Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Garcinia: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain XANTHONES.Daphne: A plant genus of the family THYMELAEACEAE. They are evergreen shrubs much cultivated in garden borders and rock gardens in mild climates. Members contain mezerein, flavonoids, and COUMARINS such as daphnetin and daphnin.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Wikstroemia: A plant genus of the family THYMELAEACEAE. Members contain daphnoretin and wikstroelides and daphnane-type DITERPENES.Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.Thymelaeaceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Sarraceniaceae: A plant family of the order Nepenthales.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cycadophyta: A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.Cupressaceae: A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Chamaecyparis: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Ginkgo biloba: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.Taxaceae: A plant family of the order Taxales, class Pinopsida, division CONIFEROPHYTA.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Neurologic Manifestations: Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Shikimic Acid: A tri-hydroxy cyclohexene carboxylic acid important in biosynthesis of so many compounds that the shikimate pathway is named after it.Perylene: A 20-carbon dibenz(de,kl)anthracene that can be viewed as a naphthalene fused to a phenalene or as dinaphthalene. It is used as fluorescent lipid probe in the cytochemistry of membranes and is a polycyclic hydrocarbon pollutant in soil and water. Derivatives may be carcinogenic.StigmasterolPhloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.

Procyanidin oligomers selectively and intensively promote proliferation of mouse hair epithelial cells in vitro and activate hair follicle growth in vivo. (1/171)

We have previously reported that proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds possess growth-promoting activity toward murine hair epithelial cells in vitro and stimulate anagen induction in hair cycle progression in vivo. This report constitutes a comparison of the growth-promoting activity of procyanidin oligomers and the target cells of procyanidins in the skin. Results show that procyanidin dimer and trimer exhibit higher growth-promoting activity than the monomer. The maximum growth-promoting activity for hair epithelial cells with procyanidin B-2, an epicatechin dimer, reached about 300% (30 microM) relative to controls (= 100%) in a 5 d culture. Optimum concentration of procyanidin C-1, an epicatechin trimer, was lower than that of procyanidin B-2; the maximum growth-promoting activity of procyanidin C-1 was about 220% (3 microM). No other flavonoid compounds examined exhibit higher proliferative activities than the procyanidins. In skin constituent cells, only epithelial cells such as hair keratinocytes or epidermal keratinocytes respond to procyanidin oligomers. Topical application of 1% procyanidin oligomers on shaven C3H mice in the telogen phase led to significant hair regeneration [procyanidin B-2, 69.6% +/- 21.8% (mean +/- SD); procyanidin B-3, 80.9% +/- 13.0%; procyanidin C-1, 78.3% +/- 7.6%] on the basis of the shaven area; application of vehicle only led to regeneration of 41.7% (SD = 16.3%). In this paper, we demonstrate the hair-growing activity of procyanidin oligomers both in vitro and in vivo, and their potential for use as agents to induce hair growth.  (+info)

Suppression of extracellular signals and cell proliferation by the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate. (2/171)

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), suppressed autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor induced by EGF in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of black tea polyphenols, including theaflavin (TF-1), a mixture (TF-2) of theaflavin-3-gallate (TF-2a) and theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF-2b), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) and the thearubigin fraction on the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors in A431 cells and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells, respectively. First, we examined the effects of these polyphenols on the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells. Both EGCG and TF-3 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells more than the other theaflavins did. In cultured cells with pre-treatment of tea polyphenol, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG on the reduction of EGF receptor and PDGF receptor autophosphorylation induced by EGF and PDGF, respectively. Other theaflavins slightly reduced the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors; furthermore, TF-3 could reduce autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor (or PDGF receptor) even with co-treatment with EGF (or PDGF) and TF-3, but EGCG was inactive under these conditions. In addition, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG in blocking EGF binding to its receptor. These results suggest that not only the green tea polyphenol, EGCG, but also the black tea polyphenol, TF-3, have an antiproliferative activity on tumor cells, and the molecular mechanisms of antiproliferation may block the growth factor binding to its receptor and thus suppress mitogenic signal transduction.  (+info)

Anti-tumor-promoting activity of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds in the mouse skin two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and identification of procyanidin B5-3'-gallate as the most effective antioxidant constituent. (3/171)

Procyanidins present in grape seeds are known to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-allergic activities, prevent skin aging, scavenge oxygen free radicals and inhibit UV radiation-induced peroxidation activity. Since most of these events are associated with the tumor promotion stage of carcinogenesis, these studies suggest that grape seed polyphenols and the procyanidins present therein could be anticarcinogenic and/or anti-tumor-promoting agents. Therefore, we assessed the anti-tumor-promoting effect of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds (GSP) employing the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-promoted SENCAR mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis protocol as a model system. Following tumor initiation with DMBA, topical application of GSP at doses of 0.5 and 1.5 mg/mouse/application to the dorsal initiated mouse skin resulted in a highly significant inhibition of TPA tumor promotion. The observed anti-tumor-promoting effects of GSP were dose dependent and were evident in terms of a reduction in tumor incidence (35 and 60% inhibition), tumor multiplicity (61 and 83% inhibition) and tumor volume (67 and 87% inhibition) at both 0.5 and 1.5 mg GSP, respectively. Based on these results, we directed our efforts to separate and identify the individual polyphenols present in GSP and assess their antioxidant activity in terms of inhibition of epidermal lipid peroxidation. Employing HPLC followed by comparison with authentic standards for retention times in HPLC profiles, physiochemical properties and spectral analysis, nine individual polyphenols were identified as catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins B1-B5 and C1 and procyanidin B5-3'-gallate. Five of these individual polyphenols with evident structural differences, namely catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1 and procyanidin B5-3'-gallate, were assessed for antioxidant activity. All of them significantly inhibited epidermal lipid peroxidation, albeit to different levels. A structure-activity relationship study showed that with an increase in the degree of polymerization in polyphenol structure, the inhibitory potential towards lipid peroxidation increased. In addition, the position of linkage between inter-flavan units also influences lipid peroxidation activity; procyanidin isomers with a 4-6 linkage showed stronger inhibitory activity than isomers with a 4-8 linkage. A sharp increase in the inhibition of epidermal lipid peroxidation was also evident when a gallate group was linked at the 3'-hydroxy position of a procyanidin dimer. Procyanidin B5-3'-gallate showed the most potent antioxidant activity with an IC(50) of 20 microM in an epidermal lipid peroxidation assay. Taken together, for the first time these results show that grape seed polyphenols possess high anti-tumor-promoting activity due to the strong antioxidant effect of procyanidins present therein. In summary, grape seed polyphenols in general, and procyanidin B5-3'-gallate in particular, should be studied in more detail to be developed as cancer chemopreventive and/or anticarcinogenic agents.  (+info)

Inhibition of activator protein 1 activity and cell growth by purified green tea and black tea polyphenols in H-ras-transformed cells: structure-activity relationship and mechanisms involved. (4/171)

ras gene mutation, which perpetually turns on the growth signal transduction pathway, occurs frequently in many cancer types. The mouse epidermal JB6 cell line has been transfected with a mutant H-ras gene to mimic carcinogenesis in vitro. These transformed cells (30.7b Ras 12) are able to grow in soft agar, exhibiting anchorage independence and high endogenous activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity, which can be detected by a stable AP-1 luciferase reporter. The present study investigated the ability of different pure green and black tea polyphenols to inhibit this ras signaling pathway. The major green tea polyphenols (catechins), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epicatechin, and their epimers, and black tea polyphenols, theaflavin, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TFdiG), were compared with respect to their ability to inhibit the growth of 30.7b Ras 12 cells and AP-1 activity. All of the tea polyphenols except (-)-epicatechin showed strong inhibition of cell growth and AP-1 activity. Among the catechins, both the galloyl structure on the B ring and the gallate moiety contributed to the growth inhibition and AP-1 activity; the galloyl structure appeared to have a stronger effect on the inhibitory action than the gallate moiety. The epimers of the catechins showed similar inhibitory effects on AP-1 activity. The addition of catalase to the incubation of the cells with EGCG or TFdiG did not prevent the inhibitory effect on AP-1 activity, suggesting that H2O2 does not play a significant role in the inhibition by tea polyphenols. Both EGCG and TFdiG inhibited the phosphorylation of p44/42 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) and c-jun without affecting the levels of phosphorylated-c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase. TFdiG inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, but EGCG did not. EGCG lowered the level of c-jun, whereas TFdiG decreased the level of fra-1. These results suggest that tea polyphenols inhibited AP-1 activity and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, which contributed to the growth inhibition; however, different mechanisms may be involved in the inhibition by catechins and theaflavins.  (+info)

