The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
The state of being a eunuch, a male without TESTES or whose testes failed to develop. It is characterized by the lack of mature male GERM CELLS and TESTICULAR HORMONES.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
Multiple abnormalities refer to the presence of two or more medical conditions or disorders in an individual.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Surgery performed on the heart.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

The root surface in human teeth: a microradiographic study. (1/479)

In an attempt to clarify the nature of the human cemento-dentinal junction, ground sections of incompletely formed and fully formed extracted teeth were prepared and their histology compared with their microradiographic appearances. The results showed that incompletely formed teeth possess distinctive surface layers outside the granular layer of Tomes. The evidence indicates that these layers are of dentinal origin; their presence during development supports previous explanations by the author of the hyaline layer of Hopewell-Smith and of so-called intermediate cementum. The results also indicate that the granular layer of Tomes does not represent the outer limit of root dentine. The relationship of these surface layers to the definitive cementum which is present in fully formed teeth was studied in both young and older patients. From the results it was concluded that cementum formation begins in the more apical region of the teeth at a time when root formation is well advanced, and that it spreads towards the crown rather than in the generally accepted reverse direction.  (+info)

A modern human pattern of dental development in lower pleistocene hominids from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain). (2/479)

The study of life history evolution in hominids is crucial for the discernment of when and why humans have acquired our unique maturational pattern. Because the development of dentition is critically integrated into the life cycle in mammals, the determination of the time and pattern of dental development represents an appropriate method to infer changes in life history variables that occurred during hominid evolution. Here we present evidence derived from Lower Pleistocene human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain. These hominids present a pattern of development similar to that of Homo sapiens, although some aspects (e.g., delayed M3 calcification) are not as derived as that of European populations and people of European origin. This evidence, taken together with the present knowledge of cranial capacity of these and other late Early Pleistocene hominids, supports the view that as early as 0.8 Ma at least one Homo species shared with modern humans a prolonged pattern of maturation.  (+info)

The crystal growth technique--a laboratory evaluation of bond strengths. (3/479)

An ex vivo study was carried out to determine differences in the bond strengths achieved with brackets placed using a crystal growth technique compared with a conventional acid-etch technique. A solution of 37 per cent phosphoric acid was used for acid-etching and a commercially available polyacrylic acid gel, Crystal-lok for crystal growth. A heavily-filled composite resin was used for all samples to bond brackets to healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Polycrystalline ceramic and stainless steel brackets were used and tested to both tensile and shear failure using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The tensile and shear bond strengths were recorded in kgF. In view of difficulties experienced with previous authors using different units to describe their findings, the data were subsequently converted to a range of units in order to facilitate direct comparison. The crystal growth technique produced significantly lower bond strengths than the acid-etch technique for ceramic and stainless steel brackets, both in tensile and shear mode. The tensile bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 2.2 kg compared with 6.01 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the tensile bond strengths were 3.9 kg for crystal growth and 5.55 kg for acid-etch. The mean shear bond strength for stainless steel brackets with crystal growth was 12.61 kg compared with 21.55 kg for acid-etch, whilst with ceramic brackets the shear bond strengths were 7.93 kg with crystal growth compared with 16.55 kg for acid-tech. These bond strengths were below those previously suggested as clinically acceptable.  (+info)

Super pulse CO2 laser for bracket bonding and debonding. (4/479)

A super pulse and a normal pulse CO2 laser were used to carry out enamel etching and bracket debonding in vitro and in vivo. The shear bond strength of the orthodontic brackets attached to laser-etched and conventional chemically-etched extracted premolars was measured. The pulp cavity temperature was also measured using the same laser irradiation conditions as the shear test. Both super pulse and normal pulse CO2 laser etching resulted in a lower shear bond strength (super pulse: 6.9 +/- 3.4 kg, normal pulse: 9.7 +/- 5.2 kg) than that of chemical etching (15.3 +/- 2.8 kg). Furthermore, the super pulse CO2 laser was able to create debonding at 2 watts within a period of less than 4 seconds (2.9 +/- 0.9 seconds). The super pulse, when irradiating the ceramic brackets from above, during debonding showed a 1.4 degrees C temperature increase in the dental pulp at 2 watts and an increase of 2.1 degrees C at 3 watts. While etching, directly irradiating the enamel surface at 3 watts, the dental pulp showed a temperature increase of 3.5 degrees C. These temperature increases were within the physiologically acceptable limits of the pulp. These results indicate that, in orthodontic treatments, super pulse CO2 laser debonding is more useful than laser etching.  (+info)

An ex vivo investigation into the bond strength of orthodontic brackets and adhesive systems. (5/479)

The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of Adhesive Precoated Brackets (APC) with that of two types of uncoated bracket bases, Straight-Wire and Dyna-Lock. Two types of orthodontic adhesives were used, Transbond XT and Right-On. Three different curing times were evaluated with the APC brackets in order to find the best. Adhesive remnants on the enamel surface following debond were evaluated using the Adhesive Remnant Index (Artun and Bergland, 1984). Bond strengths ranged from 11.00 to 22.08 MPa. For both types of brackets Transbond produced a significant increase in bond strength compared to Right-On. The Dyna-Lock/Right-On combination produced the poorest results. APC brackets cured for 40 s had similar bond strengths to uncoated brackets fixed by means of Transbond. Overall, 79 per cent of specimens had less than half the tooth surface covered with adhesive following debond. Significantly more adhesive remained on tooth surfaces following debond of the Straight-Wire/Right-On group than any other bracket/adhesive combination. Bond strengths were higher with light-cured Transbond than with chemically-cured Right-On. When Transbond is used in association with APC brackets a 40-second cure time is recommended.  (+info)

Intra-oral temperature variation over 24 hours. (6/479)

This study aimed to investigate temperature variation at archwire sites adjacent to the maxillary right central incisor and first premolar, its correlation with ambient temperature, and the influence of inter-racial variation. Twenty young adult male subjects were randomly selected (13 Asian, seven Caucasian). Thermocouples were attached to the labial archwire component of custom-made orthodontic retainers at the two intra-oral sites. A third thermocouple measured ambient temperature. A data-logger recorded temperatures at 5-second intervals over a 24-hour period. Temperatures ranged from 5.6 to 58.5 degrees C at the incisor and from 7.9 to 54 degrees C at the premolar, with medians of 34.9 degrees C and 35.6 degrees C, respectively. Ambient temperature correlated poorly with the intra-oral temperatures. The Asian and Caucasian groups had significantly different temperature distributions. On average during the 24-hour period, temperatures at the incisor site were in the range of 33-37 degrees C for 79 per cent of the time, below it for 20 per cent, and above it for only 1 per cent of the time. Corresponding figures for the premolar site were 92, 6, and 2 per cent. At both archwire sites the most frequent temperatures were in the range of 35-36 degrees C. The data presented demonstrate that the temperature at sites on an archwire in situ varies considerably over a 24-hour period and that racial differences may exist. This information should be considered during the manufacture and use of temperature-sensitive orthodontic materials, in particular nickel-titanium archwires and springs.  (+info)

