Cultured Milk Products
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
Colony Count, Microbial
Molecular Sequence Data
Protection against influenza virus infection of mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064. (1/1007)Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections. (+info)
Case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum. (2/1007)We report a case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum in a 19-year-old male who had developed high fever, jaundice, and hepatomegaly after acupuncture therapy with small gold needles. Anaerobic, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli were isolated from his blood and finally identified as B. longum. He recovered completely after treatment with ticarcillin and metronidazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of incidental sepsis caused by B. longum. (+info)
Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants. (3/1007)AIM: To serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors. METHODS: Stool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed. RESULTS: By day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp were identified in only one infant. In breast milk fed (but not in formula fed) infants, the total number of bacterial species/stool specimen increased significantly with time (2.50 (SE 0.34) on day 10; 3.13 (0.38) on day 20; 4.27 (0.45) on day 30) as did quantitative bacterial counts; Gram negative species accounted for most of the increase. On day 30, significant inverse correlations were found between days of previous antibiotic treatment and number of bacterial species (r=0.491) and total organisms/g of stool (r=0.482). Gestational age, birthweight, maternal antibiotic or steroid treatment, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and mode of delivery did not seem to affect colonisation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The gut of extremely low birthweight infants is colonised by a paucity of bacterial species. Breast milking and reduction of antibiotic exposure are critical to increasing fecal microbial diversity. (+info)
Sequence analysis of plasmid pKJ50 from Bifidobacterium longum. (4/1007)The complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid, pKJ50, isolated from an intestinal bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum KJ, has been determined. The plasmid was analysed and found to be 4960 bp in size with a G+C content of 61.7 mol%. Computer analysis of sequence data revealed three major ORFs encoding putative proteins of 31.5 (ORFI), 24.5 (ORFII) and 38.6 kDa (ORFIII). ORFI encodes a protein with a pI of 10.18 and shows relatively high amino acid sequence similarity (more than 60%) with several plasmid replication proteins from Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Southern blot analysis showed that pKJ50 accumulates an ssDNA intermediate, suggesting that it replicates by a rolling-circle mechanism. Upstream of ORFI, three sets of repeated sequences resembling iteron structures of related plasmids were identified. ORFIII encodes a protein with a pI of 10.97. It also shows a high level of amino acid sequence similarity with some plasmid mobilization proteins. Upstream of ORFIII, a 12 bp stretch resembles an oriT DNA sequence with inverted repeats identical to those found in conjugative plasmids. Hydropathy plot analysis of ORFII, encoding an acidic protein (pI = 4.95), suggests it is a transmembrane protein. Several interesting palindromic sequences, repeat sequences and hairpin-loop structures around ORFI, which might confer regulatory effects on the replication of the plasmid, were also noted. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and in vitro translation confirmed the expression of ORFI and ORFII. RT-PCR produced amplified DNA fragments of the expected sizes, corresponding to ORFI and ORFII. However, no RT-PCR product corresponding to ORFIII was obtained. In vitro translation showed protein bands of the expected sizes, corresponding to each ORF. A shuttle vector capable of transforming Bifidobacterium animalis MB209 was constructed by cloning pKJ50 and a chloramphenicol resistance gene into pBR322. (+info)
Effect of transgalactooligosaccharides on the composition of the human intestinal microflora and on putative risk markers for colon cancer. (5/1007)BACKGROUND: Nondigestible oligosaccharides have been claimed to benefit the health of the colon by selectively stimulating the growth of bifidobacteria and by decreasing the toxicity of the colon contents. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effect of 2 doses of transgalactooligosaccharides and a placebo on the composition and activity of the intestinal microflora in 18 women and 22 men. DESIGN: Strictly controlled experimental diets were supplied to 3 intervention groups in a parallel design. The study was divided into 2 consecutive 3-wk periods during which each participant consumed a run-in diet followed by an intervention diet that differed only in the amount of transgalactooligosaccharides: 0 (placebo), 7.5, and 15 g/d. Breath samples and fecal samples were collected at the end of both the run-in and intervention periods. RESULTS: Apparent fermentability of transgalactooligosaccharides was 100%. The highest dose of transgalactooligosaccharides significantly increased the concentration of breath hydrogen by 130% (P < 0.01) and the nitrogen density of the feces by 8.5% (P < 0.05). The number of bifidobacteria increased after both placebo and transgalactooligosaccharides ingestion, but the differences between these increases were not significantly different. Transgalactooligosaccharides did not significantly affect bowel habits; stool composition; the concentration of short-chain fatty acids or bile acids in fecal water; the concentration of ammonia, indoles, or skatoles in feces; fecal pH; or the composition of the intestinal microflora. CONCLUSION: We conclude that transgalactooligosaccharides are completely fermented in the human colon, but do not beneficially change the composition of the intestinal microflora, the amount of protein fermentation products in feces, or the profile of bile acids in fecal water. (+info)
