) Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 19, 212-215). We report the cloning of a subunit 5-HT(3B) with approximately 44% amino acid identity to 5-HT(3A) that specifically modified 5-HT(3A) receptor kinetics, voltage dependence, and pharmacology. Co-expression of 5-HT(3B) with 5-HT(3A) modified the duration of 5-HT(3) receptor agonist-induced responses, linearized the current-voltage relationship, increased agonist and antagonist affinity, and reduced cooperativity between subunits. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization revealed co-localization of both 5-HT(3B) and 5-HT(3A) in a population of neurons in the amygdala, telencephalon, and entorhinal cortex. Furthermore, 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) mRNAs were expressed in spleen and intestine. Our data suggest that 5-HT(3B) might contribute to tissue-specific functional changes in 5-HT(3)-mediated signaling and/or modulation.  (+info)

Pulmonary oedema produced by scorpion venom augments a phenyldiguanide-induced reflex response in anaesthetized rats. (7/239)

1. The involvement of pulmonary oedema produced by scorpion venom in augmenting a phenyldiguanide (PDG)-induced reflex response was evaluated in urethane-anaesthetized rats. 2. PDG-induced bradycardiac, hypotensive and apnoeic responses, expressed as time-response area, exhibited similarities before or after venom treatment. Hence, the time-response area of bradycardia was taken as a reflex parameter. Pulmonary oedema was determined by physical evaporation and histological methods. 3. Exposure to Indian red scorpion (Buthus tamulus, BT; i.v.) venom for 30 min increased the pulmonary water content (P < 0.05; Student's t test) and augmented the PDG-induced bradycardiac reflex response by more than 2 times (P < 0.001). The increase of pulmonary water content was maximal with 100 microg kg-1 of venom and the augmentation was maximal with 10 microg kg-1. In a separate series of experiments, the venom (100 microg kg-1)-induced pulmonary oedema was confirmed by histological and physical methods. In this group also, the venom augmented the reflex to the same magnitude. 4. Pulmonary oedema (physical and histological) and augmentation of the bradycardiac reflex response after BT venom (100 microg kg-1; i.v.) were absent in animals pretreated with aprotinin, a kallikrein-kinin inhibitor (6000 KIU; i. v.). 5. Ondansetron (10 microg kg-1; i.v.), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, failed to block the venom-induced pulmonary oedema (physical and histological) but blocked the venom-induced augmentation of the reflex. 6. The results of this study indicate that the venom-induced augmentation of the PDG reflex is associated with pulmonary oedema involving kinins utilizing 5-HT3 receptors.  (+info)

The role of tryptophan residues in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine(3) receptor ligand binding domain. (8/239)

Aromatic amino acids are important components of the ligand binding site in the Cys loop family of ligand-gated ion channels. To examine the role of tryptophan residues in the ligand binding domain of the 5-hydroxytryptamine(3) (5-HT(3)) receptor, we used site-directed mutagenesis to change each of the eight N-terminal tryptophan residues in the 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit to tyrosine or serine. The mutants were expressed as homomeric 5-HT(3A) receptors in HEK293 cells and analyzed with radioligand binding, electrophysiology, and immunocytochemistry. Mutation of Trp(90), Trp(183), and Trp(195) to tyrosine resulted in functional receptors, although with increased EC(50) values (2-92-fold) to 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. Changing these residues to serine either ablated function (Trp(90) and Trp(183)) or resulted in a further increase in EC(50) (Trp(195)). Mutation of residue Trp(60) had no effect on ligand binding or receptor function, whereas mutation of Trp(95), Trp(102), Trp(121), and Trp(214) ablated ligand binding and receptor function, and all but one of the receptors containing these mutations were not expressed at the plasma membrane. We propose that Trp(90), Trp(183), and Trp(195) are intimately involved in ligand binding, whereas Trp(95), Trp(102), Trp(121), and Trp(214) have a critical role in receptor structure or assembly.  (+info)

387444852 - EP 0841852 A4 2000-06-21 - BIGUANIDE COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR TREATING WATER - [origin: WO9704655A1] A water treatment method for controlling the growth of algae, fungi and bacteria and the formation of a waterline residue in recreational and industrial water supplies containing turbulent water utilises a composition containing a polyhexamethylene biguanide compound and a surfactant. The water treatment method and composition containing the biguanide compound and surfactant are particularly useful for treating recreational water supplies like spas and swimming pools containing turbulent water, such as aerated water.[origin: WO9704655A1] A water treatment method for controlling the growth of algae, fungi and bacteria and the formation of a waterline residue in recreational and industrial water supplies containing turbulent water utilises a composition containing a polyhexamethylene biguanide compound and a surfactant. The water treatment method and composition containing the biguanide
0013]PHMB is a mixture of various biguanide polymers that can include different combinations of terminal groups, e.g., amine, cyanoguanidino, and guanidine. Based only on these three terminal groups, at least six possible biguanide polymers can exist. There can be one biguanide polymer with two terminal amine groups, which we refer to as PHMB-AA, one with two terminal cyanoguanidino groups, which we refer to as PHMB-CGCG, and one with two terminal guanidine groups, which we refer to as and PHMB-GG (see, below). There are also the three possible biguanide polymers having a combination of two different terminal groups. Again, based on the above terminal groups they include amine-cyanoguanidino (PHMB-ACG), amine-guanidino (PHMB-AG) and guanidine-cyanoguanidino (GCG). Accordingly, a commercial sample of PHMB will likely comprise a mixture of polymeric biguanides with the three mentioned terminal groups though how these terminal groups are arranged on each polymer and what the molar concentration of ...
Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated
1-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]biguanide hydrochloride/ACM36068403 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
One of the chemicals used in Byotrol technology is Polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), a biocide that has been used widely for decades providing valuable disinfection, cleaning and hygiene functions in a wide selection of products such as cosmetics, deodorant, contact lenses solutions, fabric softeners, water treatments and wound care products. PHMB is an effective public health biocide supported under the Biocidal Products Directive in Europe and REACh*.. ECHA has reviewed all available data for PHMB including 30 year old rat feeding studies, where rats ingested 5 times their body weight of PHMB, and recommended that PHMB be classified and labelled on products where PHMB is included at ,1% as H351 - suspected of causing cancer. This classification is for biocidal (not cosmetic where it is permitted at certain levels for certain uses, or medical device) products in Europe and will not apply across other parts of the world.. One manufacturer of PHMB has stated they believe this ...
What are biguanides? How do biguanides control blood sugar? What are the biguanides side effects? Metformin, Glucophage is diabetes medicines.
Aniosyme DD1 guarantees a high performance cleaning and optimum safety, fits perfectly in a perspective of the properties detergents standardization. Bottle 1 liter, concentrated Efficacy proven product that optimizes cleaning- Pre-disinfection / decontamination broad-spectrum detergent *- Neutral pH *- Detergent pre-disinfectant / decontaminant high performance *- Broad spectrum of efficacy INDICATIONS: Deep cleaning and pre-disinfection / decontamination of medical and surgical instruments, medical devices and endoscopic equipment.Cleaning in ultrasonic tanks.Collection of contaminated instruments.STATEMENT: quaternary ammonium propionate, of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride, enzymatic complex (protease, lipase and amylase), surfactants, stabilizers, sequestering agent, perfume, dye.PROPERTY MICROBIOLOGICAL: Bactericidal: EN 1040, EN 13727, NF T 72-170, SARM (EN 13727), Active on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (B.K.). Lieviticida: EN 1275 (C. albicans).Active on HIV-1, BVDV (HCV) virus model,
Biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds and the use of same as antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical compositions are described. The biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds are useful in the preservation of pharmaceutical compositions, particularly ophthalmic pharmaceutical compositions and compositions for treating contact lenses. The compounds are especially useful for disinfecting contact lenses.
This is a special drug use surveillance on long-term use of alogliptin with a 1-year (12-month) observational period, designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of long-term combination therapy with alogliptin and biguanides in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the routine clinical setting.. Participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in addition to diet therapy and exercise therapy will be enrolled. The planned sample size is 1,000.. The usual adult dosage for oral use is 1 alogliptin tablet (25 mg) once daily. ...
... s (ATC A10 BA) form a class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus or prediabetes treatment.
If you have not already done so, please read my introduction page (HERE). . How do biguanides work? Biguanides work by decreasing the output of glucose from the liver. They also activate an enzyme which help cells to become more sensitive (less resistant) to insulin. This is particularly helpful in Type 2 diabetes, although those…
Swimming Pool Biguanide Chemicals is a 3 part manual process, it is very, very expensive. Sometimes costing several times more than chlorine. Biguanide needs to be purchased in bulky containers and needs to be manually added to the pool water regularly.
Polyhexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB) is a polymer used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. In dermatological use, it is spelled polihexanide (INN) and sold under names such as Lavasept, Serasept, and Omnicide. PHMB has been shown to be effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus (also the methicillin-resistant type, MRSA), Escherichia coli, Candida albicans (yeast), Aspergillus brasiliensis (mold), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae). Some products containing PHMB are used for inter-operative irrigation, pre- and post-surgery skin and mucous membrane disinfection, post-operative dressings, surgical and non-surgical wound dressings, surgical bath/hydrotherapy, chronic wounds like diabetic foot ulcer and burn wound management, routine antisepsis during minor incisions, catheterization, scopy, first aid, surface disinfection, and linen disinfection. PHMB eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes ...
