A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Several clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells associated with blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus). The nonchromaffin paraganglia sense pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and participate in respiratory, and perhaps circulatory, control. They include the CAROTID BODY; AORTIC BODIES; the GLOMUS JUGULARE; and the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Small clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the ARCH OF THE AORTA; the PULMONARY ARTERIES; and the CORONARY ARTERIES. The aortic bodies sense PH; CARBON DIOXIDE; and OXYGEN concentrations in the BLOOD and participate in the control of RESPIRATION. The aortic bodies should not be confused with the PARA-AORTIC BODIES in the abdomen (which are sometimes also called aortic bodies).
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The carotid body is a group of chemoreceptor cells located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. It includes two ... "Carotid body autotransplantation in Parkinson disease: a clinical and positron emission tomography study". Journal of Neurology ... "Autotransplantation of human carotid body cell aggregates for treatment of Parkinson's disease". Neurosurgery. 53 (2): 321-328 ... "Neurotransmitters in Carotid Body Function: The Case of Dopamine - Invited Article", Arterial Chemoreceptors, Springer ...
... carotid carotid bifurcation carotid body carotid canal carotid groove carotid plexus carotid sheath carotid sinus carotid ... viscera visceromotor nuclei viscus Visible Human Project visual cortex visual fields visual radiation vitreous body vitreous ... bilateral symmetry bile duct biology bipolar cells of the retina bitemporal heminopia blastomere blood blood brain barrier body ... history of anatomy Hoffmann's reflex homologous hormone horn human anatomical parts named after people human anatomy human body ...
Blood oxygen and carbon dioxide are in fact directly sensed by the carotid body, a small collection of chemosensors at the ... bifurcation of the carotid artery, innervated by the petrosal (IXth) ganglion. Primary sensory neurons project (synapse) onto " ... The sympathetic nervous system consists of cells with bodies in the lateral grey column from T1 to L2/3. These cell bodies are ... It has been described as "the Second Brain of the Human Body". Its functions include: Sensing chemical and mechanical changes ...
... particularly in the carotid bodies (at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery in the neck) and in aortic bodies (near the ... Carotid paraganglioma (carotid body tumor): Is the most common of the head and neck paragangliomas. It usually presents as a ... Micrograph of a carotid body tumor Glomus jugulare tumor Ectopic functional paraganglioma (glomus jugulare) in a patient with ... S100 immunostain highlighting the sustentacular cells in a paraganglioma Digital subtraction arteriogram of carotid body tumor ...
The carotid body is located in the adventitia, in the bifurcation (fork) of the common carotid artery, which runs along both ... Rarely, a malignant neuroblastoma may originate from the carotid body. "Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus -- General Information ... Impulse rate for carotid bodies is particularly sensitive to changes in arterial PO2 in the range of 60 down to 30 mm Hg, a ... The carotid body is made up of two types of cells, called glomus cells: glomus type I cells are peripheral chemoreceptors, and ...
... trunk and then divides in the angle of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery to innervate the carotid body and carotid ... is a small branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that innervates the carotid sinus and carotid body. It is a branch of the ... The carotid branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (carotid sinus nerve or Hering's nerve) ... and from chemoreceptors in the carotid body (mainly monitoring blood gas PaO2 and PaCO2 levels). This article incorporates text ...
Behind the angle of bifurcation of the common carotid artery is a reddish-brown oval body known as the carotid body. It is ... carotid artery Right and left common carotid arteries Head and neck anatomy Carotid sheath Carotid sinus Carotid body Carotid ... Carotidynia is a syndrome marked by soreness of the carotid artery near the bifurcation. Carotid stenosis may occur in patients ... The common carotid arteries are present on the left and right sides of the body. These arteries originate from different ...
The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the "true" internal carotid artery. The carotid sinus is sensitive to ... Baroreflex Carotid body S., Pellerito, John; F., Polak, Joseph (2012). Introduction to vascular ultrasonography. Saunders/ ... Massage of the carotid sinus, carotid sinus massage is used to diagnose carotid sinus syncope and is sometimes useful for ... area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid ...
Sensory fibers arise from the carotid sinus and carotid body at the common carotid artery bifurcation, ascend in the sinus ... Sensory: Oropharynx, Eustachian tube, middle ear, posterior third of tongue, carotid sinus, carotid body. Special sensory: ... Solitary nucleus: Taste from the posterior one-third of the tongue and information from carotid baroreceptors and carotid body ... Visceral sensory (general visceral afferent) - carries visceral sensory information from the carotid sinus and carotid body. ...
Carotid endarterectomy Carotid body This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 566 of the 20th edition of ... The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid bifurcation until it enters the ... The internal carotid runs vertically upward in the carotid sheath and enters the skull through the carotid canal. During this ... The internal carotid artery is a terminal branch of the common carotid artery; it arises around the level of the fourth ...
Most commonly, they are located in the head and neck region, specifically at the carotid bifurcation, the jugular foramen, the ... and may develop at various body sites, including the head, neck, thorax and abdomen. ...
... are located in the aortic bodies and carotid bodies adjacent to the arch of the aorta and to the bifurcation of the carotid ... Acid-base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).[1] The proper balance ... Many extracellular proteins such as the plasma proteins and membrane proteins of the body's cells are very sensitive for their ... ions into the tubular fluid from where they exit the body via the urine. The HCO−. 3 ions are simultaneously secreted into the ...
It ends in a bifurcation into the left and right common iliac arteries. At the point of the bifurcation, there also springs a ... The aorta, normally on the left side of the body, may be found on the right in dextrocardia, in which the heart is found on the ... For example, the left vertebral artery may arise from the aorta, instead of the left common carotid artery. In patent ductus ... The aorta (/eɪˈɔːrtə/ ay-OR-tə) is the main and largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the ...
Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation. Подключична. артерия. Вътрешна гръдна артерия: *Anterior intercostal ... Arising in carotid triangle[1] *Горна щитовидна артерия (a. thyreoidea superior) *Hyoid (infrahyoid) artery ...
This separates the carotid artery from the vertebral artery and the carotid artery can be massaged against this tubercle to ... that rises perpendicularly from the upper surface of the body and articulates with C1. The body is deeper in front than behind ... and its extremity seldom presents more than a trace of bifurcation. The transverse foramen may be as large as that in the other ... The bodies of these four vertebrae are small, and broader from side to side than from front to back. The anterior and posterior ...
The largest vein in the body is the vena cava. The superior vena cava (SVC) drains blood from the top half of the body while ... Carotid Atherosclerosis involves the major branch arteries that provide blood to the brain. Carotid artery disease incurs an ... those below the aortic bifurcation. A hallmark symptom is claudication, or progressive pain in a limb associated with activity ... The main benefits of interventional radiology techniques are that they can reach the deep structures of the body through a body ...
First, an incision is made in the neck to visualise the carotid bifurcation. The electrode is placed over the carotid artery ... which activates central nervous system pathways that in turn exert two different but synergistic autonomic effects on the body ... on the carotid artery, carries a theoretical risk of disturbing plaque inside the carotid artery that in principle could cause ... "Carotid baroreceptor stimulation blood pressure response mapped in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (C-Map study)". ...
Dissections at Boston University by Frank Brodie describe the various bifurcations (or splittings) of the common carotid. This ... These pouches can reach the size of their body when they are full. Below is the introduction of the legume (pod) of peanut in ... The cheek pouches of chipmunks can reach the size of their body when full. Cheek pouches are located in the thickness of the ...
Another common culprit of TIA is an atherosclerotic plaque located in the common carotid artery, typically by the bifurcation ... Numbness or weakness generally occur on the opposite side of the body from the affected hemisphere of the brain. A TIA may ... and carotid ultrasonography/transcranial doppler ultrasonography. Carotid ultrasonography is often used to screen for carotid ... Confirming a diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis is important because the treatment for this condition, carotid endarterectomy ...
The aorta (/eɪˈɔːrtə/ ay-OR-tə) is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and ... It ends in a bifurcation into the left and right common iliac arteries. At the point of the bifurcation, there also springs a ... Left common carotid artery. Left subclavian artery. Descending aorta, thoracic part: Left bronchial arteries. esophageal ... The aorta, normally on the left side of the body, may be found on the right in dextrocardia, in which the heart is found on the ...