T cell specificity and cross reactivity towards enterobacteria, bacteroides, bifidobacterium, and antigens from resident intestinal flora in humans. (6/1007)BACKGROUND: T cell responses to normal intestinal bacteria or their products may be important in the immunopathogenesis of chronic enterocolitis. AIMS: To investigate the T cell specificity and cross reactivity towards intestinal bacteria. PATIENTS/METHODS: T cell clones were isolated with phytohaemagglutinin from peripheral blood and biopsy specimens of inflamed and non-inflamed colon from five patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and two controls. T cell clones were restimulated with anaerobic Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria species, enterobacteria, and direct isolates of aerobic intestinal flora. T cell phenotype was analysed by single-cell immunocyte assay. RESULTS: Analysis of 96 T cell clones isolated from peripheral blood and biopsy specimens from two patients with IBD showed that both Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species specifically stimulate proliferation of CD4+TCRalphabeta+ T cell clones from both sites and that cross reactivity exists between these anaerobic bacteria and different enterobacteria. Analysis of 210 T cell clones isolated from three patients with IBD and two controls showed that indigenous aerobic flora specifically stimulate T cell clones from peripheral blood and biopsy specimens from a foreign subject. Some of these flora specific T cell clones were cross reactive with defined enterobacteria. In addition, T cell clones stimulated by their own indigenous aerobic flora were identified in patients with IBD. CONCLUSION: Immune responses to antigens from the intestinal microflora involve a complex network of T cell specificities. (+info)
Ability of lactoferrin to promote the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in vitro is independent of receptor binding capacity and iron saturation level. (7/1007)Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding protein which has been shown to inhibit the growth of various bacterial pathogens and promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in vitro. The present study was designed to investigate whether the bifidobacteria growth promotion activity of Lf is correlated with either the binding of Lf to bifidobacterial cells or the iron saturation of Lf. Bovine Lf (bLf) from mature milk increased the growth of B. infantis and B. breve in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion, while much less growth promotion activity was found for B. bifidum. In contrast, human Lf (huLf) from mature milk promoted the growth of B. bifidum and was inactive for B. infantis and B. breve, while bLf from colostrum was devoid of bifidobacteria growth promotion activity. Changes in the iron content of Lf did not alter the bifidobacteria growth promotion activity of either bLf or huLf preparations. Competitive binding studies with biotinylated milk bLf showed that binding of bLf was inhibited by unlabelled bLf and huLf but not by beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin or transferrin. Binding of bLf to B. bifidum and B. breve was c. 40-fold higher than binding to Escherichia coli. Colostrum bLf was also found to bind to B. bifidum and B. breve, despite a lack of in-vitro growth promotion activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the ability of Lf to promote the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in vitro is independent of the iron saturation level for Lf and suggest that binding of Lf to bifidobacteria cells may be involved but is not sufficient for stimulation of bifidobacterial growth. (+info)
Complementary effects of bifidogenic growth stimulators and ammonium sulfate in natural rubber serum powder on Bifidobacterium bifidum. (8/1007)Natural rubber serum powder, rich in crude protein and carbohydrates, had a strong growth-stimulating activity for Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254, which was unable to grow in a fully synthetic medium, B12 assay medium. Natural rubber serum powder was fractionated by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cutoff 1000). The active ultrafiltrate was further concentrated and desalted with an adsorptive microconcentrator, which adsorbs virtually all amino acids and peptides. Through this purification step, it was found that the adsorbed fraction obtained did not stimulate growth independently but acted complementarily with a small amount of ammonium sulfate. The adsorbed fraction was subsequently analyzed on reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, and the activities of the eluates were measured on B12 assay medium with ammonium sulfate. Consequently, it was proved that several peptidic ingredients in the adsorbed fraction increased the growth of B. bifidum. (+info)
Bifidobacterium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut microbiota. They are known for their ability to ferment complex carbohydrates and produce lactic acid, which helps to maintain a healthy pH balance in the gut. Bifidobacteria are also known for their ability to produce short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, which have anti-inflammatory properties and can help to support the health of the gut lining. In the medical field, Bifidobacterium is often used as a probiotic, which is a live microorganism that is believed to provide health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. Probiotics are often used to help restore the balance of the gut microbiota, which can become disrupted due to a variety of factors, including the use of antibiotics, stress, and poor diet. Bifidobacterium supplements are available in a variety of forms, including capsules, powders, and fermented foods such as yogurt and kefir.