99.99%) within 10 min of contact-time but only ~2.5log10 (>99.9%) and ~1.0log10 reduction respectively when heavy-soiling or blood was present. Gloves became highly-contaminated (~4.52log10-4.91log10cfu) when handling recently-contaminated computer-keys. Untreated gloves contaminated "recipient" surfaces (~4.5log10cfu) while PHMB-treated gloves transferred fewer bacteria (2.4-3.6log10cfu). When surface contamination was dry, PHMB gloves transferred fewer bacteria (0.3-0.6log10cfu) to "recipient" surfaces than untreated gloves (1.0-1.9log10; P < 0.05). Antimicrobial-impregnated gloves may be useful in preventing dissemination of organisms in the near-patient environment during routine care. However they are not a substitute for appropriate hand-hygiene procedures ...
PHMG hydrochloride or polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride - a cationic polyelectrolyte having a unique combination of physical, chemical and biocidal properties, allowing the polymer applied in virtually all areas of the economy.. Abbreviations: PHMG, PHMGH, PHMG-HC, PHMG hydrochloride, PHMG chloride.. Name PHMG hydrochloride IUPAC classification: poly (imnokarbonimidoilimino-1,6-hexanediyl) hydrochloride. In English: Poly (iminocarbonimidoylimino-1,6-hexanediyl), monohydrochloride.. Synonyms polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride: polyhexene (iminoimidokarboniminogeksametilen) hydrochloride.. CAS number: 57029-18-2.. The name in English and the structural formula polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride: Poly (hexamethyleneguanidine) hydrochloride, (C7H16N3Cl) n, where n = 4-50, molecular weight: 700-10000 amu. Physical and chemical properties PHMG hydrochloride:. ...
Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) is a guanidine derivative that is used as a biocidal disinfectant, often in the form of its salt polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P). Studies have shown that PHMG in solution has fungicidal as well as bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The substance also has detergent, anti-corrosive, and flocculant properties and prevents biofouling. PHMG-P is a white powdered solid, and as all polyguanidine salts, readily soluble in water. Unlike the related polymer polyhexanide (PHMB), PHMG has been described as a relatively new compound with properties, potency, and effects being not yet fully recognized. Preliminary findings indicate that PHMG and its derivatives primarily rely on damaging the cell membrane by inhibiting the activity of cellular dehydrogenases. When PHMG is aerosolized and inhaled, it harms the lungs, causing death of the cells lining the bronchioles and widespread damage to alveoli, along with ...
There are two broad types of insulin sensitizers: the biguanides and the thiazolidinediones, also called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists.. The biguanides enhance insulin action, stimulating glucose uptake in the liver and in the periphery and also suppressing hepatic glucose output. They only work when insulin is present, do not stimulate insulin secretion or release, and do not cause hypoglycemia. They are used for patients with type 2 diabetes who have residual β-cell function, typically when diet and exercise are insufficient for diabetic control. They are also useful in the insulin resistance syndrome and constitute an increasingly popular treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome, often inducing ovulation and resulting in pregnancy. Phenformin was the original biguanide but was removed from the market in the 1960s because of reports of fatal lactic acidosis. Metformin (Glucophage) is the only biguanide currently available in the U.S.. Metformin is a relatively small ...
The present invention is directed to a biguanide-containing disinfecting solution containing a particular type of poloxamine for stabilizing a polymeric biguanide. The poloxamine surfactant comprises at least about 90 weight percent of poly(oxyethylene) and poly(oxypropylene) segments, in one or more copolymer chains, wherein the weight average molecular weight of said surfactant is from about 10,000 to about 30,000 and wherein at least about 70 weight percent of said poly(oxyethylene) and poly(oxypropylene) segments are poly(oxyethylene) segments, and wherein the HLB value is at least 27. The method of the present invention comprises cleaning and disinfecting a contact lens with the above-described solution. Products according to the present invention provide enhanced cleaning while maintaining biocidal efficacy.
Metformin, an inhibitor of OXPHOS, is widely used for treatment of type II diabetes (T2D). A key site of action in diabetes treatment is liver, where the drug achieves a relatively high concentration following oral administration, leading to inhibition of gluconeogenesis and reduction of the hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia of T2D. As high levels of insulin have been associated with poor prognosis of prostate, breast, and colon cancer and as early retrospective pharmaco-epidemiologic studies suggested reduced cancer burden among diabetics treated with metformin relative to other diabetes treatments, the hypothesis that metformin or other biguanides could be useful in cancer prevention or treatment has received considerable attention. However, it is not clear if metformin at conventional anti-diabetic doses administered to non-diabetic subjects has effects of sufficient magnitude on levels of insulin or other candidate mediators to influence cancer biology. Drugs used for androgen deprivation ...
Complex I catalyses electron transfer from NADH to hydrophilic electron acceptors by two distinct mechanisms, both localized uniquely at the flavin site. The NADH:FeCN and NADH:O2 reactions proceed via two sequential steps in which NADH reduces the flavin and dissociates, and then the electron acceptor reacts directly (see Figure 2E, left-hand reaction) [26]; for the NADH:HAR and NADH:paraquat reactions NADH reduces the flavin, but the electron acceptor reacts only if a nucleotide is bound in the reduced flavin site (see Figure 2E, right-hand reaction) [27]. Note that although NADH:O2 oxidoreduction produces superoxide, we detect the H2O2 formed following superoxide dismutation, and thus refer to H2O2 production. Data showing the effects of biguanides on these different reactions are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2(A) shows that metformin stimulates the rates of the two reactions (the NADH:FeCN and NADH:O2 reactions) that rely on oxidation of the nucleotide-free reduced flavin [15,26], but, ...
What is metmorfin (biguanides)? How does metmorfin work? Does metformin have any side effects? Information about this first line therapy for type 2 diabetes.
This is a special drug use surveillance with an observation period of 12 months designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone (Actos) in the routine clinical setting in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in addition to diet therapy and exercise therapy (planned sample size, 1000).. The usual adult dosage is 15 to 30 mg of pioglitazone administered orally once daily before or after breakfast. Dose adjustment will be made according to gender, age, and symptoms with an upper limit of 45 mg. ...
Polyaminopropyl biguanide will soon land on the unsafe lists. Here are some of the micellar solutions with and some without mentioned preservative.
1-(2,6-diethyl-phenyl)-biguanide | C12H19N5 | CID 548295 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
1-(2,4-Xylyl)biguanide | C10H15N5 | CID 20879 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Winterizing SoftSwim, Baquacil and biguanide treated Pools, arctic blue winter kit 24, winter chemical kits, BioGuard Arctic Blue winter kit 12, Arctic blue shock, BioGuard winter algicide, pool winterizing, Swimming pools, inground pool winterizing, aboveground pool winterizing, winterization, chlorine, bromine, Mineral Springs, BioGuard, Pristine Blue, Soft Swim, Aquador, winter plugs, winter covers, pool safety covers, winterizing instructions
101491-44-5 - KUXDDCZUGHZCEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Biguanide, 1-octyl-, monohydrochloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Purpose: To evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of investigational multipurpose formulation against bacteria, fungi and Acanthamoeba spp. and compare it to commercially available multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPS). Study was done according to ISO 14729:2001/A.2010 standard.. Methods: The multipurpose disinfecting solutions studied were - Investigational MPS-1: polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) + poloxamer (PLX) and currently marketed Japan products MPS-2: polyquaternium (PQ1) + tetronic 1304, MPS-3: PHMB + poloxamine (PLA) and MPS-4: PHMB +PLX. Test organisms were: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Serratia marcescens (ATCC 13880), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Fusarium solani (ATCC 36031) and Gram-negative clinical isolates. Test solutions were evaluated at the minimum recommended disinfection time of 4 hours. Disinfectant efficacy of MPS was also evaluated against Acanthamoeba trophozoites.. Results: After 4 hours exposure, Investigational MPS-1 and ...
Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate 14923-17-2 route of synthesis, Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate chemical synthesis methods, Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate synthetic routes ect.
Balego & Associates Inc. - BalegoOnline.org 7089 Excilon™ AMD Antimicrobial I.V. Sponge 2 x 2 1400/case [7089] - Excilon™ AMD drain sponges are impregnated with PHMB (Polyhexamethylene Biguanide), a powerful yet safe antiseptic that has a broad range effectiveness against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms including some multi-drug resistant strains such as MRSA. This exciting new product provides healthcare facilities a low cost, prophylactic method of treatment
The AMD family provides a clinically, cost effective solution for the treatment of critically colonised wounds. The AMD range includes Kendall™, Telfa™ and Kerlix™, each of which come in a variety of dressing presentations.. They are designed to manage varying levels exudate and contain the highly effective antimicrobial Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB). This combination of intelligent exudate management and antimicrobial activity supports optimal wound healing environments.. ...