Carotid pulse: located in the neck (carotid artery). The carotid artery should be palpated gently and while the patient is ... The pulse may be palpated in any place that allows an artery to be compressed near the surface of the body, such as at the neck ... An unequal pulse between upper and lower extremities is seen in coarctation to aorta, aortitis, block at bifurcation of aorta, ... Also, a person's two carotid arteries should not be palpated at the same time. Doing so may limit the flow of blood to the head ...
The wall of internal carotid artery just distal to the bifurcation (split) is a common site of atherosclerosis because of the ... Most often, the side of the brain damaged results in body defects on the opposite side. Since the cranial nerves originate from ... During carotid angioplasty, an angiography cather with a small deflated balloon attached on the tip is advanced to a carotid ... Carotid stenting follows a similar procedure. Rather than using a balloon, a stent (metal mesh-like tube) is placed over the ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ... The part that is between the aorta and the bifurcation only is known as the left main artery (LM), while the term "LCA" might ... an additional artery arises at the bifurcation of the left main artery, forming a trifurcation; this extra artery is called the ...
... exit the skull at the jugular foramen and travel within the carotid sheath alongside the carotid arteries through the neck. The ... Sensory cell bodies are located in the inferior jugular ganglion, and the fibers terminate in the solitary nucleus. ... The right recurrent laryngeal nerve is more susceptible to damage during thyroid surgery because it is close to the bifurcation ... The nerves supply muscles on the same side of the body, with the exception of the interarytenoid muscle, which is innervated ...
Carotid artery, common - In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) ) are arteries that supply the head ... Vitreous body - Vulva - Waist - is the part of the abdomen between the rib cage and hips. On people with slim bodies, the waist ... In some individuals, the bifurcation occurs much earlier and the ulnar and radial arteries extend through the upper arm. The ... Common carotid artery - In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) ) are arteries that supply the head ...
The calculated distance approximates that of the segment of MCA main stem just after the carotid bifurcation, where probably ... Gray, H., & Clemente, C. D. (1984). Gray's anatomy of the human body. 30th American Edition . Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams ... The pre-bifurcation length from the measurement point would be given by D4 = wavelength/32 = cf4/32 = 3.5 cm and a frequency f4 ... The tests are often used in conjunction with other tests such as MRI, MRA, carotid duplex ultrasound and CT scans. The tests ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ... The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body ... In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel by atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body leads to ... In general, arteries and arterioles transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body and its organs, and veins and venules ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ... left common carotid artery (directly from arch of aorta on left mostly)[edit]. internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic ... external carotid artery[edit]. *Arising in carotid triangle[1] *Superior thyroid artery *Hyoid (infrahyoid) artery ... 2.2 left common carotid artery (directly from arch of aorta on left mostly) *2.2.1 internal carotid artery ...
Enlargement of the pulmonary trunk (measured at its bifurcation). It is, however, a poor predictor of pulmonary hypertension in ... it becomes harder and harder for the left side of the heart to pump to supply sufficient oxygen to the rest of the body, ...
This is due to bifurcations, which cause a drop in pressure. The more bifurcations, the higher the total cross-sectional area, ... To apply these result to any body weight, any of the values BLs, BLH and ANHH or PRBC given in the table need to be multiplied ... Blood flow ensures the transportation of nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes, O2 and CO2 throughout the body to maintain cell ... It is true that in a steady state flow of a viscous fluid through a rigid spherical body immersed in the fluid, where we assume ...
This separates the carotid artery from the vertebral artery and the carotid artery can be massaged against this tubercle to ... that rises perpendicularly from the upper surface of the body and articulates with C1. The body is deeper in front than behind ... and its extremity seldom presents more than a trace of bifurcation. ... The bodies of these four vertebrae are small, and broader from side to side than from front to back. *The anterior and ...
... (also termed stylohyoid syndrome[1] styloid syndrome,[2] styloid-stylohyoid syndrome,[2] or styloid-carotid ... Since the brain to body's nerve connections pass through the neck; many seemingly random symptoms can be triggered by ... Repair of a damaged carotid artery is essential in order to prevent further neurological complications.[citation needed] ... In vascular Eagle syndrome, the elongated styloid process comes in contact with the internal carotid artery below the skull. In ...
Very rarely the ulcerated plaque is below the aortic bifurcation and those cases the changes occur only in one lower extremity ... infection of the heart valves with small clumps of infected tissue embolizing through the body). Tests for inflammation (C- ... retinal manifestations and the role of carotid endarterectomy". J Vasc Surg. 11 (5): 635-641. doi:10.1067/mva.1990.19748. PMID ...
... s (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the carotid sinus (at the bifurcation of external and ... Denervating these receptors 'fools' the body into thinking that it has too low blood volume and initiates mechanisms that ... Signals from the carotid baroreceptors are sent via the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX). Signals from the aortic ... Baroreceptors can also become oversensitive in some people (usually the carotid baroreceptors in older males). This can lead to ...
Carotid Body Paraganglioma That Originates From Ectopic Carotid Bifurcation Presenting as an Oropharyngeal Mass. Ogul, Hayri; ... Ischemic Optic Neuropathy After Carotid Body Tumor Resection. Özkiris, Mahmut; Akin, Ibrahim; Özkiris, Asuman; More ...
Carotid body glomus tumors, also called carotid body tumors, occur at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and arise ... Carotid body tumor. Lateral angiogram shows a densely vascular mass at the level of the carotid bifurcation that causes ... Carotid body tumor. Lateral angiogram shows a densely vascular mass at the level of the carotid bifurcation that causes ... CT scanning demonstrates carotid body tumors at the level of the carotid bifurcation, respectively splaying the internal and ...
A Vascular Malformation in the Carotid Sheath at the Carotid Bifurcation Mimicking Carotid Body Tumor. ...
Bifurcation of the common carotid, above the coronary sinus. Innervated by the carotid sinus nerve into the glossopharyngeal ... How do carotid bodies respond to increased PaCO2/[H+] or decreased PaO2? ... Where specifically are peripheral chemoreceptors at the carotid body and what are they innervated by? ... Browse over 1 million classes created by top students, professors, publishers, and experts, spanning the worlds body of " ...
Figure 2: Intraoperative image showing the intact carotid bifurcation after the excision of a carotid body tumor. ... Figure 1: Intraoperative image showing a carotid artery bifurcation and a type II carotid body tumor. ... J. G. Gwon, T.-W. Kwon, H. Kim, and Y.-P. Cho, "Risk factors for stroke during surgery for carotid body tumors," World Journal ... J. A. Wieneke and A. Smith, "Paraganglioma: carotid body tumor," Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 303-306, 2009. ...
Background Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In children, increased ... We measured the far wall of the common carotid artery at 1 cm from the carotid bifurcation. A high frequency linear US probe ... Carotid artery intima-media thickness measurement in children with normal and increased body mass index: a comparison of three ... B-mode longitudinal US image of the common carotid artery of a 12-year-old boy shows the line drawn by the technologist next to ...
The carotid sinus and carotid body are located at the bifurcation (see the image below). ... The carotid artery enlarges in the midneck, forming the carotid bulb, before bifurcating into the external and internal carotid ... Carotid artery stenting has increased risk of external carotid artery occlusion compared with carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc ... Carotid artery exposed prior to carotid endarterectomy (coil present in internal carotid artery). ...
Enhancing Mass at the Carotid Bifurcation: Not Always a Carotid Body Tumor pp. 88-95(8) Authors: Ibrahim, H.A.; Sepahdari, A.R. ...
Carotid body lies on the ____ side of the bifurcation of the c. Carotid artery ... The carotid body is a_____ that monitors the levels of oxygen and initiates a reflex that increases the rate and depth of resp ... The carotid sinus is a _____ that reacts to changes in arterial blood pressure . ...
The carotid body is a group of chemoreceptor cells located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. It includes two ... "Carotid body autotransplantation in Parkinson disease: a clinical and positron emission tomography study". Journal of Neurology ... "Autotransplantation of human carotid body cell aggregates for treatment of Parkinsons disease". Neurosurgery. 53 (2): 321-328 ... "Neurotransmitters in Carotid Body Function: The Case of Dopamine - Invited Article", Arterial Chemoreceptors, Springer ...
... the carotid sinus and carotid body are located at the bifurcation. external carotid. common carotid. superior thyroid a., ... to carotid body. glossopharyngeal n. (IX) no named branches. none. sensory receptors in the carotid body and carotid sinus. ... in carotid body; blood pressure receptors in carotid sinus; both located near the bifurcation of the common carotid a.; the ... external carotid a., internal carotid a.. most of the head and upper neck. common carotid a. bifurcates at the level of the ...
