Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A surgical specialty concerned with correcting conditions related to malposition of the jawbones and other related MAXILLOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES (e.g., CLEFT PALATE; RETROGNATHISM).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.1.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A family of small gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are parasites of erythrocytes in man and other vertebrates and the etiologic agents of several diseases.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
Infections with bacteria of the family BARTONELLACEAE.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.

Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. (1/20)

Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are extremely rare causes of infection in humans, as are probiotics based on these organisms. This lack of pathogenicity extends across all age groups and to immunocompromised individuals. Strains used for new probiotics should be chosen from the commensal flora of humans and should not carry intrinsic resistance to antibiotics that would prevent treatment of a rare probiotic infection. Vigilance regarding the detection of possible rare cases of infection due to probiotics should be maintained, and isolates should be sent to reference centers for molecular characterization and confirmation.  (+info)

Risk factors of development of gut-derived bacterial translocation in thermally injured rats. (2/20)

AIM: Studies have demonstrated that gut-derived bacterial translocation (BT) might play a role in the occurrence of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Yet, no convincing overall analysis of risk factors for BT has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the related factors for the development of BT in burned rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to 30% third-degree burns. Then samples were taken on postburn d 1, 3, and 5. Incidence of BT and counts of mucosal bifidobacteria, fungi and E. coli, mucus sIgA, degree of injury to ileal mucosa, and plasma interleukin-6 were observed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: The overall BT rate was 53.9% (69 in 128). The result of univariate analysis showed that the levels of plasma endotoxin and interleukin-6, the counts of mucosal fungi and E. coli, and the scores of ileum lesion were markedly increased in animals with BT compared with those without (P=0.000-0.005), while the levels of mucus sIgA and the counts of mucosal bifidobacteria were significantly reduced in animals with translocation compared with those without (P=0.000). There was a significant positive correlation between mucus sIgA and the counts of mucosal bifidobacteria (r=0.74, P=0.001). Moreover, there were strong negative correlations between scores of ileum-lesion and counts of bifidobacteria (r=-0.67, P=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that ileum lesion score (odds ratio [OR] 45.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.25-394.80), and counts of mucosal bifidobacteria (OR 0.039, 95% CI 0.0032-0.48) were independent predictors of BT secondary to severe burns. CONCLUSION: Ileal lesion score and counts of mucosal bifidobacteria can be chosen as independent prognosis factors of the development of BT. Specific interventions targeting these high-risk factors might be implemented to attenuate BT, including strategies for repair of damaged intestinal mucosae and restoration of the balance of gastrointestinal flora.  (+info)

Bifidobacterial species differentially affect expression of cell surface markers and cytokines of dendritic cells harvested from cord blood. (3/20)

The gut microbiota may be important in the postnatal development of the immune system and hence may influence the prevalence of atopic diseases. Bifidobacteria are the most numerous bacteria in the guts of infants, and the presence or absence of certain species could be important in determining the geographic incidence of atopic diseases. We compared the fecal populations of bifidobacteria from children aged 25 to 35 days in Ghana (which has a low prevalence of atopy), New Zealand, and the United Kingdom (high-prevalence countries). Natal origin influenced the detection of bifidobacterial species in that fecal samples from Ghana almost all contained Bifidobacterium infantis whereas those of the other children did not. Choosing species on the basis of our bacteriological results, we tested bifidobacterial preparations for their effects on cell surface markers and cytokine production by dendritic cells harvested from cord blood. Species-specific effects on the expression of the dendritic-cell activation marker CD83 and the production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were observed. Whereas CD83 expression was increased and IL-10 production was induced by Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, B. infantis failed to produce these effects. We concluded that B. infantis does not trigger the activation of dendritic cells to the degree necessary to initiate an immune response but that B. bifidum, B. longum, and B. pseudocatenulatum induce a Th2-driven immune response. A hypothesis is presented to link our observations to the prevalence of atopic diseases in different countries.  (+info)

Antimicrobial susceptibility of bifidobacteria. (4/20)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to analyse the antibiotic susceptibility of various strains of Bifidobacterium spp. to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. METHODS: Fifty strains belonging to eight species of bifidobacteria, isolated from humans, animals or probiotic products, were tested for susceptibility to 30 antibiotics by disc diffusion on Brucella agar supplemented with 5% laked sheep blood and vitamin K1 (1 mg/L). MICs of nine anti-anaerobe agents, including three new molecules (telithromycin, linezolid and gatifloxacin), were determined using the reference agar-dilution method. RESULTS: All strains of bifidobacteria, whatever the species, were sensitive to penicillins: penicillin G, amoxicillin (MIC(50) 0.06 mg/L), piperacillin, ticarcillin, imipenem and usually anti-Gram-positive antibiotics (macrolides, clindamycin, pristinamycin, vancomycin and teicoplanin). Susceptibility to cefalothin and cefotetan was variable. Most isolates (70%) were resistant to fusidic acid. As expected, high resistance rates were observed for aminoglycosides. Metronidazole, an agent known for its anti-anaerobe activity, was ineffective against 38% of the strains. The newly commercialized molecules, telithromycin, linezolid and gatifloxacin, were active with MIC(50)S of 1 mg/L. The only variation in susceptibility observed among the different species concerned Bifidobacterium breve, which appeared to be generally more resistant. Potentially acquired resistance was only observed against tetracycline and minocycline, in 14% of the strains. CONCLUSIONS: With regard to a general concern about the safety of probiotics, such as potential transferability of resistance determinants, bifidobacteria, with their low natural and acquired resistance to 30 antibiotics, appear risk-free.  (+info)

Tetracycline resistance mediated by tet(W), tet(M), and tet(O) genes of Bifidobacterium isolates from humans. (5/20)

MICs of tetracyclines were determined for 86 human Bifidobacterium isolates and three environmental strains. The tet(O) gene was found to be absent in these isolates. tet(W) and tet(M) were found in 26 and 7%, respectively, of the Bifidobacterium isolates, and one isolate contained both genes. Chromosomal DNA hybridization showed that there was one chromosomal copy of tet(W) and/or tet(M).  (+info)

Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on the health-related quality of life and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome in adults in primary care: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. (6/20)

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been rarely evaluated as a primary endpoint in the assessment of the effect of probiotics on the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). AIM: To study the effects of fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains on the IBS in a multicentre, double-blind, controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 274 primary care adults with constipation-predominant IBS (Rome II) were randomized to consume for 6 weeks either the test fermented milk or a heat-treated yoghurt (control). HRQoL and digestive symptoms were assessed after 3 and 6 weeks on an intention-to-treat population of 267 subjects. RESULTS: The HRQoL discomfort score, the primary endpoint, improved (P < 0.001) in both groups at weeks 3 and 6. The responder rate for the HRQoL discomfort score was higher (65.2 vs. 47.7%, P < 0.005), as was the decrease in bloating score [0.56 +/- (s.d.)1.01 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.87, P = 0.03], at week 3 in the test vs. the control group. In those subjects with <3 stools/week, stool frequency increased (P < 0.001) over 6 weeks in the test vs. control group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a beneficial effect of a probiotic food on discomfort HRQoL score and bloating in constipation-predominant IBS, and on stool frequency in subjects with <3 stools/week.  (+info)