Bifidobacteriales infections refer to infections caused by bacteria belonging to the order Bifidobacteriales. This order includes several species of bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut microbiome, particularly in the large intestine. Some species of Bifidobacteriales are considered to be beneficial to human health, while others can cause infections when they overgrow or become pathogenic. Bifidobacteriales infections can occur in a variety of ways, including through contaminated food or water, sexual transmission, or through contact with infected individuals or surfaces. Symptoms of Bifidobacteriales infections can vary depending on the specific species of bacteria involved and the location of the infection. Common symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Diagnosis of Bifidobacteriales infections typically involves identifying the specific species of bacteria causing the infection through laboratory testing, such as culturing and identifying the bacteria from a sample of infected tissue or bodily fluids. Treatment of Bifidobacteriales infections may involve antibiotics, antifungal medications, or other medications depending on the specific bacteria involved and the severity of the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and electrolyte replacement may also be necessary.
Actinomycetaceae is a family of bacteria that belongs to the phylum Actinobacteria. Members of this family are commonly known as actinomycetes and are characterized by their filamentous growth and the production of a large number of antibiotics. Actinomycetes are found in a variety of environments, including soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, actinomycetes are of particular interest because many of them produce antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of bacterial infections. Some examples of antibiotics produced by actinomycetes include penicillin, streptomycin, and erythromycin. These antibiotics are used to treat a variety of infections, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections. Actinomycetes can also cause infections in humans, although these infections are relatively rare. Some examples of infections caused by actinomycetes include actinomycosis, a chronic infection that can affect the skin, bones, and other tissues, and nocardiosis, an infection that can affect the lungs, brain, and other organs. Treatment for infections caused by actinomycetes typically involves the use of antibiotics.
Prebiotics are non-digestible food components that selectively stimulate the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the gut. They are often referred to as "food for the good bacteria" in the gut microbiome. Prebiotics can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. They are also available as dietary supplements. In the medical field, prebiotics are often used to promote gut health and prevent or treat digestive disorders. They have been shown to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), reduce the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and improve the immune system. Prebiotics may also have a role in preventing certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer. Prebiotics work by providing a food source for beneficial bacteria in the gut, which can help to increase their numbers and activity. This, in turn, can help to improve the overall balance of the gut microbiome and promote gut health. Some common prebiotics include inulin, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and xylooligosaccharides (XOS).
In the medical field, "cultured milk products" typically refers to dairy products that have been fermented using bacteria or other microorganisms. These products include yogurt, kefir, buttermilk, and other similar products. The fermentation process can help to break down the lactose in milk, making it easier for people who are lactose intolerant to digest. Cultured milk products can also be a good source of probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria that can help to improve gut health.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Oligosaccharides are short chains of sugar molecules that are composed of three to ten monosaccharide units. They are also known as "oligos" or "short-chain carbohydrates." In the medical field, oligosaccharides have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to improve gut health, boost the immune system, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Some specific types of oligosaccharides that have been studied in the medical field include: 1. Prebiotics: These are oligosaccharides that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. 2. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS): These are oligosaccharides that are found naturally in breast milk and have been shown to improve gut health and immune function in infants. 3. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS): These are oligosaccharides that are found in many fruits and vegetables and have been shown to improve gut health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Overall, oligosaccharides are an important class of carbohydrates that have potential health benefits and are being studied in the medical field for their potential therapeutic applications.