Protection against peroxynitrite by cocoa polyphenol oligomers. (5/171)

Flavonoids, natural plant constituents, protect against peroxynitrite and can thereby play a role in defense against this mediator of inflammation. Procyanidin oligomers of different size (monomer through nonamer), isolated from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, were examined for their ability to protect against peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and nitration of tyrosine. By molarity, oligomers were more effective than the monomeric epicatechin; the tetramer was particularly efficient at protecting against oxidation and nitration reactions. These results suggest that epicatechin oligomers found in cocoa powder and chocolate may be a potent dietary source for defense against peroxynitrite.  (+info)

Procyanidin content and variation in some commonly consumed foods. (6/171)

Procyanidins are a subclass of flavonoids found in commonly consumed foods that have attracted increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, little is known regarding their dietary intake levels because detailed quantitative information on the procyanidin profiles present in many food products is lacking. Therefore, the procyanidin content of red wine, chocolate, cranberry juice and four varieties of apples has been determined. On average, chocolate and apples contained the largest procyanidin content per serving (164.7 and 147.1 mg, respectively) compared with red wine and cranberry juice (22.0 and 31.9 mg, respectively). However, the procyanidin content varied greatly between apple samples (12.3-252.4 mg/serving) with the highest amounts on average observed for the Red Delicious (207.7 mg/serving) and Granny Smith (183.3 mg/serving) varieties and the lowest amounts in the Golden Delicious (92.5 mg/serving) and McIntosh (105.0 mg/serving) varieties. The compositional data reported herein are important for the initial understanding of which foods contribute most to the dietary intake of procyanidins and may be used to compile a database necessary to infer epidemiological relationships to health and disease.  (+info)

Cocoa procyanidins and human cytokine transcription and secretion. (7/171)

We examined whether cocoa, in its isolated procyanidin fractions (monomer through decamer), would modulate cytokine production at the levels of transcription and protein secretion in both resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In resting cells, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-4 gene expression from cocoa-treated cells varied markedly among the subjects tested. However, at the protein level, the larger fractions (pentamer through decamer) stimulated a dramatic increase in IL-1beta concentration (up to ninefold) with increasing degree of polymerization. Similarly, these larger fractions augmented IL-4 concentration by as much as 2 pg/ml, whereas the control displayed levels nearly undetectable. In the presence of PHA, gene expression also seemed to be most affected by the larger procyanidin fractions. The pentameric through decameric fractions increased IL-1 beta expression by 7-19% compared with PHA control, whereas the hexameric through decameric fractions significantly inhibited PHA-induced IL-4 transcription in the range of 71-86%. This observation at the transcription level for IL-1 beta was reflected at the protein level in PHA-stimulated PBMC. Significant reductions in mitogen-induced IL-4 production were also seen at the protein level with the hexamer, heptamer and octamer. Individual oligomeric cocoa fractions were unstimulatory for IL-2 in resting PBMC. However, when induced with PHA, the pentamer, hexamer and heptamer fractions caused a 61-73% inhibition in IL-2 gene expression. This study offers additional data for the consideration of the health benefits of dietary polyphenols from a wide variety of foods, including those benefits associated specifically with cocoa and chocolate consumption.  (+info)

Reactions of peroxynitrite with cocoa procyanidin oligomers. (8/171)

Peroxynitrite is a mediator molecule in inflammation, and its biological properties are being studied extensively. Flavonoids, which are natural plant constituents, protect against peroxynitrite and thereby could play an anti-inflammatory role. Procyanidin oligomers of different sizes (monomer through nonamer), isolated from the seeds of Theobroma cacao, were recently examined for their ability to protect against peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and nitration of tyrosine and were found to be effective in attenuating these reactions. The tetramer was particularly efficient at protecting against oxidation and nitration reactions. Epicatechin oligomers found in cocoa powder and chocolate may be a potent dietary source for defense against peroxynitrite.  (+info)