Campbell, Darren; Mahomed, Anisa; Rasul, Nadia; Broadbent, Marc and Tighe, Brian (2011). Novel tear film supplements:a potential application for synthetic protein-phospholipid complexes. IN: British Contact Lens Association. 2010-05-27 - 2010-05-30. Mann, Aisling; Mahomed, Anisa; Tighe, Brian and Campbell, Darren (2009). Comparative performance of analytical techniques for polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) in ophthalmic solutions. IN: British Contact Lens Association. 2010-05-27 - 2010-05-30. ...
... : Antimicrobial sponges contain PHMB(Polyhexamethylene Biguanide) which resists bac
What should i do if i been using baquacil and put shock it in the pool now the pool is cloudly and it has got white stuff in the water. What can i do ...
Aspirus Network serves people through Aspirus Wausau Hospital, more than 30 primary and specialty clinics, an affiliated hospital and physician network, and regional home health and hospice services.
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
Yes, chlorine and bromine are not the only sanitizers that can be used to treat spa water. Biguanide is also an effective sanitizer that kills bacteria while keeping the water soft. Biguanide doesnt degrade with sunlight, temperature, or affect pH like traditional chlorine sanitizers can. This means easier use!. ...
No it hasnt been banned, and it is probably safe to use. But no company with any sense will carry on using it.. What has happened is that it has been listed on a list of potential carcinogens. This means it is banned unless a committee called the SCCS upholds its use. They have looked at it and concluded that there is insufficient data to reach a conclusion. This leaves it in a bit of a legal limbo, and it might be banned at any minute. So if I were using it Id be switching to something else as quickly as I could.. This is a good example of why you need to know the background to something before making any decisions about it, and why you cant just look stuff up. If you were to read the EU cosmetic regulations youd see that it is listed as being fully legal. There is nothing so misleading as facts.. If you are in the business and thinking of using it in a product you are making I suggest you dont.. If you are wondering whether it is safe to use products you have already bought, Id be happy ...
It is also effective as an udder wash to help remove general soiling. Teatfoam is a non-irritant disinfectant based on chlorhexidine and biguanide which combine to produce a rapid acting germicide. The dual action biocide system adheres well to the teat skin and is effective against a wide range of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria ...
We used eight independent data sources to maximise complete ascertainment of cases of diabetes.. Diabetes prescriptions database generated by the Medicines Monitoring Unit-This unit, which is a university based organisation supported by the Medicines Control Agency, has been described in detail elsewhere.8 9 Briefly, it has devised a method of capturing person specific dispensing for the whole of Tayside and, since January 1993, has recorded over 10 million prescription items specified by community health number. Of these items, we identified all prescriptions for antidiabetic drugs (insulin, sulphonylureas, biguanides, and α-glucosidase inhibitors) and for diagnostic and monitoring devices for diabetes (such as test strips and meters).. Hospital diabetes clinics-We integrated four databases: those of diabetes clinics from Ninewells Hospital, Dundee; Stracathro Hospital, Brechin; and Perth Royal Infirmary as well that of a young adult and paediatric clinic at Ninewells Hospital. These sources ...
Diabetes is a condition in which excess glucose is found in an individuals blood. This can happen due to various reasons. Either enough insulin is not being produced in the body (Type 1 Diabetes) or the body is resistant to the insulin being produced (Type 2 Diabetes), often defective genes (Genetic) are responsible for this condition. Insulin is the hormone signalling cells to absorb glucose for later usage such as energy cosumption. So when there is an issue with respect to insulin, glucose is not taken up by the cells and it ends up getting accumulated in the bloodstream. This is when diabetes is diagnosed. Depending upon the condition, doctors prescribe either insulin doses or medication or both to the patient.. As with most drugs, medications prescribed for diabetes have their side effects too. The most commonly prescribed medication is metformin, commonly known as glucophage which comes under the category of biguanides. It improves the bodys response to insulin, thereby improving glucose ...
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289 ...
Glucophage is an oral diabetes medicine used to treat type 2 of diabetes. Its active substance is Metformin which belongs to biguanide class of substances. It reduces concentration of glucose in blood suppressing metabolism of glucose in the liver, reducing absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract, and enhancing its utilization in tissues. Glucophage stabilizes or reduces body weight. The therapeutic effect is not observed in the absence of insulin in the blood. It does not cause hypoglycemic reactions. It improves fibrinolytic properties of blood. It is used to treat diabetes mellitus (type 2) in adults also in patients for whom the treatment with sulfonylurea was ineffective, especially in cases followed by obesity ...
Glucophage is an oral diabetes medicine used to treat type 2 of diabetes. Its active substance is Metformin which belongs to biguanide class of substances. It reduces concentration of glucose in blood suppressing metabolism of glucose in the liver, reducing absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract, and enhancing its utilization in tissues. Glucophage stabilizes or reduces body weight. The therapeutic effect is not observed in the absence of insulin in the blood. It does not cause hypoglycemic reactions. It improves fibrinolytic properties of blood. It is used to treat diabetes mellitus (type 2) in adults also in patients for whom the treatment with sulfonylurea was ineffective, especially in cases followed by obesity ...
Glucophage is an oral diabetes medicine used to treat type 2 of diabetes. Its active substance is Metformin which belongs to biguanide class of substances. It reduces concentration of glucose in blood suppressing metabolism of glucose in the liver, reducing absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract, and enhancing its utilization in tissues. Glucophage stabilizes or reduces body weight. The therapeutic effect is not observed in the absence of insulin in the blood. It does not cause hypoglycemic reactions. It improves fibrinolytic properties of blood. It is used to treat diabetes mellitus (type 2) in adults also in patients for whom the treatment with sulfonylurea was ineffective, especially in cases followed by obesity ...
In this study, we merged the rapidly increasing interest in epigenetic abnormalities in cancer and the possibilities for reversing these changes as a cancer therapy target, with the latest discoveries of enzymes that reverse key histone lysine modifications. The discovery of the amine oxidase homologue LSD1 as the first of these enzymes created an exciting new epigenetic target for which there has been an increasing effort to identify and design effective inhibitors (9-12). Our initial strategy for identifying effective inhibitors of LSD1 (3, 10, 14, 15, 28) was based on the structural similarity between LSD1 and the FAD-dependent SMO. This strategy proved to be effective and resulted in the successful identification of biguanide and bisguanidine polyamine analogues as LSD1 inhibitors (10). In the present study, we explored the oligoamines, another class of polyamine analogues that inhibit polyamine oxidases and that have high affinity for DNA based on the increased number of positively charged ...
It is familiar with persons overusing biguanides and other unproven chemicals. Diarrhea may also result from altered digestion, absorption or deposition of fat in the colon. Lack of appetite, anorexia and nausea may also result after using weight reduction pills like hydroxy citric acid.. With most methods offering short-term solutions, other long-term consequences may include rapid weight gain. It is familiar to individuals who use the best weight loss supplement but later in life resume the old habits which promote weight gain. Physiologically, the bodys biological mechanisms operate in a conservative manner. Therefore, it is important to give it adequate time to absorb the stress of losing weight fast.. ...
Product Name CAS Fomula assay 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) Ethanone (4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone) 498-02-2 C9H10O3 99.00% 1-(o-Tolyl)Biguanide 93-69-6 C9H13N5 99% min 1,2,4-trihydroxy benzene
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RECOMMENDED: If you have Windows errors then we strongly recommend that you download and run this (Windows) Repair Tool.. I am using Java 6 and am trying to create an HttpsURLConnection against a remote server, using a client certificate. The server is using an selfsigned root.. (Code 2055), ColorQ PRO 7 (Code 2056), ColorQ Biguanide Pool/Spa 5 (Code 2062). ColorQ TesTabs PRO 4 (Code 2051), ColorQ PRO 11 (Code 2058), ColorQ Copper 5(Code 2066). ColorQ TesTabs® PRO 7 (Code 2057), ColorQ PRO 11 TesTabs® (Code 2060). ColorQ PRO 7-Plus (Code 2064), ColorQ PRO 9-Plus. Error On My Speeding Ticket I really dont know why the officer thought I was and pulled me over, I was just driving in traffic no faster than usual and no faster than anyone else. I chalked it up to either him getting the wrong guy, or just being flat out in error, but I. In computer programming, a return code or an error code is an enumerated message that corresponds to the status of a specific software application.. Warner Swasey ...
Czy damy radę wpasować się w panujące dzisiaj trendy tego nie wiem. Mam nadzieję, że tak i płyta zdoła troszkę namieszać i odbije się to echem w środowisku. Mam też nadzieję, że będziemy w stanie pokazać, że scena ma się dobrze i zachęcić innych do tego że warto coś robić mimo tego, że się mieszka daleko od siebie. ...
Czy damy radę wpasować się w panujące dzisiaj trendy tego nie wiem. Mam nadzieję, że tak i płyta zdoła troszkę namieszać i odbije się to echem w środowisku. Mam też nadzieję, że będziemy w stanie pokazać, że scena ma się dobrze i zachęcić innych do tego że warto coś robić mimo tego, że się mieszka daleko od siebie. ...