Inulin is a type of dietary fiber that is found in many plant foods, including onions, garlic, leeks, asparagus, and chicory root. It is a polysaccharide made up of fructose molecules linked together, and it is not digested by human enzymes. In the medical field, inulin is often used as a prebiotic, which means that it helps to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. This can have a number of potential health benefits, including improved digestion, reduced inflammation, and a lower risk of certain diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Inulin is also sometimes used as a thickener or stabilizer in food products, such as ice cream, yogurt, and baked goods. It is generally considered safe for most people to consume, although some people may experience digestive symptoms, such as bloating or gas, when they eat foods that contain inulin.
Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut microbiota. They are one of the most abundant bacterial groups in the human colon and play an important role in the digestion of complex carbohydrates. Bacteroides are known for their ability to break down complex polysaccharides, such as cellulose and pectin, into simpler sugars that can be absorbed by the body. They also produce short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, propionate, and acetate, which are important for maintaining gut health and regulating the immune system. In the medical field, Bacteroides are sometimes associated with certain diseases, such as periodontitis (gum disease) and colorectal cancer. However, most strains of Bacteroides are considered to be harmless or even beneficial to human health. In fact, some strains of Bacteroides are being studied for their potential use in probiotics and other therapeutic applications.
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) is a technique used in molecular biology to separate and analyze DNA or RNA samples based on their size and sequence. It is commonly used in medical research to study the diversity of microorganisms in various environments, such as the human gut microbiome, as well as to detect and identify genetic mutations in diseases such as cancer. In DGGE, a gradient of denaturants is added to the gel, which causes the DNA or RNA molecules to separate based on their size and sequence. The gradient creates a "melting" or "melting" curve, which allows for the separation of different DNA or RNA molecules based on their melting temperature. The separated DNA or RNA molecules can then be visualized using a fluorescent stain or a silver stain, and the resulting bands can be analyzed to determine the size and sequence of the DNA or RNA molecules. Overall, DGGE is a powerful tool for studying the diversity and structure of DNA or RNA samples, and it has a wide range of applications in medical research and diagnostics.
In the medical field, "Colony Count, Microbial" refers to the process of counting the number of colonies of microorganisms that have grown on a culture plate. This is a common laboratory technique used to determine the concentration or density of microorganisms in a sample. To perform a colony count, a sample is typically taken from a patient or an environmental source and then cultured on a nutrient-rich agar plate. The plate is incubated for a specific period of time to allow the microorganisms to grow and form colonies. The colonies are then counted and the results are expressed in colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter or per gram of the original sample. The colony count can be used to diagnose infections caused by microorganisms, to monitor the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments, and to assess the quality of food and water. It is an important tool in the field of microbiology and is used in a variety of settings, including hospitals, laboratories, and research facilities.
In the medical field, "antibiosis" refers to the phenomenon where one microorganism inhibits the growth or reproduction of another microorganism. This can occur naturally between different species of bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms, or it can be artificially induced through the use of antibiotics. Antibiosis is an important concept in the field of medicine, as it has led to the development of antibiotics, which are drugs that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. However, it is important to note that not all microorganisms exhibit antibiosis, and some may even be mutualistic, meaning they benefit from each other's presence. Additionally, the overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be difficult to treat and pose a significant public health threat.
Alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGA) is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of a type of sugar called N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). This enzyme is primarily found in the lysosomes, which are organelles within cells that are responsible for breaking down and recycling cellular waste. In the medical field, α-NAGA is often studied in the context of lysosomal storage disorders, which are a group of rare genetic diseases that result from the accumulation of undigested material within lysosomes. One such disorder is Sanfilippo syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for α-NAGA. In Sanfilippo syndrome, the deficiency of α-NAGA leads to the accumulation of GalNAc within lysosomes, which can cause a range of symptoms including intellectual disability, seizures, and progressive neurodegeneration. α-NAGA is also being studied in the context of cancer research, as it has been found to be overexpressed in certain types of tumors. This overexpression may contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells, and may be a potential target for cancer therapy.