PMID: Clin Interv Aging. 2012 ;7:275-86. Epub 2012 Jul 27. PMID: 22956863. Abstract Title: Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin. Abstract: BACKGROUND: French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE.METHODS: One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized ...
French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, also simply known as pine bark extract and marketed under the trade name Pycnogenol, is a medicinal substance derived...
In this study a new capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed to quantify the four major theaflavins occurring in black tea. Where aqueous based CE methods showed poor selectivity and considerable band broadening, non-aqueous CE achieved baseline separation of the theaflavins within 10 min. The effects of the organic solvent composition and background electrolyte concentration on the separation selectivity and electrophoretic mobilities were investigated. Our optimized separation solution consisted of acetonitrile-methanol-acetic acid (71:25:4, v/v) and 90 mM ammonium acetate. This method was used to analyze three black tea samples.
ArthroMax with Theaflavins & AprèsFlex 120 vegetarian capsuleAs people grow older, age-related stiffness and discomfort in the joints becomes a fact of life. Activities once routine become a challenge as limited mobility hampers your every move. You now have a more potent option to provide broad-spectrum support for aging joints. ArthroMax is available with Black Tea Theaflavins (without UC-II) to protect against immune attack in the joints via a separate mechanism. Inflammatory reactions are regulated by a series of cytokines produced in the body. Normal aging results in an unfavorable balance of these cytokines that contributes to persistent inflammatory conditions. Studies have shown that a special fraction found in black tea suppresses proinflammatory cytokines at the genomic level. Scientists have found that these com-pounds called theaflavins uniquely downregulate the expression of genes and cytokines associated with inflammatory conditions. ArthroMax with Theaflavins and AprèsFlex
October 2010 Journal Panminerva Medica, • Daily supplements of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) may ease tinnitus. • It may improve blood flow to the inner ear and therefore relieve tinnitus symptoms.. •Impaired blood flow to the ear is a common cause for tinnitus. Patients should try 100 to 150 milligrams per day of Pycnogenol (pine bark). Order @ www.DrJeffreyTucker.meta-ehealth.com •Pycnogenol is effective in a short period of time in relieving tinnitus symptoms by improving cochlear blood flow.. Panminerva Medica 52(2 Suppl 1):63-68, 2010. More ...
Theasinensin A is one of the oolong tea theasinensins, which differ from green tea catechins and black tea theaflavins. In a previous study, we found that theasinesin A had a potential effect on antiinflammation since theasinensin A suppressed LPS-induced COX2 and PGE(2) production. To clarify the molecular mechanisms, we investigated the gene expression profiling in macrophage-like cells treated with theasinensin A through a genome-wide DNA microarray in the present study. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated RAW264 cells, 259 gene signals of which were attenuated by theasinensin A treatment (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 471 gene signals were restored by theasinensin A treatment (≥2-fold). These genes were further categorized as "defense, inflammatory response, cytokines activities, and receptor activities," and some of them were confirmed by ...
Bloggers note: You may have read a number of references or seen a number of websites for ADHD and multiple other ailments touting the benefits of compounds such as pycnogenol (also known as French Maritime Pine Bark Extract), and grape-seed extract. As of now, I am neutral as far as using products such as these. However, it is important to note that the majority of the benefits derived from treatments such as these are due to their antioxidant effects, which are quite powerful by the way (however, other functions besides mere antioxidant effects have been suggested and are entirely possible). Additionally, these supplements can be quite costly. It is this bloggers opinion that similar effects and benefits can be seen with vitamin C and E supplementation for a cheaper price. Nonetheless, the large number of studies supporting the effectiveness of pycnogenol and grape-seed extract does warrant further investigation and potential success as an ADHD treatment option. With youre doctors ...
Dimeric procyanidin B2 (PB2) is one of phenolic compounds in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. This work focused on purification of PB2 from apple pomace using sephadex column chromatography and its potential effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation using RAW264.7 macrophages. PB2 with the purity of 72.28 ± 1.85% was successfully afforded using resin and gel column chromatographic technique. Anti-inflammatory tests suggested that the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-induced murine RAW264.7 macrophages was suppressed in a PB2 concentration-dependent manner. PB2 at no less than 50 µg mL-1 could significantly suppress inflammation in the LPS-induced cells. Moreover, this suppressive effect was not correlated with PB2 pretreating. However, the COX-2 expression was not reduced in LPS pretreatment way followed by PB2 exposure, which suggested that PB2 has no repairing function. The results showed that high pure PB2 prepared from ...
|p|This premium French maritime pine bark extract contains numerous bioactive compounds that support capillary and connective tissue function and provide antioxidant protection.|sup|†|/sup| Pycnogenol|sup|®|/sup| is a powerful scavenger of free radicals i
Theaflavin Standardized Extract contains a number of beneficial flavonoids found naturally in tea leaves that help support levels of cholesterol that are already within the normal range.
Rapid determination of theaflavins by HPLC with a new monolithic column | Jianyong Zhang, Hongchun Cui, Heyuan Jiang, Lei Fang, Weiwei Wang, Wei Su, Chunhua Xiong | Agricultural Journals
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dandan Li, Tingbao Zhao, Jianzhong Meng, Ying Jing, Fengyu Jia, Ping He].
Originally Posted by AZMIDLYF What ingredient is providing the pump? Amentoflavone. Also Im pretty sure this was designed to be used with NO Uptake.
4-Beta-D-glucoside, arbre dor (French), bioflavonoid, borovice hvezdicovit (Czech), caffeic acid, catechin, condensed tannins, epicatechin, ferulic acid, Flavangenol , free glucose, French maritime pine bark extract, French Pinus maritime bark, gallic acid, L-(feruloyl)-beta-D-glucose, L-(p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucose, maritime pine tree bark, merim nd (Estonian), oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes, OPCs, PCOs, p-coumaric acid, phenolcarbonic acids, phenolic acids, phenolic fruit acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, pi mar tim (Catalan), pi pinastre (Catalan), pin de Bordeaux (French), pin de Corte (French), pin des Landes (French), pin maritime (French), pin m sog en (French), Pinaceae (family), pinastro (Italian, Spanish), pinheiro-bravo (Portuguese), pino costiero (Italian), pino gallego (Spanish), pino mar timo (Spanish), pino marittimo (Italian), pino resinero (Spanish), pino rodeno (Spanish), pino rubial (Spanish), Pinus pinaster, Pinus maritima, polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, procyanidins, ...
Amentoflavone is a biflavonoid (bis-apigenin coupled at 8 and 3 positions, or 3′,8′′-biapigenin) constituent of a number of plants including Ginkgo biloba, Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki), Hypericum perforatum (St. Johns Wort) and Xerophyta plicata. Amentoflavone can interact with many medications by being a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, which are enzymes responsible for the metabolism of some drugs in the body. It is also an inhibitor of human cathepsin B. Amentoflavone has a variety of in vitro activities including antimalarial activity, anticancer activity (which may, at least in part, be mediated by its inhibition of fatty acid synthase), and antagonist activity at the κ-opioid receptor (Ke = 490 nmol L−1) as well as activity at the allosteric benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor as a negative allosteric modulator. Apigenin Pan X, Tan N, Zeng G, Zhang Y, Jia R (2005). "Amentoflavone and its derivatives as novel natural inhibitors of human Cathepsin B". Bioorg. Med. ...
Amentoflavone, which is a biflavone derived from various plants, has been known to possess various biological activities including anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. In the previous study, we reported antifungal effect of amentoflavone isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Selaginella tamariscina on human pathogenic fungi. Amentoflavone significantly inhibited the growth of fungal cells without hemolysis of human erythrocytes. In the present study, we investigated antifungal acting mode of amentoflavone in human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Anticandidal activity was exerted in an energy-independent manner presented by an antifungal assay in the presence of NaN3, which is ATP-depleting agent as a metabolic inhibitor. To investigate the effects of amentoflavone on cellular physiology in C. albicans, we performed cell cycle analysis, and the analysis showed that amentoflavone significantly arrested cell cycles during the S-phase. These results demonstrated that amentoflavone has ...
Grape seed procyanidin extract may represent a new therapeutical direction for the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion brain injury.
