The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.
Funding resources and procedures for capital improvement or the construction of facilities.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Educational institutions.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.
Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/1075)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Heart rate during exercise with leg vascular occlusion in spinal cord-injured humans. (2/1075)

Feed-forward and feedback mechanisms are both important for control of the heart rate response to muscular exercise, but their origin and relative importance remain inadequately understood. To evaluate whether humoral mechanisms are of importance, the heart rate response to electrically induced cycling was studied in participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) and compared with that elicited during volitional cycling in able-bodied persons (C). During voluntary exercise at an oxygen uptake of approximately 1 l/min, heart rate increased from 66 +/- 4 to 86 +/- 4 (SE) beats/min in seven C, and during electrically induced exercise at a similar oxygen uptake in SCI it increased from 73 +/- 3 to 110 +/- 8 beats/min. In contrast, blood pressure increased only in C (from 88 +/- 3 to 99 +/- 4 mmHg), confirming that, during exercise, blood pressure control is dominated by peripheral neural feedback mechanisms. With vascular occlusion of the legs, the exercise-induced increase in heart rate was reduced or even eliminated in the electrically stimulated SCI. For C, heart rate tended to be lower than during exercise with free circulation to the legs. Release of the cuff elevated heart rate only in SCI. These data suggest that humoral feedback is of importance for the heart rate response to exercise and especially so when influence from the central nervous system and peripheral neural feedback from the working muscles are impaired or eliminated during electrically induced exercise in individuals with SCI.  (+info)

Effect of ambient temperature on human skeletal muscle metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise. (3/1075)

To examine the effect of ambient temperature on metabolism during fatiguing submaximal exercise, eight men cycled to exhaustion at a workload requiring 70% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake on three separate occasions, at least 1 wk apart. These trials were conducted in ambient temperatures of 3 degrees C (CT), 20 degrees C (NT), and 40 degrees C (HT). Although no differences in muscle or rectal temperature were observed before exercise, both muscle and rectal temperature were higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT and NT. Exercise time was longer in CT compared with NT, which, in turn, was longer compared with HT (85 +/- 8 vs. 60 +/- 11 vs. 30 +/- 3 min, respectively; P < 0.05). Plasma epinephrine concentration was not different at rest or at the point of fatigue when the three trials were compared, but concentrations of this hormone were higher (P < 0.05) when HT was compared with NT, which in turn was higher (P < 0.05) compared with CT after 20 min of exercise. Muscle glycogen concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher at fatigue in HT compared with NT and CT, which were not different (299 +/- 33 vs. 153 +/- 27 and 116 +/- 28 mmol/kg dry wt, respectively; P < 0.01). Intramuscular lactate concentration was not different at rest when the three trials were compared but was higher (P < 0.05) at fatigue in HT compared with CT. No differences in the concentration of the total intramuscular adenine nucleotide pool (ATP + ADP + AMP), phosphocreatine, or creatine were observed before or after exercise when the trials were compared. Although intramuscular IMP concentrations were not statistically different before or after exercise when the three trials were compared, there was an exercise-induced increase (P < 0.01) in IMP. These results demonstrate that fatigue during prolonged exercise in hot conditions is not related to carbohydrate availability. Furthermore, the increased endurance in CT compared with NT is probably due to a reduced glycogenolytic rate.  (+info)

Evidence of O2 supply-dependent VO2 max in the exercise-trained human quadriceps. (4/1075)

Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a decrease in O2 supply will proportionately decrease muscle VO2 max. As even in the isolated quadriceps (where normoxic O2 delivery is the highest recorded in humans) an increase in O2 supply by hyperoxia allows the achievement of a greater VO2 max, we conclude that, in normoxic conditions of isolated KE exercise, KE VO2 max in trained subjects is not limited by mitochondrial metabolic rate but, rather, by O2 supply.  (+info)

Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in inactive muscle during and after maximal exercise in men. (5/1075)

Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa) and acetyl-group accumulation were examined in the inactive deltoid muscle in response to maximal leg exercise in men. Seven subjects completed three consecutive 30-s bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling, with 4-min rest intervals between bouts. Biopsies of the deltoid were obtained before exercise, after bouts 1 and 3, and after 15 min of rest recovery. Inactive muscle lactate (LA) and pyruvate (PYR) contents increased more than twofold (P < 0.05) after exercise (bout 3) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased PYR accumulation secondary to LA uptake by the inactive deltoid was associated with greater PDHa, which progressively increased from 0.71 +/- 0.23 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 at rest to a maximum of 1.83 +/- 0.30 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 after bout 3 (P < 0.05) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (1.63 +/- 0.24 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1; P < 0.05). Acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine accumulations were unaltered. Increased PDHa allowed and did not limit the oxidation of LA and PYR in inactive human skeletal muscle after maximal exercise.  (+info)

High-resistance training and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise. (6/1075)