DNA, ribosomal, refers to the specific type of DNA found within ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is transcribed into ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which then forms the core of the ribosome. The rRNA molecules are essential for the assembly and function of the ribosome, and the rDNA sequences that code for these molecules are highly conserved across different species. Mutations in rDNA can lead to defects in ribosome function and can be associated with various medical conditions, including some forms of cancer and inherited disorders.
The cecum is a pouch-like structure located at the beginning of the large intestine, just below the ileocecal valve. It is about 6-10 cm long and is responsible for receiving and storing the waste matter that has passed through the small intestine from the ileum. The cecum is connected to the appendix, which is a small, finger-like projection that extends from the cecum. The appendix is often considered a vestigial organ, as it has no known function in the body. However, it can become inflamed and infected, a condition known as appendicitis. The cecum also contains the vermiform appendix, which is a small, finger-like projection that extends from the cecum. The vermiform appendix is often considered a vestigial organ, as it has no known function in the body. However, it can become inflamed and infected, a condition known as appendicitis.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates, specifically those that contain glucose. It is found in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants, and plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates. In the medical field, beta-glucosidase is used in the treatment of certain digestive disorders, such as lactose intolerance and galactosemia. It is also used in the production of certain foods and beverages, such as beer and certain types of cheese, where it helps to break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars that can be more easily digested and absorbed by the body. In addition, beta-glucosidase has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain types of cancer, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some laboratory studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic applications in this area.
Aldehyde lyases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of aldehydes into two smaller molecules, such as an alcohol and a carboxylate. These enzymes are important in the metabolism of various compounds, including amino acids, fatty acids, and drugs. In the medical field, aldehyde lyases are often studied in the context of their role in the detoxification of harmful substances, such as alcohol and other toxic aldehydes. Deficiencies in certain aldehyde lyases have been linked to certain medical conditions, such as maple syrup urine disease, which is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase.
Bacterial load refers to the number of bacteria present in a particular sample or tissue. It is commonly used in the medical field to assess the severity of bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments. Bacterial load can be measured using various techniques, including culture-based methods, molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A high bacterial load is typically associated with more severe infections and a greater risk of complications, while a low bacterial load may indicate a milder infection or successful treatment with antibiotics. However, the interpretation of bacterial load can be complex and may depend on the specific type of bacteria, the location of the infection, and other factors.
Fructans are a type of carbohydrate that is found in many fruits, vegetables, and grains. They are made up of fructose molecules that are linked together to form long chains. Fructans are not easily digested by humans, and they can have a number of health effects. In the medical field, fructans are often studied for their potential role in managing certain health conditions. For example, some research suggests that fructans may help to improve gut health by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. They may also help to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and may have a role in preventing certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks of fructans. Some people may be sensitive to fructans and experience digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea when they consume foods that are high in fructans.
Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate that is found in many plant-based foods, including beans, lentils, and some vegetables. It is a type of oligosaccharide, which means that it is made up of three or more simple sugars linked together. In the medical field, raffinose is not typically used as a treatment for any specific condition. However, it is sometimes used as a dietary supplement for people who are unable to digest certain types of carbohydrates, such as those with lactose intolerance or celiac disease. This is because raffinose is not digested by the body and does not cause symptoms of digestive distress. Raffinose is also used as a sweetener in some foods and beverages, although it is not as sweet as some other types of sugar. It is often used in combination with other sweeteners, such as sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup, to create a more complex flavor profile.
Alpha-L-Fucosidase is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of certain complex carbohydrates, such as fucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids. It is primarily found in the lysosomes of cells, where it plays a role in the degradation of these complex carbohydrates. Alpha-L-Fucosidase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to the accumulation of fucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and health problems. In the medical field, alpha-L-Fucosidase is used as a diagnostic tool to help identify individuals with alpha-L-Fucosidase deficiency, and it is also being studied as a potential target for the development of new treatments for this disorder.
Senna Extract is a natural laxative derived from the plant Cassia senna, which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat constipation. It works by stimulating the muscles in the intestines to contract, which helps to move stool through the digestive tract. Senna extract is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid extracts. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as cramping, diarrhea, and dehydration if taken in large amounts or for prolonged periods of time. It is important to consult a healthcare professional before using senna extract, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking other medications.