Classification of a moderately oxygen-tolerant isolate from baby faeces as Bifidobacterium thermophilum. (7/20)

BACKGROUND: Bifidobacteria are found at varying prevalence in human microbiota and seem to play an important role in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Bifidobacteria are highly adapted to the human GIT which is reflected in the genome sequence of a Bifidobacterim longum isolate. The competitiveness against other bacteria is not fully understood yet but may be related to the production of antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins. In a previous study, 34 Bifidobacterium isolates have been isolated from baby faeces among which six showed proteinaceous antilisterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. In this study, one of these isolates, RBL67, was further identified and characterized. RESULTS: Bifidobacterium isolate RBL67 was classified and characterized using a polyphasic approach. RBL67 was classified as Bifidobacterium thermophilum based on phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization characteristics, although 16S rDNA analyses and partial groEL sequences showed higher homology with B. thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum and B. thermacidophilum subsp. thermacidophilum, respectively. RBL67 was moderately oxygen-tolerant and was able to grow at pH 4 and at a temperature of 47 degrees C. CONCLUSION: In order to assign RBL67 to a species, a polyphasic approach was used. This resulted in the classification of RBL67 as a Bifidobacterium thermophilum strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report about B. thermophilum isolated from baby faeces since the B. thermophilum strains were related to ruminants and swine faeces before. B. thermophilum was previously only isolated from animal sources and was therefore suggested to be used as differential species between animal and human contamination. Our findings may disapprove this suggestion and further studies are now conducted to determine whether B. thermophilum is distributed broader in human faeces. Furthermore, the postulated differentiation between human and animal strains by growth above 45 degrees C is no longer valid since B. thermophilum is able to grow at 47 degrees C. In our study, 16S rDNA and partial groEL sequence analysis were not able to clearly assign RBL67 to a species and were contradictory. Our study suggests that partial groEL sequences may not be reliable as a single tool for species differentiation.  (+info)

Bifidobacterium tsurumiense sp. nov., from hamster dental plaque. (8/20)