To investigate the hypothesis that changes in muscle submaximal exercise metabolism would occur as a result of fiber hypertrophy, induced by high-resistance training (HRT), active but untrained males (age 20 +/- 0.7 yr; mean +/- SE) performed lower-limb weight training 3 days/wk for 12 wk using three sets of 6-8 repetitions maximal (RM)/day. Muscle metabolism was examined at different stages of training (4, 7, and 12 wk) using a two-stage continuous cycle test performed at the same absolute power output and duration (56.4 +/- 2.9 min) and representing 57 and 72% of pretraining peak aerobic power (VO2 peak). Compared with pretraining, at the end of exercise, HRT resulted in a higher (P < 0.05) phosphocreatine (PCr; 27.4 +/- 6. 7 vs. 38.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/kg dry wt), a lower lactate (38.9 +/- 8.5 vs. 24.4 +/- 6.1 mmol/kg dry wt), and a higher (P < 0.05) glycogen content (132 +/- 11 vs. 181 +/- 7.5 mmol glucosyl units/kg dry wt). The percent change from rest before and after training was 63 and 50% for PCr, 676 and 410% for lactate, and 60 and 43% for glycogen, respectively. These adaptations, which were observed only at 72% VO2 peak, occurred by 4 wk of training in the case of PCr and glycogen and before any changes in fiber cross-sectional area, capillarization, or oxidative potential. Fiber hypertrophy, observed at 7 and 12 wk of training, failed to potentiate the metabolic response. No effect of HRT was found on VO2 peak with training (41.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.1 ml. kg-1. min-1) or on the steady-state, submaximal exercise rate of oxygen consumption. It is concluded that the HRT results in muscle metabolic adaptations that occur independently of fiber hypertrophy.  (+info)

Peripheral muscle ergoreceptors and ventilatory response during exercise recovery in heart failure. (7/1075)

Recent studies have suggested that the increased ventilatory response during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure was related to the activation of muscle metaboreceptors. To address this issue, 23 patients with heart failure and 7 normal subjects performed arm and leg bicycle exercises with and without cuff inflation around the arms or the thighs during recovery. Obstruction slightly reduced ventilation and gas exchange variables at recovery but did not change the kinetics of recovery of these parameters compared with nonobstructed recovery: half-time of ventilation recovery was 175 +/- 54 to 176 +/- 40 s in patients and 155 +/- 66 to 127 +/- 13 s in controls (P < 0.05, patients vs. controls, not significant within each group from baseline to obstructed recovery). We conclude that muscle metaboreceptor activation does not seem to play a role in the exertion hyperventilation of patients with heart failure.  (+info)

Breathing patterns during slow and fast ramp exercise in man. (8/1075)

Breathing frequency (fb), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory timing during slow (SR, 8 W min-1) and fast (FR, 65 W min-1) ramp exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer was examined in seven healthy male subjects. Expiratory ventilation (VE), pulmonary gas exchange (VO2 and VCO2) and end-tidal gas tensions (PET,O2 and PET,CO2) were determined using breath-by-breath techniques. Arterialized venous blood was sampled from a dorsal hand vein at 2 min intervals during SR and 30 s intervals during FR and analysed for arterial plasma PCO2 (PaCO2). PET,CO2 increased with increasing work rates (WRs) below the ventilatory threshold (VT); at WRs > or = 90% VO2,max, PET,CO2 was reduced (P < 0.05) below 0 W values in SR but not in FR.fb and VT were similar for SR and FR at all submaximal WRs, resulting in a similar VE. At exhaustion VE was similar but fb was higher (P < 0.05) and VT was lower (P < 0.05) in SR (fb, 51 +/- 10 breaths min-1; VT, 2590 +/- 590 ml) than in FR (fb, 42 +/- 8 breaths min-1; VT, 3050 +/- 470 ml). The time of expiration (TE) decreased with increasing WR, but there was no difference between SR and FR. The time of inspiration (TI) decreased at exercise intensities > or = VT; at exhaustion, TI was shorter (P < 0.05) during SR (0.512 +/- 0.097 s) than during FR (0.753 +/- 0.100 s). The TI to total breath duration (TI/TTot) and the inspiratory flow (VT/TI) were similar during SR and FR at all submaximal exercise intensities; at VO2,max, TI/TTot was lower (P < 0.05) and VT/TI was higher (P < 0.05) during SR (TI/TTot, 0.473 +/- 0.030; VT/TI, 5.092 +/- 0.377 l s-1) than during FR (TI/TTot, 0.567 +/- 0.050; VT/TI, 4.117 +/- 0.635 l s-1). These results suggest that during progressive exercise, breathing pattern and respiratory timing may be determined, at least at submaximal work rates, independently of alveolar and arterial PCO2.  (+info)