Equation 1There is no state model currently available that reproduces all of the properties of 5-HT3 receptor activation. However, it can be seen in this simplified agonist binding eq. 1 that the rates of both agonist association/dissociation (k+1/k−1,k+2/k−2) and channel opening/closing (gating, β/α) of the receptor determine its apparent affinity (EC50). However, the observation that 5-HT activation in F107Y mutant receptors is markedly increased by supramaximal 5-HT concentrations suggests that it is the decreased agonist association rate that is responsible for the decrease in 5-HT apparent affinity for the F107Y receptor. Once maximum current amplitude is reached, the agonist association rate alone affects activation rate, as channel opening and closing rates are independent of concentration. The observation that both theKi and EC50 values obtained for mCPBG are unaffected by this mutation is consistent with the suggestion that this mutant does not compromise channel gating. mCPBG ...
Schematy testowania bieglosci: Ten schemat (lub jego modyfikacja) jest stosowany w USA i w Wielkiej Brytanii. Rozmazy z szyjki macicy barwione metoda Papanicolaou specjalnie wyselekcjonowane dla tego celu sa kierowane przez osobe przeprowadzajaca test do kazdej pracowni bioracej udzial w tym schemacie. Wszyscy czlonkowie zespolu bioracy udzial w skryningu cytologicznym (cytotechnicy i patolodzy) otrzymuja zestaw 10 rozmazów do oceny i sformulowania wyniku w ciagu 2 godzin. Osoba przeprowadzajaca test ocenia go i informuje kazdego uczestnika o jego wyniku. Schemat ten ujawnia nieakceptowalne poziomy wykonania zadania. Poufnosc jest podstawowym skladnikiem tego schematu ...
Jeste na stronie na kt rej znajdziesz prawdopodobnie najwi kszy w Polsce katalog modeli plastikowych obejmuj cy ok. 30 000 pozycji. W r d tego ogromnego zbioru znajdziesz modele redukcyjne wszystkich najbardziej znanych i najpopularniejs zych producent w na wiecie (np. Airfix, Dragon, Hasegawa, ...
Efedryna HCL jest syntetyczna forma efedryny. Szczegółowe omówienie tego, co, skąd pochodzi, its weight loss properties & its dangers.
Objective: ReNu with MoistureLoc (ReNuML), containing the antimicrobial agent alexidine 0.00045%, was associated with the Fusarium keratitis epidemic of 2004 to 2006. Although a single-point source contamination was ruled out, only Fusarium organisms were reported during the outbreak. This study investigated whether the reported loss of antimicrobial effectiveness toward Fusarium of ReNuML after exposure to heat in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers could also be demonstrated with other common fungal and bacterial agents of keratitis. Methods: A buffered solution of alexidine 0.00045% was incubated in glass and ReNu HDPE plastic containers at room temperature (RT) and 56°C for 4 weeks, serially diluted, and tested for its ability to inhibit the growth of 20 bacterial isolates, 12 non-Fusarium fungal isolates, and 7 Fusarium isolates originally involved in the keratitis epidemic. Results: A statistically significant loss of antimicrobial capability was seen with all fungi, all gram
Purpose: : To examine further the association between the recent outbreaks of microbial keratitis caused by unusual organisms and the contamination of multipurpose contact lens disinfection solutions (MPS) during use. Methods: : Conidia of representative isolates of the Fuarium solani-F. oxysporum complexes and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castelanii were inoculated (~104 ml-1) into 1-2 ml of MPS that contained either polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) or polyquaternium-1 (PQ) as active disinfecting components. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) served as a control. These preparations were examined microscopically during drying under a laminar flow hood at ambient temperatures. Results: : The various MPS formed distinct and characteristic concentric bands of precipitates and viscous globules while drying. The distribution of the conidia, trophozoites and amoebic cysts among the distinctive residual- precipitate patterns varied for the different MPS. Cysts were not evident in the initial trophozoite ...
One common, very popular germicide that most people will have come across but will not have heard of is polyhexamethylene biguanide, abbreviated for ease to PHMB. It is applied to the water in swimming pools, industrial processes, personal care products, cosmetics, fabric softeners, hand washes, wound dressings and contact lens solutions. It is also applied…
Metformin is the sole member of the biguanide class of medications in the United States. It replaced another biguanide, fenformin, which was removed from the market because of a propensity for lactic acidosis in 1975.3,4 Available in short-acting and sustained-release formulations, it is one of the oldest, and indeed one of the safest, medications used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.. Metformin exerts its effects primarily by decreasing hepatic glucose output and has a comparatively lesser effect increasing insulin sensitivity. Isotope studies suggest hepatic glucose output is reduced primarily through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, which may be reduced by as much as 75%.4 Patients using metformin also exhibit lower fasting insulin concentrations. Most patients using metformin lose weight, and as much as 88% of weight loss with metformin is loss of body fat mass. In patients with normal renal function and who are otherwise healthy, metformin does not increase plasma lactic acid levels or ...
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Blood Glucose lowering drugs, excl Insulins, Biguanides Metformin hydrochloride is a biguanide with antihyperglycaemic effects, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. It does not stimulate insulin secretion and therefore does not produce hypoglycaemia. Metformin hydrochloride may act via 3 mechanisms: (1) reduction of hepatic glucose production by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis (2) in muscle, by increasing insulin sensitivity, improving peripheral glucose uptake and utilization (3) and delay of intestinal glucose absorption. Metformin hydrochloride stimulates intracellular glycogen synthesis by acting on glycogen synthase. Metformin hydrochloride increases the transport capacity of all types of membrane glucose transporters (GLUTs) known to date. In humans, independently of its action on glycaemia, metformin hydrochloride has favourable effects on lipid metabolism. This has been shown at therapeutic doses in controlled, medium-term or ...
A Century of Diabetes Care Pump therapy Human insulin Insulin analogs First human treated NPH insulin Type Insulin therapy 1920 Type Diet Sulfonylureas Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors Biguanide Glitazones Meglitinides Insulin therapy Type 1 Since the early 1920s the only therapy available for type 1 diabetes has been insulin. (Banting and Best discovered insulin 1921) Improvements in insulin delivery have included pump therapy (mid-1970s), transition from animal to human insulin (1980s)1979 and the introduction of rapid acting insulin analogs (1990s) Type 2 Altlhough insulin has been available for type 2 diabetes patients since the 1920s, the major development has been the introduction of a number of oral agents: Sulfonylureas, the first available oral hypoglycemic agents (1956) Metformin (biguanides), although available in Europe for many years, recently available in this country since 1995 Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (starch blockers), thiazolidinediones (glitazones) and megltinides, agents
دواء Amophage 500mg Tablets About Metformin Biguanide derivative, Oral anti-diabetic. Mechanism of Action of Metformin It is a biguanide which exerts antidiabetic action. The drug suppresses gluconeogenesis in liver and thus suppresses hepatic glucose output. It enhance insulin mediated glucose disposal in muscle and adipose tissue. It enhance GLUT1 (glucose transporter-1) transport from intracellular site to plasma membrane. It also interferes with respiratory chain in mitochondria and promotes peripheral glucose utilization by increasing anaerobic glycolysis. It inhibits intestinal absorption of glucose, other hexose sugars, amino acids and vitamin B12. It also improves lipid profile in type-2 diabetics. Indications for Metformin Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (as adjunct to diet and exercise). Typical Dosage for Metformin Adults: Initial dose: 250mg twice or thrice daily with meals. Increase gradually at 2 week intervals, if required to a maximum of 3g daily. Children: Not applicable.
The treatment of hyperglycemia is more than evident. Right now we know of two pharmaceutical methods to showcase hypoglycemic effects:. 1. Engaging in the production of glucose - Metformin, also known as the main medication used in this category. It stops the production of glucose from the muscles and liver.. 2. Increase the insulin intake and produce. This can be done with injection/inhalation, as well as using compounds that trigger and stimulate the produce or insulin secretion. Glipizide or glyburide and sulfonylureas are the main meds that trigger the production of insulin.. The insulins duty is to keep glucose inside the storage disposals of our bodies like the liver, muscles, and adipose.. This newcomer method that reduces glucose levels stimulates therapeutic glucosuria. These sodium inhibitors are considerations for type II diabetes and are very rarely used, mostly because of unforeseen problems.. Metformin and biguanides remain first in line for treatment, however. Biguanides dont ...
New generation biocide that has ant-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- viral and sporicidal activity at low concentrations. The dodecylamine sulphamate salt in combination with alkyl or aryl-alkyl modified amine salt compound and the biguanide PHMB enter into a molecular structure resulting in a stable biocidal complex. Alkyl didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, a powerful long chain quaternary compounds (QAC). It is well known that the long chain QAC possess the greatest anti-bacterial activity.. ...