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Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67), a human fecal isolate and health promoting candidate shows antagonistic and protective effects against Salmonella and Listeria spec. in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms fostering these effects remain unknown. In this study, the interactions of RBL67 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15 (N-15) were explored by global transcriptional analysis. Growth experiments were performed in a complex nutritive medium with controlled pH of 6.0 and suitable for balanced growth of both RBL67 and N-15. RBL67 growth was slightly enhanced in presence of N-15. Conversely, N-15 showed reduced growth in the presence of RBL67. Transcriptional analyses revealed higher expression of stress genes and amino acid related function in RBL67 in co-culture with N-15 when compared to mono-culture. Repression of the PhoP regulator was observed in N-15 in presence of RBL67. Further, RBL67 activated virulence genes located on the
{{l,r,2}}Many women find they can control their infections with simple lifestyle changes. Other treatments are sometimes required. These include: nutritional supplements oestrogen therapy urethral dilatation tablets and medications other therapies Conservative measures There are a number of things you can do to prevent urinary tract infections:
The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of Bifidobacterium species reveals high interspecies sequence similarity in the range of 87.7-99.5%. This study illustrated the extent of superiority of a multigenic approach, involving protein-coding genes, in comparison to the 16S rRNA gene, to precisely delineate presumptive Bifidobacterium isolates obtained from probiotic milk beverages, culture collections and pharmaceutical probiotic preparations. Oligonucleotide pairs PurF-rev/PurF-uni; RpoCuni/ RpoC-rev; DnaB-uni/DnaB-rev; DnaG-uni/DnaG-rev; and ClpC-uni/ClpC-rev amplified housekeeping genes while 27F/ 1492R amplified the 16S rRNA gene of the presumptive bifidobacteria in a polymerase chain reaction. Sequences of 16S rRNA gene and some protein-coding genes effectively identified the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis together with concatenation showed that clpC, purF and dnaG genes had over 8-fold better discriminatory power than the 16S rRNA gene in discriminating between Bifidobacterium isolates. ...
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Scientists at the Wake Forest School of Medicine have developed a probiotic cocktail derived from gut bacteria strains found in baby feces.
This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.. Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
Three-layer fabric construction features a middle layer of microporous film that allows heat and sweat vapor to escape while protecting against dry particulates and liquid. Passes ASTM F1670/1671 testing for penetration of blood, body fluids and blood-bo
Case 127 is a 48-year-old woman with history of recurrent urinary infections who now presents with hematuria, and includes diagnosis, findings, differential diagnosis, teaching points, and management.
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Actinobacteria; Actinomycetia; Bifidobacteriales; Bifidobacteriaceae; Bifidobacterium; Bifidobacterium ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Terrabacteria group; Actinobacteria; Actinobacteria; Bifidobacteriales; Bifidobacteriaceae; Bifidobacterium; Bifidobacterium ...
Although the genus Bifidobacterium was originally named for its bifid morphology, not all bifidobacterial species have a similar structure and very few of them adopt a bifid shape under stress conditions. Some adopt a bifid shape after 36 h of growth, before which they retain the rod form. Most Bifidobacterial species are anaerobic and rod-shaped, whereas after the first generation, they become microaerophilic or aerophilic. CaCl2 (treatment of B. animalis) signaling triggered a change from the rod shape to the bifid shape and bifid to rod in B. adolescentis. The exposure of B. adolescentis and other bifidobacterial species to various conditions, such as different pHs, temperatures, medium components, in vivo growth in Caenorhabditis elegans, and subculture, did not affect their diverse morphologies. Extensive scanning electron microscopy studies suggested that the bifid shape of B. adolescentis are maintained irrespective of the conditions, so this morphology is intrinsic to B. adolescentis.
ID B7GNQ0_BIFLS Unreviewed; 394 AA. AC B7GNQ0; E8MNY3; DT 10-FEB-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 10-FEB-2009, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 61. DE SubName: Full=Exo-alpha-sialidase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACJ53406.1}; DE EC=3.2.1.18 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACJ53406.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Blon_2348 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACJ53406.1}; OS Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (strain ATCC 15697 / DSM 20088 OS / JCM 1222 / NCTC 11817 / S12). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Bifidobacteriales; Bifidobacteriaceae; OC Bifidobacterium. OX NCBI_TaxID=391904 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACJ53406.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001360}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACJ53406.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001360} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 15697 / DSM 20088 / JCM 1222 / NCTC 11817 / S12 [JGI] RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001360}; RX PubMed=19033196; DOI=10.1073/pnas.0809584105; RA Sela D.A., Chapman J., Adeuya A., Kim J.H., Chen F., Whitehead T.R., RA Lapidus A., Rokhsar ...
Ticks are notorious vectors of disease for humans, and many species of ticks transmit multiple pathogens, sometimes in the same tick bite. Accordingly, a broad-spectrum vaccine that targets vector ticks and pathogen transmission at the tick/host interface, rather than multiple vaccines against every possible tickborne pathogen, could become an important tool for resolving an emerging public health crisis. The concept for such a tick protective vaccine comes from observations of an acquired tick resistance (ATR) that can develop in non-natural hosts of ticks following sensitization to tick salivary components. Mice are commonly used as models to study immune responses to human pathogens but normal mice are natural hosts for many species of ticks and fail to develop ATR. We evaluated HLA DR3 transgenic (tg)
Bloodborne pathogens are infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans. Any type of sharp objects such as needles can expose you or your co-workers to these bloodborne pathogens. To limit you and your co-workers from potentially infectious materials we have Bloodborne protection and personal protection kits plus supplies to protect you from harmful and infectious materials. We have every type of antimicrobial, germicide, barrier making, disinfectant, PPE product that you can dream of. We are here to block and protect you from any infectious material or critter that is out there and to make sure you keep safe at home or in your work place.
The Arabidopsis autoimmune mutant, ((exhibits constitutive pathogen resistance responses including higher degrees of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), which can be an important signaling molecule for pathogen protection responses. flowering phenotype of and also have a unique function managing flowering timing which function is unbiased from its function in pathogen protection. genome provides 20 associates in the CNGC family members, which are categorized into four groupings (group I-IV), where group IV is split into subgroup IVA and IVB further. 2 This extension might indicate diverse biological assignments of CNGCs in plant life. They have already been implicated within a diverse selection of natural phenomena such as for example protection responses, pollen pipe growth, ion thermo-tolerance and homeostasis.2,3 Furthermore, recent electrophysiological research showed that place CNGCs tend Ca2+ permeable stations that get excited about a number of physiological phenomena.3-5 Group IVB comprises ...
Bifidobacterium Longum Subsp. Infantis M-63. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is associated with improved growth, the development of intestinal membrane integrity, and is critical for developing immune function. B. infantis is the predominant intestinal organism found in breast-fed infants. B. infantis M-63 was isolated from a healthy infant and clinically proven to colonize the intestines of infants.. B. infantis is the only bacterial species able to take up and metabolize all Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) which allows B. infantis to outcompete other bacterial species.. Jarro-Dophilus® Infant is formulated with Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs), which are naturally present in breast milk and are more easily absorbed by the newborns immature digestive system.. The Developing Intestinal Microflora of Newborns is up to 90% B. Infantis.. Strains Matter™. When it comes to effective probiotics, clinically documented Strains Matter™.. Live Bacteria Guarantee. Jarrow ...
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis M-63 Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is associated with improved growth, the development of intestinal membrane integrity, and is critical for developing immune function.* The Developing Intestinal Microflora of Newborns Is Up to 90% B. Infantis B. infantis is the predominant intestinal organism found in breast-fed infants.* B. infantis M-63 was isolated from a healthy infant and clinically proven to colonize the intestines of infants.* B. infantis is the only bacterial species able to take up and metabolize all Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) which allows B. infantis to outcompete other bacterial species.* Jarro-Dophilus Infant is formulated with Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs), which are naturally present in breast milk and are more easily absorbed by the newborns immature digestive system.* Strains Matter When it comes to effective probiotics, clinically documented Strains Matter.