To investigate factors related to glycemic management among members of a professional cycling team with type 1 diabetes over a 7-day Union Cycliste Internationale World Tour stage race.An observational evaluation of possible factors related to glycemic management and performance in six male professional cyclists with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 6.4 ± 0.6%) during the 2019 Tour of California.In-ride time spent in euglycemia (3.9-10.0 mmol/L glucose) was 63 ± 11%; with a low percentage of time spent in level 1 (3.0-3.9 mmol/L; 0 ± 1% of time) and level 2 (,3.0 mmol/L; 0 ± 0% of time) hypoglycemia over the 7-day race. Riders spent 25 ± 9% of time in level 1 (10.1-13.9 mmol/L) and 11 ± 9% in level 2 (,13.9 mmol/L) hyperglycemia during races. Bolus insulin use was uncommon during races, despite high carbohydrate intake (76 ± 23 g ⋅ h-1). Overnight, the riders spent progressively more time in hypoglycemia from day 1 (6 ± 12% in level 1 and 0 ± 0% in level 2) to day 7 (12 ± 12% in level 1 and 2 ...
If youve been involved in a bicycle accident, or you have a loved one who was injured or killed while cycling, the Baltimore bicycle accident attorneys at
Bicycle accidents have become the most common cause of serious injury in the traffic during the last couple of years in Sweden. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the input variables, initial velocity and head orientation, of a bicycle accident reconstruction on the strain levels in the brain using a detailed FE head model. The accident involved a non-helmeted 68 year old male who sustained a linear skull fracture, contusions, acute subdural hematoma, and small bleeding at the swelling (subarachnoid blood). The orientation of the head just before impact was determined from the swelling appearing in the computer tomography (CT) scans. The head model used in this study was developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. The stress in the cranial bone, first principal strain in the brain tissue and acceleration were determined. The model was able to predict a strain pattern that correlated well with the medical images from the victim. The variation study ...
Carbohydrate mouth rinsing during exercise has been suggested to enhance performance of short (45-60 min) bouts of high-intensity (,75% VO2peak) exercise. Recent studies indicate that this performance enhancing effect may be dependent on the prandial state of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on ~1-hr time trial performance in both the fasted and fed states. Using a double-blind, crossover design, 14 trained male cyclists (27 ± 6 years; 5.0 ± 0.5 W·kg−1) were selected to perform 4 time trials of ~1 hr (1,032 ± 127 kJ) on a cycle ergometer while rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% sucrose solution (SUC) or a noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) for 5 s at the start and at every 12.5% of their set amount of work completed. Two trials were performed in an overnight fasted state and two trials were performed 2 h after consuming a standardized breakfast. Performance time did not differ between any of the trials (fasted-PLA: 68.6 ± 7.2; ...
Are you bicyclist thats been hurt by an irresponsible motorist? Our San Diego bicycle accident attorney can help you seek justice. Call today.
Arizona is one of the best states in the country for cycling. Between the red rock, vast deserts, and overall beautiful scenery, there are few things more enjoyable than taking a bike ride in the open air. Not only are bicycles used as a form of exercise or leisure, but they are also used to commute to work, especially in more urban areas, such as Phoenix. Unsurprisingly, however, bicycles are also comparatively unsafe. Cyclists generally have no more protection than shoulder pads, elbow pads, and a helmet. Unfortunately, neither of these things are of much use if you are struck by an oncoming vehicle. When cyclists are involved in an accident, they are usually very severely injured, sometimes suffering for the rest of their lives. This is why if you have been involved in a bicycle accident, you should hire an experienced attorney to help you recover the compensation you deserve. Here are some of the questions you may have:. ...
Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa broke his elbow in a bicycle accident Saturday evening, a spokesman said. The mayor was riding in the bicycle lane on Venice Boulevard in Mid-City at about 6:50 p.m. when a taxi abruptly pulled in front of him. The mayor hit his brakes and fell off the bike. He was transported to Ronald Reagan/UCLA Medical Center, where he was treated for the broken bone. By 10 p.m. he had been released and was resting comfortably at Getty House, the mayors official residence. The mayors accident comes as bicyclists in the city have increasingly been complaining about safety issues and pressing city officials to do more to make cycling safe. Bicycle advocates have called for more dedicated bike lanes and appeared repeatedly before the City Council to argue that a specific share of funds from Measure R, the 2008 sales tax for transportation projects, should be set aside for bicycle- and pedestrian-related initiatives. Bicycle activist Stephen Box filled out paperwork last ...
Purpose: To investigate the effects of including repeated sprints in a weekly low-intensity (LIT) session during a 3-week transition period on cycling performance 6 weeks into the subsequent preparatory period (PREP) in elite cyclists. Methods: Eleven elite male cyclists (age = 22.0 [3.8] y, body mass = 73.0 [5.8] kg, height = 186 [7] cm, maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 5469 [384] mL·min−1) reduced their training load by 64% and performed only LIT sessions (CON, n = 6) or included 3 sets of 3 × 30-second maximal sprints in a weekly LIT session (SPR, n = 5) during a 3-week transition period. There was no difference in the reduction in training load during the transition period between groups. Physiological and performance measures were compared between the end of the competitive period and 6 weeks into the PREP. Results: SPR demonstrated a 7.3% (7.2%) improvement in mean power output during a 20-minute all-out test at PREP, which was greater than CON (−1.3% [4.6%]) (P = .048). SPR had a ...