... rare tumors arising from neural crest tissue that develops into sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia throughout the body ... The carotid body.. *Other paraganglia along the cervical and thoracic branches of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. ... The organ of Zuckerkandl near the aortic bifurcation.. *Other paraganglia along the distribution of the sympathetic nervous ... at least through the level of the aortic bifurcation) are the most commonly used methods for localization.[29] Both have ...
The carotid body lies deep to the bifurcation of the common carotid artery or somewhat between the two branches. The carotid ... The aortic bodies (glomera aortica) are chemoreceptors similar to the carotid bodies. Afferent fibers from the aortic bodies ... Surrounding the carotid body is a delicate fibrous capsule. It is part of the visceral afferent system of the body, containing ... Acquiring nerve activity from carotid body and/or sinus. US20130060296 *. 30 Oct 2012. 7 Mar 2013. Pacesetter, Inc.. Acquiring ...
... d Intravascular peep from the internal arteries of the carotid body tumor; e Intravascular peep from the vein of the carotid ... VR allowed the surgeon to practice the gradual separation of the tumor at the carotid bifurcation. Open image in new window. ... A contrast-enhanced neck CT showed a 2.5 × 2.5 cm tumor at the right carotid artery bifurcation (Fig. 2a). The tumor surrounded ... In unique cases, such as the carotid body tumor above, when both imaging and virtual images suggest that the tumor is closely ...
... up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. In a lateral approach the carotid ... Experimental: Carotid body excision Patients undergoing the carotid body excision to test the hypothesis that carotid body ... Carotid Body Removal for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: a Pilot Study. The safety and scientific validity of this ... The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases ...
It was clear at this point that this was a neural tumor rather than a carotid body tumor and the case was continued by the ... The hypoglossal normally crosses the carotid vessels about 2cm cephalad to the bifurcation. The vagus nerve lies between the ... The glossopharyngeal nerve lies deep to the distal internal carotid artery. The cervical sympathetic chain lies embedded in the ... hypoglossal and vagus nerves as well as the cervical sympathetic chain are closely associated with the internal carotid artery ...
Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Stroke web site. ... With this software, oblique planes can be adjusted to evaluate the carotid bifurcation in multiple reformations in the short ... Both carotid arteries were ulcerated in 12 patients, and some patients had multiple (up to 4) ulcerations in the same carotid ... Atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation: CT angiographic appearance with histopathologic correlation. AJNR Am J ...
The carotid artery bifurcation (containing the carotid body), petrosal ganglia, and the brainstem were quickly removed and ... Localization of Kv1.1 in the carotid body. Confocal images of control (A, B) and null (C) mouse carotid bodies. Kv1.1-like ... In vitro carotid body activity. Carotid body activity was monitored as previously described (Kline et al., 2002a). Mice were ... we examined the role of Kv1.1 in the afferent pathway of the carotid body chemoreflex. In the carotid body, Kv1.1 was ...
CAROTID BODY TUMOURS - Glomus tumour/ Chemodectoma*Not as bad as it sounds! Mortality 9-15 ... chemoreceptive areas) at carotid bifurcation *Present in middle age *PULSATILE, hard and elastic ... thyroid artery COMMON CAROTID. VEINS Superior thyroid vein Middle thyroid vein Inferior thyroid vein INTERNAL JUGULAR 25. For ... Internal carotid-Location-deep ... Systemic diseases-ear,nose ,throat,face,eyes,TMJ,neck. History of Patient With Headache. ... ...
carotid body. n.. A chemoreceptor that is a body of vascular tissue near the bifurcations of the carotid arteries. It monitors ... carotid body. a small neurovascular structure lying in the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries, containing ... carotid body. an area of gland-like tissue situated near the joining of the external CAROTID ARTERY to the common carotid which ... Synonym(s): intercarotid body. carotid body. A chemical receptor, situated at the first branch of each carotid artery, that ...
The carotid body is located in the adventitia, in the bifurcation (fork) of the common carotid artery, which runs along both ... Rarely, a malignant neuroblastoma may originate from the carotid body. "Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus -- General Information ... Impulse rate for carotid bodies is particularly sensitive to changes in arterial PO2 in the range of 60 down to 30 mm Hg, a ... The carotid body is made up of two types of cells, called glomus cells: glomus type I cells are peripheral chemoreceptors, and ...
... mostly benign tumour arising from the paraganglia of carotid body; hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). The high ... Carotid body tumour (CBT); formerly known as chemodectoma is a rare, highly vascular, ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ...
Left carotid bifurcation was maintained intact.. *. Chemoreceptor denervation group (CHEMO-X; n=7): Left carotid body ... carotid body; CBA, carotid body artery; CC, carotid canal; CCA, common carotid artery; CS, carotid sinus; CSN, carotid sinus ... denervated carotid body; CONT, control; ES, electric stimulation; and TOTAL-X, denervated carotid body plus denervated carotid ... denervated carotid body; CONT, control; and TOTAL-X, denervated carotid body plus denervated carotid baroreceptor. ...
The carotid body chemoreceptors are small organs located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery. They are traditionally known ... Examining novel stimulators of the carotid body chemoreceptors: Researchers examine the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors ... Carotid body sensitivity could also play a role in oxygen toxicity and CO2 toxicity in divers. ... Activation of the carotid body chemoreceptors increases sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate, blood pressure and ventilation ...
... as well as at the carotid bifurcation. (Carotid body tumor). ... Those found at carotid bifurcation tend to splay the crotch of ... Carotid space location for cranial nerve 10. Nerve runs behind the carotid and tends to bow the carotid anteriorly. ... Carotid Body Tumors. U.S. Evaluation, Radiology 1992;182:457-459.. 5. Kim J, Kucharczyk W. Cavernous Hemangiomas: Dipolar ... These include parapharyngeal space and carotid space.. Regional lymph nodes including internal jugular chain of nodes and the ...
2) Carotid body stimulation can occur when dissecting around the carotid bifurcation. This may result in extreme bradycardia, ... carotid body stimulation, carotid artery rupture may occur in patients who had radiation, tumor erosion into the carotid artery ... The reflex may be blocked by injecting local anesthetic drugs around the carotid sheath near the carotid sinus. If the reflex ... carotid body and sinus) can cause wild hemodynamic swings.. As technology advances, so has the complexity of these procedures. ...
carotid body tumor a chemodectoma of a carotid body, found as a firm round mass at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery ... carotid body tumor a chemodectoma of the carotid body, a firm, round mass at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. ... carotid body tumor. A benign tumor of the carotid body.. collision tumor. 1. A malignant growth made up of two or more ... Carotid body tumor, Desmoid tumor, Desmoplastic round cell tumor, Ewing family of tumors, Fibrous tumor of childhood, ...
Carotid Body. A structure made of epithelial-like cells located on each side of the body at the bifurcation of the common ... carotid artery. Not a True endocrine structure Parathyroid Gland. Small round bodies located on the posterior of the thyroid ... Bones in the body not fitting into the above categories mentioned; several are found in the face, such as the zygoma. Vertebrae ... Bodys primary defense. Red Blood Cells. Erythrocytes or RBCS. Disked shaped cells containing hemoglobin enabling cells to pick ...
The two carotid bodies are small organs located in the neck at the bifurcation of each of the two common carotid arteries into ... The carotid body communicates with medullary respiratory neurons through sensory fibres that travel with the carotid sinus ... but less well than the carotid body responds to changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. The aortic bodies are ... Microscopically, the carotid body consists of two different types of cells. The type I cells are arranged in groups and are ...
... showed the radial artery exhibited a positive correlation between the pathologic left coronary and bifurcation of the carotid ... They sampled 13 arterial segments from each cadaver and compared them to other arties throughout the body. Segments included ...