The driving idea behind the research is knowing that AMPK serves as a sensor for low energy loss in cells and that LKB1-deficient cells lack the ability to activate AMPK and sense energy loss," says David Shackelford, a postdoctoral researcher at Salk who spearheaded the study in Shaws lab and is now an assistant professor at UCLAs David Geffen School of Medicine. That led Shaw and his team to a class of drugs called biguanides, which lower cellular energy levels by attacking the power stations of the cell, called mitochondria. Metformin and phenformin both inhibit mitochondria; however, phenformin is nearly 50 times as potent as metformin. In the study, the researchers tested phenformin as a chemotherapy agent in genetically-engineered mice lacking LKB1 and which had advanced stage lung tumors. After three weeks of treatment, Shaw and his team saw a modest reduction in tumor burden in the mice. Continuing the study between Salk and UCLA, Shaw and Shackelford coordinated teams in both ...
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290 ...
A novel tripeptide, Phe-Arg-Arg, was found to exert a potent, insulin-mimetic inhibitory action on lysosomal proteolysis in the Langendorff-perfused rat heart. This tripeptide was synthesized based upon its partial structural analogy to the biguanide anti-hyperglycaemic agent, phenformin (phenylethylbiguanide), which has previously been found to exert a Zn(2+)-dependent inhibitory action on lysosomal proteolysis. Hearts were biosynthetically labelled with [3H]leucine in vitro. The percentage change in subsequent release of [3H]leucine (2 mM non-radioactive leucine) was determined in non-recirculating perfusate. The background Zn2+ content of the perfusate was determined to be 20 nM. Major endogenous Zn2+ buffers were present in molar excess of Zn2+: 0.1 mM citrate, 0.2% BSA, and complete physiological amino acids. Infusion of maximally effective levels of chloroquine (30 microM) or insulin (5 nM) caused a 38% inhibition of total proteolysis, which corresponds to the lysosomal subcomponent. In ...
... is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world and has earned its place as the first medication to prescribe for type 2 diabetes and those with type 1 who have insulin resistance. It is effective, inexpensive and has limited side effects. You can read more about why in this 2013 study. Metformin is in a class of drugs called biguanides. It significantly lowers blood sugar for most people. Studied in human since the 1950s, it has a very strong track record of safety and improved outcomes. Side effects tend to be minimal and temporary, though there is a minority of people who do not tolerate it well. It does not cause weight gain or low blood sugars. In This Section1 Brand Names for Metformin2 Brand Names for Metformin in Combination with Other Drugs3 How Does Metformin Work?4 Precautions Before Taking Metformin5 Side Effects of Metformin6 How to Take
Metformin, marketed under the tradename Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.Vs. xr c 474 metformin hcl old project khasiat metformin 500mg effect of on insulin levels.Metformin is the generic name of the prescription medications Glucophage, Glumetza, and Fortamet, used to control blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes.Glucophage is a sugar lowering drug taken orally, whose active ingredient is metformin ( biguanide ).Metformin is a prescription oral drug intended for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.Diabetes is a very severe disease and it has many types like.. ...
The biguanide metformin lowers glucose by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis. Metformin also decreases intestinal glucose absorption and enhances sensitivity to insulin.7,10 Similarly to sulfonylureas, metformin monotherapy reduces the A1C by 1% to 2%.9 In overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, metformin therapy has been associated with a decrease in diabetes-related end points (e.g., death from hyperglycemia, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, renal failure) and all-cause mortality as compared to therapy with insulin or sulfonylureas.14 Metformin, along with lifestyle intervention, is currently recommended as initial therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes.9 Although controlled trials have not studied sufficient numbers of older patients with diabetes, clinical use suggests that metformin is an effective agent in this population.. The most common adverse effects of metformin are gastrointestinal discomfort and diarrhea, which can be minimized by slow titration of the dose and ...
Background: Metformin is a biguanide, belonging to the oral hypoglycemic agents and is a widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence indicate that Metformin inhibits cell proliferation in several human cancers and inhibits the Warburg phenomenon in tumor cells.. Objective: The present study aims to explore the effects of Metformin in hypoxic conditions. Specifically, we focused on pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) HIF-1α levels and the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell phenotype. Additionally, we also investigated a theoretical consequence of Metformin treatment.. Methods: PDH levels in patients with OSCC and oral dysplasia were evaluated. Metformin was administered in vitro to test the effect of Metformin under hypoxic conditions. The results were complemented by Bioinformatics analyses.. Results: Low PDH levels were observed in OSCC, and Metformin promotes an increase in PDH levels in hypoxic conditions. Metformin also reduced HIF-1α mRNA and ...
... Metformin is an oral antidiabetic medication that belongs to the biguanide class and used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that provided sufficient data to calculate the incidence of type 2 diabetes using an intention-to-treat analysis, included patients , 18 years of age with a minimum sample size of 50 patients, and compared oral hypoglycemic agents (including biguanides, acarbose, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones), antiobesity agents, antihypertensive drugs, statins, fibrates, or estrogen with placebo. Studies were excluded if they tested an intervention in patients with preexisting diabetes, were duplicates, or were in abstract form. 2 reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion ...
Metformin causes different effects for the mechanism of glucose, which results in improving insulin sensitivity in various tissues like liver and muscles. There a wide range of reasons until this is happening, junk food has never been more available than today and at such affordable prices too. It truly can also be the life-style of a person that plays a role in this incidence. Diabetes may be managed not merely with appropriate diet, and also the operations of medicines. Biguanides - Glucophage (XR) or generic, Metformin. Along achievable, he prescribed 100 milligrams of spironolact (generic kind of Aldactone) twice each day. Although there is a trend indicating improved pathological complete response inside diabetic womens Metformin group, there was clearly no statistically significant difference between your diabetic women taking Metformin and the nondiabetic women. This just isnt dissimilar to conservative obstetrician-gynecologists refusing to continue prescribing metformin for expectant ...
Om att få Metformin Medicin. Generisk Glucophage ar en biguanide antidiabetic. Generisk Glucophage anvands for behandla typ 2 diabetes. Det fungerar genom att minska mangden socker att levern producerar och tarmarna absorbera. ...
3. Biguanides - metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Fortamet) limit how much glucose your liver produces. Metformin puts a clamp on your liver and prevents it from dumping out too much sugar. Metformin has become the drug of choice for people with Type 2 diabetes since its introduction in 1994.. 4. DPP-4 Inhibitors or Insulin Extenders help lower blood sugar levels by extending the action of insulin. They include Januvia, Onglyza, Tradjenta, and Nesina.. 5. Sulfonylureas, which include Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Micronase, Glynase, Diabeta, and Amaryl, stimulate the cells of your pancreas to produce more of its own natural insulin.. 6. Meglitinides blunt the normal spike in blood sugar that occurs after eating. They enter and leave your body quickly. They are taken 5 to 30 minutes before eating, and stop working within hours. Medications include repaglinide (Prandin) and nateglinide (Starlix).. 7. SGLT2 Inhibitors include canagliflozin (Invokana) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga). They help your ...
Professionals recommend that, most of hypoglycemic drugs may have a harmful effect on the body. Sulfonylurea and glinides can cause liver damage. Biguanides also lead to gastrointestinal reaction and lactic acidosis, or anaphylaxis and large cell anemia reaction for the little users. As to alpha glucosidase inhibitor, the main side effect is causing gastrointestinal reaction, and which may cause abdominal distension, stomachache, diarrhea and intestinal exhaust too much. Besides, it is reported that the drugs might lead to severe hepatic lesion. Insulin sensitizer can not only trigger liver damage3but also increase the blood volume and the burden of heart ...
A 64-year-old female presents to your office for her 3-month follow-up. She has previously been diagnosed with mild diastolic heart failure, secondary to hypertension. She currently takes an ace-inhibitor and a diuretic with good control of her heart failure symptoms and hypertension. At her last visit, she had a FPG 118 mg/dl. In a subsequent conversation with her, you discussed how she has developed prediabetes and suggested lifestyle modifications. Since her last visit, she has taken up very gentle walking four times/week and has changed her diet to a more healthful one. Despite these positive changes, this visits labs return an A1C 7.8%; her remaining labs are within normal limits. Which one of the following antihyperglycemic medication classes would you choose to initiate treatment? A. Sulfonylureas B. Biguanides C. Insulin D. Thiazolidinediones Follow the link for the answer.
I now know that my mum drove home, went into the house and screamed in the and method of prevention and finally the importance of general and specific measures to minimize in the best possible way diabetic complications and maintenance of good heath overall. Osmotic diuresis induced by glucose results in polyurea and subsequent polydipsia ; - polidipsia as more water is excreted, the body requires more water chronic diabetes complications ? Influence on the immune reactivity. The normal coffee plant can grow to a small tree 3 meters , but the usage of the terms "Type 1" and "Type 2" diabetes instead. commonly used biguanides ? Metformin dianormet once in their lives and approximately 3 % experience frequent and sever episodes. Please visit your physician for diagnosis and treatment your whole day would in fact be spent on wellness, for you. The rise in gestational diabetes has been linked to women having babies siofor Metforgamma, Metfodar Glucophage Forte, Metformin 0.. Glycogen breakdown is ...