Benjamin Clarsen Overuse Injuries in Professional Road Cyclists Master s Thesis in Sports Physiotherapy Sports Medicine Department Norwegian School of Sports Science, 2009 Foreword The theme of this project
Injured while riding your bicycle? You have rights! Contact your Columbus, GA bicycle accident lawyer at Law Offices of Gary Bruce for a free case review.
Road rash from a bicycle accident can be painful and expensive, depending on its severity. Learn more about treatment and recovering compensation here.
Have you suffered a facial injury or a dental injury from a cycling accident in the last three years? You may be entitled to bicycle accident compensation!
Bicycle accidents can cause severe head and neck injuries. If you were injured in a cycling accident contact us today, we can help! (415) 746-1477
Was your Florida bicycle accident due to driver negligence? Let an attorney handle your case so you can be compensated for your losses, pain.
Question - i have had a bicycle accident at 14 mod. tbi , unconc for 30 - FA. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
Kids love their sports, and regardless of whether its football, baseball, or cycling, kids are going to find role models. And that is great, because there are so many opportunities for discussion about life choices. Who doesnt love those teaching moments? The crazy thing about being a cycling fan in Boulder, is that you arent…
I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES TO COME OUT AND JOIN US.I HOPE I GET SOME RIDERS WHO RIDE TALL BIKES ...
During each pedal stroke, the knee goes through a revolution of both flexion and extension. Onset of knee pain is often coupled with overuse and exacerbated by overflexing the knee while applying a great amount of power. For example, at a minimum, a typical competitive amateur road cyclist trains at least 3 hours a ride, 5 days a week. Again, this is a minimum: Professional cyclists typically train 6 hours a day, 5 or 6 days a week.. Each week, therefore, a typical competitive amateur cyclist is on the bicycle 15 hours (3 hours × 5 days a week). When this cyclist is pedaling, cadence is typically 90 revolutions a minute. Each training ride, this cyclists knees are completing a full rotation of the crankset 16,200 times (90 × 60 × 3); each week, 81,000 revolutions; each year, 4,212,000 revolutions. If the knee is even slightly out of adjustment, the resulting pain can be severe and become chronic.. As the angle of knee flexion (KF) increases, the patella translates superiorly, increasing ...
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QT2 Systems (QT2) is excited to announce that it is the Official Coach of the Little Debbie IRONMAN Chattanooga triathlon, benefitting Crohns and Colitis Foundation of America.  QT2 is a world leading triathlon coaching group, specializing in the training for, and fueling of, long distance...
Hill running interval sessions improve 5km time trial performance. The improved 5km time trial performance occurred following 6-weeks of high intensity hill running intervals.
The results showed that forces exerted on the pedals decreased at higher cadences, heart rate increased by 15% and cycling exercise efficiency decreased. Skeletal muscle oxygenation also decreased when participants pedalled at the highest cadence tested, 90 RPM. The lead author, Dr Federico Formenti, said:. Pedalling at cadence greater than 90 revolutions per minute is advantageous for professional cyclists, but appears inefficient for recreational cyclists. When cycling at low exercise intensity, skeletal muscle oxygenation is mostly unaffected by cadence, indicating that the cardiopulmonary and circulatory systems can effectively meet the exercising muscles demand. However, at a greater exercise intensity, high cadence reduces recreational cyclists efficiency and skeletal muscle oxygenation, suggesting a reduced ratio between oxygen being delivered to and taken up by the exercising muscles.. To sum up, high cadence seems to be beneficial only for cyclists who can sustain high intensity at ...
Welcome to the CCCU Research Space Repository. The Research Space Repository contains research produced by Canterbury Christ Church University researchers, including over 9,000 journal articles, conference papers, videos and more. The repository provides full text access where permitted, and full citation details where restrictions apply. Please contact [email protected] for any repository-related queries.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Bicycle injuries can be caused by equipment defects, collisions with cars, or poorly maintained grounds. Talk with a bike accident lawyer at (401) 751-8855.
The drivetrain begins with pedals which rotate the cranks, which are held in axis by the bottom bracket. Most bicycles use a chain to transmit power to the rear wheel. A very small number of bicycles use a shaft drive to transmit power, or special belts. Hydraulic bicycle transmissions have been built, but they are currently inefficient and complex. Since cyclists legs are most efficient over a narrow range of pedaling speeds, or cadence, a variable gear ratio helps a cyclist to maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain. Some, mainly utility, bicycles use hub gears with between 3 and 14 ratios, but most use the generally more efficient dérailleur system, by which the chain is moved between different cogs called chainrings and sprockets in order to select a ratio. A dérailleur system normally has two dérailleurs, or mechs, one at the front to select the chainring and another at the back to select the sprocket. Most bikes have two or three chainrings, and from 5 to 11 ...
