GABA-A Receptor Antagonists
GABA-B Receptor Antagonists
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Spinal Nerve Roots
Rats, Inbred Strains
Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus
Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic
Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (1/1439)Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma. (+info)
Retinal input induces three firing patterns in neurons of the superficial superior colliculus of neonatal rats. (2/1439)By using an in vitro isolated brain stem preparation, we recorded extracellular responses to electrical stimulation of the optic tract (OT) from 71 neurons in the superficial superior colliculus (SC) of neonatal rats (P1-13). At postnatal day 1 (P1), all tested neurons (n = 10) already received excitatory input from the retina. Sixty-nine (97%) superficial SC neurons of neonatal rats showed three response patterns to OT stimulation, which depended on stimulus intensity. A weak stimulus evoked only one spike that was caused by activation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. A moderate stimulus elicited a short train (<250 ms) of spikes, which was induced by activation of both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. A strong stimulus gave rise to a long train (>300 ms) of spikes, which was associated with additional activation of L-type high-threshold calcium channels. The long train firing pattern could also be induced either by temporal summation of retinal inputs or by blocking gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors. Because retinal ganglion cells show synchronous bursting activity before eye opening at P14, the retinotectal inputs appear to be sufficient to activate L-type calcium channels in the absence of pattern vision. Therefore activation of L-type calcium channels is likely to be an important source for calcium influx into SC neurons in neonatal rats. (+info)
The superior olivary nucleus and its influence on nucleus laminaris: a source of inhibitory feedback for coincidence detection in the avian auditory brainstem. (3/1439)Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for coincidence detection. In the present study, the chick SON was investigated. In vivo tracing studies show that the SON projects predominantly to the ipsilateral NM, NL, and NA. In vitro whole-cell recording reveals single-cell morphology, firing properties, and postsynaptic responses. SON neurons are morphologically and physiologically suited for temporal integration; their firing patterns do not reflect the temporal structure of their excitatory inputs. Of most interest, direct stimulation of the SON evokes long-lasting inhibition in NL neurons. The inhibition blocks both intrinsic spike generation and orthodromically evoked activity in NL neurons and can be eliminated by bicuculline methiodide, a potent antagonist for GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest that the SON provides GABAergic inhibitory feedback to laminaris neurons. We discuss a mechanism whereby SON-evoked GABAergic inhibition can influence the coding of interaural time differences for sound localization in the avian auditory brainstem. (+info)
Concurrent inhibition and excitation of phrenic motoneurons during inspiration: phase-specific control of excitability. (4/1439)The movements that define behavior are controlled by motoneuron output, which depends on the excitability of motoneurons and the synaptic inputs they receive. Modulation of motoneuron excitability takes place over many time scales. To determine whether motoneuron excitability is specifically modulated during the active versus the quiescent phase of rhythmic behavior, we compared the input-output properties of phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) during inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration. In neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations that generate rhythmic respiratory motor outflow, we blocked excitatory inspiratory synaptic drive to PMNs and then examined their phase-dependent responses to superthreshold current pulses. Pulses during inspiration elicited fewer action potentials compared with identical pulses during expiration. This reduced excitability arose from an inspiratory-phase inhibitory input that hyperpolarized PMNs in the absence of excitatory inspiratory inputs. Local application of bicuculline blocked this inhibition as well as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory firing. Correspondingly, bicuculline locally applied to the midcervical spinal cord enhanced fourth cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory burst amplitude. Strychnine had no effect on C4 output. Nicotinic receptor antagonists neither potentiated C4 output nor blocked its potentiation by bicuculline, further indicating that the inhibition is not from recurrent inhibitory pathways. We conclude that it is bulbospinal in origin. These data demonstrate that rapid changes in motoneuron excitability occur during behavior and suggest that integration of overlapping, opposing synaptic inputs to motoneurons is important in controlling motor outflow. Modulation of phasic inhibition may represent a means for regulating the transfer function of PMNs to suit behavioral demands. (+info)