Chaperonin 60, also known as GroEL or Hsp60, is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the folding and assembly of proteins in the cell. It is found in all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and is particularly important in the folding of newly synthesized proteins and the refolding of misfolded proteins. The chaperonin 60 complex consists of two identical subunits, each with a molecular weight of approximately 60 kDa, hence the name. The subunits form a barrel-like structure with a central cavity that can accommodate unfolded or partially folded proteins. The complex uses energy from ATP hydrolysis to facilitate the folding process by stabilizing the intermediate states of the protein as it folds into its final structure. In the medical field, chaperonin 60 has been implicated in a number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as certain types of cancer. Abnormal folding of chaperonin 60 has also been linked to the development of certain types of bacterial infections. As such, understanding the role of chaperonin 60 in protein folding and its involvement in disease may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these conditions.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found in almost every environment on Earth, including soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, bacteria are often studied and classified based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. Bacteria can be either beneficial or harmful to humans. Some bacteria are essential for human health, such as the bacteria that live in the gut and help digest food. However, other bacteria can cause infections and diseases, such as strep throat, pneumonia, and meningitis. In the medical field, bacteria are often identified and treated using a variety of methods, including culturing and identifying bacteria using specialized laboratory techniques, administering antibiotics to kill harmful bacteria, and using vaccines to prevent bacterial infections.
In the medical field, defecation refers to the process of eliminating solid waste, also known as feces, from the body through the anus. This process involves the movement of feces through the large intestine, where water is absorbed, and the rectum, where the feces are stored until they are eliminated from the body. Defecation is a normal and essential function of the digestive system, and any problems with this process can lead to a range of medical conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence. Medical professionals may use various diagnostic tools and techniques to evaluate the function of the digestive system and diagnose any underlying conditions that may be affecting defecation. Treatment options may include changes in diet and lifestyle, medications, and in some cases, surgical procedures.
Actinobacteria is a phylum of bacteria that includes many species that are important in the medical field. Some of the most well-known species of Actinobacteria are Streptomyces, which are used to produce antibiotics, and Mycobacterium, which includes the bacteria that cause tuberculosis and leprosy. Actinobacteria are gram-positive bacteria, meaning that they have a thick cell wall that stains positively with a special dye called Gram stain. They are also characterized by their branching cell morphology, which gives them a filamentous appearance under the microscope. In addition to their medical importance, Actinobacteria are also important in the environment, where they play a role in the decomposition of organic matter and the cycling of nutrients. Some species of Actinobacteria are also used in the production of biofuels and other industrial products.
Anaerobic bacteria are a group of microorganisms that do not require oxygen to survive and grow. They are commonly found in environments that are low in oxygen, such as the human digestive tract, soil, and water. Anaerobic bacteria can be either obligate anaerobes, which means they cannot survive in the presence of oxygen, or facultative anaerobes, which can survive in both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environments. In the medical field, anaerobic bacteria are often associated with infections, particularly those that occur in the gastrointestinal tract, female reproductive system, and oral cavity. Some common examples of anaerobic bacteria that can cause infections include Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium difficile, and Peptostreptococcus micros. These bacteria can cause a range of infections, from mild to severe, and can be difficult to treat because they are resistant to many antibiotics.
Human milk microbiome
Helicobacter pylori eradication protocols
List of restriction enzyme cutting sites: Ba-Bc
Lactic acid bacteria
Bifidobacterium - Wikipedia
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis: MedlinePlus Supplements
Bifidobacterium breve - The Med Guru
Growth promotion and cell binding ability of bovine lactoferrin to Bifidobacterium longum
Bifidobacterium longum Subspecies infantis Bacteremia in 3 Extremely Preterm Infants Receiving Probiotics - Volume 22, Number 9...