• Olympic and Professional cyclist • AIS scholarship holder • Coaching of Olympic and Paralympic athletes to medal-winning performances • Coaching experience from four different continents and cultures • Elite coaching qualifications from the University of Queensland • Experience in lactate testing, power and altitude training, nutrition and recovery
We inspected Timex Ironman Triathlon Heart Rate Monitor NIB deals, features, and sales over the past year for you at heartrate-monitor.
Here on the island, we have a network of bike trails - and again, we have these folks who insist that they are too serious to ride on them, but instead drive to our island to ride their expensive road bikes on our shoulder-less roads. When you try to pass them in your car, they intentionally veer out into the lane, to prove their point that they are entitled to a lane. And they give you nasty looks if you do pass. What is the point of that? They would prefer to have a line of cars behind them, all trying to pass? I fail to grasp the point of it ...
In addition to these bedrock benefits of intensity, hard riding carries numerous other advantages for road cyclists, who all too often ride at the same, steady pace on nearly every ride.. Greater choices of rides. Hard riding improves your power. Even if you ride just for good health, more power increases the choices of routes for your rides. You can add longer, hillier, harder routes and rides to your repertoire.. More pedaling economy. Hard riding improves your economy, how fast you can go at a given heart rate. This allows you to do longer and/or harder recreational rides.. More speed. Because hard riding improves your power, it also improves your speed so that you can keep up with - and maybe even drop - younger riders on club and group rides. Or just increase your cruising speed so you can cover more distance in the same amount of time.. More fun. Remember what it was like as a kid to just hop on your bike and ride for the fun of it? By riding differently from day to day, using intensity to ...
FACTS: The Plaintiff was riding his bicycle on the sidewalk. The Plaintiffs front wheel fell into a utility hole that was not properly covered. The hole was two feet deep, which caused the Plaintiff to flip over and fall face first. There were no cones or warning signs by the unstable cover.. The Plaintiff suffered facial, hand, shoulder, wrist, and knee injuries. Medical expenses exceeded $ 85,000.00, though were later reduced $ 45,000.00.. ...
The Cereal City KIDS Triathlon and Triathlon Series is on Saturday August 10, 2019. It includes the following events: Cereal City KIDS Triathlon Series and Cereal City KIDS Triathlon.
Editors Note: Heres the long-awaited third installment to my series on Floyd Landis and his epic Tour de France and subsequent doping controversy. While I dont claim to have all the answers, I do have a unique perspective that is based in part upon my career as a professional cyclist and in part upon my education and work in biochemistry and exercise science. If youre just finding this article for the first time, you might want to read Part I and Part II first. You might also find my views on pharmacological sport performance enhancement interesting or amusing. That post is here.. In part two we talked a bit about doping in cycling and how it is a systematic program and not a fly-by-the-seat of your pants (or fly with the help of a needle more accurately) athlete-as-physician circus act such as the press and the sports governing bodies would like to, and would also like the public to believe. We discussed the stage and how hard the GC contenders had to go on the final climb and finally we ...
I have to disagree. The fact that Amgen is the producer of a drug that is widely abused among professional cyclists is a legitimate reason for the sponsorship (if they go about addressing the problem in the right way). Almost all cyclists are aware of EPO, but I would be willing to bet that some do not know that it is a drug that has legitimate medical purposes. This sponsorship gives the company the opportunity to educate the cycling public about the drug and to stress the dangers of its improper use. If a rider had tested positive, I think the sponsors would have done just that. I think it is a safe bet to assume that they anticipated such a possible scenario and prepared a response in advance ...
Train more effectively when cycling by discovering how carbohydrate intake keep the pedals turning for longer. Use food effectively and expand your limits
Every family within the district of Skaraborg with 1-year old and 3-year old children is provided with Helmet Prescriptions during visits to child health care clinics. These prescriptions allow for subsidised purchases of helmets in convenient locations. This is organised by the National Society for Road Safety Skaraborg group and a national insurance chain. There have also been multiple ongoing school campaigns over the years for children in different age groups ...
Top San Diego bike accident lawyers at Jurewitz Law Group are available to provide a free consultation. Call (619) 233-5020 for help.
The journey to the IRONMAN World Championships just got shorter for our latest two Kona Inspired winners: Win Charles and Kelly Miyahara (above left). Congratulations to both who, thanks to your votes, will fulfill their triathlon dreams this fall.
Motor vehicle deaths rose one percent from 2010 to 2012, according to the Governors Highway Safety Association. During that ... Illinois
Born to win. When light weight meets incredible strength, that s the SLR. With attractive Italian style and an innovative carbon fibre stucture, SLR remains the last word in racing saddles. Selle Italia SLR is the most demanded saddle by professional cyclists. SLR SUPERFLOW S TECHNICAL DATA > Weight: 185 grams > Rail: TI 316 7 mm > Size: 131 275 mm > Use: Road