Elastic activator for treatment of open bite. (7/479)

This article presents a modified activator for treatment of open bite cases. The intermaxillary acrylic of the lateral occlusal zones is replaced by elastic rubber tubes. By stimulating orthopaedic gymnastics (chewing gum effect), the elastic activator intrudes upper and lower posterior teeth. A noticeable counterclockwise rotation of the mandible was accomplished by a decrease of the gonial angle. Besides the simple fabrication of the device and uncomplicated replacement of the elastic rubber tubes, treatment can be started even in mixed dentition when affixing plates may be difficult.  (+info)

A laboratory investigation to compare enamel preparation by sandblasting or acid etching prior to bracket bonding. (8/479)

A laboratory investigation to compare the mean shear debonding force and mode of bond failure of metallic brackets bonded to sandblasted and acid-etched enamel is described. The buccal surfaces of 30 extracted human premolars were sandblasted for 5 seconds with 50 mu alumina and the buccal surfaces of a further 30 human premolars were etched with 37 per cent phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. Following storage for 24 hours at 37 degrees C in distilled water, shear debonding force was measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 10 mm/minute. Mean shear debonding force was significantly lower for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel compared to acid etched enamel (P < 0.001). Weibull analysis showed that at a given stress the probability of failure was significantly greater for brackets bonded to sandblasted enamel. Brackets bonded to etched enamel showed a mixed mode of bond failure whereas following sandblasting, failure was adhesive at the enamel/composite interface (P < 0.01).  (+info)

The aortic valve is a one-way valve located at the exit of the left ventricle of the heart. It is responsible for preventing the backflow of blood from the aorta, the main artery that carries blood away from the heart, back into the left ventricle. The aortic valve is made up of three flaps, or cusps, that open and close in response to changes in pressure within the heart. When the left ventricle contracts, the aortic valve opens, allowing blood to flow into the aorta. When the left ventricle relaxes, the aortic valve closes, preventing blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. The aortic valve plays a critical role in maintaining the proper flow of blood throughout the body.

Aortic Valve Insufficiency (AVI) is a medical condition in which the aortic valve fails to close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the left ventricle of the heart. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat, which can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. AVI can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the valve from infection, high blood pressure, or aging. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as rheumatic fever or Marfan syndrome. Treatment for AVI may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.

Heart valve diseases refer to disorders that affect the heart's valves, which are responsible for regulating the flow of blood through the heart. There are four valves in the heart: the tricuspid valve, the pulmonary valve, the mitral valve, and the aortic valve. Heart valve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, genetics, infections, and certain medical conditions such as rheumatic fever. Some common types of heart valve diseases include: 1. Stenosis: This occurs when the valve becomes narrowed, making it difficult for blood to flow through it. 2. Regurgitation: This occurs when the valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the heart. 3. Prolapse: This occurs when the valve leaflets prolapse (push out) from the valve ring, causing the valve to leak. 4. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the valves. Heart valve diseases can lead to a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and ankles. Treatment options for heart valve diseases depend on the type and severity of the condition, and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Pathologic dilatation refers to the abnormal enlargement or widening of a body structure, such as a blood vessel, organ, or tube, beyond its normal size. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or genetic abnormalities. Pathologic dilatation can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require medical intervention to prevent further complications. It is important to note that not all dilatation is considered pathologic, as some degree of dilation may be normal or even beneficial in certain situations.

In the medical field, "Bicuspid" refers to a condition where a person has two cusps (the pointed ends of the valves in the heart) instead of the normal three. This condition is also known as "bicuspid aortic valve" or "BAV." Bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect that affects the aortic valve, which is responsible for regulating blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. In a bicuspid aortic valve, the two cusps may not function properly, leading to problems such as regurgitation (leaking of blood back into the heart), stenosis (narrowing of the valve), and aneurysm (ballooning of the aorta). Bicuspid aortic valve can be diagnosed through a physical examination, echocardiogram (an ultrasound of the heart), or other imaging tests. Treatment options may include medication, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.

Aortic valve stenosis is a medical condition in which the aortic valve, which is located between the left ventricle of the heart and the aorta, becomes narrowed or hardened, making it difficult for blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body. This can lead to an increase in blood pressure in the left ventricle, which can cause the heart to work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve. Over time, this can cause the heart muscle to become thickened and weakened, which can lead to heart failure. Aortic valve stenosis is typically caused by the buildup of calcium deposits or other substances on the valve, and it is more common in older adults. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery to replace the damaged valve.

An aortic aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. It occurs when the wall of the aorta becomes weakened and begins to balloon outwards. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the aorta, but the most common location is in the abdominal aorta, just below the kidneys. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), smoking, and genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. They can also be caused by injury or infection. Aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning that they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, if the aneurysm becomes large enough, it can cause pain in the abdomen or back, and in severe cases, it can rupture, leading to life-threatening internal bleeding. Treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger aneurysms may require surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. In some cases, endovascular repair, a minimally invasive procedure, may be used to treat aneurysms.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. These defects can affect the heart's structure, function, or both, and can range from minor to severe. CHDs are the most common type of birth defect and affect approximately 1 in 100 live births. CHDs can occur in any part of the heart, including the valves, arteries, veins, and chambers. Some common types of CHDs include: - Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. - Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart. - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): A blood vessel that remains open between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. - Coarctation of the aorta: A narrowing of the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. - Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects that affect the flow of blood through the heart. CHDs can cause a range of symptoms, including shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and heart palpitations. Treatment for CHDs depends on the type and severity of the defect, and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Aortic coarctation is a congenital heart defect that occurs when a section of the aorta, the largest artery in the body, is abnormally narrow or constricted. This can restrict blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body, leading to a range of symptoms and health problems. The most common location for aortic coarctation is just after the aortic valve, where the aorta leaves the heart. However, it can also occur in other locations along the aorta. Symptoms of aortic coarctation may include difficulty breathing, a high-pitched heart murmur, chest pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to low blood pressure, fainting, and even heart failure. Treatment for aortic coarctation typically involves surgery to widen the narrowed section of the aorta. This can be done using open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, depending on the location and severity of the coarctation. In some cases, medications may also be used to help manage symptoms and blood pressure.