  • About 80% of all glomus tumors are carotid body tumors or glomus jugulare tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Haller introduced glomus tumors of the head and neck into the medical record in 1762 when he described a mass at the carotid bifurcation that had a glomus body-like structure. (medscape.com)
  • Glomus tumors of the head and neck are associated with 4 primary locations, the jugular bulb, middle ear cavity, vagus nerve, and carotid body. (medscape.com)
  • Angiogram obtained in a female patient with bilateral carotid body tumors, bilateral glomus vagale tumors, and left glomus jugulare tumors with corresponding angiographically enhancing masses. (medscape.com)
  • Aim of this study is to present the experience of our institution in carotid body tumors (CBTs) treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are the most common tumors of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue and represent more than 50% of head and neck paragangliomas [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This system classifies the tumors into three groups: Group I (tumors are too small and do not involve the surrounding vessels), Group II (tumors are adherent or partially surround and compress the carotid vessels without being problematic for resection), and Group III (tumors show an intimate adherent relationship to the entire circumference of the carotid bifurcation, requiring partial or complete vessel resection and reconstruction). (hindawi.com)
  • Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from neural crest tissue that develops into sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia throughout the body. (uni-bonn.de)
  • For example, paragangliomas of the adrenal medulla are pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas of the carotid bifurcation are carotid body tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemodectomas are generally benign tumors that grow from the chemoreceptor tissue of the body. (petmd.com)
  • In addition, males tend to be more predisposed to aortic body tumors, while carotid body tumors show no gender predilection. (petmd.com)
  • Aortic body tumors occur on the aortic artery near the base of the heart. (petmd.com)
  • These tumors become a health concern when their growth displaces the trachea , when they grow into the adjacent vessels, or when their growth places pressure on the atria or vena cava, impairing their functionality for conveying blood to the body and heart. (petmd.com)
  • Carotid body tumors, meanwhile, occur on the common carotid artery near the point of bifurcation -- where the artery splits into the internal and external carotid arteries. (petmd.com)
  • Because of this relation to the major arterial passages, carotid body tumors are often impossible to remove. (petmd.com)
  • Carotid body tumors may present at. (koreamed.org)
  • Familial pheochromocytomas and carotid body tumors may be due to mutations in genes encoding the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase or other signaling molecules. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In general, skull base masses are poorly evaluated with US.Duplex Doppler imaging and color Doppler imaging demonstrate the intrinsic hypervascularity of the cervical paraganglioma and the characteristic splaying of the common carotid bifurcation in carotid body tumors. (myesr.org)
  • MRI is also better able to demonstrate the relationship of carotid body tumors to adjacent vascular structures. (myesr.org)
  • Paraganglioma arising from the carotid body are relatively rare tumors but constitute majority of head and neck paragangliomas (60-70%) [ 1 , 2 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • They most commonly occur at the carotid bifurcation, where they are referred to as carotid body tumors. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Carotid body tumors are rare, slow-growing, hypervascular neuroendocrine tumors. (oatext.com)
  • Complete surgical excision is the gold standard therapeutic modality for the treatment of carotid body tumors. (oatext.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs), also known as paragangliomas or chemodectomas, are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms which arise near the carotid bifurcation within glomus cells derived from the embryonic neural crest. (oatext.com)
  • Carotid body tumors will splay the internal and external carotid arteries. (springeropen.com)
  • Paragangliomas, often referred to as glomus tumors, are rare neuroendocrine tumors that may occur anywhere in the body where healthy paraganglia occur. (springeropen.com)
  • The carotid body is a group of chemoreceptor cells located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chemoreceptor that is a body of vascular tissue near the bifurcations of the carotid arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a chemoreceptor. (scirp.org)
  • These data demonstrate that carotid chemoreceptor activation attenuates the reflex hypotension caused by combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptor cells, and supporting sustentacular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although central mechanisms, either downstream of afferent peripheral chemoreceptor input or through the direct effects of hypoxia on the brainstem, are sufficient to elicit these phenomena, little is known about the possible contribution of mechanisms arising from the carotid body. (physoc.org)
  • Effects of carotid endarterectomy on carotid chemoreceptor and baroreceptor functions in man. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present disclosure is directed generally to systems and methods for treating patients having sympathetically mediated disease associated at least in part with augmented peripheral chemoreflex, heightened sympathetic activation, or autonomic imbalance by ablating at least one peripheral chemoreceptor (e.g., carotid body) with a percutaneous approach. (justia.com)
  • Hlavka and Elliott (US 2010/0070004) describe an implantable electrical stimulator in communication with an afferent neural pathway of a carotid body chemoreceptor to control dyspnea via electrical neuromodulation. (justia.com)
  • The carotid body is a chemoreceptor that is sensitive to chemical changes including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ion concentration within the blood and helps control respiration. (statpearls.com)
  • Atherosclerosis has a predilection for certain arteries, including the extracranial carotid artery. (medscape.com)
  • The vagus nerve lies between the carotid arteries and the internal jugular vein. (vesalius.com)
  • a small structure containing neural tissue at the bifurcation of the carotid arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a small neurovascular structure lying in the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries, containing chemoreceptors that monitor oxygen content in blood and help to regulate respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The two carotid bodies are small organs located in the neck at the bifurcation of each of the two common carotid arteries into the internal and external carotid arteries. (britannica.com)
  • Segments included carotid, central and peripheral arteries. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • Results showed the radial artery exhibited a positive correlation between the pathologic left coronary and bifurcation of the carotid arteries. (cardiovascularbusiness.com)
  • The internal carotid arteries arise from the common carotid arteries - labeled Common caroti on the figure. (bionity.com)
  • it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries . (bionity.com)
  • The left and right common carotid arteries follow the same course with the exception of their origin. (bionity.com)
  • There are two arterial baroreceptors, namely, the aortic baroreceptors and carotid baroreceptors, located in the adventitia layer of the aortic arch and carotid arteries, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each vessel passes obliquely upward, from behind the sternoclavicular joint to the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage , where it divides into the external and internal carotid arteries. (wikidoc.org)
  • The external carotid artery appears normal with normal appearing branches of right external carotid artery.The capillary, tissue and venous phase of above mentioned arteries appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • Tortuosity and bifurcations in carotid arteries alter the blood flow, causing atherosclerosis. (scielo.br)
  • The effect of blood flow at anomalous bends and bifurcations was observed in right carotid arteries of a seventy year old female cadaver. (scielo.br)
  • Fifteen histological slides were prepared from the carotid arteries and interpreted to verify predictions of atherosclerosis. (scielo.br)
  • The model predicts atherosclerosis at bends, bifurcations and large aperture arteries. (scielo.br)
  • Microanatomical examination revealed presence of atherosclerosis of varying thickness at the bends and bifurcation in the right carotid arteries, as predicted. (scielo.br)
  • No atherosclerosis was observed in the contralateral carotid arteries. (scielo.br)
  • The variant carotid vascular anatomy consisting of bends, bifurcations and wider arteries revealed that the shear stress and velocity of blood flow are reduced at these anomalous sites. (scielo.br)
  • Anatomical anomalies such as bends and branching in the carotid arteries alter the irrigation pattern and generate biomechanical forces that cause turbulent flow and reduce shear stress/blood flow velocity. (scielo.br)
  • Histological slides established the presence of atherosclerosis at bends and bifurcations and in wider arteries. (scielo.br)
  • The regulated, uniform, continuous and streamlined blood flow carried through regular-shaped carotid arteries perfuses the structures of the head and neck. (scielo.br)
  • Both common carotid and internal carotid arteries were patent, but the right external carotid artery appeared thickened with a reduced lumen. (upmc.edu)
  • When the external Carotid artery or Subclavian artery is ligated the ____ branch of the ____ artery provides the main collateral circulation, anastomosisng with the _____ & _____ arteries. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Both common carotid arteries run within the carotid sheath until they bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. (statpearls.com)
  • The internal carotid artery continues within the carotid sheath and enters into the temporal bone through the carotid canal and gives rise to the ophthalmic artery as well as the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. (statpearls.com)
  • 136 common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. (ac.ke)
  • Sources of arterial blood supply included the carotid bifurcation (51.4%), ascending pharyngeal (21.0%), external carotid (17.4%) and internal carotid (10.2%) arteries. (ac.ke)
  • For this purpose, all neurovascular structures were identified, and periadventitial dissections of the carotid arteries were performed. (oatext.com)
  • Common carotid, internal carotid and external carotid arteries were restrained using the vessel tapes before tumor resection (Figure 1). (oatext.com)