Fuel for Every Day A thin layer of honey sandwiched between two thin waffles. Our waffles will satisfy your taste buds and keep you going as an afternoon snack, during your favorite activity or go great with your cup of coffee or tea. The Original Energy Waffle For years, similar waffles have been sold on street corners throughout Europe and eaten by professional cyclists, so we decided to create our own by sandwiching honey between two thin waffles. Honey Stinger Waffles are easy to digest, certified organic and available in a single-serving wrapper. When to Consume Honey Stinger Waffles are the perfect snack to help you prepare and perform for all activities. The energy in waffles is released immediately and absorbed at a steady rate, which delays muscle fatigue and gives your body the power to achieve your goals. With the right balance of delicious honey-powered carbs, youll be counting the minutes until its time for the next one. Natures Energy Source Utilizing an ingredient engineered by ...
Fuel for Every Day A thin layer of honey sandwiched between two thin waffles. Our waffles will satisfy your taste buds and keep you going as an afternoon snack, during your favorite activity or go great with your cup of coffee or tea. The Original Energy Waffle For years, similar waffles have been sold on street corners throughout Europe and eaten by professional cyclists, so we decided to create our own by sandwiching honey between two thin waffles. Honey Stinger Waffles are easy to digest, certified organic and available in a single-serving wrapper. When to Consume Honey Stinger Waffles are the perfect snack to help you prepare and perform for all activities. The energy in waffles is released immediately and absorbed at a steady rate, which delays muscle fatigue and gives your body the power to achieve your goals. With the right balance of delicious honey-powered carbs, youll be counting the minutes until its time for the next one. Natures Energy Source Utilizing an ingredient engineered by ...
Our highly respected and qualified physiotherapists in the heart of North Sydney. Martin Krause has been a Physiotherapist since 1986, international post graduate teacher, clinical experience with elite and professional European & Brasilian soccer players, Swiss professional cyclists and tennis players, elite amateur Swiss rowing and orienteering teams.
How To Lose Weight Like A Professional Cyclist With Team Skys Head Of NutritionVideo taken from the channel: Global Cycling Network what i eat - All about fitness and healthy lifestyle
Morgan Fox was a promising young professional cyclist until he had an accident that left him with total hearing loss. He had a cochlear implant, which restored some of his hearing. He also became the director of the international cycling team Evopro Racing. He developed a new system of communications between himself and the team, which is extremely brief and clear. It is now being adopted by the rest of the cycling world.. */ ...
feet numbness is a common problem faced by amateur, elite and professional cyclists. Get help from us. We take a multi-dimensional, multi-factorial and multi-modal approach to assessment and care,North Sydney Physiotherapy.
In 2014, City to Shore cyclists raised a record-breaking $6.5 million. As of today, we are 19% of the way back to that incredible amount. With less than two months left until City to Shore, we need your help if we are going to raise that amount again!. This year, cyclists have the opportunity to win a brand new bike while working together to create a world free of MS! Our first-year partner, Trek Bikes is offering an additional incentive to reach VIP status. All cyclists who reach VIP status by the Rider Expo on August 21 will be entered to win a brand new, Trek FX bike in Roarange (pictured at right).. Did you know: The average City to Shore cyclist raises $750? Go the extra mile and be entered to win this amazing bike AND receive all of the incredible City to Shore VIP benefits ...
Many urban streets are designed with on-street bike lanes to provide right-of-way for bicycle traffic. However, when bicycle flow is large, extensive passing maneuvers could occupy vehicle lanes and thus cause interferences to vehicle traffic. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how bicycle traffic affects vehicle operation on urban streets with bike lanes. Data were collected on six street segments in Nanjing, China. The cumulative curves were constructed to extract traffic flow information including individual bicycle and vehicle speeds and aggregated traffic parameters such as flow and density. The results showed that as bicycle density on bike lanes continuously increases faster bicycles may run into vehicle lanes causing considerable reductions in vehicle speeds. A generalized linear model was estimated to predict the vehicle delay. Results showed that vehicle delay increases as bicycle flow and vehicle flow increase. Number of vehicle lanes and width of bike lane also have
German based Triathlon Coaching and Personal Training Triathlon Coaching - Your individual Triathlon Training Program. The training program is as individual as your needs. Effective Training Methods we ensure your effective training, modern communication analysis and evaluation, individual care ensures that you are fit to the point Triathlon Coaching & Pre-Built Plans Enhancing your Performance Motivation through innovative and varied training The results speak for themselves ...
Bike Master Plan, City of Colorado Springs, retrieved February 26, 2019. *^ Colorado Springs terminating disputed bike lane ... Bicycling ranked Colorado Springs the 28th best US city for bicycling.[185] Bike lanes in Colorado Springs have not been ... Bicycling[edit]. A 20-kilometer upright bike race during the inaugural Warrior Games at the Olympic Training Center in Colorado ... In April 2018, the Colorado Springs City Council approved a Bike Master Plan.[184] The vision of the city's Bike Master Plan is ...
Bicycling[edit]. Chico has also gained a reputation as being a bicycle-friendly city. In 1997, Chico was ranked as the number- ... The city is in the process of creating a network of bicycle paths, trails and lanes. Some notable bicycle routes include a path ... "America's Best Bike Town" by Bicycle magazine in 1997. ... Chico is a gold level bicycle-friendly community as designated ... one cycling city in the nation by Bicycle Magazine[citation needed] and also hosts the Wildflower Century, an annual 100-mile ( ...