In the medical field, "Animals, Inbred Strains" refers to a group of animals that have been bred for several generations to produce offspring with highly similar genetic traits. These animals are typically used in scientific research to study genetics, diseases, and other biological processes. Inbred animals are created by breeding two closely related individuals, such as siblings or parent-offspring, to produce offspring with a high degree of homozygosity, meaning that they have two copies of the same gene at a particular locus (location) on their chromosomes. This results in offspring with a reduced genetic diversity compared to outbred animals, which are bred from unrelated individuals. Inbred animals are often used in research because they are more genetically uniform than outbred animals, which can make it easier to identify the effects of specific genetic factors on a trait or disease. However, inbred animals may also be more susceptible to certain genetic disorders due to their increased homozygosity.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females and is caused by the complete or partial absence of one of the two X chromosomes. This results in a range of physical and developmental characteristics that can vary widely among affected individuals. Some common features of Turner Syndrome include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, broad chest, and a lack of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and menstruation. Affected individuals may also have heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and an increased risk of certain medical conditions such as diabetes and thyroid disorders. Treatment for Turner Syndrome typically involves hormone replacement therapy to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics and to help with growth and development.

Endocarditis, bacterial is an infection of the inner lining of the heart (endocardium) and the heart valves. It is caused by bacteria that enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to the heart valves or other areas of the heart. The infection can cause inflammation, damage to the heart valves, and the formation of scar tissue, which can lead to heart failure or other complications. Bacterial endocarditis is typically treated with antibiotics, but surgery may be necessary in some cases to repair or replace damaged heart valves. It is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Aortic aneurysm, thoracic refers to a bulge or dilation in the thoracic aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The bulge can occur at any point along the length of the thoracic aorta, but it is most commonly found in the ascending aorta, just below the heart. Aortic aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. They can also be caused by trauma or surgery. Aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning that they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, if the aneurysm becomes large enough, it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and a pulsating sensation in the abdomen. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can be life-threatening. Treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger aneurysms may require surgery or endovascular repair. It is important for people with aortic aneurysms to follow their doctor's recommendations for monitoring and treatment to prevent complications.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the skin and other tissues. It is most commonly seen in people with certain medical conditions, such as scleroderma, lupus, and kidney disease, as well as in people who have undergone long-term treatment with certain medications, such as corticosteroids. The calcium phosphate crystals that accumulate in the skin and other tissues can cause hard, raised areas that may be painful or itchy. In severe cases, calcinosis can lead to scarring, skin thickening, and limited joint mobility. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce the formation of calcium phosphate crystals, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.

Eunuchism is a medical condition in which a person is born without, or later loses, the ability to produce sperm or eggs. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, or surgical procedures. In some cases, eunuchism may be a desired outcome, as some individuals may choose to undergo surgical procedures to become eunuchs for religious or cultural reasons. However, in most cases, eunuchism is considered a medical condition that can have significant physical and psychological effects on the individual. Treatment options for eunuchism may include hormone therapy, fertility treatments, or psychological counseling.

GATA5 is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development and differentiation of various cell types, including endocrine cells, hematopoietic cells, and mesenchymal cells. It belongs to the GATA family of transcription factors, which are characterized by their ability to bind to DNA sequences containing the consensus sequence of GATA. In the medical field, GATA5 is often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders. For example, mutations in the GATA5 gene have been associated with a rare genetic disorder called Waardenburg syndrome type 4, which is characterized by hearing loss, pigmentation abnormalities, and other developmental defects. GATA5 has also been implicated in the development of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and may play a role in the progression of these diseases. In addition, GATA5 has been shown to regulate the expression of various genes involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival, making it an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for a range of diseases.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. It is located in the chest and abdomen and is divided into three main sections: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta begins at the base of the heart and travels upward to the aortic arch. The aortic arch is a curved section of the aorta that arches over the top of the heart and connects to the descending aorta. The descending aorta continues downward from the aortic arch and eventually branches into smaller arteries that supply blood to the lower body. The aorta is an essential part of the circulatory system and plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and wellbeing. Any damage or disease affecting the aorta can have serious consequences, including heart attack, stroke, and even death.

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It is caused by a mutation in the FBN1 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called fibrillin-1. This protein is essential for the normal development and maintenance of connective tissue, which is found throughout the body and provides support and structure to organs and tissues. People with Marfan syndrome may have a variety of symptoms, including: - Tall stature and long limbs - Thin, delicate skin that bruises easily - Long, thin fingers and toes - Vision problems, such as nearsightedness or astigmatism - Heart problems, such as mitral valve prolapse or aortic aneurysm - Lung problems, such as scoliosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Skeletal problems, such as kyphosis or scoliosis Marfan syndrome is usually diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, family history, and genetic testing. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome, but treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include medications to treat heart problems, surgery to repair or replace damaged organs, and physical therapy to improve mobility and strength.

Aortic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest artery in the human body. The aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing over time). Some common aortic diseases include: 1. Aortic aneurysm: A bulge or dilation in the wall of the aorta that can rupture and cause life-threatening bleeding. 2. Aortic dissection: A tear in the inner lining of the aorta that can cause blood to flow between the layers of the artery, leading to severe pain and potential organ damage. 3. Aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the aortic valve that can restrict blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. 4. Aortic regurgitation: Backflow of blood from the aorta into the heart due to a damaged or insufficient aortic valve. 5. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue and can lead to aortic aneurysms and dissections. 6. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A group of genetic disorders that can affect the connective tissue and increase the risk of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Treatment for aortic diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be sufficient, while in others, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary. Early detection and treatment are crucial for preventing complications and improving outcomes.

Heart septal defects are structural abnormalities in the heart's septum, which is the wall that separates the left and right sides of the heart. The septum is made up of two parts: the interatrial septum, which separates the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart, and the interventricular septum, which separates the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. There are several types of heart septal defects, including: 1. Atrial septal defect (ASD): This is the most common type of heart septal defect, and it occurs when there is a hole in the interatrial septum. This allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the right atrium, which can lead to an overproduction of red blood cells and an increased risk of blood clots. 2. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): This occurs when there is a hole in the interventricular septum, which allows blood to flow from the left ventricle to the right ventricle. This can lead to an overproduction of red blood cells and an increased risk of heart failure. 3. Ostium primum atrial septal defect (OP-ASD): This is a type of ASD that occurs when there is a hole in the interatrial septum near the opening of the tricuspid valve. This can lead to an overproduction of red blood cells and an increased risk of blood clots. 4. Ostium secundum atrial septal defect (OS-ASD): This is a type of ASD that occurs when there is a hole in the interatrial septum near the opening of the mitral valve. This can lead to an overproduction of red blood cells and an increased risk of blood clots. Heart septal defects can be diagnosed through a physical examination, an electrocardiogram (ECG), an echocardiogram, or a cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for heart septal defects may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both, depending on the severity of the defect and the individual's overall health.