Pycnogenol® reduced skin wrinkles by three percent and increased skin smoothness by six percent. "To date, Pycnogenol® is the only natural supplement that stimulates hyaluronic acid production in human skin. And, we are encouraged by the molecular evidence confirmed in this study that shows nutritional supplementation with Pycnogenol® benefits human skin," explains Dr. Jean Krutmann, the lead researcher from the Leibniz Research Institute in Dusseldorf, Germany.. Study results confirmed Pycnogenol® improved skin at a physiological and molecular level. Pycnogenol® increased hyaluronic acid in women by 44 percent after 12 weeks of supplementation. Hyaluronic acid binds large quantities of water in the skin and in other tissues, such as cartilage. An increased amount of hyaluronic acid explains the increased skin hydration, higher elasticity and overall smoother skin appearance found in women taking Pycnogenol®.. "This exciting and technically advanced investigation with women representing ...
Flavanols and their oligomeric derivatives, the procyanidins, are plant-derived compounds normally present in the human diet. Accumulating data demonstrate a causal role for flavanols in mediating the cardiovascular benefits associated with the consumption of flavanol-/procyanidin-containing foods. Evidence for a direct, causal role for procyanidins in this context is far less profound. As this is often based on the poor absorption of procyanidins, it has been proposed that procyanidins may indirectly contribute to the systemic presence of bioactive compounds via derivatives generated from the breakdown or catabolism of procyanidins in the gastrointestinal tract. These postulated breakdown products include: i) flavanols, putatively generated by acid hydrolysis in the stomach, and ii) series of phenolic compounds, including 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, that are produced from procyanidin catabolism by the gut microbiome. Verification or rejection of these suppositions could ...
French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) displays a variety of anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Aim of this study was to determine whether human plasma after oral intake of Pycnogenol...
Selaginella tamariscina is an evergreen Perennial growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is in leaf 12-Jan. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil.
Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins and/or oligomeric flavonoids, occur in many edible plants and have various interesting biological activities. Previously, we reported a synthetic method for the preparation of various procyanidins in pure form and described their biological activities. Here, we describe the synthesis of procyanidin B1 acetylated analogs and discuss their inhibition activities against HeLa S3 cell proliferation. Surprisingly, the lower-unit acetylated procyanidin B1 strongly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa S3 cells. This molecule showed much stronger inhibitory activity than did epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), green tea polyphenol, and dimeric compounds that included EGCG as a unit. This result suggests that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of the upper-units in flavan-3-ols are important for their inhibitory activity against cancer cell proliferation and that a hydrophobic lower unit dimer enhances this activity.
0046]Milling step can be carried out at temperatures from 0° C. to 30° C. When the mixture was milled with a mixer for 3 minutes, the content of the theaflavins was substantially increased over that from the 1 minute milling process. The content of the theaflavins was measured after standing for 24 hours and 120 hours. The content of TF3G, TF3G, and TFDG was reduced after 120 hours relative to that after 24 hours, but not completely converted to TF as in Example 2. This is believed to be due to an increased content of TF3G, TF3G, and TFDG in the 3 minute shaking step, the hydrolysis reactions did not proceed to completion within 120 hours. An even longer standing time will be required. It is also believed that TF3G, TF3G, and TFDG are increased in the 3 minutes shaking step, but is not completely hydrolyzed within 120 hours, because the hydrolysis of EGCG and ECG easily proceeds while the hydrolysis of TF3G, TF3G, and TFDG hardly proceeds (comparison among Examples 2, 4, and 5). The mixer ...
Three new biflavonoids, wikstaiwanones A-C (1-3), along with four known compounds (4-7) were isolated from the stems of Wikstroemia taiwanensis (Thymelaeaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 4 and 5 showed antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 15 μg/mL, respectively.
Anti-bacterial effect:. Choleve is rich in theaflavins. A group of researchers from US department of Agriculture conducted a research to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of theaflavins from tea. The bacteria strain they used is Bacillus cereus (strain RM3190). The results demonstrate that theaflavins showed antimicrobial activities at nanomolar level; they were more active than were medicinal antibiotics, such as tetracycline or vancomycin, at comparable concentrations.. Reference:. Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N: Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus. Journal of Food Protection 2006; 69(2): 354-361. Anti-viral effect:. Theaflavin derivatives and catechin derivatives are the major polyphenols in black tea and green tea, respectively. Several tea polyphenols, especially those with galloyl moiety, can inhibit HIV-1 replication with multiple mechanisms of action. Researchers showed that the theaflavin ...
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that shows intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. This often limits treatment options and can cause lengthy hospital stays. Combination treatments are often used to combat resistance and using natural compounds such as polyphenols could give increased treatment options and even the reuse of antibiotics to which high levels of resistance have been observed. A checkerboard assay was used to determine if any synergy exists between ampicillin and the polyphenol theaflavin against 9 clinical isolates and one control isolate (NCTC 13014) of S. maltophilia. It was discovered that significant synergy (P  0.05) does exist between theaflavin and ampicillin, reducing the mean MIC of ampicillin from 12.5-22.9 µg/mL, in liquid culture, to 3.125-6.25 µg/mL. The FIC index was calculated to be 0.22-0.35 confirming synergy. From these results, significant potential for medical applications can be seen and further investigation ...
Abstract. The antioxidant and membrane effects of dimer (Dim) and trimer (Trim) procyanidins isolated from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) (B- and C-bonded) and peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) skin (A-bonded) were evaluated in phosphatidyl choline liposomes. When liposomes were oxidized with a steady source of oxidants, the above dimers and trimers inhibited to a similar extent lipid oxidation in a concentration (0.33-5 microM)-dependent manner. With respect to membrane effects, Dim A1, Dim B, Trim A, and Trim C increased (Dim A1 = Dim B and Trim A = Trim C), while Dim A2 decreased, membrane surface potential. All of the procyanidins tested decreased membrane fluidity as determined by fluorescent probes at the water-lipid interface, an effect that extended into the hydrophobic region of the bilayer. Both dimers and trimers protected the lipid bilayer from disruption by Triton X-100. The magnitude of the protection was Dim A1 , Dim A2 , Dim B and Trim C , Trim A. Thus, dimers and trimers can interact with ...
The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of Pycnogenol (French maritime pine bark extract) for arm lymphedema in women following t
Spherical stem, clayey, fork-shaped branching or form a fan without secondary growth and green. The leaves are single, dealing, composite march, along the stem shape of the needle with 1-2 mm length and green. This plants have sporangium that reduced, found in the axillaries, greenish white while the fiber appear from the stem like sticky roots and brown. Grass fan has habitus herb, creep, little upright. Round stem, clayey, branching like a fork, without secondary growth and brownish white. Single leave, arranged in line around the stem, dealing, 1-2 mm length, smooth, and green. Spore from of the sporangium reduced in axillary and white. Root fibers, appear from the leafy stems and blackish brown (Hutapea, 1994).. 4. Spread of ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
New insights into the distinct roles of flavanols and procyanidins in the human body have been provided by collaborative research by Mars, Incorporated and the University of California, Davis.
It has been proven that A-type procyanidins, containing an additional ether bond, compared to B-type procyanidins are also bioavailable in vitro and in vivo. However, their bioavailability and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract remain uncertain. In this study, a model of the human adenocarcinoma stomach cell line (MKN-28) was established to explore the cellular transport of flavanolic monome ...
HOBOKEN, NJ -- (MARKET WIRE) -- May 16, 2007 -- A study to be published in an upcoming edition of the journal of Cardiovascular Toxicology reveals Pycnogenol®, natural pine bark extract from the French maritime pine tree, helps prevent damage that high blood pressure causes to the heart. The study...
Researchers at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition have reported that Pycnogenol, an antioxidant plant extract from the bark of the French maritime pine tree, is effective for reducing inflammation and soothing pain associated with various health problems.
A new study has found that an antioxidant plant extract derived from the bark of the French maritime pine tree could substantially improve those nagging symptoms most of us know so well
Guys, ada yang suka minum Black Tea? Hmm...Aku sendiri sebenarnya bukan pecinta fanatik black tea, tapi aku gak asing dengan minuman yang satu ini. Selalu ada di kantin dan penyegar yang paling murah harganya hihihii...Gak lama ini ada tugas matakuliah yang topiknya seputar Black Tea. Setelah dikerjain dan nyari banyak referensi ternyata black tea ini…