Long-term suppression of synaptic transmission by tetanization of a single pyramidal cell in the mouse hippocampus in vitro. (5/1439)1. The consequences of stimulating a single pyramidal cell in the CA1 area of the hippocampus for synaptic transmission in the stratum radiatum were investigated. 2. Tetanic activation of single pyramids caused by depolarizing current injection, but not an equal number of distributed action potentials, reduced excitatory transmission by 20 %, with a delayed onset, for more than 1 h. 3. EPSPs in the tetanized pyramidal cells were increased for equally long periods but this was not the cause of the field EPSP reduction. Spontaneous somatic IPSPs were not affected; evoked IPSPs were decreased in the tetanized cell. 4. Paired pulse facilitation of the field EPSPs was unchanged. 5. The field EPSP reduction was markedly diminished by a knife cut along the base of pyramidal cells in CA1. 6. The addition of antagonists of GABA, NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors blocked or diminished the field EPSP slope reduction evoked by intracellular stimulation. 7. Simultaneous recordings revealed long-lasting excitations of interneurons located in the outer oriens layer as a result of single pyramid tetanization. 8. Intense firing of small numbers of pyramidal cells can thus persistently inhibit mass transmission through the hippocampus. This effect involves activation of interneurons by glutamate receptors. (+info)
Inhibitory contributions to spatiotemporal receptive-field structure and direction selectivity in simple cells of cat area 17. (6/1439)Intracortical inhibition contributes to direction selectivity in primary visual cortex, but how it acts has been unclear. We investigated this problem in simple cells of cat area 17 by taking advantage of the link between spatiotemporal (S-T) receptive-field structure and direction selectivity. Most cells in layer 4 have S-T-oriented receptive fields in which gradients of response timing across the field confer a preferred direction of motion. Linear summation of responses across the receptive field, followed by a static nonlinear amplification, has been shown previously to account for directional tuning in layer 4. We tested the hypotheses that inhibition acts by altering S-T structure or the static nonlinearity or both. Drifting and counterphasing sine wave gratings were used to measure direction selectivity and S-T structure, respectively, in 17 layer 4 simple cells before and during iontophoresis of bicuculline methiodide (BMI), a GABAA antagonist. S-T orientation was quantified from fits to response temporal phase versus stimulus spatial phase data. Bicuculline reduced direction selectivity and S-T orientation in nearly all cells, and reductions in the two measures were well correlated (r = 0.81) and reversible. Using conventional linear predictions based on response phase and amplitude, we found that BMI-induced changes in S-T structure also accounted well for absolute changes in the amplitude and phase of responses to gratings drifting in the preferred and nonpreferred direction. For each cell we also calculated an exponent used to estimate the static nonlinearity. Bicuculline reduced the exponent in most cells, but the changes were not correlated with reductions in direction selectivity. We conclude that GABAA-mediated inhibition influences directional tuning in layer 4 primarily by sculpting S-T receptive-field structure. The source of the inhibition is likely to be other simple cells with certain spatiotemporal relationships to their target. Despite reductions in the two measures, most receptive fields maintained some directional tuning and S-T orientation during BMI. This suggests that their excitatory inputs, arising from the lateral geniculate nucleus and within area 17, are sufficient to create some S-T orientation and that inhibition accentuates it. Finally, BMI also reduced direction selectivity in 8 of 10 simple cells tested in layer 6, but the reductions were not accompanied by systematic changes in S-T structure. This reflects the fact that S-T orientation, as revealed by our first-order measures of the receptive field, is weak there normally. Inhibition likely affects layer 6 cells via more complex, nonlinear interactions. (+info)
Choline and selective antagonists identify two subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that modulate GABA release from CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices. (7/1439)Neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChR) are known to control transmitter release in the CNS. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring the diversity and localization of nAChRs present in CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices. The use of a U-tube as the agonist delivery system was critical for the reliable detection of nicotinic responses induced by brief exposure of the neurons to ACh or to the alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist choline. The present study demonstrated that CA1 interneurons, in addition to expressing functional alpha7 nAChRs, also express functional alpha4beta2-like nAChRs and that activation of both receptors facilitates an action potential-dependent release of GABA. Depending on the experimental condition, one of the following nicotinic responses was recorded from the interneurons by means of the patch-clamp technique: a nicotinic whole-cell current, depolarization accompanied by action potentials, or GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (PSCs). Responses mediated by alpha7 nAChRs were short-lasting, whereas those mediated by alpha4beta2 nAChRs were long-lasting. Thus, phasic or tonic inhibition of CA1 interneurons may be achieved by selective activation of alpha7 or alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively. It can also be suggested that synaptic levels of choline generated by hydrolysis of ACh in vivo may be sufficient to control the activity of the alpha7 nAChRs. The finding that methyllycaconitine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (antagonists of alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively) increased the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic PSCs suggests that there is an intrinsic cholinergic activity that sustains a basal level of nAChR activity in these interneurons. (+info)