The bike must be used on bike lanes and it must be returned to where it was rented or another bike station. Campus bikes can be ... Campus bike[edit]. Since 2007, Universitas Indonesia has offered a bike rental facility for its students. They need to show ... Over 20 kilometers of bicycle path have been created and shuttle buses are provided for the students and faculty. The bicycles ... Ten kilometers of bicycle track were built across the Depok campus of Universitas Indonesia during 2008. ...
The Danube Bike Trail (also called Danube Cycle Path or the Donauradweg) is a bicycle trail along the river. Especially the ... Today, people can not only travel by boat on the Danube, but also by train, by bike on the Danube Bike Trail or walk on the " ... The Danube Bike Trail starts at the origin of the Danube and ends where the river flows into the Black Sea. It is divided into ... parts through Germany and Austria are very popular, which makes it one of the 10 most popular bike trails in Germany.[33] ...
Challenge Cancer Bike Ride[edit]. Challenge Cancer is a London to Brighton bike ride to raise funds for Macmillan Cancer ... London to Brighton Bike Ride[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article ... London to Brighton refers to a variety of races, tours, charity bicycle rides and rallies that take place between London and ... Several fundraising bike rides take place between London and Brighton each year. The most famous is the British Heart ...
Bicycle[edit]. Northampton serves as the hub of a growing rail trail network. The north-south Manhan Rail Trail extends from ... The park is free for visitors arriving by foot or bicycle, consistent with the will of Frank Newhall Look, who left the ...
Bicycle[edit]. Designated bicycle paths are located throughout the city and the Main-Radweg long-distance bicycle trail passes ...
Production of bicycle tyres and inner tubes started in 1974 in Lieksa, Finland.[5] In 2004, Nokian Tyres sold its bicycle tyre ... It also previously manufactured bicycle tyres but currently licenses the Nokian name on bicycles tyres to another Finnish ... Suomen Rengastehdas continues to produce bicycle tyres, including all Nokian-branded bicycle tyres.[14] ... "Bicycle Retailer. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2009.. ...
Bicycles[edit]. KERS is also possible on a bicycle. The EPA, working with students from the University of Michigan, developed ... "Hydraulic Hybrid Bicycle Research- Clean Automotive Technology - Transportation and Air Quality- US EPA". archive.epa.gov.. ... This has also been demonstrated by mounting a flywheel on a bike frame and connecting it with a CVT to the back wheel. By ... Experimental Machinist Douglas Goncz connected three ultracapacitor packs on an electric hub equipped recumbent bicycle in ...
Bicycle routes[edit]. *Great Parks Bicycle Route. *TransAmerica Trail Bicycle Route. Scenic byways[edit]. *Colorado River ...
Class I: Bike path - completely segregated from traffic. *Class II: Bike lane - a lane set aside in city streets exclusively ... There are numerous bike routes in California such as the Los Angeles River bicycle path in the Greater Los Angeles Area and the ... Numerous buses are equipped with bicycle racks at the front of the vehicle for the attachment of approximately two bicycles. ... Class III: Bike route - a regular surface street that is designated as being safe or attractive to bicyclists ...
Bicycle reflector[edit]. A bicycle reflector or prism reflector is a common safety device found on the rear, front and wheels ... In bicycles, reflectors are usually on wheels, pedals, under the seat, on the back of the luggage rack, and in front of the ... It uses the principle of retroreflection to alert another road user of the bicycle's presence on the road. ... Special 'clip-on' reflectors for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also common. ...
Bicycle routes[edit]. In recent years, the Lakeland area has developed a number of paved, multi-use bicycle routes including ...
"Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Glossary. Sheldon Brown. Retrieved May 29, 2011.. *^ Disley, B.X. & Li, F-X. "The effect of Q Factor on ... "Sheldon Brown's Bicycle Glossary. Sheldon Brown. Retrieved May 29, 2011.. *^ Petersen, Grant (2012). Just Ride. New York, NY: ... The Q Factor of a bicycle is the distance between the pedal attachment points on the crank arms, when measured parallel to the ... The term was coined by Grant Petersen during his time at Bridgestone Bicycles.[2] The "Q" stands for "quack", a reference to ...
"Bicycle Day"[edit]. Not to be confused with the United Nations designated World Bicycle Day. ... Hofmann asked Roberts why he had called it Bicycle Day instead of LSD Day: "I told him that the bicycle was a more concrete ... The events of the first LSD trip, now known as "Bicycle Day", after the bicycle ride home, proved to Hofmann that he had indeed ... "Bicycle Day, April 19th". Retrieved 2015-04-17.. *^ Arthur Stoll and Albert Hofmann LSD Patent April 30, 1943 in Switzerland ...
Audax bicycle A bicycle built for randonneuring and audax rides. Functionally in-between a road racing bike and a touring bike ... Cycling Mountain bike Mountain biking Downhill mountain biking Outline of bicycles Brown, Sheldon. "Tire Sizing Systems". ... Mountain Bike Magazine Editors; Bicycling Magazine Editors (1996), Mountain Bike Magazine's Complete Guide To Mountain Biking ... Bike throw A bike throw occurs in the final moments of a bike race, usually within the last few feet. A sprint is involved, and ...
The car carrying the directeur sportif also usually carries a bicycle mechanic with spare bikes, wheels and parts. It also ... And it's best if I'm not a reckless driver since I spend so much time driving in close proximity to people riding bikes. But ... Sumner, Jason (21 February 2012). "At the Wheel, and Still in the Race". Bicycling. Retrieved 28 September 2016. Complete ... is a person directing a cycling team during a road bicycle racing event. It is seen as the equivalent to a field manager in ...