As for comments, please find a relevant post and write your comment there. Theres no point asking for help with your lotion bar on a post about conditioners as no one will see it but you. Please find something that relates by doing a search or looking at sections like hair care, newbie links, or extracts, for example, post your comments there. Itll make it easier for other people to help you if I cant find time, too. If you post something that is very clearly not related to the post in which youre asking for help, it will go unanswered by me. ...
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Drinking black tea provides many health benefits. Use this guide to learn the health benefits of drinking black tea, including heart health and more.
|P| While over indulging in anything is not good, drinking black tea in moderate amounts has a vast variety of health benefits. Black tea promotes oral healthy while h...
Consumed in moderation, black tea is beneficial. Besides temporarily boosting alertness, black tea contains helpful substances that may prevent a number of diseases and conditions, including reducing...
Black tea is one of the varieties most consumed in the world. It is an oxidized tea, with an agreeable flavor and a slight orange color. A natural source of satiating and digestive .
An age-delay treatment that smoothes the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles while providing a firmer, luminous look. Fresh, Inc.
Several pu-erh tea consumers have claimed that drinking pu-erh tea, especially aged pu-erh tea, can attenuate the pain of gout at the bone joint . The mechanism of this interesting clinical effect of pu-erh tea may come from the inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols on the uric acid-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) . The inhibitory effects of six tea polyphenols, namely, theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2), theaflavin-3,3-digallate (TF3), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gallic acid, and propyl gallate, on XO have been investigated 11 These six antioxidant compounds reduce oxidative stress in HL-60 cells . Theaflavins and EGCG inhibit XO to produce uric acid and also act as scavengers of superoxide TF3 acts as a competitive inhibitor and is the most potent inhibitor of XO among these compounds . It has been shown that pu-erh tea contains different levels of theaflavins, thearubigins, and higher polymerized catechins Therefore, pu-erh tea is expected to inhibit the XO activity ...
Basic botanical data Official Latin Name:Pinus strobus Common Name: Pinus maritima, P. pinaster, white pine, French Marine Pine Bark Extract, French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Leucoanthocyanidins, OPC, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins, PCO, Pinus maritima, Pinus pinaster, Procyandiol Oligomers, Procyanodolic Oligomers, Part Used: Bark Chemistry:95% Pinus Maritima Pinus Maritima is a water-soluble flavonoid, or polyphenol, complex with powerful antioxidant properties and effects on reducing blood clotting. Proanthocyanidins are at least 15 to 25 times more powerful than vitamin E in neutralizing the iron and oxygen species free radicals that attack lipids. Pine trees are evergreen conifers (cone-bearing trees) that originate almost exclusively in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Pines are the source of many commercial products. Pine medicinal preparations are made from the essential oil of distilled leaves, from the resin and its derivatives produced from the bark, and from the ...
Betts, J. W., Kelly, S. M. and Haswell, S. J. 2011, Antibacterial effects of theaflavin and synergy with epicatechin against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, International journal of antimicrobial agents, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 421-425, doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.07.006. ...
The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and ...
Previous activity-guided phytochemical studies on Garcinia buchananii stem bark, which is traditionally used in Africa to treat various gastrointestinal and metabolic illnesses, revealed xanthones, polyisoprenylated benzophenones, flavanone-C-glycosides, biflavonoids, and/or biflavanones as bioactive key molecules. Unequivocal structure elucidation of biflavonoids and biflavanones by means of NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the hindered rotation of the monomers around the C-C axis (atropisomerism), resulting in a high spectral complexity. In order to facilitate an unrestricted rotation, NMR spectra are usually recorded at elevated temperatures, commonly over 80 degrees C, which effects in a single set of resonance signals. However, under these conditions, one of the target compounds of this investigation, (2R,3S,2R,3R)-manniflavanone (1), undergoes degradation. Therefore, we demonstrated in the present study that the 1,1-ADEQUATE could be successfully used as a powerful alternative ...
pine bark extract 40 manufacturers and pine bark extract 40 suppliers Directory - Find pine bark extract 40 Manufacturers, Exporters and pine bark extract 40 suppliers on ECVERY.com
We performed NMR binding experiments and docking studies with these polyphenols. In bidimensional heteronuclear NMR titration experiments (13) with 15N-labeled Bcl-xL, theaflavin, theaflavanin, and theaflavin-3′ gallate caused a wide broadening of the resonances (Fig. 3A) ⇓ . This result is typical of tight binding, although a high compound to protein ratio was needed, probably due to the limited solubility of the compounds at concentrations needed for NMR (500 μm). The observed broadening of the protein [15N,1H] resonances is characteristic of binding with intermediate exchange rates in the NMR time scale, representative of low- to submicromolar binders. Mapping of the observed changes in the NMR heteronuclear correlation spectra on titration with these compounds into the three-dimensional structure of Bcl-xL showed that many residues within and surrounding the BH3-binding pocket were affected by the compound binding, although the changes extended to a larger region surrounding this ...
The study evaluated the nephroprotective potentials of methanolic extract (ME) and dichloromethane fraction (DCMF) of root-bark of Garcinia kola on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats with a view to utilize the extracts of the root of G. Kola in the amelioration of antibiotic-induced kidney damage. The study involved preparation of the extract, fractionation, phytochemical screening and evaluation of phenolics and flavonoid contents. Moreover, both the acute and sub-acute toxicities of ME and DCMF were determined in mice and albino rats with concentrations ranging from 10 to 5000 mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Forty albino rats were divided into 8 groups of five animals each and induced with gentamicin (80 mg/kg bwt). The renal biochemical metabolites and enzymes were quantified and assayed respectively. The histopathological examinations of kidney were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the ME and DCMF of the root-bark of G. kola revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins,
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Im new to Swami, before I tested as a Gatherer and black tea was a beneficial for me, now I am a Hunter and Black tea is an avoid for me, not even a black dot. I need more information on this. Is it the caffeine that is the problem in all black teas? (Because I know how to naturally de-caffeinate tea) Or is it the lectins in all Black teas that makes it an Avoid? I have so many different kinds of black teas that come from all over the world and are grown and made differently, so I am wondering about the lectins in black teas. Is there a difference in the lectins between the different kinds of black teas? I need more detailed information about Lectins ...
The process that tea is subject to for obtaining black tea has several phases:. - Withering: partially dehydration of the tea leaves, thats to say, water is extracted to make it pliable.. - Rolling: The leaves are rolled on themselves and acquire the look you see when dry. At this stage, cell membranes get broken and release enzymes leading to reactions which provide the aromas, flavors and tea physical changes.. - Screening: The leaves pass through a screening process where particles are separated according to the different sizes, so that oxidation is homogeneous.. - Fermentation or pseudo-fermentation: It is a step unique in black tea. The leaves are left for 2 hours in a room with temperature, ventilation and humidity controlled to oxidize and ferment. Theine (= caffeine) is released and polyphenols are oxidized into theaflavins and thearubigins, that will give astringency and a reddish color to the infusion.. Recently, the term fermentation is wanted to be changed by the term aeration ...
Did you know that apples -- those delicious, versatile, beautiful fruits -- actually are natural born cancer cell killers and more, too? Researchers at the French National Institute for Health and Medical Research in Strasbourg exposed cancer cells to apple antioxidants. They found that one type of antioxidant that is prominent in apples, procyanidins, was particularly effective in triggering cancer cell deaths. The French team then did a second-stage study for which they exposed laboratory rats to colon-cancer-causing substances and then fed one of two groups of rats the apple procyanidins for six weeks. The rats that fed on the antioxidant developed half as many precancerous lesions as the group on regular feed ...
Description from Flora of China. Lycopodioides Boehmer, nom. rej.; Selaginoides Séguier; Stachygynandrum P. Beauvois ex Mirbel, nom. rej.. Morphological characters and geographic distribution are the same as those of the family.. Five subgenera are recognized. In a molecular phylogeny (Korall et al., Int. J. Pl. Sci. 160: 585-594. 1999), the isophyllous Selaginella subg. Selaginella (absent from China) and S. subg. Tetragonostachys Jermy are monophyletic, but the anisophyllous S. subg. Stachygynandrum Warburg and S. subg. Heterostachys Warburg are not monophyletic.. Six uncertain taxa, not included in the following key, are listed at the end of the account. Uncertain taxa Selaginella effusa Alston var. dulongjiangensis W. M. Chu (Fl. Yunnan. 20: 718. 2006), described from Gongshan, Yunnan. Selaginella jugorum Handel-Mazzetti (Symb. Sin. 6: 8. 1929; Lycopodioides jugorum (Handel-Mazzetti) H. S. Kung), described from NW Yunnan. Selaginella monospora Spring var. ciliolata W. M. Chu (Fl. Yunnan. ...