Prebiotic fiber increased abundance of Bifidobacterium in children during cold season, says new study
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705) | Protein Target - PubChem
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- Bifidobacterium breve , Bifidobacterium longum , Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium infantis should be present in high numbers (Wong B et al. (optibacprobiotics.com)
- reference strains as positive control ( Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863). (biomedcentral.com)
- Well (4, 6, 10) showed Bifidobacterium bifidum gene amplification fragment between 549-563 bp. (biomedcentral.com)
- followed by Bifidobacterium bifidum by Holcombh et al. (bvsalud.org)
- Laboratorio Farmacéutico Specialità Igienico Terapeutiche, Mede, Italy) that contained 10 9 Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356) and 10 9 Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (ATCC 15697). (cdc.gov)
- Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. (medlineplus.gov)
- Oligosaccharide binding proteins from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. (escholarship.org)
- Bifidobacterium longum subsp. (escholarship.org)
- The examination of all these features allowed to identify three Bifidobacterium breve strains and a Bifidobacterium longum subsp. (unibo.it)
- lactis is sometimes listed as Bifidobacterium lactis (or B. lactis) on product labels. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bifidobacterium lactis, an extremely versatile and efficient bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, can be found in fermented dairy products and vegetables as well as probiotic supplements. (omegabiomics.com)
- Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study. (omegabiomics.com)
- Bifidobacterium lactis attenuates onset of inflammation in a murine model of colitis. (omegabiomics.com)
- Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women. (omegabiomics.com)
- In the present study, in vitro growth promotion and cell binding ability of bovine lactoferrin to several strains of Bifidobacterium longum have been demonstrated. (nih.gov)
- Home Generic Align, Bifidobacterium Probiotic With NO Added Strains, By Bare and Better, VALUE SIZE! (affordablemeds.com)
- This work was therefore aimed at the characterization of Bifidobacterium strains capable of inhibiting the growth of pathogens typical of the infant gastrointestinal tract and of coliforms isolated from colic newborns. (unibo.it)
- Each capsule contains 4mg of the probiotic bifidobacterium. (affordablemeds.com)
- Probiotics containing mainly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were given either as a supplement or in probiotic-fortified infant formula. (medscape.com)
- Clinical effects of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on immune function and intestinal microbiota in elderly patients receiving enteral tube feeding. (bvsalud.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: The developed PCR-RFLP technique resulted in efficient discrimination of the tested species and subspecies and allowed the construction of a dichotomous key in order to differentiate the most widely distributed Bifidobacterium species as well as the subspecies belonging to B. pseudolongum and B. animalis. (unibo.it)
- Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements Do Not Affect Gut Bifidobacterium Microbiota in Malawian Infants: A Randomized Trial. (bvsalud.org)
- The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nutritional supplementation with lipid -based nutrient supplements (LNS) and corn -soy blend flour on Bifidobacterium and Staphylococcus aureus gut microbiota composition in Malawian infants . (bvsalud.org)
- The dietary supplementation did not have an effect on the Bifidobacterium and S aureus microbiota composition of the study infants . (bvsalud.org)
- microbiota intestinal, en especial con el uso de Lactobacilli y Bifidobacterium spp. (bvsalud.org)
- Among BioNTech recipients, those who lacked two types of bacteria including Bifidobacterium adolescentis also had lower antibody response. (edu.hk)
- 2015). Additionally, the species of Bifidobacteria differ between breast fed and formula fed infants, with Bifidobacterium spp. (optibacprobiotics.com)
- Unlike other members of bifidobacteria, the team found that only Bifidobacterium adolescentis was associated with antibody response to SinoVac. (edu.hk)
- High purity α-L-Arabinofuranosidase ( Bifidobacterium adolescentis ) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. (megazyme.com)
- Cloning and characterization of arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase-D 3 (AXHd 3 ) from Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM2008 3 . (megazyme.com)
- Arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase-D3 (AXHd3) from Bifidobacterium adolescentis releases only C3-linked arabinose residues from double-substituted xylose residues. (megazyme.com)
- In a collaborative research project between CU Medicine and the LKS Faculty of Medicine at The University of Hong Kong (HKUMed), the research team showed that the efficacy of SinoVac and BioNTech correlated with a unique bacterium, Bifidobacterium adolescentis . (edu.hk)
- They found that people who lacked Bifidobacterium adolescentis in their gut had a suboptimal antibody response to SinoVac. (edu.hk)