  • While the masses were easily excised totally without subadventitial dissection of carotid arteries in cases of Shamblin type I and II, in case of Shamblin type III the dissection was performed along the arterial subadventitial plane to allow for complete local tumor excision, as well as preservation of carotid arteries. (oatext.com)
  • Given its essential role in supplying the head and neck, disorders of or damage to the common carotid arteries can have a serious clinical impact. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • The common carotid arteries (CCAs) bifurcate in the neck, usually opposite the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, into the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), which are located posteriorly as a direct extension of the CCA, and into the external carotid arteries (ECAs), which course more anteriorly and laterally. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • At the level of the lateral olfactory tract, it yields a forwardly directed vessel, the corticostriate artery (Fig. Other arteries shown are the cortico-amigdaloid (coamg), internal carotid (ictd) and azigos anterior cerebral (azac). (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • Traditionally, by convention, the carotid artery territories just described are referred to as the anterior circulation (front of the brain), whereas the vertebral and basilar arteries and their branches are termed the posterior circulation (because they supply the back of the brain). (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • Carotid body tumor. (medscape.com)
  • It was clear at this point that this was a neural tumor rather than a carotid body tumor and the case was continued by the neurosurgical team. (vesalius.com)
  • Wieneke, J.A. and Smith, A. (2009) Paraganglioma: Carotid Body Tumor. (scirp.org)
  • Hussen, W.M. (2008) Carotid Body Tumor. (scirp.org)
  • carotid body tumor a chemodectoma of a carotid body , found as a firm round mass at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A carotid body tumor, also known as a paraganglioma in neck, originates from cells of neural crest tissue and arises at the carotid bifurcation. (koreamed.org)
  • As per MRI intensely enhancing bilateral mass lesion arising from carotied bifurcation and involving and splaying both the interanal & external carotid artery .probably represent carotid body tumor. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Angiography showed a well-defined tumor arising from the region of the external carotid artery with branches of the ECA as feeders vessels such as posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and an inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). (annexpublishers.co)
  • The tumor was diagnosed as carotid body paraganglioma of Shamblin group I. (annexpublishers.co)
  • subadventitial tumor, the Internal carotid artery was preserved, we did not performed a bypass with prosthetic graft or safenous vein and all cranial nerves were preserved ( Figure 2 ). (annexpublishers.co)
  • The interest of the carotid body tumor lay in the facts that it is the most common paraganglioma in the head and neck and seems to occur slightly more often in women and more frequently in people living at high altitudes. (annexpublishers.co)
  • The most common location in the head and neck is at the carotid bifurcation, termed carotid body tumor. (jaocr.org)
  • In this report, we presented three cases of carotid body tumor which were successfully treated with complete surgical excision, and reviewed the current literature. (oatext.com)
  • Intraoperative view of carotid body tumor before complete excision. (oatext.com)
  • Atherosclerotic plaque removed at time of carotid endarterectomy (areas of ulceration with thrombus and intraplaque hemorrhage are present). (medscape.com)
  • patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid stenosis above a certain degree are considered candidates for carotid intervention such as carotid endarterectomy or stent placement. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nine patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis at intraarterial angiography had CT angiography of the carotid bifurcation before carotid endarterectomy. (ajnr.org)
  • After endarterectomy, multiple sections of the specimens through the carotid bifurcation were examined histologically. (ajnr.org)
  • Carotid body denervation may occur after carotid endarterectomy as a result of surgical disruption. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Bilateral carotid endarterectomy is associated with loss of the normal ventilatory response to acute hypoxia and an increased resting partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Note that a bilateral carotid endarterectomy would result in significant impairment of the hypoxic drive. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) using eversion technique has been used by vascular surgeons across the world. (indjvascsurg.org)
  • A carotid endarterectomy is performed to excise atherosclerotic sclerotic thickening of the intima within the internal carotid artery in an effort to reduce strokes in patients with significant carotid artery stenosis. (statpearls.com)
  • Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a well-documented complication after carotid endarterectomy or stenting. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • they arise from the glomus bodies that run with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The carotid body is made up of two types of cells, called glomus cells: glomus type I cells are peripheral chemoreceptors, and glomus type II cells are sustentacular supportive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body functions as a sensor: it responds to a stimulus, primarily O2 partial pressure, which is detected by the type I (glomus) cells, and triggers an action potential through the afferent fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which relays the information to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glomus cells of the carotid body, such as chromaffin cells of fetal adrenal medulla, are specialized in sensing local oxygen tension in mammals [9] and can undergo anatomical changes if exposed to chronic hypoxia [10]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has also been proposed that NEBs may be functionally analogous to glomus or type 1 cells of the carotid body, well defined arterial chemoreceptors ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The role of NEB cells as airway O 2 sensors was strengthened recently by the demonstration that these cells transduce a hypoxic stimulus via a mechanism similar to that of carotid body glomus cells ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • According to the "membrane model" originally proposed for carotid body glomus cells ( 11 , 12 ), the regulation of K + channels by hypoxia is indirect and is mediated through a membrane-bound O 2 -sensing enzyme complex, such as NADPH oxidase, found in phagocytic cells ( 13 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Evidence for a potential role of NADPH oxidase as an O 2 -sensor enzyme complex in carotid body glomus cells and other O 2 -sensing cells has been reviewed by Acker and Xue ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is hypothesized that, in conscious rats, combined activation of carotid baro- and chemoreceptors afferences attenuates the reflex hypotension. (ahajournals.org)
  • During electric stimulation of the carotid sinus in patients with resistant hypertension 1 , 2 or with heart failure, 4 - 6 the anatomic position of the carotid body may allow undesirable activation of the carotid chemoreceptors, a possibility raised by Zucker et al 7 and based on studies in dogs with heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Researchers examine the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in the compensatory responses to hypoglycemia and heat stress in humans. (buffalo.edu)
  • The carotid body peripheral chemoreceptors are primarily sensitive to decreases in the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body chemoreceptors are also sensitive to pH and PCO2, but only secondarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, the sensitivity of carotid body chemoreceptors to decreased PO2 is greater when pH is decreased and PCO2 is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia , or the reduction of oxygen supply to tissues to below physiological levels (produced, for example, by a trip to high altitudes), stimulates the carotid and aortic bodies, the principal arterial chemoreceptors. (britannica.com)
  • Although the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia was not impaired in Hif1a +/− mice, the response was primarily mediated via vagal afferents, whereas in wild-type mice, carotid body chemoreceptors played a predominant role. (pnas.org)
  • An essential adaptation to both acute and chronic hypoxia is an increase in ventilation that depends on the activity of peripheral chemoreceptors, particularly those within the carotid body, which detect changes in arterial blood O 2 concentration and relay sensory information to the brainstem neurons that regulate breathing (reviewed in ref. 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we studied Hif1a +/− and Hif1a +/+ adult mice and found that partial HIF-1α deficiency has dramatic effects on respiratory adaptation to chronic hypoxia and oxygen sensing by carotid body chemoreceptors. (pnas.org)
  • The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. (statemaster.com)
  • The aortic body is one of several small cluster of chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located along the aortic arch. (statemaster.com)
  • It enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. (3dchem.com)
  • Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) are presumed airway chemoreceptors that express the putative O 2 sensor protein NADPH oxidase and O 2 -sensitive K + channels K + (O 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • in contrast to central chemoreceptors, which primarily respond to PaCO2 and the aortic bodies [output via cn X], which have primarily circulatory effects (bradycardia, hypertension, adrenal stimulation, and also bronchoconstriction), carotid bodies are most sensitive to PaO2. (openanesthesia.org)
  • The cervical sympathetic chain lies embedded in the posterior fibers of the carotid sheath. (vesalius.com)
  • The common carotid artery is contained in a sheath known as the carotid sheath, which is derived from the deep cervical fascia and encloses also the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve , the vein lying lateral to the artery, and the nerve between the artery and vein, on a plane posterior to both. (bionity.com)
  • During its course in the neck, the common carotid artery travels inside a sheath of fascia known as the carotid sheath . (wikidoc.org)
  • shunting blood from the common carotid artery to a venous system of the patient via the arterial access sheath. (google.co.uk)
  • Artery that is the target of the RNC, encased in the carotid sheath and running alongside the vagus nerve and jugular vein underneath the sternocleidomastoid. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • The carotid sheath is a fibrous connective tissue that encircles four key structures within the neck. (statpearls.com)