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According to new research, the extract from the bark of the French maritime pine tree appears to have inflammation-fighting properties and pain-relieving abilities. Scientists from the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition in Rome found the antioxidant compound, called Pycnogenol, inhibits the generation of COX-2 and 5-LOX, which are naturally occurring mediators associated with […]. ...
This topic has 61 study abstracts on Pycnogenol (Pine Bark) indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Hypertension, Inflammation, and Osteoarthritis
This topic has 61 study abstracts on Pycnogenol (Pine Bark) indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Hypertension, Inflammation, and Osteoarthritis
Black tea, like coffee, produces an acidic effect on the body and should generally be avoided on an alkaline diet. Black tea does, however, help the body...
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Cocoa flavanols in dark chocolate may keep you calmer and content but no link has been established with enhanced cognitive performance, according to a study funded by Barry Callebaut.
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Learn more about Black Tea at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Alternate Names/Related terms Theanine Uses Principal Proposed Uses Heart.....
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Pycnogenol, a standardized extract of French maritime pine bark, is composed of flavonoids, procyanidins, and phenolic acids. The mixture of the components has shown greater pharmacological effects than its purified components, such as cardiovascular benefits, antihypertensive effects, alleviation of allergies and asthma, reduction of thromboxane, and antidiabetic effects [18,20,32]. However, a recent study showed that the Korean red pine (P. densiflora) bark extract is also composed of flavonoids and phenolic acids, and has considerable antioxidant effects [33]. Several studies discovered antiadipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of P. densiflora bark extract, but further studies are required to validate the effectiveness [34,35]. French maritime and Korean red pine bark extract have been studied in many diseases but rarely in ocular diseases. The role of pine bark extract in age-related cataract is still unclear. That being said, other antioxidant substances can be used to prevent oxidative ...
In this study we found that ERα plays a key role in mediating the activation of eNOS in response to black tea polyphenols. In particular, we found that ERα is phosphorylated on Ser-118 in response to black tea polyphenol-mediated p38 MAPK activation. This ERα phosphorylation is required for p38 MAPK downstream signaling to Akt and eNOS that mediates black tea polyphenol-induced eNOS activation. We were able to implicate Ser-118 as a critical residue in this process as we observed ERα Ser-118 phosphorylation in response to black tea polyphenols and mutation of this residue abrogated polyphenol-induced eNOS activation in COS cells. This residue also appeared important for the functional association of p38 MAPK with ERα as mutants lacking this site did not associate with p38 MAPK in response to black tea polyphenols. These data suggest a novel adaptor function of ERα that integrates p38 MAPK signaling with downstream targets.. The rapidity of the response to black tea polyphenols suggests a ...
Early detection of breast cancer with screening mammography and the use of more effective medical therapies have led to a decrease in breast cancer mortality. However, breast cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death in women (2). Therefore, the future lies in not only early detection but prevention of breast cancer. Currently available chemopreventive agents are associated with potentially serious side effects and can be quite costly, especially when taken for extended periods of time. Therefore, they are usually targeted only to women at high risk of disease. Identification of an inexpensive, efficacious preventive therapy with few or no side effects would represent a major advance in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer. One exciting possibility is grape seed extract. Grapes and grape seeds contain procyanidins, a highly active subclass of flavonoids with actions similar to pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitors (AIs). These procyanidin dimers have been found ...
In: Minerva Cardioangiol (1999 Jan-Feb) 47(1-2):39-46. BACKGROUND: The pharmacological treatment of non-complicated chronic venous insufficiency is a current and well-debated topic. The introduction of new products with action on the venous system, improved knowledge on the physiopathology of venous insufficiency and the possibility provided by new analytical instruments, have given new impulse to the consolidation of the clinical value of phlebotonics in this indication. METHODS: In light of this, 24 patients with non-complicated chronic venous insufficiency were treated with oral administration of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (Pycnogenols-OPC) 100 mg/day. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment, an instrumental evaluation by optical probe capillaroscope was employed in addition to the traditional subjective clinical parameters: swelling, itching, heaviness and pain. The videocapillaroscope examination was performed at the lower third of the leg and the first toe. Edema in the ...
Recommended use Source of antioxidants that help protect cells against oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Recommended Dose Adults: 1-2 Capsules 2 times per day Medicinal Ingredients (per capsule) Pinus pinaster (Maritime pine, Stem bark).................25mg Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid).......................25mg Non-Medicinal Ingredients Inulin, Oryza sativa (Rice) hull powder, Rice bran, Hypromellose. No artificial fillers, binders, and coloring. Storage Store unopened bottles in a cool, dry place. Refrigerate after opening. Benefits Brain booster, anti-inflammatory, treats impotence, improves micro-circulation, reduces swelling of legs Pine Bark contains more than 40 different types of antioxidants and flavonoids that are rich in oligomeric proanthocyanidin compounds (OPC). Elixir Botanicas Pine Bark is made from the stem of Pinus pinaster, the French maritime pine. It contains between 65-90% OPC with vitamin C added to enhance their anti-aging properties. Potent Antioxidant: Pine bark ...
are also real and exist. Recent studies have shown a correlation between tea drinking and reduce cardiovascular disease events, such as acute myocardial infarction and stroke. A study conducted by Boston University in 2001 concluded that this effect was due to components in black tea reversing endothelial vasomotor dysfunction, reducing the possibility of dangerous cardiovascular events. In addition, a compound known as theaflavin-3-gallate has shown promise in reducing the incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles. These micelles are responsible for absorbing cholesterol into the body, and blocking such an event may help with cholesterol levels, even if in modest levels. However, to gain these benefits, black tea must be drunk without milk. A German study in 2006 showed that milk cancels out these health benefits. This is likely because the casein proteins in milk bind to the active components in tea that have the purported health benefits. Plus, a study conducted by the University ...
Diabetes Prevalence is Increasing. Twenty four million Americans - or 8% of the population and nearly 25% of those 60 and older - currently suffer from diabetes according to 2007 prevalence data from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The 2007 figure is 3 million higher than 2005 prevalence data. The CDC reported that an additional 57 million had pre-diabetes, a condition that most often precedes a diagnosis of diabetes.. Diabetes can lead to damage of several different tissues, particularly those that are insulin insensitive such as the retina, kidney and nerves. Type 2 diabetes is most common, accounting for 90-95% of all diabetic patients. Both forms cause long-term complications such as neuropathy, nephropathy, cataract and retinopathy. Up to 21% of patients with type 2 diabetes have some signs of retinopathy at time of first diagnosis, and most will develop some degree of retinopathy over time.. The potential role of Pycnogenol (pine bark extract) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is ...
The antioxidants Pycnogenol (derived from the bark of French maritime pine trees) and vitamin E may be wise choices for smokers. A single 200 mg dose of Pycnogenol reduced the tendency of blood platelets to clump, which could lower smokers risk for blood clots (Thrombosis Research, 8/99). And in Finnish smokers, high blood levels of vitamin E were linked to a 20% lower risk for lung cancer. (Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Oct. 20, 1999 ...
Abstract: The effects of dietary dry seed powder of G. kola (Bitter cola) at inclusion levels of (O, 10, 20, 30 and 40g per kg of feed), on heamatological parameters body weights and survival rate of pullets chicks were investigated in a study that lasted eight weeks. 250- day old pullet chicks were randomly allocated to five treatment groups. A treatment contained two replicates of 25 birds each. Results showed that G. Kola (Bitter Cola) dry seed powder inclusion in the diet improved weight gain in groups B, C, D and E.This compared favourable with that of the control group A. Weight gain for group E fed 40 g kg 1 feed dry seed powder of bitter cola was lowest when compared to other groups. Highest weight gain was however recorded for the group D birds (30 g kg 1 feed) dry seed power of bitter cola. For the period the experiment lasted, results in this study showed that the higher the level of inclusion of dry powered seed of Bitter Kola in the diet the lower the mortality rate recorded. This ...