- These novel findings imply that Bifidobacterium adolescentis can serve as a potential therapeutic option to enhance efficacy of SinoVac and BioNTech. (edu.hk)
- There was a close correlation between low antibody response and lack of a unique bacterium in our gut called Bifidobacterium adolescentis . (edu.hk)
- Bifidobacterium adolescentis lives in our gut since birth and its abundance declines rapidly with age, modern diet, stress, and the use of antibiotics. (edu.hk)
- Frequency of fermented milk consumption was associated with higher Bifidobacterium counts in the patients. (bugsigdb.org)
- hsp60 can be considered an excellent additional marker for inferring the taxonomy of the members of Bifidobacterium genus. (unibo.it)
- Characterization of Bifidobacterium spp. (unibo.it)
- The in silico restriction analysis of bifidobacterial hsp60 partial sequences allowed the identification of a single endonuclease (HaeIII) able to provide different PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns in the Bifidobacterium spp. (unibo.it)
- METHOD: Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus counts in fecal samples were estimated in 43 patients and 57 controls using bacterial rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction RESULTS: The patients had significantly lower Bifidobacterium counts (P=0.012) and tended to have lower Lactobacillus counts (P=0.067) than the controls. (bugsigdb.org)
- CONCLUSION: Our results provide direct evidence, for the first time, that individuals with lower Bifidobacterium and/or Lactobacillus counts are more common in patients with MDD compared to controls. (bugsigdb.org)
- BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut have been suggested to have a beneficial effect on stress response and depressive disorder. (bugsigdb.org)
- An article in Frontiers in Microbiology discussed the role of Bifidobacterium in the human digestive system  . (consumerhealthdigest.com)
- The survival of Bifidobacterium longum NCIMB 8809 was studied during refrigerated storage for 6 weeks in model solutions, based on which a mathematical model was constructed describing cell survival as a function of pH, citric acid, protein and dietary fibre. (reading.ac.uk)
- Laboratorio Farmacéutico Specialità Igienico Terapeutiche, Mede, Italy) that contained 10 9 Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356) and 10 9 Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (ATCC 15697). (cdc.gov)
- Méthodes: Des rats mâles Sprague-Dawley ont reçu des probiotiques (1 milliard de cellules bactériennes vivantes de Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 et Bifidobacterium longum R0175) ou le véhicule tous les jours en dilution dans leur eau, débutant 1 semaine avant l'induction d'une ischémie myocardique. (umontreal.ca)
- Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received probiotics (1 billion live bacteria of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) or placebo every day dissolved in drinking water , beginning one week before induction of myocardial ischemia. (umontreal.ca)
- A four-week, double-blind randomized control trial explored the potential impact of supplementation with several strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on mood health. (casi.org)
- A recently published review explored the impact of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, both individually administered and in combination, on mood health. (casi.org)
- Evidence suggests that certain lifestyle factors and probiotic supplementation such as certain Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains may help support the gut-brain axis. (casi.org)
- Along with Bifidobacterium , Lactobacillus is among the most common. (healthline.com)
- The most common are bacteria that belong to groups called Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . (nih.gov)
- For example, if a specific kind of Lactobacillus helps prevent an illness, that doesn't necessarily mean that another kind of Lactobacillus or any of the Bifidobacterium probiotics would do the same thing. (nih.gov)
- These would include lactobacillus species, bifidobacterium, streptococcus species. (nih.gov)
- Embark on a journey towards gut health with Akasha Naturals' Bifidobacterium lactis Supplements. (akashanaturals.com)
- LCI was associated with increased Bifidobacterium , a beneficial gut bacterium. (nih.gov)
- To investigate changes in physiological and clinical measures of gut function in patients with chronic constipation following the consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818, compared to placebo. (medscape.com)
- We investigated the effect of a 6-week intervention with Bifidobacterium longum (BL) NCC3001 (1 × 1010 CFU/daily) on stress-related psychological and physiological parameters in 45 healthy adults with mild-to-moderate stress using a randomized, placebo-controlled, two- arm , parallel, double-blind design. (bvsalud.org)
- culture-independent methods included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using Bifidobacterium-specific primers. (nih.gov)
- Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 was not effective in the management of mild chronic constipation. (medscape.com)
- Random forest models to differentiate DLB and PD showed that high Ruminococcus torques and high Collinsella , which presumably increase intestinal permeability, as well as low Bifidobacterium , which are also observed in Alzheimer's disease, were predictive of DLB. (nature.com)