"Bike Racer Ellen Watters Dies 5 Days After Being Hit by a Car". Bicycling. December 29, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2016. "Up- ... "East Bengal's ASEAN Cup winning midfielder Kalia Kuluthungan dies in bike accident at his home town in Tamil Nadu". news. ... "Troopers: Former Florida Politician Dies in Bike Crash". U.S. News & World Report. St. Cloud, Florida. Associated Press. April ... "Stephen R. Covey dead after bike accident, "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" author was 79". Newsday. July 16, 2012 ...
Handlebars on track bikes used for longer events such as the points race are similar to the drop bars found on road bicycles. ... Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes using track bicycles. Track ... More recently, track bikes have employed airfoil designs on the tubes of the frame to reduce aerodynamic drag. Given the ... Outline of bicycles Outline of cycling List of cycling tracks and velodromes Icetrack cycling Cycle speedway "Cycling Track ...
It bought Fuji Bikes in 1998 after Fuji's sales had declined due to missing the mountain biking boom. It soon repositioned the ... It bought Breezer Bikes in 2008, Oval Concepts in 2009, and Phat Cycles in 2015. In August 2016, it purchased the bicycle ... Advanced Sports International is an American bicycle company whose flagship brand is Fuji Bikes. It also owns smaller brands ... It is associated with the Taiwanese bicycle manufacturer Ideal Bike Corp. Advanced Sports International filed for Chapter 11 ...
Moore, Richard; Benson, Daniel (2012). Bike!: A Tribute to the World's Greatest Racing Bicycles. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne ... "1988 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Archived from the original on 18 June 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2013. ... "1987 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Archived from the original on 18 June 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2012. ... Conditions were so bad that one rider, Toshiba-Look's Dominique Gaigne, had to be carried on his bike into a shelter as his ...
Dombrowski began mountain biking in 2006, cyclo-cross in 2007 and road racing in 2009. He competed with Trek-Livestrong, a UCI ... Daniel McMahon (October 26, 2012). "Nine Questions With Europe-Bound Ian Boswell and Joe Dombrowski". Bicycling. Emmaus, ... Daniel McMahon (August 20, 2012). "2012 USA Pro Challenge: Riders to Watch". Bicycling. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale, Inc. ...
He started mountain biking at age 9 and when he was 16 won the junior national championship in dual slalom. He was signed by ... On August 21, 2014, on Mammoth Mountain at X-Games, he set the world record for the farthest backflip on a bicycle with a 100- ... "78ft backflip on mountain bike by Cam Zink at Red Bull Rampage". The Guardian (Video). Red Bull. 15 October 2013. Berard, Mike ... Cameron "Cam" Zink (born March 8, 1986) is an American professional freeride mountain bike rider and X-Games Athlete Zink is ...
Yost, Whit (8 June 2015). "What's up with the 2015 Tour de France Contenders?". Bicycling. Rodale, Inc. Retrieved 16 July 2015 ...
They specialize in cyclo-cross bicycles and hard-tail mountain bikes. Robbie (2010-11-18). "Product Review: Van Dessel's Gin & ... Van Dessel Sports is a racing bicycle brand based in Mendham, New Jersey, United States. It was founded in 2000 by Edwin Bull, ... Mike Yozell (Oct 2012). "Van Dessel Full Tilt Boogie". Bicycling. Retrieved 2013-06-07. www.vandesselcycles.com v t e. ...
"Life's Rich Pageant". Bicycling; Sides, Hampton. June 20, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2015. "Decades after assassinations, Memphis ... Men's Journal; "The First to Die". Bicycling; "Life's Rich Pageant". The Dallas Morning News; "Decades after assassinations, ...
Bike Monkey. Archived from the original on 2013-08-09. Retrieved 6 October 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Rider ... Levi Leipheimer's King Ridge GranFondo is a mass participation bicycle ride held each autumn in Sonoma County, California. ... Bike Monkey. Retrieved 13 November 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)[dead link]. ... "King Ridge Gran Fondo". Bicycling. Retrieved 6 October 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Ride Gran Fondo". ...
In a comparison of Santa Barbara (without bike lanes) to Davis, California (with bike lanes), 8% of the car-bike collisions in ... New York Bicycle Coalition; Bicycle Friendly Driver Program of Fort Collins, CO; MassBike and Somerville Bicycle Committee. ... Developed by FC Bikes in collaboration with Bike Fort Collins Steve Annear (March 1, 2019). "'Fed up' cyclists send letter to ... "DOOR ZONE BIKE LANE REMOVED AFTER CYCLIST KILLED". Arizona Bike Law. November 26, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2019. Resources:... ...
Giddings, Caitlin (November 3, 2015). "TV's Supergirl Rides a Bike". Bicycling. Retrieved February 10, 2019. Ostrow, Joanne ( ... She also has a tattoo of a bicycle on her left foot. In 2015, it was announced that she and her Glee co-star Blake Jenner were ... During her first semester in college, when she was learning to ride a bike, a cab backed into her and left a visible scar above ...
... (UCI team code: APT) is a professional road bicycle racing team sponsored by the Samruk-Kazyna, a coalition ... The link between the Discovery Channel team and Astana was strengthened when Bruyneel signed a contract with Trek Bicycle ... AFP (2008-05-04). "Astana Will Race The Giro". Bicycling. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-11 ... Corporation to supply the team with bicycles and components, as they had done with Discovery Channel. Bruyneel also affirmed ...

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