  • The carotid sheath is located posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and is a part of the deep cervical fascia of the neck. (statpearls.com)
  • The carotid sheath starts superior to the sternum, and the first rib then extends to the base of the skull. (statpearls.com)
  • Within the carotid sheath, the internal jugular vein is lateral to the carotid artery with the vagus nerve posterior to both vessels in most individuals, though many different anatomic configurations exist. (statpearls.com)
  • Continuing from the bifurcation the external carotid artery exits the sheath and supplies blood to the various structures throughout the face and neck. (statpearls.com)
  • It travels within the carotid sheath and ends with it meeting the subclavian vein, thus forming the brachiocephalic vein. (statpearls.com)
  • The vagus nerve has the longest course of any cranial nerve and begins its journey by passing through the jugular foramen with the internal jugular vein and makes it descent within the carotid sheath. (statpearls.com)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), accessory nerve (CN XI), and hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) pierce the superior section of the carotid sheath briefly and then exit. (statpearls.com)
  • In addition, the ansa cervicalis is embedded in the anterior of the carotid sheath. (statpearls.com)
  • It is important to visualize both of these structures when performing procedures in which the carotid sheath must be incised or manipulated. (statpearls.com)
  • The function of the carotid sheath is to separate and, possibly, help protect the vital structures within it. (statpearls.com)
  • The carotid sheath does not appear until approximately 20 weeks gestation. (statpearls.com)
  • At this point it is important to visualize the carotid sheath for this is where the structure vital to the procedure is located. (statpearls.com)
  • The carotid space is a paired space defined by the carotid sheath, a connective tissue boundary in the neck, that is made by the superficial, middle, and deep layers of the deep cervical fascia. (springeropen.com)
  • The remaining cranial nerves 9, 11, and 12 all pierce the carotid sheath anteriorly. (springeropen.com)
  • The ansa cervicalis is embedded in the anterior carotid sheath, and the sympathetic plexus is found posteriorly [ 3 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • They are named for their location within the carotid sheath. (springeropen.com)
  • After giving off the corticostriate artery, the middle cerebral artery curves over the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere and branches in a variable pattern that, in general, is represented by groups of rostral, medial and caudal vessels (Fig. The carotid sheath is a condensation of the fibroareolar tissue around the main vessels of the neck and contains the CCA and ICA, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • They are innervated by axons of the glossopharyngeal nerve which collectively are called the carotid sinus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body communicates with medullary respiratory neurons through sensory fibres that travel with the carotid sinus nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (britannica.com)
  • [4] Furthermore, in vitro preparations of the carotid body have shown that the neuronal activity of the sinus nerve is reduced in the presence of acetylcholine receptor blocking agents. (asahq.org)
  • Under the microscope, the sinus nerve was sectioned proximally at its junction with the glossopharyngeal nerve and meticulously dissected toward the carotid body. (asahq.org)
  • Exposed tissue was covered with 5-10 ml of liquid paraffin, which filled a bath covering the carotid body, sinus nerve, and surrounding structures. (asahq.org)
  • The carotid sinus nerve was exposed and activity recorded with a suction electrode. (physoc.org)
  • When carotid bodies isolated from wild-type mice were exposed to either cyanide or hypoxia, a marked increase in sinus nerve activity was recorded, whereas carotid bodies from Hif1a +/− mice responded to cyanide but not to hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • The team lead by Sílvia Vilares Conde, from CEDOC-NOVA Medical School, in collaboration with the pharmaceutical company Galvani Bioelectronics, demonstrated through findings in rats that is possible to restore insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, by modulating electrically the carotid sinus nerve, the sensitive nerve that connects the carotid body with the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • This first study and others afterwards performed by her group in diabetic rats showed that the bilateral resection of the carotid sinus nerve, and therefore the abolishment of the connection between the carotid body and the brain, restore insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. (news-medical.net)
  • From the partnership with Galvani Bioelectronics (former Glaxo Smith Kline Bioelectronics), the opportunity to electrically modulate the carotid sinus nerve come up. (news-medical.net)
  • In fact, this work demonstrated that is possible to maintain glucose homeostasis in animals in which electrodes have been implanted in the carotid sinus nerve and submitted to electrical modulation, without significant adverse effects. (news-medical.net)
  • hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). (scirp.org)
  • Coexistence of DIPNECH and carotid body paraganglioma: is it just a coincidence? (bioscientifica.com)
  • We describe the case of a 56 year-old woman with the almost simultaneous appearance of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) and a carotid body paraganglioma. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Angiography and cervicofacial scan had confirmed the vascular nature of the lesion and suspected diagnosis of carotid paraganglioma. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Malignancy occurs in 6-12.5% of cases, which ranks carotid body paragangliomas as the most frequently occurring malignant head and neck paraganglioma [ 4 , 5 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • She became increasingly concerned, since her mother also had a neck mass which had been recently diagnosed as a carotid body paraganglioma. (jaocr.org)
  • Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • To compare intima-media thickness measurements using B-mode ultrasound, radiofrequency (RF) echo tracking, and RF speckle probability distribution in children with normal and increased body mass index (BMI). (springer.com)
  • There are two main methods for measuring common carotid artery intima-media thickness: ultrasound (US) B-mode images (manual, semiautomated or automated) and radiofrequency (RF) multiple M-line analysis (using echo tracking of RF amplitude). (springer.com)
  • Aim: Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) differ considerably with regard to the inclusion of the number of carotid segments and angles used. (uva.nl)
  • Objectives This study was designed to determine which of the National Cholesterol Education Program or National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol classifications of dyslipidemia status in adolescents is most effective at predicting high common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in adulthood. (onlinejacc.org)
  • relating to the carotid artery, the principal artery of the neck. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The carotid body is located in the adventitia, in the bifurcation (fork) of the common carotid artery, which runs along both sides of the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right common carotid originates in the neck from the brachiocephalic trunk . (bionity.com)
  • The left common carotid artery can be thought of as having two parts: a thoracic (chest) part and a cervical (neck) part. (bionity.com)
  • The right common carotid originates in or close to the neck, so it lacks a thoracic portion. (bionity.com)
  • The external carotid artery travels more closely to the surface, and sends off numerous branches that supply the neck and face. (bionity.com)
  • The carotid body is a small structure located at the bifurcation of the carotid artery, at the level of the neck. (europa.eu)
  • Right Internal carotid artery angiogram, neck and head - Right internal carotid artery demonstrates normal appearing cervical segment of right internal carotid artery.The cervical segment continues into right petrous segment and cavernous segment of right internal carotid artery. (aapc.com)
  • Axial CT slice of the neck: Left laterocervical tumour, at the level of carotid. (myesr.org)
  • The lesions typically present as a slow-growing, painless, lateral neck masses, most commonly located behind the angle of the mandible, with anterior displacement of the carotid artery. (jaocr.org)
  • The complex anatomy of the carotid space within a small confined area is unique to the head and neck and allows for a vast array of pathology. (springeropen.com)
  • The complex anatomy of the carotid space within a small confined space in the neck allows for a vast array of pathology. (springeropen.com)
  • The external carotid artery supplies blood to the face and neck. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • In many cases, the superior thyroid artery, which supplies the thyroid gland as well as some neck muscles, arises directly from the common carotid, rather than from its usual origin at the external carotid artery. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve lies deep to the distal internal carotid artery. (vesalius.com)
  • The sensory nerve from the carotid body increases its firing rate hyperbolically as the partial pressure of oxygen falls. (britannica.com)
  • [2-4] In the rabbit, vecuronium administered locally close to the carotid body caused a reduction in the phrenic nerve activity during systemic hypoxic challenges. (asahq.org)
  • Grey matter[1] is a category of nervous tissue with many nerve cell bodies and few myelinated axons. (statemaster.com)
  • The nerve terminals of carotid baroreceptors are located bilaterally at the carotid artery bifurcations, close to the internal carotid artery. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nerve signals from the carotid baroreceptors travel along carotid sinus nerves (CSN) to their soma localized in the petrosal ganglion (PG). (frontiersin.org)
  • For a while the carotid body remained forgotten, to be rediscovered in 1833 by Mayer of Bonn who again remarked upon the branches of the sympathetic, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves as sources of a nerve plexus which innervated the ganglion intercaroticurtl. (springer.com)
  • Percutaneous carotid body ablation generally refers to delivering a device through a patient's skin and tissue proximate to a target ablation site (e.g., peripheral chemosensor, carotid body, or an associated nerve or nerve plexus) of the patient and placing an ablation element associated with the device proximal to the target ablation site and activating the ablation element to ablate the target ablation site. (justia.com)
  • The carotid artery lies on the medial side of the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve is situated posteriorly. (statpearls.com)