A bioprosthesis is a medical device made from biological materials, such as animal tissue or human cells, that is used to replace or repair damaged or diseased body parts. Bioprostheses are often used in surgical procedures to replace or repair heart valves, blood vessels, and other organs or tissues. They are typically designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the body part they are replacing, and are intended to be temporary or permanent implants. Bioprostheses can be made from a variety of materials, including pig heart valves, cow pericardium (the outer lining of the heart), and human cells grown in a laboratory. They are typically used in patients who are not good candidates for mechanical prostheses, which are made from artificial materials and require regular maintenance and replacement.

The thoracic aorta is the largest artery in the human body, located in the chest region. It is responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body, specifically to the head, neck, arms, and upper torso. The thoracic aorta begins at the base of the heart and extends up to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta. The thoracic aorta is divided into three main sections: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta that ascends from the heart to the aortic arch. The aortic arch is the curved portion of the aorta that arches over the top of the heart and connects the ascending aorta to the descending aorta. The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta that descends from the aortic arch to the diaphragm. The thoracic aorta is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the adventitia, which provides support and protection to the aorta. The aorta is also surrounded by the pericardium, a sac-like structure that surrounds the heart and helps to protect it from injury. The thoracic aorta is an important part of the circulatory system and plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow to the body's vital organs.

Aneurysm, dissecting refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel in the body becomes weakened and bulges outwards, creating a tear or split in the vessel wall. This can cause blood to flow into the surrounding tissue, which can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Dissecting aneurysms are typically caused by high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), or trauma to the affected vessel. They can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but are most commonly found in the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Treatment for dissecting aneurysms may include medications to lower blood pressure, surgery to repair or replace the affected vessel, or endovascular procedures to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel.

Coronary vessel anomalies refer to variations in the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. These anomalies can occur in various forms, including congenital anomalies (present at birth) or acquired anomalies (developing later in life due to disease or injury). Some common types of coronary vessel anomalies include: 1. Coronary artery fistula: A abnormal connection between a coronary artery and a vein or other blood vessel. 2. Coronary artery anomalies of origin: Variations in the location or branching pattern of the coronary arteries. 3. Coronary artery anomalies of course: Abnormalities in the path or direction of the coronary arteries. 4. Coronary artery anomalies of termination: Variations in the location or branching pattern of the coronary arteries. Coronary vessel anomalies can have significant clinical implications, as they can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In some cases, these anomalies may require medical intervention, such as surgery or angioplasty, to correct.

Aortography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into the aorta through a small catheter that is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin or arm. The dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to detect any abnormalities or blockages in the blood flow. Aortography is often used to diagnose conditions such as aneurysms, dissections, and stenosis (narrowing) of the aorta. It is a minimally invasive procedure that is generally considered safe, although there is a small risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, or damage to the blood vessels.

Notch1 is a type of receptor protein that plays a critical role in cell signaling and differentiation. It is a transmembrane protein that is expressed on the surface of many different types of cells, including neurons, immune cells, and cancer cells. In the medical field, Notch1 is of particular interest because it is involved in a number of important biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormalities in Notch1 signaling have been linked to a variety of diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and immune system disorders. Notch1 signaling occurs when the receptor protein binds to a ligand protein on the surface of another cell. This binding event triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular behavior. In some cases, Notch1 signaling can promote cell proliferation and survival, while in other cases it can promote cell differentiation and death. In the context of cancer, Notch1 signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of a variety of different types of tumors, including breast cancer, lung cancer, and leukemia. In these cases, abnormal Notch1 signaling can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells, making it an important target for cancer therapy.

Multiple abnormalities in the medical field refer to the presence of two or more abnormal conditions or findings in a person's body or health status. These abnormalities can be related to various organs or systems in the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, infections, injuries, or chronic diseases. Examples of multiple abnormalities that may be seen in a medical setting include multiple birth defects, multiple tumors, multiple infections, or multiple chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. The presence of multiple abnormalities can complicate diagnosis and treatment, as it may require a more comprehensive approach to identify the underlying causes and develop effective management plans.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which a synthetic or biologic prosthesis is placed inside a blood vessel to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased section of the vessel. The prosthesis is typically made of materials such as polyester, silicone, or bovine jugular vein, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. The procedure is commonly used to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, and blocked or narrowed blood vessels. During the procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the skin and uses specialized instruments to access the blood vessel and implant the prosthesis. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and may take several hours to complete. Recovery time and potential complications vary depending on the specific procedure and the individual patient.

Cardiac surgical procedures refer to a range of surgical techniques used to treat various heart conditions. These procedures are typically performed by cardiothoracic surgeons and may involve the use of minimally invasive techniques or open surgery. Some common cardiac surgical procedures include: 1. Coronary artery bypass surgery: This procedure involves using a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body to bypass a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, which can improve blood flow to the heart muscle. 2. Valve replacement or repair: This procedure involves replacing or repairing damaged heart valves, which can improve blood flow through the heart. 3. Heart transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased heart with a healthy heart from a donor. 4. Ablation: This procedure involves using heat, cold, or radiofrequency energy to destroy abnormal heart tissue that is causing irregular heart rhythms. 5. Maze procedure: This procedure involves creating a series of small cuts in the heart to create a maze-like pattern that can help prevent abnormal heart rhythms. 6. Heart bypass surgery: This procedure involves using a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body to bypass a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, which can improve blood flow to the heart muscle. These procedures are typically performed under general anesthesia and may require a hospital stay of several days or more. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the individual patient's condition and the type of surgery performed.

In the medical field, the chi-square distribution is a statistical tool used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables. It is often used in medical research to determine whether there is a significant association between two variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. The chi-square distribution is a probability distribution that describes the sum of the squared differences between the observed and expected frequencies of a categorical variable. It is commonly used in hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed frequencies of a categorical variable differ significantly from the expected frequencies. In medical research, the chi-square test is often used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. For example, a researcher may want to determine whether there is a significant association between smoking and lung cancer. To do this, the researcher would collect data on the smoking habits of a group of people and their incidence of lung cancer. The chi-square test would then be used to determine whether the observed frequencies of lung cancer among smokers differ significantly from the expected frequencies based on the overall incidence of lung cancer in the population. Overall, the chi-square distribution is a valuable tool in medical research for analyzing the relationship between categorical variables and determining whether observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies.

Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.

In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.

... s may assume three different types of configuration: "Real" bicuspid valves with two symmetric leaflets A ... Bicuspid aortic valve abnormality is also the most observed cardiac defect in Turner syndrome. "Bicuspid aortic valve : ... Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a form of heart disease in which two of the leaflets of the aortic valve fuse during development ... A bicuspid aortic valve can be associated with a heart murmur located at the right second intercostal space. Often there will ...
Bicuspid. Retrieved 25 January 2016. "Gruen Von Behrens' Missing Jaw". Why Quit. Retrieved 25 January 2016. Orr, Becky. " ...
Bicuspid. Retrieved July 25, 2011. "Alabama: Nonprofit vs. For-Profit Dental Battle". The Non-Profit Quarterly. Retrieved ...
"Are short implants getting the short shrift?". Dr.Bicuspid.com. Retrieved 2010-03-01. Urdaneta, Rainier A; Daher, Shadi; Lery, ...
... bicuspid mesial lophid in P3 (the cuspids are distinct but more compressed against each other than in P. hobleyi), and clear ... the mesial projection of P3 is well developed and often bicuspid, and the base of the protoconid in P3 is longer than that of ... mesial projection ("preprotolophide") in P3; sometimes is bicuspid." Other features noted earlier in 1957 include "the mesial ...
A bicuspid aortic valve (a type of congenital heart disease involving the aortic valve) is found in 7-14% of individuals who ... The risk of dissection in individuals with bicuspid aortic valves is not associated with the degree of stenosis of the valve.[ ... a bicuspid aortic valve; and previous heart surgery. Major trauma, smoking, cocaine use, pregnancy, a thoracic aortic aneurysm ...
The bicuspid has only the two cusps as singularities, and hence is a curve of genus one. The bow curve is a quartic plane curve ... The bicuspid is a quartic plane curve with the equation ( x 2 − a 2 ) ( x − a ) 2 + ( y 2 − a 2 ) 2 = 0 {\displaystyle (x^{2}-a ... Ampersand curve Bean curve Bicuspid curve Bow curve Cruciform curve with parameters (b,a) being (1,1) in red; (2,2) in green; ( ... Weisstein, Eric W. "Bicuspid Curve". MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Bow". MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Cruciform curve". ...
The terminal scute is bicuspid. U. broughami is viviparous. Srinivasulu, C.; Srinivasulu, B.; Ganesan, S.R.; Vijayakumar, S.P ...
They do have bicuspid posterior teeth. They give both live birth, and lay clutches, according to the genus. There is only one ...
... outer laterals bicuspid. "The animal, as represented in a drawing for which I am indebted to Sir Walter Elliot, is greenish ...
"Bicuspid aortic valve - Overview - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... The aortic valve is normally three leaflets but when it is bicuspid it is made of two. This increases the risk for aortic ... More than 50% of patients with aortic valve stenosis have a congenital heart abnormality called a bicuspid aortic valve. ...
Bicuspid or bicuspidate - Having two cusps. Bifid - Having two arms or prongs. Bifurcated - Having two branches. Bilateral - ...
... teeth variably monocuspid and bicuspid; (6) vomer with both medial and lateral fangs; (7) palatine lacking denticles; (8) long ...
... , Bicuspid at eMedicine Hans-Joachim Schäfers: Current treatment of aortic regurgitation. UNI-MED Science, Bremen, ... The most common congenital heart defect is the bicuspid aortic valve (fusion of two cusps together) commonly found in Turner ... bicuspid, unicuspid), and size of the valve (annulus, sinuses, sinotubular junction) are common parameters when evaluating the ... ", "A", and "P". Aortic valve Bayne, Edward J (8 January 2016). "Bicuspid Aortic Valve: Background, Pathophysiology, ...
... bicuspid Having two cusps or points. bifid Cleft in two. bifurcate Forked, or divided into two parts or branches. branchial ...
The central tooth is small and bicuspid. The lateral teeth increasing in size up to the 16th, and then diminish again, they ...
A bicuspid aortic valve is an aortic valve with only 2 cusps as opposed to the normal 3. It is present in about 0.5% to 2% of ... Bicuspid aortic valves are found in up to 1% of the population, making it one of the most common cardiac abnormalities. The ... The Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Associated Aortic Disease. In: Valvular Heart Disease, 4th, Otto CM, Bonow RO. (Eds), Saunders/ ... Stenosis is typically the result of valvular calcification but may be the result of a congenitally malformed bicuspid aortic ...
Premolars are bicuspid while molars are multi-cuspid. The upper molars have three roots while the lower molars have two roots. ...
Campbell, M. (September 1968). "Calcific aortic stenosis and congenital bicuspid aortic valves". British Heart Journal. 30 (5 ...
The admedian teeth are bicuspid up to the 104th. This species lives in India. In Bombay it is common in gardens. It also occurs ... The eight inner laterals are bicuspid and broad, forming a narrower median line than in other species of the genus, i.e. 17 ...
How pathologic is the function of a bicuspid aortic valve? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 Jul;150(1):68-9 Langer F, Aicher D, ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in bicuspid aortic valve disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007; 83:1290-4 Henn D, Perttunen H, Gauer ... in particular bicuspid aortic valves and unicuspid aortic valves. He developed approaches to improve the concept of pulmonary ...
Since the bicuspid anatomy commonly has an almost normal valve function (unless deformed) it is left bicuspid; the repair ... Thus, a bicuspid valve is created which results in near-normal function of the aortic valve. The most reproducible concept is ... In some cases a bicuspid configuration may be appropriate. In order to achieve this cusp, tissue is detached from the aorta and ... At the end of the operation, the cusp margins should be at an identical height.[citation needed] In bicuspid aortic valve ...
A deficiency can be associated with bicuspid aortic valve. There is evidence that activated Notch 1 and Notch 3 promote ... "Novel NOTCH1 mutations in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease and thoracic aortic aneurysms". The Journal of Thoracic ...
Sometimes, premolars are referred to as bicuspids. Even though the terms are synonymous, "bicuspid" refers to having two ... Thus, "bicuspid" is technically not as accurate as "premolar". In the universal system of notation, the permanent mandibular ...
A deficiency can be associated with bicuspid aortic valve. There is evidence that activated Notch 1 and Notch 3 promote ... "Novel NOTCH1 mutations in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease and thoracic aortic aneurysms". J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ...
Struve has an enlarged heart and a bicuspid aortic valve. Stefan and his wife have a son, Tobi (born 2020). Ultimate Fighting ... doctors found that Stefan has a bicuspid aortic valve, which means that his aortic valve only has two leaflets, instead of ...
Additionally, amphibians that undergo a metamorphosis develop bicuspid shaped teeth. The teeth of reptiles are replaced ...
Sometimes, premolars are referred to as bicuspids. Even though the terms are synonymous, "bicuspid" refers to having two ...
Acei have bicuspid teeth like the rest of the genus Pseudotropheus. Cichlid Forums: Pseudotropheus sp. "Acei" By Tina Tolhurst ...