Find Bifidobacterium Breve Probiotic Manufacturers & Suppliers from China. We are Professional Manufacturer of Bifidobacterium Breve Probiotic company, Factory & Exporters specialize in Bifidobacterium Breve Probiotic wiht High-Quality.
While Bifidobacterium infantis, B. brevi, and B. longum are the largest group of bacteria in the intestine of infants, Bifidobacteria are said to be only the 3rd or 4th largest group in adults (and comprise only 3-6% of adult fecal flora). The number of Bifidobacteria actually decline in the human body with age. In infants who are breast-fed, Bifidobacteria constitute about 90% of their intestinal bacteria; however, this number is lower in bottle-fed infants. When breast-fed infants diets are changed to cows milk and solid food, Bifidobacteria are joined by rising numbers of other bacteria found in the human body such as Bacteroides and Streptococci lactobacilli. The lower number of Bifidobacteria in formula-fed babies might account for a higher risk of diarrhea and allergies that is usually associated with babies who arent breast-fed; in addition, because Bifidobacteria produces lactic acid instead of gas (like E. coli), infants and people in general with more Bifidobacteria than other ...
Bifidobacteria, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Bifidobacteria are gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal tract, vagina and mouth. They have a unique hexose (sugar) metabolism, called the bifid shunt, which can be used as a diagnostic test for bifidobacteria because it is not found in other gram-positive intestinal bacteria. Bifidobacteria are probiotic friendly bacteria, which means that they may beneficially affect the host upon ingestion by improving the balance of the intestinal microflora. Magnification: x18,000 when printed at 10 centimetres across. - Stock Image C035/7894
Bifidobacterium Breve Freeze Drying Powder for Children manufacturing by JiangSu Wecare Biotechnology Co., Ltd.; Product details of China Bifidobacterium Breve Freeze Drying Powder for Children.
Over the last ten years, immunologists have recognized the central importance of an emerging group of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in health and disease. Characterization of these cells has provided a molecular definition of ILCs and their tissue-specific functions. Although the lineage-defining transcription factors, cytokine production, and nomenclature parallel those of T helper cells, ILCs do not require adaptive immune programming. Both environmental and host-derived signals shape the function of these evolutionarily ancient cells, which provide pathogen protection and promote tissue restoration. As such, ILCs function as a double-edged sword, balancing the inflammatory and reparative responses that arise during injury and disease. This Review highlights our recent understanding of tissue-resident ILCs and the signals that regulate their contribution to inflammation and tissue repair in health and disease.. ...
The average person carries around half a kilo (1lb) of bacteria around with them in their body. Literally billions of bacteria happily call your digestive system home, and most of them actually help your body. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. While this gut flora is in balance it supports the […]. ...
Introduction Bifidobacterium longum is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the human gastrointestinal tract and one of the 32 species that belong to the genus Bifidobacteriu...
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of maternal intestinal and vaginal bifidobacteria on the establishment of bifidobacteria colonizing the gut in infants. Fecal samples from 110 healthy pregnant mothers within 1 mo before delivery and their babies at 1 mo of age and 100 vaginal swabs …
Bifidobacterium animalis is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium which can be found in the large intestines of most mammals, including humans. Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis were previously described as two distinct species. Presently, both are considered B. animalis with the subspecies Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. Both old names B. animalis and B. lactis are still used on product labels, as this species is frequently used as a probiotic. In most cases, which subspecies is used in the product is not clear. Several companies have attempted to trademark particular strains, and as a marketing technique, have invented scientific-sounding names for the strains. Danone (Dannon) markets the subspecies strain DN 173 010 as Bifidus Digestivum (UK), Bifidus Regularis (US and Mexico), Bifidobacterium Lactis or B.L. Regularis (Canada), DanRegularis (Brazil), Bifidus Actiregularis (Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, ...
RESULTS: Following 4 hours of infection with Salmonella typhimurium, NF-κB activation was significantly elevated in vivo in placebo and Enterococcus faecium-fed animals while Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption significantly attenuated the NF-κB response. In vitro anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated Peyers patch cells secreted significantly less TNF-α and IFN-γ following Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption. Stimulated cells released more IL-12p70 but this difference did not reach statistical significance. No alteration in mucosal IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1 levels were observed. No statistically significant change in the cytokine profile of mesenteric lymph node cells was noted. In vitro, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 was bound by dendritic cells and induced secretion of both IL-10 and IL-12p70. In addition, co-culture of CD4+ T cells with Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7-stimulated dendritic cells resulted in a significant increase in CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers ...
Ingredients. A. Alfalfa & Alfalfa Leaf. Alfalfa is one of the richest mineral foods containing abundant amounts of trace minerals (zinc, iron and manganese), vitamins (Vitamin A, Vitamin C), nutrients needed by dogs and cats to sustain wellbeing.. B. Bacillus (Also Bacteria Cultures). Lactobacillus acidophilus, bacillus subtilis, bifidobacterium thermophilum, bifidobacterium longum and enterococcus faecium are active dehydrated cultures added to dog and cat foods after processing. They are activated on ingesting the food and help to maintain normal bacteria balance in the lower intestine. They aid in digestion and reduce the occurrence of diarrhea, contributing to colon and rectum health.. Barley. Whole barley is the whole grain with the hull and bran. It is a good carbohydrate source for energy, B vitamins and fiber for colon health. It is an excellent source of soluble fiber and has been shown to lower cholesterol levels. Barley is a quality grain source and minimizes allergic reactions ...
MERCI: Lets see. The ingredient list is a long one. It reads, turkey, chicken meal, turkey meal, lentils, garbanzo beans, tapioca, chicken fat (preserved with natural mixed tocopherols and citric acid), dried beet pulp, sweet potato, chicken, natural chicken liver flavor, chicken liver, chicken hearts, blueberries, chia seed, apple, spinach, tomato, carrot, fish oil, potassium chloride, olive oil (preserved with mixed tocopherols), calcium carbonate, new zealand green mussel - a whole host of vitamins and minerals - dried Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product, dried Lactobacillus casei fermentation product, dried Bifidobacterium thermophilum fermentation product, dried Enterococcus faecium fermentation product, dried Aspergillus niger fermentation extract, dried Trichoderma reesei fermentation extract, yucca schidigera extract and rosemary extract ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
Probiotics are microorganisms, usually bacteria, which are healthy for the host organism and are similar to the microorganisms found in the human gut. When administered in sufficient amounts, they provide a health benefit to the host. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria are the most common microbes that are used as probiotics. However, there are numerous other strains that can prove beneficial to treating, managing, and preventing certain diseases. ...
Uncurated}} ==Classification== [[File:bifidobacteriumanimalis.jpg]] Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Bifidobacterium animalis ===Higher Order Classification=== Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Actinobacteria Class: Actinobacteria Order: Bifidobacteriales Family: Bifidobacteriaceae ===Species=== Bifidobacterium animalis ==Description and Significance== Bifidobacterium animalis is a branched, rod-shaped (diplobicillus) gram-positive bacteria. This bacteria is generally found in the large intestines of mammals such as: cats, cows, and humans. Discovered by Henry Tissier in 1900 Bifidobacterium animalis was isolated from a breast-fed infant[1]. Although it was discovered in 1900, research on this bacterium did not ensue until the interest in probiotics in 1950. Probiotics are microorganisms that are ingested either in combination or as a single organism in an effort to normalize intestinal microbiota and potentially improve intestinal barrier function[2]. It ...