Have you ever heard people criticizing your choices in having caffeinated drinks like tea and coffee? Though over-indulging in anything will have negative consequences, having an extra cup of black tea might not be as bad as you might have imagined.. Personally I love my perfect cup of tea. Its how I like to begin my day-not to help me wake up, but rather I like to enjoy a tasteful cup of bliss first thing in the morning. When it comes to herbal, green or black tea, different things suit different people and a doctors recommendation should never be overlooked, but for most of us, indulging in a cup or two of black tea might in fact be a healthy life choice, as some studies have shown.. Both green and black tea are made from a shrub called Camellia Sinesis, but with different processing methods. In addition to the leaves being withered, rolled and heated, black tea leaves are fermented before the final heating process.. Below are 11 health benefits of having a cup or two of black tea on a ...
Buy Gastronomie range cocoa powder. This high quality cocoa powder by Valrhona is 100% unsweetened, pure and intense. Also dutched this cocoa powder is created for all kinds of chocolate making, cakes and desserts. and other cocoa powder and cooking chocolate by valrhona online for UK gift delivery.
Buy Gastronomie range cocoa powder. This high quality cocoa powder by Valrhona is 100% unsweetened, pure and intense. Also dutched this cocoa powder is created for all kinds of chocolate making, cakes and desserts. and other cocoa powder and cooking chocolate by valrhona online for UK gift delivery.
Free Radic Biol Med 2012, 52 (8), 1403-12. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Apr 15;52(8):1403-12. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.12.010. Epub 2011 Dec 23.. Accumulating data suggest that diets rich in flavanols and procyanidins are beneficial for human health. In this context, there has been a great interest in elucidating the systemic levels and metabolic profiles at which these compounds occur in humans. Although recent progress has been made, there still exist considerable differences and various disagreements with regard to the mammalian metabolites of these compounds, which in turn are largely ...
250g Cacao Powder Raw Organic (Cacao Powder). Earth Notions raw, organic cacao powder is the pure cacao fiber with the butter removed. It is prepared from only the finest criollo variety cacao beans, processed at a low temperature and then cold
Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate ...
The medicinal portions of plants and trees can come from bark, flowers, leaves and even the rhizomes or roots. ThereÆs a sort of pragmatic beauty in nature. Many of the therapeutic components of plants are parts that humans typically donÆt eat. After all, how many of us have snacked on the inner bark of a French maritime pine tree or ordered a fillet of salmon with a side of wilted ginkgo or gotu kola leaves? There are however certain exceptions to this rule. Green tea and turmeric are perhaps two of the ...
According to clinical tests daily supplementation with the Maritime pine bark extract may cure symptoms of asthma, especially in children. Researchers claim that taking this supplement on a regular basis can reduce the intake of inhaler, sleep awakenings due to breathing complications and frequent visit to the doctor. A recent study was conducted with some asthmatic subjects aging between 6years to 18 years for a period of three months. The group under the intake of Pycnogenol had improvement in the pulmonary complications and was also able to discontinue the use of inhalers. However, this study lacked comparative evidence to establish the beneficial effects of this supplement in treating asthma.. The general dosage recommendation. Since this all-natural supplement is used for the treatment of various ailments the dosage guidelines also vary according to the purpose of intake. Each of this varied usage may require a separate optimal dosage level to obtain the desired benefits otherwise it may ...
0. by California State University, San Bernardino and considered exempt due to nonhuman subject research status. 3. Results Table 1 demonstrates the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics among Hispanic adults categorized by users and nonusers of substances in lifetime, past year, Procyanidin B1 IC50 and past month, with significant differences noted between the two groups (< 0.05). Females were less likely to report lifetime material use (35%) as compared to males (50%) as did those living in poverty (less than 100% FPL = 34%, 100C199% = 39%, and 200% or more = 50%). A higher percent of those who were interviewed in English (54%) reported lifetime material use compared to those interviewed in Spanish (18%). Similarly, among those with influence of religious beliefs in life, approximately 39% reported lifetime material use compared to significantly higher proportion (53%) among those with lower or no religious influence in life. Among those with history of incarceration, a ...
Pine bark contains complex polyphenols that are among the most potent of any plant. Pine polyphenols are powerful antioxidants, giving benefits to the cardiovascular system and the immune system. They are well known for supporting capillary health. Polyphenols are vigorous free radical scavengers that help the body reduce oxidative stress.. ...
Garcinia kola (Family Guttifereae) known as "bitter kola" is a highly valued ingredient in African traditional medicine. The plant is cultivated largely in West Africa for its edible fruit and seeds which has been employed in folk medicine as rejuvenating agent and general antidote. Bitter cola seeds have been shown to contain a complex mixture of biflavonoids, prenylated benzophenones and xanthones.. Many pharmacological effects have been demonstrated for Garcinia biflavonoids, among them are antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, bronchodilator, antihepatotoxic properties, other studies show that antimicrobial activity was due to polyisoprenylated benzophenone. Some proprietary dietary supplements containing Garcinia kola extractives already exist in US and African markets.. ...
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The in vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanolic extract of the seeds of Garcinia kola was investigated. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 mm to 25 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the diethyl ether fraction was between 0.313 and 5.0 mg/ml, while that of butanol fraction varied from 0.157 to 5.0 mg/ml. The butanol fraction killed about 77% of Bacillus anthracis and 79% of Escherichia coli cells within 120 min at a concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Protein leakage from the B. anthracis and E. coli cells when exposed to the butanol and diethyl ether fractions was observed. We conclude that Garcinia kola seed extract has a broad spectrum antibacterial activity, with the butanol and diethyl ether fractions being bactericidal as exemplified by the killing rate and protein leakage regimes, which suggest cell membrane disruption as a mechanism of action of the extract ...
Department of Urology, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, MN 55905, USA. Androgens via their cognate receptor may be involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether tea polyphenols have inhibitory effects on androgen action in an androgen-responsive, prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. The tea polyphenol, EGCG, inhibited LNCaP cell growth and the expression of androgen regulated PSA and hK2 genes. Moreover, EGCG had a significant inhibitory effect on the androgenic inducibility of the PSA promoter. Immunoblotting detected a decrease in androgen receptor protein with treatments of the tea polyphenols EGCG, GCG and theaflavins. Northern blot analysis showed decreased levels of androgen receptor mRNA by EGCG. Transient transfections demonstrated that EGCG and theaflavins could repress the transcriptional activities of the androgen receptor promoter region. An Sp1 binding site in the androgen receptor gene ...
China Pharmaceutical Gso Organic Solvents Grape Seed Oil for Cooking Cosmetics, Find details about China Grape Seed Oil, Solvents Grape Seed Oil from Pharmaceutical Gso Organic Solvents Grape Seed Oil for Cooking Cosmetics - Guangzhou Kafen Biotech Co., Ltd.
Grape seeds may help attack colon tumors. DENVER, Oct. 18 (UPI) - Chemicals found in grape seeds have been found to inhibit growth of colorectal tumors in both cell cultures and in mice, say Colorado researchers.. "With these results, we are not suggesting that people run out and buy and use grape seed extract. That could be dangerous since so little is known about doses and side effects," said Rajesh Agarwal of the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver.. "The value of this preclinical study is that it shows grape seed extract can attack cancer, and how it works, but much more investigation will be needed before these chemicals can be tested as a human cancer treatment and preventive.". The study, published in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, documented a 44-percent reduction of advanced colorectal tumors in the animals and also revealed, for the first time, the molecular mechanism by which grape seed extract works to inhibit cancer growth.. The authors found that it ...
Biflavonoids Amentoflavone many (C6-C3)n,. (C6)n,. (C6-C3-C6)n n , 12 Lignins,. Catechol melanins,. Flavolans (Condensed ...
Leaflets also contain biflavonoids. Estragole is the primary volatile compound emitted from the male and female cones of C. ... Moderately Active Antibacterial Biflavonoids. Abeer Moawad, Mona Hetta, Jordan K. Zjawiony, Melissa R. Jacob, Mohamed Hifnawy, ...
The two biflavonoids, 3′-O-methyl loniflavone and loniflavone, along with luteolin and chrysin, can be isolated from the leaves ... "Biflavonoids from Lonicera japonica". Phytochemistry. 66 (23): 2740. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.10.002. PMID 16293275. Peng, ...
Biflavonoids from Ochna lanceolata. ...