The distinguishing synapomorphy that defines Doleserpeton are its bicuspid, pedicellate teeth. Each bicuspid, pedicellate tooth ... The jaws contained 60 bicuspid, pedicellate teeth, in which 40 teeth were located in the upper jaw and 20 teeth were located in ... The uncalcified regions of the bicuspid teeth in Doleserpeton were often lost and replaced during its lifetime to support a ... Character traits that support this phylogenetic classification include the following synapomorphies: bicuspid teeth, ...
A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an aortic valve that only has two leaflets, instead of three. ... In adults, when a bicuspid valve becomes very leaky or very narrowed, it may need to be replaced. This used to only be able to ... A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an aortic valve that only has two leaflets, instead of three. ... Braverman AC, Cheng A. The bicuspid aortic valve and associated aortic disease. In: Otto CM, Bonow RO, eds. Valvular Heart ...
Sir William Osler was one of the first to recognize the bicuspid aortic valve as a common congenital anomaly of the heart. ... Bicuspid aortic valves may be present in as many as 1-2% of the population. Because the bicuspid valve may be entirely silent ... Bicuspid Aortic Valve. Bicuspid aortic valve with unequal cusp size. Note eccentric commissure and raphe. View Media Gallery ... Overall complication rates in patients with bicuspid aortic valves vary. [20] In general, bicuspid aortic valve may be a common ...
Download the citation for this article by clicking on one of the following citation managers:. ...
Watch the Bicuspid Aortic Valve Conference video for patients, their families and friends filmed at Luries Children Hospital ... Home , Adams Blog , Bicuspid Aortic Valve , Bicuspid Aortic Valve Conference Video Just Posted! ... Home , Adams Blog , Bicuspid Aortic Valve , Bicuspid Aortic Valve Conference Video Just Posted! ... If you, or someone you know, have been diagnosed with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), this post is for you. Let me explain… ...
Health Sciences Videos in the UW SMPH Video Library
Bicuspid Aortic Valve - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Causes include a congenital bicuspid valve, idiopathic... read more . Bicuspid aortic valve can also be associated with ... Symptoms and Signs of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Children with bicuspid aortic valve may be asymptomatic if there is little or no ... 2 General references Bicuspid aortic valve is the presence of only two (rather than the normal three) valve cusps. Bicuspid ...
20 years old male diagnosed with bicuspid aortic valve ... 20 years old male diagnosed with bicuspid aortic valve Medical ... Keywords: Bicuspid Aortic Valve, Ascending Aortic Aneurysm. Category: Aortic Operation, Ascending Aorta Dilatation. Case number ...
All the Master Series design advantages in a smaller bracket. Available in MBT, MBT Vertical Slot, Roth, Straight Wire, Modified ...
Sir William Osler was one of the first to recognize the bicuspid aortic valve as a common congenital anomaly of the heart. ... Bicuspid aortic valves may be present in as many as 1-2% of the population. Because the bicuspid valve may be entirely silent ... encoded search term (Bicuspid Aortic Valve) and Bicuspid Aortic Valve What to Read Next on Medscape ... Bicuspid aortic valve may be identified in patients of any age, from birth through the 11th decade of life. It may be only an ...
Bicuspid Aortic Valve - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Causes include a congenital bicuspid valve, idiopathic... read more . Bicuspid aortic valve can also be associated with ... Symptoms and Signs of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Children with bicuspid aortic valve may be asymptomatic if there is little or no ... 2 General references Bicuspid aortic valve is the presence of only two (rather than the normal three) valve cusps. Bicuspid ...
Inherited aortopathy assessment in bicuspid aortic valve disease relative Bissell MM., Biasiolli L., Oswal A., Loudon M., ...
You are looking for a quality surgical products manufacturer? then you have reached at the right place. Grayrocks is the name in the field of surgical industry who have maintained quality standards for the last 20 years and thats why its products are now exported in more than 35 countries… ...
The discount code cannot be applied to the cart. Please ensure the cart meets the requirements to apply this discount code ...
Eric Roselli, MD, Director of the Aorta Center at Cleveland Clinic leads the discussion on treatment of bicuspid aortic valve ( ... A case presentation is followed by a presentation of embryology and genetics of bicuspid aortic valve, clinical presentation of ... BAV disease, key factors in multi-modality imaging, surgical approaches to bicuspid aortic valve with aneurysms, and minimally ...
3M™ Polycarbonate Crowns, Temporary Crowns for Anteriors and Bicuspid Refill, P-300. *Part Number P-300 ...
3M™ Polycarbonate Crowns, Temporary Crowns for Anteriors and Bicuspid Refill, P-22. *Part Number P-22 ...
Each bicuspid has been know to be approximately 4-6 millimeters in width. If one removes two of these bicuspids from the dental ... Problems of Extraction Orthodontics: 4 bicuspid extraction, 2 bicuspid extraction or incisor extraction in the upper or lower ... EXTRACTING FOUR HEALTHY BICUSPIDS TO TREAT DENTAL CROWDING? WHY?. Home , About OC , Continuing Education , Course Schedule , ... Why remove healthy bicuspids if there is a better way to treat a crowded dentition and maintain proper physiology. We in the ...
DR.BICUSPID: CDA, others advocate for improved Medi-Cal reimbursement rates. Jenny Kattlove, senior director of programs at the ... DR.BICUSPID: Calif. Medicaid reimbursement cuts take effect in Sept.. The decision to cut dental reimbursements will impact ... BICUSPID: Dental crisis looms for Calif. Medi-Cal kids. The Childrens Partnership (TCP) has released an issue briefand action ... DR.BICUSPID: Calif. kids dental access bill moves forward. Jenny Kattlove, director of strategic health initiatives at the ...
Objective: To assess soft tissue changes in the lip area after orthodontic treatment with first bicuspid extraction in 20 Angle ... Soft tissue profile changes in class II patients treated with first bicuspid extraction. Stomatos [online]. 2013, vol.19, n.36 ... Our findings suggest that treatment of class II patients including first bicuspid extraction result in small changes in the ...
Manufacturer Code: POLY-C#40 Brand: Dexiter Packaging: Box of 5 crown forms Size: 40 Tooth: 1st bicuspid ... 40 1st Bicuspid Polycarbonate Temporary Crowns 5/Bx. *Comparable to 3M. Made in Sweden. ... Dexiter #40 1st Bicuspid Polycarbonate Temporary Crowns 5/Bx. *Comparable to 3M. $5.99 $10.99. ... Home Products Dexiter #40 1st Bicuspid Polycarbonate Temporary Crowns 5/Bx. *Comparable to 3M ...
Genetics of bicuspid aortic valve aortopathy. Andreassi Maria G et al. Current opinion in cardiology 2016 Nov 31(6) 585-592 ... For example, although "bicuspid aortic valve" is not a term on the NHLBI Health Topics A-Z list, entering it in the HLBS- ... Bicuspid Aortic Valve. *Targeted next-generation sequencing identified ADAMTS5 as novel genetic substrate in patients with ... Search for genetic factors in bicuspid aortic valve disease: ACTA2 mutations do not play a major role. Tortora Giada, et al. ...
3M™ Unitek™ Bicuspid Bands Kit, Lower, Wide, General Purpose, Introduction, 143-302, 150/Kit. *3M ID 70202038223 ...
Does Deltacare Usa Pay For Root Canal On Right Second Bicuspid. December 19, 2022. by Catherine ...