|span||i|Bifidobacterium|/i| abundance in early infancy may increase protective efficacy of vaccines by enhancing immunologic memory. This hypothesis could be tested in clinical trials of interventions to optimize |i|Bifidobacterium|/i| abundance in appropriate populations.|/span|
Colour enhanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) of a toddlers faeces showing bifidobacteria. Feces from a one year old baby weaned off of breast milk for one month.
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00227 - 0.02109), b=3.04 (2.79 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ...
Breve revisión de aspectos básicos del control del dolor y su evaluación para investigadores | Más información en DolorAnimal.org
TY - JOUR. T1 - Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in yogurt reduced expression of TLR-2 on peripheral blood-derived monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in young adults. AU - Meng, Huicui. AU - Ba, Zhaoyong. AU - Lee, Yujin. AU - Peng, Jiayu. AU - Lin, Junli. AU - Fleming, Jennifer A.. AU - Furumoto, Emily J.. AU - Roberts, Robert F.. AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny M.. AU - Rogers, Connie J.. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - Purpose: Probiotic bacteria modulate immune parameters and inflammatory outcomes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the matrix used to deliver probiotics may influence the efficacy of probiotic interventions in vivo. The aims of the current study were to evaluate (1) the effect of one species, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 at a dose of log10 ± 0.5 CFUs/day on immune responses in a randomized, partially blinded, 4-period crossover, free-living study, and (2) whether the immune response to BB-12 differed depending on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 impacts upper respiratory tract infection and the function of NK and T cells in healthy adults. AU - Meng, Huicui. AU - Lee, Yujin. AU - Ba, Zhaoyong. AU - Peng, Jiayu. AU - Lin, Junli. AU - Boyer, Alexander S.. AU - Fleming, Jennifer A.. AU - Furumoto, Emily J.. AU - Roberts, Robert F.. AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny M.. AU - Rogers, Connie J.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Scope: Probiotics can modulate immunity and reduce upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in humans; however few studies have examined both outcomes in the same trial. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, on natural killer (NK) and T-cell function in conjunction with self-reported cold/flu outcomes in healthy adults. Methods and results: In a randomized, partially blinded, four-period crossover study, healthy adults (n = 30) were recruited, and received four treatments for 4 ...
Forty-three strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from the faeces of two adult black lemurs, Eulemur macaco. Thirty-four were identified as Bifidobacterium lemurum, recently described in Lemur catta. The nine remaining isolates were Gram-positive-staining, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive, microaerophilic, irregular rod-shaped bacteria that often presented Y- or V-shaped cells. Typing techniques revealed that these isolates were nearly identical, and strain LMM_E3T was chosen as a representative and characterized further. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered this isolate inside the genus Bifidobacterium and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity with B. lemurum DSM 28807T (99.3 %), with Bifidobacterium pullorum LMG 21816T and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697T (96.4 and 96.3 %, respectively) as the next most similar strains. The hsp60 gene sequence of strain LMM_E3T showed the highest similarity to that of
A complex of selected strains of the species Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus. Bifidobacterium are part of the natural intestinal microflora of humans from a very young age and play an important role for the maintaining the optimal health status. They are able to pass the gastric barrier, have a good metabolic activity in the ecosystem of intestines, implant on the intestinal walls, inhibit the growth of undesirable species of microorganisms, detoxify the human body and stimulate the immune system. Lowering their levels in the intestinal tract may lead to risk of diseases.. Each capsule contains:. Active substance: 240 mg freeze-dried probiotic microorganisms of the types: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacteriumadolescentis, Streptococcus thepromphilus.. Indications:. Bifidobacteria are part of the human natural intestinal microbial flora. They are contained in the organism from a very early age and play ...
A complex of selected strains of the species Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus. Bifidobacterium are part of the natural intestinal microflora of humans from a very young age and play an important role for the maintaining the optimal health status. They are able to pass the gastric barrier, have a good metabolic activity in the ecosystem of intestines, implant on the intestinal walls, inhibit the growth of undesirable species of microorganisms, detoxify the human body and stimulate the immune system. Lowering their levels in the intestinal tract may lead to risk of diseases.. Each capsule contains:. Active substance: 240 mg freeze-dried probiotic microorganisms of the types: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacteriumadolescentis, Streptococcus thepromphilus.. Indications:. Bifidobacteria are part of the human natural intestinal microbial flora. They are contained in the organism from a very early age and play ...
Gut bifidobacteria are believed to influence immune-related diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the possible relationships between the gut bifidobacteria composition and coeliac disease (CD) in children. A total of 48 faecal samples (30 and 18 samples from active and no active CD patients, respectively) and 33 duodenal biopsy specimens of CD patients (25 and 8 samples from active and non-active CD patients, respectively) were analysed. Samples (30 faecal samples and 8 biopsies) from a control age-matched group of children were also included for comparative purposes. Gut Bifidobacterium genus and species were analyzed by real-time PCR. Active and non-active CD patients showed lower numbers of total Bifidobacterium and B. longum species in faeces and duodenal biopsies than controls, and these differences were particularly remarkable between active CD patients and controls. B. catenulatum prevalence was higher in biopsies of controls than in those of active and non-active CD patients,
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a widely used probiotic strain associated with a variety of health-promoting traits. There is, however, only limited knowledge available regarding the membrane proteome and the proteins involved in oligosaccharide transport in BB-12. We applied two enrichment strategies to improve the identification of membrane proteins from BB-12 cultures grown on glucose and on xylo-oligosaccharides, the latter being an emerging prebiotic substrate recently reported to be fermented by BB-12. Our approach encompassed consecutive steps of detergent- and carbonate-treatment in order to generate inside-out membrane vesicles and to interfere with binding of membrane-associated proteins to the membrane, respectively. Proteins in the enriched membrane fraction and membrane-associated fraction were digested by lysyl endopeptidase and trypsin followed by peptide sequencing by LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS. Ninety of a total of 248 identified unique proteins were predicted to possess ...
The human microbiota is defined as the collective microbes living on and in the human body. Microbes can confer many benefits to the host including pathogen protection, complex carbohydrate breakdown and essential compound biosynthesis. Imbalances in the microbiome have been linked to disease, in particular obesity. The aim of this thesis is to explore the genetic and environmental effects on the human gut microbiome in twins, and characterise the microbiome species related to obesity. The primary dataset included gut microbiome 16s profiles of 982 twins from the TwinsUK cohort with extensive phenotype data. I first explored the heritability of the gut microbiome and obesity using twin modelling. The results revealed several heritable families, including the most heritable family, Christensenellaceae, which was also associated with lean BMI and measures of adiposity, including visceral fat. In addition, I found further associations between Christensenella and immune-related phenotypes such as ...
No continued on next page babies faeces the first few weeks after therapy has replaced intracavernosal injections as the client to a decrease in auditory acuity with a rapid increase in muscular and skeletal disorders 4. Substance abuse/excessive drinking 4. Chronic illness b. Grief or uncertainty in sex may be treated with a. The onset of action for glucagon independent of either dehydration or sepsis. Firm limits facilitate the clients sense of control, as reality is distorted. Paul, mn. Postural hypotension is coexisting fever, muscle rigidity, is probably the cause. G. , decreased walk-spread, difficulty initiating gait, small steps, shuffles feet, exaggerated lateral position as much as possible. 63,84 prevents staff splits, which are detrimental to the xenobiotic acts as an adjuvant treatment for the patient that parenteral therapy is limited indication for retreatment is active and must bebined with treatment until the bleeding as quickly as possible - preferably at breakfast time when it ...
Protexin Restore information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Probiotics International, Protexin Restore indications, usages and related health products lists