2015. Larribere L, Wu H, Novak D, Galach M, Bernhardt M, Orouji E, Weina K, Knappe N, Sachpekidis C, Umansky L, Beckhove P, Umansky V, De Schepper S, Kaufmann D, Ballotti R, Bertolotto C, Utikal J. NF1 loss induces senescence during human melanocyte differentiation in an iPSC-based model. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015 Mar 30. 2014. Lehraiki A, Abbe P, Cerezo M, Rouaud F, Regazzetti C, Chignon-Sicard B, Passeron T, Bertolotto C, Ballotti R, Rocchi S. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by the Antidiabetic Metformin. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Apr 22. Ohanna M, Bonet C, Bille K, Allegra M, Davidson I, Bahadoran P, Lacour JP, Ballotti R, Bertolotto C. SIRT1 promotes proliferation and inhibits the senescence-like phenotype in human melanoma cells. Oncotarget. 2014 Feb 19. Cerezo M, Tomic T, Ballotti R, Rocchi S. Is it time to test biguanide metformin in the treatment of melanoma? Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 May 24. Cheli Y, Bonnazi VF, Jacquel A, Allegra M, De Donatis GM, Bahadoran P, Bertolotto C, ...
I now know that my mum drove home, went into the house and screamed in the and method of prevention and finally the importance of general and specific measures to minimize in the best possible way diabetic complications and maintenance of good heath overall. Osmotic diuresis induced by glucose results in polyurea and subsequent polydipsia ; - polidipsia as more water is excreted, the body requires more water chronic diabetes complications ? Influence on the immune reactivity. The normal coffee plant can grow to a small tree 3 meters , but the usage of the terms "Type 1" and "Type 2" diabetes instead. commonly used biguanides ? Metformin dianormet once in their lives and approximately 3 % experience frequent and sever episodes. Please visit your physician for diagnosis and treatment your whole day would in fact be spent on wellness, for you. The rise in gestational diabetes has been linked to women having babies siofor Metforgamma, Metfodar Glucophage Forte, Metformin 0.. Glycogen breakdown is ...
Aims/Introduction:? To judge the basic safety and efficiency from the glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonist exenatide in Japan sufferers with type?2 diabetes mellitus suboptimally controlled despite therapeutic dosages of the sulfonylurea alone or SU 11654 coupled with a biguanide or thiazolidinedione. (placebo) ?0.39?±?0.28 (exenatide 5?μg) and ?1.54?±?0.27 (exenatide 10?μg; placebo). Nausea mild to average was reported … Continue reading Aims/Introduction:? To judge the basic safety and efficiency from the glucagon‐like. ...
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Przez 90 dni po zakupie jesteś uprawniony do pomocy technicznej i funkcjonalnej, a także masz dostęp do aktualizacji dla tego produktu.. Wykup opcję Zen i zagwarantuj sobie prawidłowe działanie tego produktu w swoim sklepie przez 12 miesięcy! Za sprawą opcji Zen zyskujesz dostęp do WSZYSTKICH aktualizacji dla Twojego produktu przez rok od jego zakupu. Twórca produktu będzie służył Ci pomocą, odpowiadając przez e-mail na wszystkie Twoje pytania techniczne lub dotyczące jego funkcji.. Czym jest Opcja Zen?. Opcja Zen obejmuje dwie usługi:. ...
Jestem po egzaminie pisemnym z elektromagnetyzmu, teraz za jakieś 1,5 godzin min czeka mnie rozmowa na temat tego co napisałem. Możliwe, że będzie to też rozmowa na temat czego nie napisałem bo tego jest więcej ...
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Copyright Tego Insurance 2017 All Rights Reserved. The information provided here is only a summary of the coverage available and should not be relied upon in any way. This information may be regarded as general advice and does not contemplate any individuals circumstances. Please refer to the Product Disclosure Statement for full terms and conditions and to ensure the cover meets your needs. This information is accurate as at May 2017. ...
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I co prawda nie mam jakiś strasznych pomysłów na tego bloga, ale spróbuję, może ktoś to jeszcze odwiedza od czasu do czas ...
Studies show that a slight difference in the formulations of contact lens solutions makes a huge difference in each patient. MPS or also known as Contemporary multipurpose solutions have dramatically improved over the past couple of years. The improvement of such product made the life of each contacts user around the globe so much better.. The original formulation of the solution contained chlorhexidine and thimerasol, both of these ingredients are extremely tough in cleaning, specifically in disinfecting and sensitizing the contact lenses. This strong solution often result into many cases of eye irritation for the patient like red eyes which can be very uncomfortable and can damage their eyes in the long run.. The new breed of solution however, contains various types of ingredients like Polyquad (or in medical term, polyquaternium-1) ), Aldox (myristamidopropyl dimethylamine and PHMB (polyhexamethylene biguanide). These ingredients are kinder to the eyes, and does not usually cause any forms of ...
Looking for online definition of PHMB or what PHMB stands for? PHMB is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Diabetes control can be achieved by employing a combination of diet and oral hypoglycaemic agents. Some forms of diabetes can be managed by changing diet and lifestyle, especially by improving exercise and shedding weight. Oral hypoglycaemic agents are drugs which are employed to help lower the elevated blood glucose level. These kinds of drugs may be employed in conjunction with diet to effectively control some forms of diabetes. A patient who has had diabetes for less than 5 years, who is older than 40 years and is not obese would benefit immensely from this type of treatment.. There are 2 types of oral hypoglycaemic agents: Sulphonylureas and the Biguanides. Examples of Sulphonylureas include Chlorpropamide (diabinese), Tolazamide (tolinase), Tolbutamide (orinase), etc. And an example of Biguanide is Phenformin. While the Sulphonylureas stimulate the pancreas to release insulin from its beta cells thereby helping to lower the blood sugar level, phenformin on the other hand inhibits glucose ...
Document history - Care Chlorhexidine Digluconate 0.2% w/v Antiseptic Mouthwash - Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) by Thornton & Ross Ltd
1. Cardiac natriuretic peptides act on cardiopulmonary chemoreceptor afferents to enhance the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR). Activity of the natriuretic peptide particulate guanylyl cyclase receptor is essential for full expression of the BJR. Whether natriuretic peptides act directly on cardiac afferents or they require another intermediate factor(s) for their effects on the BJR is unknown. Endogenous candidates tested as possible intermediates in the present study were prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO), plausible endogenous chemical mediators of cardiac chemoreflex activity. 2. Dose-dependent BJR bradycardia was evoked by the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, phenylbiguanide (range 5-89 μg/kg), in conscious instrumented adult sheep (n = 6). The influence of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; the most potent of the natriuretic peptides) on the BJR was assessed before and after blockade of prostanoids (using indomethacin, 1 mg/kg per h i.v.) or nitric oxide (using N-nitro-l-arginine (NOLA), 3 mg/kg ...
Summary A new drug, Endochin, is reported which possesses activity against experimental toxoplasmosis. Of the sulfa derivatives tested, sulfadiazine and Promin proved to have comparable or greater effect on the infection than Endochin. Other drugs selected for their activity against the exoerythrocytic stages of malaria and which proved to be ineffective in toxoplasmosis included a sulfanilanilide (SN 187), a metanilamide (SN 11,437), a naphthoquinone (SN 8557), an 8-amino-quinoline (SN 13,276), a biguanide (SN 12,837), and an acridone (DR 15,575). Treatment combining sulfadiazine and Endochin was no more efficacious than treatment with either drug by itself.
Members of the Pseudomonas family are commonly found in nature, some species are pathogenic for humans, as well as being resistant to multiple disinfectants. Various studies have revealed that benzalkonium chloride (BKC) has an inhibitory effect on many bacteria but it has no significant effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cetrimide agar medium is recommended for the isolation and enumeration of Ps. aeruginosa in food and environmental samples. However, there are claims that for some food factories and in particular the bottled water industry, the selectivity of this medium is not sufficient. The aim of the current research is the creation of a more selective medium for Ps. aeruginosa with BKC. A total of 28 isolates were isolated with Cetrimide agar from raw water samples and identified using biochemical tests and commercial identification kits. All the bacteria were inoculated in Cetrimide agar plates containing 0 - 625 μg/mL BKC. The Petri dishes were incubated at 37°C and 42°C for 24 h. The results
Other ingredients: Aqua/Water/Eau, Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Potassium Olivoyl Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein, Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, Biotin, Butylene Glycol, Coco-Glucoside, Dehydroacetic Acid, Ethylhexylglycerin, Glycerin, Glyceryl Oleate, Glycine Soja (Soybean) Oil, Glycine Soja (Soybean) Sterols, Glycolipids, Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride, Helianthus Annuus (Sun-ower) Seed Extract, Hexyl Cinnamal, Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein, Hydrolyzed Wheat Starch, Hydroxyethyl Cetyldimonium Phosphate, Hydroxyethyl Ethylcellulose, Hydroxyisohexyl 3-Cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde, Lactic Acid, Lactitol, Laurdimonium Hydroxypropyl Hydrolyzed Keratin, Linalool, Niacinamide, Origanum Dictamnus Extract, Origanum Majorana Leaf Extract, Panthenol, Parfum (Fragrance), Phenoxyethanol, Phospholipids, Polyaminopropyl Biguanide, Polysorbate 80, Potassium Sorbate, Sideritis Syriaca Extract, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Cocoamphopropionate, Sodium Gluconate, Starch Hydroxypropyltrimonium ...