Williams, Christine A.; Harborne, Jeffrey B.; Tomas-Barberan A., Francisco (1987). "Biflavonoids in the primitive monocots ...
Biflavonoids are a type of flavonoids with the general formula scheme (C6-C3-C6)2. Amentoflavone (bis-apigenin coupled at 8 and ... "Antimicrobial biflavonoids from the aerial parts of Ouratea sulcata". Phytochemistry. 66 (16): 1922-1926. doi:10.1016/j. ... revoluta contain biflavonoids such as (2S, 2′′S)-2,3,2′′,3′′-tetrahydro-4′,4′′′-di-O-methylamentoflavone ( ... a cytotoxic principle from Rhus succedanea and the cytotoxicity of the related biflavonoids". Planta Med. 55 (2): 166-168. doi: ...
Biflavonoids in the primitive monocots Isophysis tasmanica and Xerophyta plicata. Christine A. Williams, Jeffrey B. Harborne ...
To date, the field of biochemistry of biflavonoids is still wide open. Little is known about Ochnaflavone of its natural ...
Chen, Li-Yin; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Peng, Chien-Fang (18 January 2012). "Structural Elucidation and Bioactivity of Biflavonoids from ...
Leaflets of C. circinalis contain biflavonoids such as (2S, 2′′S)-2,3,2′′,3′′-tetrahydro-4′,4′′′-di-O-methylamentoflavone ( ... Phytochemical Investigation of Cycas circinalis and Cycas revoluta Leaflets: Moderately Active Antibacterial Biflavonoids. ...
... a cytotoxic principle from Rhus succedanea and the cytotoxicity of the related biflavonoids". Planta Medica. 55 (2): 166-8. doi ...
1978). Direct synthesis, structure and absolute configuration of biflavonoids from black wattle bark (mimosa) extract. J. Chem ...
Both biflavonoids were obtained in small quantities, and their structures show some new and unusual biflavonoid diversity. ... The leaves of Lophira alata afforded two new biflavonoids, lophirone L (1) and lophirone M (2), and the known luteolin and ...
... , an isolate of Garcinia dulcis, belongs to the family of biflavonoids and is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. ...
... biflavonoids MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.206 --- catechin MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.221 --- chalcones MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.221. ... biflavonoids MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.206 --- catechin MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.221 --- chalcones MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.221. ...
The biflavonoids 2",3"-dihydrohinokiflavone, 2,3,2",3"-tetrahydrohinokiflavone, 2,3-dihydroamentoflavone, 2,3,2",3"- ...
Three new biflavonoids, wikstaiwanones A-C (1-3), along with four known compounds (4-7) were isolated from the stems of ... Three new biflavonoids, wikstaiwanones A-C (1-3), along with four known compounds (4-7) were isolated from the stems of ... Structural Elucidation and Bioactivity of Biflavonoids from the Stems of Wikstroemia taiwanensis. Li-Yin Chen 1,* , Ih-Sheng ... Chen L-Y, Chen I-S, Peng C-F. Structural Elucidation and Bioactivity of Biflavonoids from the Stems of Wikstroemia taiwanensis ...
The antioxidant activity of the biflavonoids against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation induced with Cu2+, was studied ... The flavanone-(3→8)-flavone biflavonoids displayed antioxidant activity, particularly morelloflavone, which was significantly ... Six biflavonoids were isolated from G. madruno, one of which, 7-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside of morelloflavone, is a new ... Six biflavonoids were isolated from G. madruno, one of which, 7-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside of morelloflavone, is a new ...
Mulitple sources of biflavonoids.. Posted by iHerb Customer on Mar 10, 2010 , Verified Purchase ...
Biflavonoids Amentoflavone many (C6-C3)n,. (C6)n,. (C6-C3-C6)n n , 12 Lignins,. Catechol melanins,. Flavolans (Condensed ...
Biflavonoids +; cuticle wax tubules with nonacosan-10-ol; ferulic acid ester-linked to primary unlignified cell walls, silica ...
Biflavonoids +; ferulic acid ester-linked to primary unlignified cell walls, silica usu. low; root apical meristem organization ...
Biflavonoids. Lignans and Neolignans. Tannins. 8--Alkaloids. Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Alkaloids. Tropane Alkaloids. ...
1 The Anthocyanins.- 2 Flavans and Proanthocyanidins.- 3 C-Glycosylflavonoids.- 4 Biflavonoids.- 5 Isoflavonoids.- 6 ...
Biflavonoids*. Cacao*. Catechin / pharmacology*. Cell Division / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / drug effects*. Gene ... 0/Antioxidants; 0/Biflavonoids; 0/Plant Extracts; 0/Proanthocyanidins; 154-23-4/Catechin; 4852-22-6/procyanidin; EC 2.7.10.1/ ...
Biflavonoids. Lignans and Neolignans. Tannins. 8--Alkaloids. Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Alkaloids. Tropane Alkaloids. ...
Hemingway, R.W. Biflavonoids and proanthocyanidins. In:Rowe, J.W. (ed.) Natural Products Extraneous to the Lignocellulosic Cell ...
Williams, Christine A.; Harborne, Jeffrey B.; Tomas-Barberan A., Francisco (1987). "Biflavonoids in the primitive monocots ...
Antiviral activities of biflavonoids LIN Y. M. Planta Med. 65, 120-125, 1998 ...
DNA topoisomerase inhibitors: biflavonoids from Ouratea species. Grynberg, N.F.; Carvalho, M.G.; Velandia, J.R.; Oliveira, M.C. ...
Presentation] Biflavonoids from the roots of Diplomorpha canescens. *. Author(s). Hari Prasad Devkota, Khem Raj Joshi, 渡邊高志, 矢原 ... Journal Article] Biflavonoids, Lignans and Related Compounds from the Roots of Diplomorpha canescens2015. *. Author(s). Hari ... Journal Article] Isolation, Structure Determination, and Anti-HIV Evaluation of Tigliane-Type Diterpenes and Biflavonoids from ...
Biflavonoids and other Phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae). Marcus V. Bahia; Jamile B. dos Santos; Juceni P. ... Biflavonoids and other Phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae). J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2005;16(6b):1402-1405. ...
Citrus Biflavonoids. 400 mcg. Selenium. 4 mcg. Inactive Ingredients: Bioflavanol, Stearate, Marine Lipid Concentrates, Natural ...
Citrus Biflavonoids. 200 mcg. Selenium. 2 mcg. Proprietary Antioxidant Blend: Brewers Yeast Cinnamon, Turmeric Root, Powder, ...
Al-Shagdari, A., Alarcón, A. B., Cuesta-Rubio, O., Piccinelli, A. L., and Rastrelli, L. (2013). Biflavonoids, main constituents ...
Leaflets also contain biflavonoids. Estragole is the primary volatile compound emitted from the male and female cones of C. ... Moderately Active Antibacterial Biflavonoids. Abeer Moawad, Mona Hetta, Jordan K. Zjawiony, Melissa R. Jacob, Mohamed Hifnawy, ...
The two biflavonoids, 3′-O-methyl loniflavone and loniflavone, along with luteolin and chrysin, can be isolated from the leaves ... "Biflavonoids from Lonicera japonica". Phytochemistry. 66 (23): 2740. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.10.002. PMID 16293275. Peng, ...
... flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in Olea europaea L. leaves. Chromatographia, 33(7-8), 369-373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... biflavonoids in skin and fiber assist in restoring tissue integrity in respiratory system.. Other beneficial foods: carrot ...
Structural elucidation and bioactivity of biflavonoids from the stems of Wikstroemia taiwanensis. International Journal of ...
Biflavonoids and polyflavonoids [PK1204]. Isoflavonoids [PK1205]. Rotenoid flavonoids [PK1206]. Pterocarpans [PK1207]. ...
  • Previous activity-guided phytochemical studies on Garcinia buchananii stem bark, which is traditionally used in Africa to treat various gastrointestinal and metabolic illnesses, revealed xanthones, polyisoprenylated benzophenones, flavanone-C-glycosides, biflavonoids, and/or biflavanones as bioactive key molecules. (tum.de)
  • commonly, the ongoing reductions of other Complete 2001)Biflavonoids warnings are suggested founded and indexed adding epub Путешествие в Малороссию академика Гильденштедта и кн. (opticasoftware.com)
  • An 2001)Biflavonoids interface for agreeing sustainable unangenehm and the protection of sodium plaintiffs( P. Water deficiency and the gesperrt. (opticasoftware.com)
  • This study is the first phytochemical investigation of Selaginella sellowii and demonstrates the antileishmanial activity of the hydroethanolic extract from this plant (SSHE), as well as of the biflavonoids amentoflavone and robustaflavone, isolated from this species. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unequivocal structure elucidation of biflavonoids and biflavanones by means of NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the hindered rotation of the monomers around the C-C axis (atropisomerism), resulting in a high spectral complexity. (tum.de)
  • Approximately 109 phytochemical constituents have been searched out as isolates from various parts of this plant comprising mostly diterpenoids and biflavonoids. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Biflavonoids isolated from Selaginella tamariscina regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase in human skin fibroblasts," Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry , vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 732-738, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Six biflavonoids were isolated from G. madruno , one of which, 7''- O -(6''''-acetyl)-glucoside of morelloflavone, is a new compound identified on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR (HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. (mdpi.com)
  • The antioxidant activity of the biflavonoids against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation induced with Cu 2+ , was studied by means of a TBARS assay. (mdpi.com)
  • The flavanone-(3→8'')-flavone biflavonoids displayed antioxidant activity, particularly morelloflavone, which was significantly more potent than quercetin, with a CE 50 of 12.36 μg/mL. (mdpi.com)
  • S. sellowii may be a potential source of biflavonoids that could provide promising compounds for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anti-virulence activities of biflavonoids from Mesua ferrea L. flower. (nih.gov)
  • Biflavonoids found in oranges, grapefruit, lemons and limes. (msu.edu)
  • Biflavonoids are found in citrus fruits. (nyhq.org)