  • The infrahyoid carotid space contains the vagus nerve, as well as the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein. (springeropen.com)
  • The glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal and vagus nerves as well as the cervical sympathetic chain are closely associated with the internal carotid artery. (vesalius.com)
  • The carotid body is located along the posterior border of the bifurcation and is supplied by the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and sympathetic nerves. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • The aortic bodies located near the arch of the aorta also respond to acute changes in the partial pressure of oxygen, but less well than the carotid body responds to changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. (britannica.com)
  • Expression of human tissue kallikrein (HK) mRNA was detected in mouse carotid artery, aorta, kidney, heart, and liver, and recombinant HK was present in the urine and plasma of mice receiving HK gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aorta then continues downward as the abdominal aorta or abdominal portion of the aorta diaphragm to the aortic bifurcation. (tgmetr.ru)
  • The pulsatile nature of blood flow creates a pulse wave that is propagated down the arterial treeand at bifurcations reflected waves rebound zorta return to semilunar valves and the origin of the aorta. (tgmetr.ru)
  • Furthermore, aortic baroreceptor neurons show a lower pressure threshold than that of carotid baroreceptor neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Secondly, uniaxial stretching of baroreceptor neurons, that mimics the forces exerted on blood vessels, elicited a larger increase in intracellular Ca 2+ rise in aortic baroreceptor neurons than in carotid baroreceptor neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study therefore provides for a basic physiological understanding on the pressure sensitivity of the two baroreceptor neurons and suggests that aortic baroreceptors have a higher pressure sensitivity than carotid baroreceptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • The carotid sinus is located just above the bifurcation at the origin of the internal carotid artery and functions as a baroreceptor helping detect and correct changes in blood pressure. (statpearls.com)
  • Arteriogram of carotid stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Complicated plaques are frequent in atherosclerotic carotid disease, especially with higher stenosis degree. (ahajournals.org)
  • Approximately 20% to 30% of the infarcts can be related to carotid artery stenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The likelihood that carotid plaque will give rise to cerebral ischemia probably relates to the degree of arterial stenosis and to plaque morphology. (ajnr.org)
  • Origin of Right internal carotid artery shows mild atherosclerosis disease without any evidence of stenosis. (aapc.com)
  • Origin of Left internal carotid artery appears normal without any evidence of stenosis. (aapc.com)
  • The bifurcation of the common carotid artery is an important site of atherosclerotic disease that can lead to stenosis and occlusion. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • Common carotid artery bifurcates at the level of. (brainscape.com)
  • Right common carotid artery begins. (brainscape.com)
  • In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The afferent activity of this chemosensory pathway is initiated at oxygen-sensitive cells in the carotid body that lies in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. (jneurosci.org)
  • a small epithelioid structure located just above the bifurcation of the common carotid artery on each side. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 2013, Silvia Vilares Conde and her research group described that the carotid body, a paired organ that is located in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and that is classically defined as an oxygen sensor, regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and that its dysfunction is involved in the development of metabolic diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • The common carotid artery is a paired structure, meaning that there are two in the body, one for each half. (bionity.com)
  • Only the left common carotid artery has a substantial presence in the thoracic region. (bionity.com)
  • The cervical portions of the common carotids resemble each other so closely that one description will apply to both. (bionity.com)
  • At approximately the level of the fourth cervical vertebra , the common carotid artery bifurcates into an internal carotid artery (ICA) and an external carotid artery (ECA). (bionity.com)
  • Mice underwent ligature of the left common carotid artery and were injected intravenously with saline or 1.8×10 9 plaque-forming units of Ad.CMV-cHK or control virus (Ad.CMV-LacZ). (ahajournals.org)
  • CIMT images were recorded for 12 artery-wall combinations (near and far walls of the left and right common carotid artery (CCA), bifurcation (BIF) and internal carotid artery (ICA) segments) at 4 set angles, resulting in 48 possible measurements per patient. (uva.nl)
  • This claim, however, may be erroneous, for Tauber (1743) described a struc- ture at the bifurcation on the common carotid artery and called it the ganglion minutum. (springer.com)
  • Vascular remodeling was induced by permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, we ligated the left common carotid artery, which subsequently led to a profound neointima formation and media thickening proximal to the site of ligation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Right common carotid artery bifurcates at c3 cervical vertebrae. (aapc.com)
  • The bifurcation of Right common carotid artery appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • The bifurcation of Left common carotid artery appears normal. (aapc.com)
  • The method comprises transcervical access and blocking of blood flow through the common carotid artery (with or without blocking of blood flow through the external carotid artery), shunting blood. (google.co.uk)
  • expanding the first occlusion element to occlude the common carotid artery. (google.co.uk)
  • 2. A method as in claim 1 , wherein forming the puncture opening comprises making the puncture opening directly into the common carotid artery accessed through a transcervical surgical incision. (google.co.uk)
  • 3. A method as in claim 1 , wherein forming the puncture opening comprises performing a percutaneous puncture into the common carotid artery. (google.co.uk)
  • The carotid bodies are chemosensitive cells at the bifurcation of the common carotid that respond to changes in oxygen tension and, to a lesser extent, pH. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Computer tomography revealed a 5/3/2.5 cm, mass on the bifurcation of the right common carotid artery. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Atherosclerosis was also detected in the straight part of the wider common carotid artery. (scielo.br)
  • Lateral projection from a digital subtraction angiogram obtained with a left common carotid artery injection demonstrates the hypervascular mass displacing the common carotid artery anteriorly. (jaocr.org)
  • The right common carotid artery originates from the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic artery, whereas the left common carotid artery arises from the aortic arch. (statpearls.com)
  • In the present study, a common rabbit model of carotid artery defect was utilized. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The internal jugular vein and the common carotid artery are also contained within the infrahyoid carotid space [ 2 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • The common carotid artery is the most frequently injured structure in most series, occurring in approximately 5% of all vascular injuries. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • 2002) Carotid Body Tumour: Case Report. (scirp.org)
  • Histopathological Appearance of Carotid Body Tumour [Image on the Internet]. (scirp.org)
  • We report the case of an asymptomatic suspected carotid body tumour found during surveillance screening in a 72-year-old female who is a known carrier of a germline SDHA pathogenic variant. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Carotid body tumour are near important structures and enlargement of nodes can lead to compression of important structures. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Selective external carotid angiogram demonstrates a vascular skull-base mass. (medscape.com)
  • Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan demonstrating a large vascular mass along the course of the left internal carotid artery and jugular vein above the level of the carotid bifurcation. (medscape.com)
  • Here we investigated the role of the hepatocyte gp130-dependent systemic acute phase response on vascular remodeling after carotid artery ligation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, we found enhanced SMC migration and proliferation by recombinant SAA and SAA injection after carotid artery ligation restored vascular remodeling in gp130 − mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • The paper will also describe the myriad of mass lesions and vascular pathologies that may occur within the carotid space. (springeropen.com)
  • The hypoglossal normally crosses the carotid vessels about 2cm cephalad to the bifurcation. (vesalius.com)
  • 1 , 2 The rationale for supporting this approach is that electric activation of the carotid baroreflex leads to activation of the cardiac parasympathetic drive and inhibition of sympathetic activity to the heart and peripheral vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The causes of most cases of high blood pressure are unknown, but it is often accompanied by the reduced flow of blood through small vessels in the skin and other parts of the body that are a long way from the heart. (elifesciences.org)
  • The organ of Zuckerkandl near the aortic bifurcation. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Another study measured the heart rates, rate change of blood pressure, and blood flow through the carotids of 24 healthy police officers (27-40 years old, 21 male, 3 female) while they experienced the RNC, which he also refers to as "bilateral carotid compression. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated Kv1.1 in the afferent limb of the carotid body chemoreflex (the major regulator in the response to hypoxia), consisting of the carotid body, petrosal ganglion, and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). (jneurosci.org)
  • In vitro carotid body sensory discharge during hypoxia was greater in null than control mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Falls in CO that occur as a consequence of hypoxia would lead to closure of this potassium channel and this would lead to membrane depolarisation and consequence activation of the carotid body. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMPK has a number of targets and it appears that, in the carotid body, when AMPK is activated by hypoxia, it leads to downstream potassium channel closure of both O2-sentive TASK-like and BK channels An increased PCO2 is detected because the CO2 diffuses into the cell, where it increases the concentration of carbonic acid and thus protons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to responding to hypoxia, the carotid body increases its activity linearly as the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood is raised. (britannica.com)