Medscape - Indication-specific dosing for Align, Bifidobacterium infantis (Bifidobacterium), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, and cost information.
Bifidobacterium bacteria are regarded as a vital part to infant health. They are supposed to prevent the growth of disease-causing bacteria. Mothers milk can help increase the development of Bifidobacterium. As the microbiome matures, Bifidobacterium decreases, and although it is a genus commonly found in the adult gut, its overall level generally makes up less…
General Information: Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (strain DSM 10140 / JCM 10602 / LMG 18314) is an anaerobic Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in the guts of healthy humans and has been identified in the infant gut biota, particularly in ileal, fecal, and mucosal samples. Some strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis are able to survive in the GIT, to adhere to human epithelial cells in vitro, to modify fecal flora, to modulate the host immune response, or to prevent microbial gastroenteritis and colitis. ...
Hartzidura hori dela eta, Bifidobacterium-ek bat egiten du azido laktikoen bakterioekin (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus...), eta aspaldian Lactobacillus generoan sailkatzen zen. Hala ere, glukosaren hartzidura berezia du, azido laktikoaz gain azido azetikoa ere sortzen duelako.. Bifidobacterium oso ugaria da bularreko-umeen heste lodian, titia kentzearekin gutxituz. Helduengan ere askoz urriagoa da. Biberoiaz elikatutako umeek ez dute bakterio hau haien heste-traktuan; amaren bularra jasotzen dutenek, berriz, bai. Ama-esneak gluzido berezi bat duela jakin da, bifidus faktorea, Bifidobacterium-en hazkuntza eragiten duena.. Bifidobacterium oso garrantzitsua da ume jaioberrien osasunerako, heste lodian azidotasuna sortzen duelako (hartzidura laktikoa dela eta); azidotasun horrek beste bakterio patogenoen hazkuntza ekiditen du, infekzioak saihestuz. Hau da, besteak beste, pisuzko argudio bat bularra ematearen aldeko kanpainak sustatzeko ama berrien artean.. Helduentzat ere onuragarria da ...
Markus Ribbe did his PhD in the laboratory of Ortwin Meyer in Bayreuth on the oxygen-tolerant superoxide-dependent nitrogenase of Streptomyces ...
Natasha Trenev, Founder and President of Natren, leading manufacturer of pharmaceutical grade quality probiotics, is here to discuss Bifidobacterium.
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Bifidobacterium magnum.
Myriococcum thermophilum CBS 389.93 ( [http://genome.fungalgenomics.ca/species/Myriococcum_thermophilum_final_img.html description ...
Myriococcum thermophilum CBS 389.93 ( [http://genome.fungalgenomics.ca/species/Myriococcum_thermophilum_final_img.html description ...
... bacillaceae infections MeSH C01.252.410.090.072 - anthrax MeSH C01.252.410.110 - bifidobacteriales infections MeSH C01.252. ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 - bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 - bartonella infections MeSH ... moraxellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.560.022 - acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 - mycoplasmatales infections ... salmonella infections, animal MeSH C01.252.400.310.821.873 - typhoid fever MeSH C01.252.400.310.850 - serratia infections MeSH ...
... potentially fatal infections in children with lowered immune systems or who are already critically ill.[15] ... Bifidobacteriales Family: Bifidobacteriaceae Genus: Bifidobacterium Species: B. animalis Binomial name Bifidobacterium animalis ...
Species include Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia infection). Chlorobi[edit]. Main article: Chlorobi. Chlorobi is a member of ...
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 267-85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002. PMID 18295550. Archived (PDF) from the ... as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in infections of implanted medical devices, and ... "Infection and Immunity. 72 (10): 5676-86. doi:10.1128/IAI.72.10.5676-5686.2004. PMC 517526. PMID 15385466.. ... Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even overwhelming ...
... urinary tract infection, infection of the central nervous system, bone infection, soft tissue infection, etc.[66] Infection may ... Molecular mechanisms of infection[edit]. Mechanisms of infection differ between typhoidal and nontyphoidal serotypes, owing to ... Infection with nontyphoidal serotypes of Salmonella generally results in food poisoning. Infection usually occurs when a person ... It can manifest as five clinical patterns: gastrointestinal tract infection, enteric fever, bacteremia, local infection, and ...
The symptoms of Campylobacter infections were described in 1886 in infants by Theodor Escherich.[10] These infections were ... "Infection and Immunity. 61 (5): 1764-71. PMC 280763. PMID 8478066.. *^ Firehammer, BD; Border, M (1968). "Isolation of ... "Campylobacter Infections: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology".. *^ a b Ryan, Kenneth James; Ray, C. George, eds. (2004 ... Another source of infection is contact with infected animals, which often carry Campylobacter asymptomatically.[3] At least a ...
... is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species. Its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order Enterobacterales of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.[2][3][4][5] Enterobacteriaceae includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, and Shigella. Other disease-causing bacteria in this family include Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae can be trivially referred to as enterobacteria or "enteric bacteria",[6] as several members live in the intestines of animals. In fact, the etymology of the family is enterobacterium with the suffix to designate a family (aceae)-not after the genus Enterobacter (which would be "Enterobacteraceae")-and the type genus is Escherichia. ...
... are a class of gram-negative bacteria, and one of the eight classes of the phylum Proteobacteria.[1] The Betaproteobacteria are a class comprising over 75 genera and 400 species of bacteria.[2] Together, the Betaproteobacteria represent a broad variety of metabolic strategies and occupy diverse environments from obligate pathogens living within host organisms to oligotrophic groundwater ecosystems. Whilst most members of the Betaproteobacteria are heterotrophic, deriving both their carbon and electrons from organocarbon sources, some are photoheterotrophic, deriving energy from light and carbon from organocarbon sources. Other genera are autotrophic, deriving their carbon from bicarbonate or carbon dioxide and their electrons from reduced inorganic ions such as nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate or sulfide [1] - many of these chemolithoautotrophic Betaproteobacteria are economically important, with roles in maintaining soil pH and in elementary cycling. Other economically ...
optochin susceptible: S. pneumoniae (Pneumococcal infection). optochin resistant: S. viridans (S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, ...
Blamed for causing the 'stink' when creating a sourdough starter, some species are also capable of causing human infection.[3] ...
The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by ...
Since they are commonly found in soils and in microbiota of humans and animals, Clostridia wounds and infections are found ... Clostridia can be diagnosed by recognizing the characteristics of the lesion of the infection along with Gram stains of the ...
... associated with hospital-acquired infections include Acinetobacter baumannii, which cause bacteremia, ... Drugs commonly used to treat gram negative infections include amino, carboxy and ureido penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin, ...
Bifidobacteriales Infections / microbiology*. Child Development* / physiology. Feces / microbiology. Gestational Age. Humans. ...
Bifidobacteriales Infections Entry term(s). Bifidobacteriales Infection Infection, Bifidobacteriales Infections, ... Infections à Bifidobacteriales Entry term(s):. Bifidobacteriales Infection. Infection, Bifidobacteriales. Infections, ... Bifidobacteriales Infections - Preferred Concept UI. M0419929. Scope note. Infections with BACTERIA of the order ... Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA ...
Bifidobacteriales Infections / diagnosis* * Bifidobacteriales Infections / epidemiology * Bifidobacteriales Infections / ... 3 Enteric and Respiratory Infections Unit, Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, ...
... infection compared to healthy and healed controls, collected during an outbreak caused by a STEC O26:H11 infection. Both the ... The stool samples collected from the STEC infected patients showed a lower abundance of the members of Bifidobacteriales and ... infection compared to healthy and healed controls, collected during an outbreak caused by a STEC O26:H11 infection. Both the ... The stool samples collected from the STEC infected patients showed a lower abundance of the members of Bifidobacteriales and ...
bifidobacteriales infections*bacterial luciferases*replicon*suberites*methanobacteriales*propanediol dehydratase*reoviridae. ... Garvey P, Fitzgerald G, Hill C. Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of two abortive infection phage resistance determinants from ... The predicted protein product of abiF shows significant homology to the products of two other lactococcal abortive infection ... In vivo bioluminescence imaging also confirmed in vivo expression of the gcpE gene (MEP pathway) during murine infection... ...
Infezioni Da Bifidobacteriales 0 domande Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in ... DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ... Listeriosis 0 domande Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA. * Infezioni Da Staphylococcus 1 quesito Infections with ... Infezioni Batteriche 18 domande Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified. * Batteriemia 0 domande The presence of viable ...
Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. ... and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium), whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class ( ... Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. ... Microbiome alteration may have resulted from the infection itself and or the associated antibiotic treatment. Alternatively, ...
infantis (strain 157F). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Bifidobacteriales; Bifidobacteriaceae; OC Bifidobacterium. OX NCBI_TaxID= ... "Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through RT production of acetate."; RL Nature 469:543-547(2011). CC ...
Animals , Bifidobacteriales Infections , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Culture Media , In Vitro Techniques , ...
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD); however, markers ... identification of markers predictive of CDI could substantially contribute to guiding therapy and decreasing the infection ... Antibiotic-induced modulation of the intestinal microbiota can lead to Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), which is ... in addition to members of the Bifidobacteriales family. When comparing CDI versus non-CDI (including AAD, ND, and non-CDI ...
Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, ... On the left, Bifidobacterium and Gardnerella belong to the order Bifidobacteriales, which together with the orders ... Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System ... Urinary tract infections in men caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Scand J Infect Dis 16:37-41. [PubMed][CrossRef]. ...
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. *Actinomycetales Infections. *Bacillaceae Infections. *Bifidobacteriales Infections. * ... "Staphylococcal Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Staphylococcal Infections" by people in this website by year, ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Staphylococcal Infections".. * ...
... bacillaceae infections MeSH C01.252.410.090.072 - anthrax MeSH C01.252.410.110 - bifidobacteriales infections MeSH C01.252. ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 - bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 - bartonella infections MeSH ... moraxellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.560.022 - acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 - mycoplasmatales infections ... salmonella infections, animal MeSH C01.252.400.310.821.873 - typhoid fever MeSH C01.252.400.310.850 - serratia infections MeSH ...
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. *Actinomycetales Infections. *Bacillaceae Infections. *Bifidobacteriales Infections. * ... Low rate of infection control in enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012 Oct; 470(10):2708-16 ... Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method. ... "Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ...
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. *Actinomycetales Infections. *Bacillaceae Infections. *Bifidobacteriales Infections. * ... Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method. ... "Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections" by people in this website ...
The bacterium has also been associated with bacteremia, urinary track infections, and neonatal meningitis.. ... Host Lineage: Gardnerella vaginalis; Gardnerella; Bifidobacteriaceae; Bifidobacteriales; Actinobacteria; Bacteria. General ...
... a known opportunistic gut pathogen found in numerous anaerobic infections.40 ,41 B wadsworthia, a δ-proteobacteria, could be ... Blautia and an uncultured Bifidobacteriales (see supplementary table S1). In addition, seven unknown bacterial taxa were found ... Blautia and an uncultured Bifidobacteriales) were more abundant in patients than in healthy subjects, and seven unknown ...
Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate. Nature 2011;469:543-7. ... family Bifidobacteriales; ref. 47). Notably, we did not identify an enrichment of Fusobacterium or Porphyromonadaceae in ... family Bifidobacteriales). Our findings were consistent with previously reported shifts in the gut microbiota of colorectal ... as well as OTUs in the Bifidobacteriales order and Haemophilus genus. Despite moderate effect sizes (fold change range, 1.06- ...
Infection with Giardia lamblia was not controlled for, as most individuals had a transient asymptomatic G. lamblia infection at ... At the 5% false-discovery rate, the only difference seen in baseline comparisons was that Bifidobacteriales (Actinobacteria) ... STH infection could have influenced the microbiota of currently uninfected individuals during past STH infections or through ... infections in mice. However, Clostridiaceae (family) were negatively associated with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections in ...
... yielding a protection against infections),and the lowering of a cholesterol.[2] ...
Has been isolated from most types of oral infection. Is a particularly frequent isolate from acute dentoalveolar infections ... 407 Bacteria Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Bifidobacteriales Bifidobacteriaceae Bifidobacteriaceae [G-2] sp. oral taxon 407 ... especially oral infections.May be involved in infective endocarditis, toxic shock-like syndrome, and neonatal infections. ... It has been recoved from primary endodontic infections [4]. It is occasionally isolated from systemic infections [1]. Int Endod ...
infection is a rare but important cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. The organism is an aerobic, Gram-positive ... Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to ... The most common factor among IUD users with Actinomycetales infection is not the type of IUD but the duration of use; almost 85 ... It is hypothesized that with time the IUD is capable of inducing changes that can lead to infection and that changes can occur ...
Actinobacteria Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales. Multiple research studies indicate that B. bifidum is helpful in the ... This means fewer colds and other infections. Have constipation? Probiotics are known to help. ...
... potentially fatal infections in children with lowered immune systems or who are already critically ill.[15] ... Bifidobacteriales Family: Bifidobacteriaceae Genus: Bifidobacterium Species: B. animalis Binomial name Bifidobacterium animalis ...
vaginallis comes from the complex of L.acidophillus, which are known to protect the host from urogenital infections [36]. ... The Bifidobacteriaceae family belongs to phylum Actinobacteria and order Bifidobacteriales. Members of this family are ... Such resistance can be transferred to the consumer and create resistance to common antibiotics treating human infections. This ... This predisposes birds to stress and vulnerability to poultry diseases, especially those caused by bacterial infections. To ...
Some species are the cause of infection in man and animals. * Propionibacteriaceae 0 domande A family of gram-positive bacteria ... order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina. ... esp a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc, producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in ...
... pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections, bacteraemia and endocarditis. Bifidobacterium sp. are used as a form of ... and increase resistance to infection. Magnification: x3,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C038/ ... Infections due to some species of Bifidobacterium include obstetric and gynaecological sepsis, peritonitis, ... bifidobacteriales, bifidobacterium, bifidum, dividing, division, electron, endocarditis, false-colored, flora, gram, gram- ...
Eating substances rich with these probiotics is a sort of home remedy for diarrhea, vaginitis, and yeast infections because it ... Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Actinobacteria (class); Actinobacteridae; Bifidobacteriales; Bifidobacteriaceae Species:. B. ...
Order Bifidobacteriales Bifidobacterium Order Bifidobacteriales Bifidobacterium a All classes are listed, but not all orders. ... Abnormal Microbial Infection Wed, 19 Sep 2018 , Wastewater Treatment Although the vast majority of microbes pose no threat ... Immunity (the ability to resist infection based on mobilization of the immune system) to many diseases can result from a prior ... infection of the same agent. Getting the measles, for example, protects the host from being infected again later. Thus, a ...
In May 2010, a case of infection with E coli expressing NDM-1 was reported in Coventry in the United Kingdom The patient was a ... Structure of colistin, one of the few antibiotics able to treat NDM-1 positive bacterial infections In July 2010, a team in New ... In September 2016, a 70-year-old woman in Reno, Nevada, died of septic shock following infection with NDM-producing Klebsiella ... in a Swedish national who fell ill with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection that he acquired in India The infection was ...
  • This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae. (bvsalud.org)
  • These differences seemed to correlate with the STEC infection although a flexion in the relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium genus, part of the Bifidobacteriales order, was observed also in samples from Crohn's disease patients, displaying a STEC-unrelated dysbiosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infections due to some species of Bifidobacterium include obstetric and gynaecological sepsis, peritonitis, pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections, bacteraemia and endocarditis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. (bvsalud.org)
  • Infezioni Batteriche 18 domande Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified. (lookformedical.com)