Synchronized paroxysmal activity in the developing thalamocortical network mediated by corticothalamic projections and "silent" synapses. (8/1439)In mouse thalamocortical slices in vitro, the potassium channel blocker 4-AP and GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline together induced spontaneous prolonged depolarizations in layer VI neurons from postnatal day 2 (P2), in ventroposterior nucleus neurons (VP) from P7, and in reticular nucleus neurons (RTN) from P8. Dual whole-cell recordings revealed that prolonged bursts were synchronized in layer VI, VP, and RTN. Bursts were present in cortex isolated from thalamus, but not in thalamus isolated from cortex, indicating that bursts originated in cortex and propagated to thalamus. Prolonged bursts were synchronized in layer VI when vertical cuts extended from pia mater through layers IV or V, but were no longer synchronized when cuts extended through layer VI and white matter. In voltage-clamp recordings before P10, burst conductance of all three neuronal populations was dominated by the NMDA receptor-mediated conductance, and therefore synapses were "silent". In cortex and RTN, after P10, bursts were associated with strong AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated conductances, and synapses had become "functional"; silent synapses persisted in a large proportion of VP cells after P10. Before P9, the NMDA receptor antagonist APV or the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX blocked the prolonged bursts. After P9, CNQX continued to block the prolonged bursts, but APV merely shortened their duration. Thus, NMDA receptor-based silent synapses are essential for paroxysmal corticothalamic activity during early postnatal development, and connections between layer VI neurons are sufficient for horizontal cortical synchronization. (+info)
Bicuculline is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a muscle relaxant and as a tool for studying the function of the central nervous system. It is a non-competitive antagonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, which is a type of ion channel that is involved in the regulation of muscle tone and other functions in the brain and spinal cord. Bicuculline is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can cause a range of effects, including muscle relaxation, sedation, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure. It is also used in research to study the role of GABA receptors in various neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and anxiety disorders. It is important to note that bicuculline can be toxic in high doses and can cause serious side effects, including respiratory depression, seizures, and coma. As such, it is typically only used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the central nervous system. It is a non-protein amino acid that is synthesized from glutamate in the brain and spinal cord. GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning that it reduces the activity of neurons and helps to calm and relax the brain. In the medical field, GABA is often used as a treatment for anxiety disorders, insomnia, and epilepsy. It is available as a dietary supplement and can also be prescribed by a doctor in the form of medication. GABA supplements are believed to help reduce feelings of anxiety and promote relaxation by increasing the levels of GABA in the brain. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of GABA on the human body and to determine the most effective ways to use it as a treatment.
Muscimol is a psychoactive compound found in certain species of mushrooms, such as the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and the panther cap (Coprinus comatus). It is a GABA-A receptor agonist, meaning that it binds to and activates the GABA-A receptors in the brain, which are responsible for inhibiting the activity of neurons. This leads to a range of effects, including relaxation, drowsiness, altered perception, and hallucinations. Muscimol has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and is still used today in some cultures for spiritual and recreational purposes. However, it is illegal to use muscimol for any purpose in many countries, and its use can be dangerous and potentially lethal if not used properly.
Receptors, GABA-A are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and play a key role in regulating inhibitory neurotransmission. Activation of GABA-A receptors leads to the opening of chloride ion channels, which results in a decrease in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron. This decrease in membrane potential makes it more difficult for the neuron to generate an action potential, which in turn reduces the release of neurotransmitters and decreases the overall activity of the neuron. GABA-A receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including muscle relaxation, sleep, and the regulation of anxiety and seizures.
Strychnine is a highly toxic alkaloid found in certain plants, including the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree. It is known for its ability to stimulate the central nervous system, leading to symptoms such as muscle spasms, convulsions, and hallucinations. In the medical field, strychnine is sometimes used as a muscle relaxant or as a treatment for certain types of muscle spasms. However, due to its toxicity, it is only used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and is typically administered in very small doses. Strychnine is also used as a pesticide and is sometimes found in illicit drugs.