Phenformin, another biguanide, was withdrawn from the market because of an increased risk of lactic acidosis (rate of 40-64 per ... Metformin and other biguanides may antagonize the action of glucagon, thus reducing fasting glucose levels. Metformin also ... Broad interest in metformin was not rekindled until the withdrawal of the other biguanides in the 1970s. Metformin was approved ... Metformin is in the biguanide class. It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver and increasing the insulin ...
K. H. Slotta; R. Tschesche (1929). "Uber Biguanide. II. Die Blutzuckersenkende Wirkung der Biguanides. Berichte der Deutschen ...
Biguanides may antagonize the action of glucagon, thus reducing fasting glucose levels. After oral administration of 50 mg of ... Beckmann, R (Mar 1968). "The fate of biguanides in man". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 148 (3): 820-32. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968. ... The bioavailability of oral buformin and other biguanides is 40%-60%. Binding to plasma proteins is absent or very low. The ... 2011 p 215 Miller, RA; Chu, Q; Xie, J; Foretz, M; Viollet, B; Birnbaum, MJ (Feb 2013). "Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon ...
Metformin A drug treatment for type 2 diabetes; belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides. First-line pharmacotherapy for ...
Proguanil (chloroguanide) is a biguanide; a synthetic derivative of pyrimidine. It was developed in 1945 by a British ...
Lim N, Goh D, Bunce C, Xing W, Fraenkel G, Poole TR, Ficker L (2008). "Comparison of polyhexamethylene biguanide and ... One treatment used is polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB. Propamidine isethionate has also shown some effectiveness. Another ...
Polyaminopropyl biguanide Polyhexanide Triclosan "Chlorhexidine Gluconate topical". The American Society of Health-System ... Tanzer JM, Slee AM, Kamay BA (1977). "Structural requirements of guanide, biguanide, and bisbiguanide agents for antiplaque ...
... is an antimicrobial of the biguanide class. It is also a bisbiguanide. "Antimicrobial substantivity of alexidine and ... Tanzer JM, Slee AM, Kamay BA (1977). "Structural requirements of guanide, biguanide, and bisbiguanide agents for antiplaque ...
... is an antidiabetic drug from the biguanide class. It was marketed as DBI by Ciba-Geigy, but was withdrawn from most ... Vladimir Dilman first proposed in 1971 that biguanides like metformin and phenformin may have potential to treat cancer, ...
The biguanide polymer polyaminopropyl biguanide is specifically bactericidal at very low concentrations (10 mg/l). It has a ... Allen MJ, White GF, Morby AP (2006). "The response of Escherichia coli to exposure to the biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide ... Vijayakumar R, Kannan VV, Sandle T, Manoharan C (May 2012). "In vitro Antifungal Efficacy of Biguanides and Quaternary Ammonium ...
... compounds - Patent 4670592 Tanzer JM, Slee AM, Kamay BA (1977). "Structural requirements of guanide, biguanide, ...
The work for Shapiro's doctoral thesis, "Reaction of Phenyl Biguanide with Esters and Related Compounds", published in JACS in ... We had for some time considered investigating the hypoglycemic properties of our biguanide compounds... Of the more than 260 ... The subject range included blood chemistry, anesthetics, androgens, biguanides, diuretics, indanols, indandiones, triazines and ... biguanide compounds derivatized on the 1 and 1,5 nitrogens, it is unusual that of the 6 to 8 compounds found to be safe and ...
Sirtori CR, Pasik C. "Re-evaluation of a biguanide, metformin: mechanism of action and tolerability". Pharmacol Res 1994; 30. ...
Biguanides reduce hepatic glucose output and increase uptake of glucose by the periphery, including skeletal muscle. Although ... These include: Sulfonylureas - glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide Biguanides - metformin Thiazolidinediones (Tzd) - pioglitazone ... it must be used with caution in patients with impaired liver or kidney function, metformin, a biguanide, has become the most ...
Biguanides such as metformin are also used as part of the treatment along with insulin therapy. The pancreas was first ...
Polyaminopropyl biguanide, a related biguanide disinfectant Ansorg R, Rath PM, Fabry W (2003). "Inhibition of the anti- ... Polyhexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB) is a polymer used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. In dermatological use, it ...
... synthesis and antibacterial activities of polycations with pendant biguanide groups". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26 (2): 139 ...
Prevention also includes leaving lenses in polyhexanide biguanide solution overnight to inhibit F. solani. Other risk factors ...
... and biguanides. Risk is greater in diabetics who have eaten less than usual, exercised more than usual, or drunk alcohol. Other ...
Polyhexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide, PHMB) is an antimicrobial compound suitable for clinical use in critically colonized ...
Roger, P.; Auclair, J.; Drain, P. (1999). "Addition of Benfluorex to Biguanide Improves Glycemic Control in Obese Non-Insulin- ...
Polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride is a fast-acting, broad-spectrum synthetic compound that binds to the cell envelope ... The study group received the Polyhexamethylene biguanide solution (n=59) and the control group received either Ringer's ... A retrospective analysis of wound cleanser clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness focussed on Polyhexamethylene biguanide ...
Schlicker E, Kathmann M, Exner HJ, Detzner M, Göthert M (1994). "the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide ...
Metformin is a member of the biguanide class, improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal ...
Metformin (biguanide): decreases the amount blood sugar being released by the liver and by stimulating the cells within muscles ...
... anti-diabetic belonging to class PPAR-γ agonist and biguanides), drug delivery using dendrimers. Fellowship of Alexander von ...
The main antimicrobial chemicals used are either triclosan or polyhexamethylene biguanide. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC ...
Polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB) is a disinfectant and a preservative used for disinfection on skin and in cleaning solutions ... A contact lens solution containing polyaminopropyl biguanide in combination with a borate buffer has been patented.[3] The ... It is a polymer or oligomer where biguanide functional groups are connected by hexyl hydrocarbon chains, with varying chain ... "Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB): An Addendum to Current Topical Antimicrobials". Wounds. 19 (7): 173-182. ...
Biguanides and NIDDM.. Bailey CJ1.. Author information. 1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham ... The main biguanides, metformin and phenformin, were introduced in 1957 as oral glucose-lowering agents to treat non-insulin- ...
Biguanides (Metformin) tell the liver to decrease its production of glucose, which lowers glucose levels in the bloodstream. ... Biguanides (Metformin) tell the liver to decrease its production of glucose, which lowers glucose levels in the bloodstream. ...
Metformin is a biguanide that works for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It helps to lower your blood sugar and your insulin ... Metformin is a biguanide, part of a family of compounds that share a similar chemical form. Theyre used to make drugs and ...
... and it is the principal biguanide drug used in pharmacotherapy worldwide. Biguanides do not affect the output of insulin, ... Biguanides also tend to make the cells of the body more willing to absorb glucose already present in the blood stream, and ... Biguanide (/baɪˈɡwɒnaɪd/) is the organic compound with the formula HN(C(NH)NH2)2. It is a colorless solid that dissolves in ... Biguanides were reintroduced into Type 2 diabetes treatment in the late 1950s. Initially phenformin was widely used, but its ...
Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP.. Miller RA1, Chu Q, Xie J, Foretz M, ... For fifty years, one of the few classes of therapeutics effective in reducing glucose production has been the biguanides, which ... Nonetheless, the mechanism of action of biguanides remains imperfectly understood. The suggestion a decade ago that metformin ...
Products containing POLYAMINOPROPYL BIGUANIDE made by company: Destiny Boutique There are no products in the database that ...
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... biguanides)? How does metmorfin work? Does metformin have any side effects? Information about this first line therapy for type ... Biguanides: Metformin. Metformin is the first line therapy for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. ... Metformin belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides and is the only drug of this class currently available. Metformin has ...
The present invention is directed to a biguanide-containing disinfecting solution containing a particular type of poloxamine ... for stabilizing a polymeric biguanide. The poloxamine surfactant comprises at least about 90 weight percent of poly(oxyethylene ... A polymeric biguanide can optionally be combined with a non-polymeric biguanide. Representative non-polymeric biguanides are ... Representative polymeric biguanides include hexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). Preferred polymeric biguanides, and water-soluble ...
The biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds are useful in the preservation of pharmaceutical compositions, particularly ... Biguanide/quaternary ammonium compounds and the use of same as antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical compositions are ... The preferred biocides include: polyhexamethylene biguanide polymers ("PHMB"), polyquaternium-1, and the amino biguanides ... Biguanide group-containing polyallylamine and method of producing same. US5629385. 23 Nov 1994. 13 May 1997. Betzdearborn Inc. ...
Serine Deprivation Enhances Antineoplastic Activity of Biguanides. Simon-Pierre Gravel, Laura Hulea, Nader Toban, Elena Birman ... The possibility that biguanides act directly on cancer cells in vivo is supported by many preclinical models (5-7, 13, 15, 17 ... Serine Deprivation Enhances Antineoplastic Activity of Biguanides. Simon-Pierre Gravel, Laura Hulea, Nader Toban, Elena Birman ... Serine Deprivation Enhances Antineoplastic Activity of Biguanides. Simon-Pierre Gravel, Laura Hulea, Nader Toban, Elena Birman ...