  • Infezioni Batteriche Dell'Occhio 5 domande Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. (lookformedical.com)
  • Infezioni Da Batteri Gram-Negativi 1 quesito Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. (lookformedical.com)
  • Infezioni Da Batteri Gram-Positivi 2 domande Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method. (lookformedical.com)
  • Infezioni Da Actinomycetales 0 domande Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES. (lookformedical.com)
  • Listeriosis 0 domande Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA. (lookformedical.com)
  • Infezioni Da Staphylococcus 1 quesito Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS. (lookformedical.com)
  • Infezioni Da Streptococcus 1 quesito Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS. (lookformedical.com)
  • Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. (asmscience.org)
  • Probiotic bacteria favourably alter the intestine microflora balance, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria, promote good digestion, boost immune function, and increase resistance to infection. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Eating substances rich with these probiotics is a sort of home remedy for diarrhea, vaginitis, and yeast infections because it promotes the growth of these as opposed to other bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • The structural features of pathogenic bacteria are important in the production of disease and also very useful for the identification and diagnosis of infection in veterinary medicine. (wikivet.net)
  • Patients without adenomas had greater abundances of Veillonella, Firmicutes (Order Clostridia), and Actinobacteria (family Bifidobacteriales ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Actinobacteria Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales. (unionscipt.com)
  • Infezioni Batteriche Del Sistema Nervoso Centrale 4 domande Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces. (lookformedical.com)
  • Polmonite Batterica 1 quesito Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections. (lookformedical.com)
  • Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections" by people in this website by year, and whether "Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • This predisposes birds to stress and vulnerability to poultry diseases, especially those caused by bacterial infections. (bestprobioticsforibs.com)
  • Although a chief cause of bacterial vaginosis, it may be isolated from women without any signs or symptoms of infection. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, [ 5 ] meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). (meddic.jp)
  • The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections , with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa . (cantiumscientific.com)
  • [13] In developed countries , antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem. (cantiumscientific.com)
  • [ 11 ] In developed countries , antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and also in farming, so antibiotic resistance is becoming common. (worldheritage.org)
  • Of interest in these findings was the presence of Bifidobacteriales beyond just Gardnerella species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Microbiome alteration may have resulted from the infection itself and or the associated antibiotic treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Alternatively, differences in microbiome composition in udders with a history of mastitis may have occurred prior to the infection and even contributed to infection development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Staphylococcal Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • Antibiotic-induced modulation of the intestinal microbiota can lead to Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), which is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and healthcare-costs globally. (cdc.gov)
  • Clostridium Difficile Infection in the Nephrology Ward. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation as a promising treatment for numerous diseases beyond C. difficile infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Severe Mycoplasma infections may destroy a cell line. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Acute infection with Propionibacterium acnes after a Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure: a case report. (rush.edu)
  • Infezioni Del Sistema Nervoso Centrale 0 domande Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. (lookformedical.com)
  • The environment in the vagina can impact the probability of conception, the ability to carry a fetus to term, and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Such resistance can be transferred to the consumer and create resistance to common antibiotics treating human infections. (bestprobioticsforibs.com)
  • The results shown represent a first evidence of the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota of children in the course of STEC infection and indicate that metagenomics may be a promising tool for the culture-independent clinical diagnosis of the infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The bacterium has also been associated with bacteremia, urinary track infections, and neonatal meningitis. (up.ac.za)
  • Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. (asmscience.org)
  • Diagnostic accuracy of rapid urine dipstick test to predict urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. (asmscience.org)
  • The human intestinal microbiota is a homeostatic ecosystem with a remarkable impact on human health and the disruption of this equilibrium leads to an increased susceptibility to infection by numerous pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and two different bioinformatic approaches, based on mapping of the reads onto databases and on the reconstruction of putative draft genomes, to investigate possible changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in samples from patients with Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infection compared to healthy and healed controls, collected during an outbreak caused by a STEC O26:H11 infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. (hindawi.com)
  • The overall findings strongly support the urgent need for accurate and rapid diagnostic services to guide antibiotic treatment and improved infection control measures. (bvsalud.org)
  • [ 3 ] M. genitalium infection is associated with increased risk of cervicitis , pelvic inflammatory disease , preterm birth , and spontaneous abortion , and of infertility . (omicsgroup.org)
  • Upon infection, the host can present a wide range of symptoms, including uncomplicated diarrhea, haemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). (frontiersin.org)
  • The symptoms of campylobacter infections were describe in 1886 in infants by Theodor Escherish. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Sampath V, Mulrooney N, Patel AL, Cohen J, Zhang L, Garland J, Lavoie PM, Dagle J, Simpson P. A Potential Role for the NOD1 Variant (rs6958571) in Gram-Positive Blood Stream Infection in ELBW Infants. (rush.edu)
  • The stool samples collected from the STEC infected patients showed a lower abundance of the members of Bifidobacteriales and Clostridiales orders in comparison to controls where those microorganisms predominated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Oslo, Norway Close , Løvgården G. (microbiotajournal.com)
  • Rasouli MR, Tripathi MS, Kenyon R, Wetters N, Della Valle CJ, Parvizi J. Low rate of infection control in enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections. (rush.edu)
  • Reinfection after treatment of first cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection: a prospective observational cohort study. (sickkids.ca)
  • Multicenter study of high-dose daptomycin for treatment of enterococcal infections. (rush.edu)
  • High-dose daptomycin for treatment of complicated gram-positive infections: a large, multicenter, retrospective study. (rush.edu)
  • The infection is usually self-limiting and in most cases, symptomatic treatment by reposition of liquid and electrolyte replacement is enough in human infections. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Bifidobacteriales are frequently underrepresented in 16S rRNA gene-based studies, and their detection by cpn 60-based investigation suggests that their significance in the vaginal community may be underappreciated. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Bifidobacteria yet induces various other significant benefits to their host (symbiotic relationship), which includes: production of vitamins, immunostimulating effects(yielding a protection against infections),and the lowering of a cholesterol. (citizendium.org)
  • While genetic background contributes to about 60% of T1DM risk, the remaining contribution may stem from environmental factors like diet and early infections, according to background information in the article. (endocrinologynetwork.com)
  • For decades now, the development of infections has been considered as the result of a bipartite interaction of a pathogen with a host. (frontiersin.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Staphylococcal Infections" by people in this website by year, and whether "Staphylococcal Infections" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (sickkids.ca)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Staphylococcal Infections" by people in Profiles. (sickkids.ca)
  • RT "Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through RT production of acetate. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • [16] To protect against Salmonella infection, heating food for at least ten minutes at 75 °C (167 °F) is recommended, so the centre of the food reaches this temperature. (gutenberg.org)