  • The aortic bodies are responsible for many of the cardiovascular effects of hypoxia. (britannica.com)
  • As similar responses were not observed during hypercapnic exposures, these phenomena are dependent on hypoxia per se, and not on general carotid body stimulation. (physoc.org)
  • Thus, our data demonstrate novel hypoxia-specific responses of the rat carotid bodies. (physoc.org)
  • Thus partial HIF-1α deficiency has a dramatic effect on carotid body neural activity and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that HIF-1α is required for carotid body function and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • Although efficient this surgical irreversible approach has disadvantages, since the carotid body possess other physiological functions as the response to the lack of oxygen (hypoxia) or the adaptation to exercise. (news-medical.net)
  • Patients suffering from COVID-19 pneumonia often develop very low levels of oxygen, called hypoxia, in the arterial blood supplying the body. (3dchem.com)
  • We show that the response of the skin to hypoxia feeds back on a wide range of cardiovascular parameters, including heart rate, arterial pressures, and body temperature. (elifesciences.org)
  • The aim of this study was to assess whether features seen at CT angiography might be used to predict carotid plaque stability by comparing CT angiograms with histopathologic examinations of the carotid artery bifurcation. (ajnr.org)
  • Treatment of atherosclerosis of the carotid artery is dependent on the severity and degree of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Background- Indicators of carotid atherosclerosis may confer additional prognostic value and guide clinicians in cardiovascular risk assessment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Apparatus is also provided for occluding the external carotid artery to prevent reversal of flow into the internal carotid artery. (google.com)
  • It bifurcates into Right internal carotid artery and Right External carotid artery. (aapc.com)
  • Dolichoarteriopathies of the internal carotid artery (DICAs), which seldom involve the external carotid artery, can be divided into three types: tortuous, coiling and kinking [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Arteriography of the right external carotid artery with multiple dependent. (myesr.org)
  • External carotid Internal carotid Carotid body Carotid sinus Carotid bifurcation. (tgmetr.ru)
  • The CCA makes up what is known as the "anterior circulation," with the ICA supplying the intracranial compartment and the external carotid artery (ECA) supplying the meninges, scalp, and face. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • In other instances, the bifurcation or position where it splits into the external and internal carotid branches. (expresskeys.co.nz)
  • When the sternocleidomastoid muscle is drawn backward, the artery is seen to be contained in a triangular space known as the carotid triangle . (bionity.com)
  • According to Valentin (1833) and Luschka (1862), the first description of the structure now known as the carotid body must be ascribed to a Swiss physiolo- gist - Albrecht von Haller - who, in 1762, called it the ganglion exiguum. (springer.com)
  • 1983) The Human Carotid Body. (scirp.org)
  • Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. (ac.ke)
  • The cervical portion of the ICA has two points of fixation, specifically at the bifurcation and at the entry into the pyramid bone, and DICAs can occur if the vessel is longer than the distance between these two points [ 9 , 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The suprahyoid portion of the carotid space contains the internal carotid artery, the internal jugular vein, cranial nerves 9 through 12, the ansa cervicalis, the sympathetic plexus, and deep cervical lymph nodes [ 1 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • The infrahyoid carotid space is surrounded anteriorly by the anterior cervical space, medially by the visceral and retropharyngeal spaces, and posteriorly by the perivertebral and posterior cervical spaces. (springeropen.com)
  • As well as taste from nerves VII, IX and X, the solitary nucleus handles information from the carotid (from IX) and aortic bodies and baroreceptors (from X), which controls blood volume. (statemaster.com)
  • Baroreceptors (or baroceptors) in the human body detect the pressure of blood flowing though them, and can send messages to the central nervous system to increase or decrease total peripheral resistance and cardiac output. (statemaster.com)
  • It has long been suggested that the two arterial baroreceptors, aortic and carotid baroreceptors, have different pressure sensitivities. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cell bodies (soma) of the aortic baroreceptors are located at the nodose ganglion (NG) (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Carotid baroreceptors detect the blood pressure in the carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experiments in the early part of the 20th century observed that denervation of baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch (SAD) in experimental animals produced striking and highly variable increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, see Ref. 29 for review of the early literature). (physiology.org)
  • A contrast-enhanced CT shows intense enhancement of a left carotid space mass. (jaocr.org)
  • The terminus portion of right internal carotid artery bifurcates into right middle cerebral artery and right anterior cerebral artery. (aapc.com)
  • Taha, A. (2015) Carotid Body Tumours: A Review. (scirp.org)
  • Carotid body tumours are located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA, described as the lyre sign. (myesr.org)
  • Conclusions- Multidetector CT angiography allows the classification of atherosclerotic carotid plaque surface. (ahajournals.org)
  • The carotid artery originates from the innominate artery on the right and directly from the aortic arch on the left. (medscape.com)
  • It then passes between the internal jugular vein and internal carotid artery . (radiopaedia.org)
  • As the name implies, the carotid artery and jugular vein may also be involved as part of the pathology. (springeropen.com)
  • The carotid artery is the center of the carotid space, and the jugular vein lies posterolateral to the carotid artery. (springeropen.com)
  • While both branches travel upward, the internal carotid takes a deeper (more internal) path, eventually travelling up into the skull to supply the brain via the foramen lacerum. (bionity.com)
  • Impulse rate for carotid bodies is particularly sensitive to changes in arterial PO2 in the range of 60 down to 30 mm Hg, a range in which hemoglobin saturation with oxygen decreases rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body detects changes in the composition of arterial blood flowing through it, mainly the partial pressure of arterial oxygen, but also of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • This arterial blood parameter rises and falls as air enters and leaves the lungs, and the carotid body senses these fluctuations, responding more to rapid than to slow changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. (britannica.com)
  • fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue (human and porcine) human dopamine progenitor cells derived from autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) adrenal medulla sympathetic ganglia carotid body retinal pigment epithelium embryonic stem cells induced pluripotent stem cells mesenchymal stem cells The first cell-based therapy investigated for Parkinson's disease utilized the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT angiography is a promising method for assessing the lumen and wall of the carotid artery. (ajnr.org)
  • Physical examination, duplex ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography revealed a mass on right carotid bifurcation measuring 15 x 15 x 11 mm that was considered as CBT. (oatext.com)
  • Methods and percutaneous devices for assessing, and treating patients having sympathetically mediated disease, involving augmented peripheral chemoreflex and heightened sympathetic tone by reducing chemosensor input to the nervous system via percutaneous carotid body ablation. (justia.com)
  • One disclosed embodiment comprises a method for treating lesions in the carotid artery of a mammalian body. (google.co.uk)
  • Knowledge of the location of particular structures within the carotid space can lead to the correct diagnosis, if not narrow, the differential to a few lesions. (springeropen.com)
  • Lesions of the carotid space may arise from any of the above structures, and radiographic imaging is valuable in aiding diagnosis (Fig. 1 ). (springeropen.com)
  • A chemical receptor, situated at the first branch of each carotid artery, that monitors oxygen levels in the blood and regulates the rate of breathing accordingly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When blood-oxygen concentration levels are low and/or the concentration of carbon dioxide is high, the carotid body is stimulated to produce nervous impulses which are transmitted to the respiratory centre in the hindbrain, thus influencing BREATHING rate and, in turn, heart rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is possible to interfere independently with the responses of the carotid body to carbon dioxide and oxygen, which suggests that the same mechanisms are not used to sense or transmit changes in oxygen or carbon dioxide. (britannica.com)
  • These are the tissues that are most sensitive to chemical changes in the body, such as oxygen content and pH levels in the blood. (petmd.com)
  • The respiratory system brings the needed oxygen into and eliminates carbon dioxide from the body by working closely with the cardiovascular system. (studyres.com)
  • 2002) Management of Carotid Body Paragangliomas and Review of a 30-Year Experience. (scirp.org)
  • Computed tomography scan demonstrates an enhancing carotid bifurcation mass. (medscape.com)
  • Increased body mass index and increased waist circumference were significantly (p = 0.01) related to less complete data in FH patients. (uva.nl)
  • A mass centered within the carotid space will displace the parapharyngeal fat/space anteromedially [ 1 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • The neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) are specialized pulmonary structures composed of clusters of innervated amine- and peptide-containing cells, widely distributed within airway mucosa of human and animal lungs ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Histologic analysis revealed no abnormalities of carotid body morphology in Hif1a +/− mice. (pnas.org)
  • Carotid artery morphology (plaque burden) and function (stiffness indexes) as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were prospectively evaluated in elderly men. (ahajournals.org)