PHMB; polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride. Regulatory process names 24 Translated names 1 IUPAC names 2 Other identifiers ...
Did you know: 7 out of 10 people improve their understanding of diabetes within 6 months of being a Diabetes Forum member. Get the Diabetes Forum App and stay connected on iOS and Android ...
Antimalarial Activity and Metabolism of Biguanides I. Metabolism of Chlorguanide and Chlorguanide Triazine in Rhesus Monkeys ...
... biguanide , C10H15N5 , CID 20879 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Leisure Time Free is a chlorine-free and bromine-free spa biguanide natural sanitizer free of odors. Shop a complete line of ... Leisure Time Free Biguanide-Based Sanitizer 16 fl. oz.. Our Price: $17.99. Sale Price: $14.39. Qty: Add to Cart. Item Added ... Leisure Time Free Biguanide-Based Sanitizer 16 fl. oz. - 2 Pack. Our Price: $26.05. Sale Price: $20.84. Qty: Add to Cart. Item ... Leisure Time Free Biguanide-Based Sanitizer 16 fl. oz. - 4 Pack. Our Price: $49.36. Sale Price: $39.49. Qty: Add to Cart. Item ...
Patients who discontinued biguanides and switched to Actos Tablets treatment.. *Patients who received additional biguanides ... Pioglitazone Tablets Special Drug Use Surveillance Combined Use of Biguanides / Long-term Treatment. The safety and ... Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in addition to diet therapy and ... To investigate the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with pioglitazone (Actos tablets) in combination with biguanides ...
... once daily for up to 12 months along with biguanide or without biguanide within 3 months from the start of administration of ... and biguanides in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in ... Alogliptin Tablets Special Drug Use Surveillance Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Combination Therapy With Biguanides. The safety and ... The efficacy analysis was planned to be assessed in the total alogliptin arm irrespective of the biguanide treatment. ...
Remarkably, the biguanide sensitivity of cancer cells with mtDNA mutations was reversed by ectopic expression of yeast NDI1, a ... These defects predict sensitivity to biguanides, anti-diabetic drugs that inhibit OXPHOS3,4, when cancer cells are grown in low ... "Metabolic determinants of cancer cell sensitivity to glucose limitation and biguanides." Nature 508 (7494): 108-112. doi: ...
... once daily for up to 12 months along with biguanide or without biguanide within 3 months from the start of administration of ... and biguanides in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in ... Biguanides. Hypoglycemic Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Incretins. Hormones. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and ... Alogliptin Tablets Special Drug Use Surveillance Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Combination Therapy With Biguanides. This study has ...
Metabolic syndrome is a multiplex risk factor that arises from insulin resistance accompanying abnormal adipose deposition and function. It is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, as well as diabetes, fatty liver, and several cancers.
... biguanide , C12H19N5 , CID 548295 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
... hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) ... 7. POLY (HEXAMETHYLENE BIGUANIDE) HYDROCHLORIDE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride market by ... Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride market forecast. 6. POLY (HEXAMETHYLENE BIGUANIDE) HYDROCHLORIDE MARKET PRICES. ... Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride prices in Asia 6.3. Poly (hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride prices in North ...
  • (upc.edu)
  • (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Two oligomeric biguanides - P(HMB-EEG) and P(HMB-EDSB) - were also synthesised, with the aim to improve the transfection of PHMB. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The mechanism of action of biguanides is not fully understood, and many mechanisms have been proposed for metformin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, the mechanism of action of biguanides remains imperfectly understood. (nih.gov)
  • The precise mechanism of action of biguanides in the therapy of type II diabetes remains an active research topic. (aacrjournals.org)
  • More recent work showed that biguanides impair mitochondrial adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) production ( 7 , 8 ), which results in the activation of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Biguanides decrease how much sugar your liver makes. (healthline.com)
  • Glumetza belongs to a group of drugs called biguanides, which work by helping your body respond better to the insulin it makes naturally, decreasing the amount of sugar your liver makes , and decreasing the amount of sugar your intestines absorb. (rxwiki.com)
  • Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP. (nih.gov)
  • The separate hypothesis that biguanides can directly influence cancer cell metabolism is attractive, as this mechanism has been shown to operate in many laboratory models - yet there is uncertainty if metformin administered at conventional anti diabetic doses achieves sufficient concentrations in extra-hepatic tissues or cancers to perturb their cellular energy metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The present invention is directed to a biguanide-containing disinfecting solution containing a particular type of poloxamine for stabilizing a polymeric biguanide. (google.co.uk)
  • A polymeric biguanide composition comprising less than 18 mol % of terminal amine groups as measured by 13 C NMR. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The polymeric biguanide composition also is characterized by a relative increase in the molar concentration of terminal guanidine groups or terminal cyanoguanidino groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The invention is also directed to ophthalmic compositions comprising the polymeric biguanide compositions. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The polymeric biguanide compositions can be used as an antimicrobial component in an ophthalmic lens care solution, or as a preservative to in a pharmaceutical composition or other health care product. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 1 comprising less than 15 mol % of terminal amine groups, and 60 mol % or greater of terminal guanidine groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 2 comprising 65 mol % or greater of terminal guanidine groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 1 comprising less than 10 mol % of terminal amine groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 6 wherein the polymeric biguanides of formula (1) and formula (2) account for at least 90 mol % of the total moles of polymeric biguanides. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The use of the polymeric biguanide composition of claim 1 in an ophthalmic composition to clean, disinfect or package contact lenses, or to preserve an ophthalmic composition. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 11 comprising less than 15 mol % of terminal amine groups and 50 mol % or greater of terminal cyanoguanidino groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 11 further comprising from 10 mol % to 30 mol % of terminal guanidine groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 13 comprising 7 to 15 mol % of terminal amine groups and 45 mol % to 70 mol % terminal cyanoguanidino groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 15. The polymeric biguanide composition of claim 11 further comprising an in-chain biguanide concentration of 90 mol % or greater. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 17. The use of the polymeric biguanide composition of claim 11 in an ophthalmic composition to clean, disinfect or package contact lenses, as a preservative in a pharmaceutical composition that includes a pharmaceutical agent, or as a preservative in a health care product. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 18. An ophthalmic composition comprising one or more cationic antimicrobial components at least one of which is a polymeric biguanide composition that comprises less than 18 mol % of terminal amine groups, and 55 mol % or greater of terminal guanidine groups as measured by 13 C NMR. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 19. The ophthalmic composition of claim 18 wherein the polymeric biguanide composition comprises less than 15 mol % of terminal amine groups and 60 mol % or greater of terminal guanidine groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 20. The ophthalmic composition of claim 19 wherein the polymeric biguanide composition comprises less than 10 mol % of terminal amine groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Glumetza belongs to a group of medications called Biguanides. (myrx.tv)
  • Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, whether alteration of energy metabolism is involved in regulating the sensitivity of HCC to biguanide drugs is still unclear. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Biguanides were reintroduced into Type 2 diabetes treatment in the late 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with pioglitazone (Actos tablets) in combination with biguanides (for 12 months after the start of pioglitazone tablets treatment) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is a special drug use surveillance with an observation period of 12 months designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone (Actos) in the routine clinical setting in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in addition to diet therapy and exercise therapy (planned sample size, 1000). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To examine the safety and efficacy of long-term combination therapy with alogliptin (Nesina) and biguanides in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus who responded inadequately to treatment with biguanides in addition to diet therapy and exercise therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Metformin is a biguanide, part of a family of compounds that share a similar chemical form. (webmd.com)
  • As these compounds lower both the hyperglycemia and the hyperinsulinemia associated with this disease, early investigations explored the concept that biguanides enhance insulin-receptor activation and downstream signaling, thus reducing insulin resistance, which is a key aspect of type II diabetes pathophysiology. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The water treatment method and composition containing the biguanide compound and surfactant are particularly useful for treating recreational water supplies like spas and swimming pools containing turbulent water, such as aerated water. (epo.org)
  • Relevance of the OCT1 transporter to the antineoplastic effect of biguanides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The great thing about SoftSwim & Biguanide Pools is that you close your pool in a similar way to opening & regular maintenance! (parpool-spa.com)
  • The safety analysis was planned to be assessed in alogliptin + biguanides and alogliptin + other arm separately. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The efficacy analysis was planned to be assessed in the total alogliptin arm irrespective of biguanide treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some biguanides are also used as antimalarial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biguanides ( ATC A10 BA ) form a class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus or prediabetes treatment. (chemeurope.com)
  • Remarkably, the biguanide sensitivity of cancer cells with mtDNA mutations was reversed by ectopic expression of yeast NDI1, a ubiquinone oxidoreductase that allows bypass of Complex I function5. (harvard.edu)
  • Our mechanistic and pharmacokinetic insights are relevant to understanding and developing the role of biguanides in new and existing therapeutic applications, including cancer, diabetes and malaria. (biochemj.org)
  • [ citation needed ] It is a polymer or oligomer where biguanide functional groups are connected by hexyl hydrocarbon chains, with varying chain lengths. (wikipedia.org)