This Dental Rubber Dam Clamp #9 Brinker Clamps Tissue Retractors Universal Bicuspids can be yours for only $6.99!. If you have ... Be the first to review "Dental Rubber Dam Clamp #9 Brinker Clamps Tissue Retractors Universal Bicuspids" Cancel reply. You must ... Dental Rubber Dam Clamp #9 Brinker Clamps Tissue Retractors Universal Bicuspids. $6.99. ... Dental Rubber Dam Clamp #9 Brinker Clamps Tissue Retractors Universal Bicuspids quantity. ...
Managing bicuspid aortic valves, aortic aneurysms … SPONSORED CONTENT: Healthy You / 12 hours ago. .cls-3{fill:#fff;fill-rule: ...
A simplified continuity equation approach to the quantification of stenotic bicuspid aortic valves using velocity-encoded ... Twenty consecutive young adults with stenotic bicuspid aortic valves were examined with CMR and transthoracic echocardiography ...
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Bicuspid Aortic Valve with Aortic Stenosis: a Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential ...
150 SEVERITY OF AORTIC FLOW ABNORMALITIES IN BICUSPID AORTIC VALVE DISEASE IS PREDICTED BY CUSP FUSION PATTERN ... 150 SEVERITY OF AORTIC FLOW ABNORMALITIES IN BICUSPID AORTIC VALVE DISEASE IS PREDICTED BY CUSP FUSION PATTERN ...
  • [ 8 ] A left-dominant coronary system (ie, posterior-descending coronary artery arising from the left coronary artery) is more commonly observed with bicuspid aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • Normally, the mitral valve is the only bicuspid valve and this is situated between the heart's left atrium and left ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitral valve, also called the bicuspid valve, allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. (cdc.gov)
  • clarification needed] Ultimately there is a risk of rupture in the aortic valve due to bicuspid aortopathy which is a result of progressive aortic dilation from the stress of having only two valve leaflets where three are normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition of a bicuspid valve, even in a patient who has normal valve function, is important for purposes of follow-up because of the association of bicuspid valves with an aortopathy that results in progressive aortic root or ascending aortic dilation and aneurysm formation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a form of heart disease in which two of the leaflets of the aortic valve fuse during development in the womb resulting in a two-leaflet (bicuspid) valve instead of the normal three-leaflet (tricuspid) valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, a bicuspid aortic valve will cause no problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A bicuspid aortic valve may cause the heart's aortic valve to narrow (aortic stenosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying hemodynamic patterns in the aorta after left ventricle systole aids in predicting consequential complications of bicuspid aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an aortic valve that only has two leaflets, instead of three. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In adults, when a bicuspid valve becomes very leaky or very narrowed, it may need to be replaced. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital anomaly but does not cause functional problems unless aortic valve stenosis, aortic valve regurgitation, aortic root dilatation, or dissection or infective endocarditis occurs. (medscape.com)
  • Sir William Osler was one of the first to recognize the bicuspid aortic valve as a common congenital anomaly of the heart. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] However, bicuspid aortic valve is mentioned only briefly in many pediatric and cardiology textbooks. (medscape.com)
  • A congenitally bicuspid aortic valve has two functional leaflets. (medscape.com)
  • Abnormalities in this area lead to the development of a bicuspid valve, often through incomplete separation (or fusion) of valve tissue. (medscape.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve is often observed with other left-sided obstructive lesions such as coarctation of the aorta or interrupted aortic arch , suggesting a common developmental mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • The bicuspid valve is composed of two leaflets or cusps, usually of unequal size. (medscape.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve with unequal cusp size. (medscape.com)
  • The left main coronary artery may be up to 50% shorter in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • Occasionally, the coronary ostium may be congenitally stenotic in association with bicuspid aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve Conference Video Just Posted! (heart-valve-surgery.com)
  • If you, or someone you know, have been diagnosed with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) , this post is for you. (heart-valve-surgery.com)
  • I recently attended and spoke at the 2nd Annual Bicuspid Aortic Valve Conference in Chicago, Illinois. (heart-valve-surgery.com)
  • Okay, now that you've watched the highlights… Here is the complete video playback of the Bicuspid Aortic Valve Conference. (heart-valve-surgery.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve is the presence of only two (rather than the normal three) valve cusps. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiovascular abnormality. (msdmanuals.com)
  • General references Bicuspid aortic valve is the presence of only two (rather than the normal three) valve cusps. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Causes include a congenital bicuspid valve, idiopathic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There is a genetic predilection for bicuspid aortic valves, with a 9% reported family prevalence, so first-degree relatives of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve should undergo screening echocardiography. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve: a review with recommendations for genetic counseling. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ascending aortic dilatation associated with bicuspid aortic valve: pathophysiology, molecular biology, and clinical implications. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Children with bicuspid aortic valve may be asymptomatic if there is little or no valve dysfunction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The bicuspid valve may also be completely competent, producing no regurgitant flow. (medscape.com)
  • Eric Roselli, MD , Director of the Aorta Center at Cleveland Clinic leads the discussion on treatment of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease. (kaltura.com)
  • A case presentation is followed by a presentation of embryology and genetics of bicuspid aortic valve, clinical presentation of BAV disease, key factors in multi-modality imaging, surgical approaches to bicuspid aortic valve with aneurysms, and minimally invasive surgical and transcatheter options. (kaltura.com)
  • For example, although "bicuspid aortic valve" is not a term on the NHLBI Health Topics A-Z list, entering it in the HLBS-PopOmics search box retrieves several important population genomics articles, including these five articles. (cdc.gov)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart condition characterized by fusion of two of the three aortic valve leaflets, occurring during embryological development. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve (having only two leaflets rather than the normal three) happens in about 1% to 2% of the population and is more common among men. (cdc.gov)
  • The most commonly affected valve with a congenital defect is a bicuspid aortic valve, which has only two leaflets rather than three. (cdc.gov)
  • In patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), these degenerative changes occur at an earlier age as a consequence of the abnormal hemodynamics across the valve leaflets. (medscape.com)
  • The bicuspid native aortic valve was resected the same day, and several bacterial patches were observed. (cdc.gov)
  • Is Bicuspid Aortic Valve Morphology Genetically Determined? (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition to senile aortic stenosis, bicuspid aortic valve disease is a major etiology referred for surgery. (medscape.com)
  • At least half of all congenitally bicuspid valves have a low raphe, which never attains the plane of the attachments of the two commissures and never extends to the free margin of the conjoined cusp. (medscape.com)
  • During this special conference - which was created for patients, their families and friends - several BAV specialists shared their latest research and clinical experiences specific to the management and treatment of bicuspid aortic valves. (heart-valve-surgery.com)
  • Objective: To assess soft tissue changes in the lip area after orthodontic treatment with first bicuspid extraction in 20 Angle class II patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions: Our findings suggest that treatment of class II patients including first bicuspid extraction result in small changes in the patients' facial profile (increased nasolabial angle and decreased upper lip angle). (bvsalud.org)
  • The ill effects of the bicuspid extraction technique have been experienced too often by many! (occlusionconnections.com)
  • The proponents advocate using cervical headgear or appliances to move the molars back or extract the first bicuspids. (occlusionconnections.com)
  • The biologic basis for this claim is that patients with healthy bicuspids that have had them amputated from there mouths find themselves with a constricted dental arch form and often underdeveloped facial features which results in a compromised tongue position. (occlusionconnections.com)
  • Extracting two bicuspid from each dental arch and trying to close the vacant spaces will naturally increase treatment time (trying to close spaces) and result in compromised physiology and facial development. (occlusionconnections.com)
  • The concept and philosophy to extract healthy bicuspids is still being taught and practiced as a means to resolve the problems of dental crowding. (occlusionconnections.com)
  • If one removes two of these bicuspids from the dental arch, that arch will immediately be shy 8-12 millimeters in arch length. (occlusionconnections.com)
  • This Dental Rubber Dam Clamp #9 Brinker Clamps Tissue Retractors Universal Bicuspids can be yours for only $6.99 ! (shipshapeins.com)
  • In one particular segment Sesame Street was helping to teach preschoolers about "Responsible Decision Making" the muppets band, the Bicuspids sang a song, "Kids Just Love To Brush. (springvilledentistry.com)
  • Available in general purpose, contoured, and proportioned bicuspid band kits. (3mphilippines.com.ph)
  • Identifying hemodynamic patterns in the aorta after left ventricle systole aids in predicting consequential complications of bicuspid aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • He says other characteristics to be factored in when considering TAVR for bicuspid valves are the age of the patient and the size of the aorta. (medscape.com)
  • Another complicating factor for bicuspids is that the same genetic abnormality can lead to a large aorta, and if we see that on the scan, then surgery may be a better option as we can address that at the same time," he added. (medscape.com)
  • Histologic abnormalities of the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease: clinical relevance to the ross procedure. (medscape.com)
  • Matsuyama S, Nishida T, Ushijima T, Tominaga R. Long-term results after treatment of the ascending aorta for bicuspid aortic valve patients. (medscape.com)
  • Relation of coarctation of the aorta to the occurrence of ascending aortic dilation in children and young adults with bicuspid aortic valves. (medscape.com)
  • The bicuspid aortic valve defects are sometimes associated with other defects of the aorta and other left side heart abnormalities. (snec.com.sg)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve is often observed with other left-sided obstructive lesions such as coarctation of the aorta or interrupted aortic arch , suggesting a common developmental mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease (BAV) patients with an aneurysmal proximal thoracic aorta have a higher risk of acute aortic dissection compared to TAV patients [1]. (fortunepublish.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve surgery with proactive ascending aorta repair. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The congenitally bicuspid aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • Aortic valve regurgitation and the congenitally bicuspid aortic valve: a clinico-pathological correlation. (medscape.com)
  • A congenitally bicuspid aortic valve has two functional leaflets. (medscape.com)
  • Aortic dilation in bicuspid aortic valve disease: flow pattern is a major contributor and differs with valve fusion type. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Ascending aortic dilation is important in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease, with increased risk of aortic dissection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The BAV registry was developed to better characterize patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease by assessing patterns of aortic dilation, potential genetic markers, and the effects of medical intervention in this population. (fortunepublish.com)
  • However, all the randomized trials of TAVR to date have excluded patients with bicuspid valves, the anatomy of which is thought to be more difficult for the TAVR procedure to accommodate than the more common tricuspid valves. (medscape.com)
  • The lack of data regarding use of TAVR in bicuspid anatomy. (medscape.com)
  • To Medscape Medical News, Reardon added: "The current data suggest that bicuspid valves are also a good target for TAVR in selected cases. (medscape.com)
  • He explained that the anatomy of bicuspid valves varies, with some anatomies more suitable for TAVR than others. (medscape.com)
  • Many of us are already doing TAVR on bicuspids," Reardon said. (medscape.com)
  • And there will be clinicians who were cautious about TAVR on bicuspids but may be more comfortable now with this data," he added. (medscape.com)
  • Reardon noted that more data will be become available from several ongoing prospective trials of TAVR in bicuspid valves with independent core labs and clinical events committees. (medscape.com)
  • Bicuspid aortic valves in hearts with other congenital heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • The study used propensity matching to compare outcomes in the bicuspid vs tricuspid patients and found similar results for 30-day and 1-year mortality. (medscape.com)
  • This bicuspid cohort was also younger than commonly reported in tricuspid patients, and the survival benefit was present in both sexes, "which can further decrease the difference in survival between women and men," Chen said. (medscape.com)
  • For the study, the researchers analyzed data on 2691 propensity-score matched pairs of bicuspid and tricuspid aortic stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Congenitally bicuspid aortic valves: a surgical pathology study of 542 cases (1991 through 1996) and a literature review of 2,715 additional cases. (medscape.com)