Picrotoxin is a naturally occurring neurotoxin that is found in plants of the genus Picrotoxum. It is a type of alkaloid that is known to block the chloride channels in the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of effects on the nervous system. In the medical field, picrotoxin is sometimes used as a research tool to study the function of chloride channels and their role in various neurological processes. It has also been used as an anesthetic in veterinary medicine, although its use is generally limited due to its potential for causing respiratory depression and other side effects. Picrotoxin is also known to have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of certain neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and anxiety. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks in these contexts.
Receptors, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) are a type of neurotransmitter receptor found in the brain and other parts of the central nervous system. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its receptors play a crucial role in regulating the activity of neurons. There are several different types of GABA receptors, including ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic GABA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of GABA, allowing chloride ions to flow into the neuron and causing it to become hyperpolarized and less likely to fire an action potential. Metabotropic GABA receptors, on the other hand, are not ion channels but instead activate intracellular signaling pathways that can modulate the activity of other neurotransmitter receptors. GABA receptors are important for a wide range of brain functions, including regulating muscle tone, anxiety, sleep, and memory. Dysfunction of GABA receptors has been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.
Baclofen is a medication that is primarily used to treat muscle spasms and other symptoms associated with conditions such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and cerebral palsy. It works by blocking the action of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to relax muscles and reduce spasticity. Baclofen is usually taken orally in tablet form, and the dosage may be adjusted based on the severity of the symptoms and the individual's response to the medication. It can also be administered intravenously or intrathecally (into the spinal fluid) in some cases. Baclofen can cause side effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, and dry mouth. In rare cases, it can also cause more serious side effects such as hallucinations, confusion, and depression. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking baclofen and to report any side effects that occur.
Isonicotinic acids are a class of organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom that is part of a six-membered ring. They are derivatives of nicotine, a naturally occurring alkaloid found in tobacco plants. In the medical field, isonicotinic acids are used as cholinergic agonists, meaning they stimulate the activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are primarily used to treat conditions related to muscle weakness, such as myasthenia gravis, a disorder that causes muscle weakness and fatigue. Isonicotinic acids are also used to treat certain types of depression, as they have been shown to increase the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and dopamine. They are also used as a treatment for alcohol withdrawal symptoms, as they can help to reduce the severity of withdrawal symptoms and improve the patient's overall condition.
Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used as a sedative, hypnotic, and anesthetic. It is a short-acting drug that is often used for the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, and seizures. Pentobarbital is also used as an anesthetic for minor surgical procedures and for the induction of general anesthesia in combination with other anesthetic agents. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically administered by a healthcare professional. Pentobarbital can cause drowsiness, dizziness, and other side effects, and it may interact with other medications. It is a controlled substance and is regulated by the government to prevent abuse and misuse.
Glycine is an amino acid that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can synthesize it from other compounds, but it is still important for various physiological processes. In the medical field, glycine is used as a dietary supplement to support muscle growth and recovery, as well as to improve sleep quality. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, as it can help to reduce the buildup of toxins in the liver. Glycine is also used in the production of various medications, including antibiotics and tranquilizers. It has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system and may be used to treat anxiety and other mental health conditions. Overall, glycine is an important nutrient that plays a vital role in many physiological processes in the body.
6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, also known as 7-nitro-6-cyanoquinoxaline-2,3-dione (7-NQX) or CNQX, is a synthetic compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a selective antagonist of the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors. These receptors are important for the transmission of signals in the central nervous system, and they play a role in a variety of neurological processes, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. CNQX is often used in research to study the function of AMPA receptors and to investigate the effects of modulating their activity on various neurological disorders. It has been shown to have potential as a therapeutic agent for a number of conditions, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and depression. In addition to its use as a research tool, CNQX has also been studied as a potential treatment for certain types of cancer. It has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some preclinical studies, although more research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy in humans. Overall, CNQX is a useful tool for researchers studying the function of AMPA receptors and the potential therapeutic applications of modulating their activity.
2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a drug. It is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, which means that it blocks the action of NMDA receptors in the brain. NMDA receptors are a type of ion channel that are involved in a variety of brain functions, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. By blocking NMDA receptors, APV can have a range of effects on the brain, including reducing seizures, improving mood, and reducing anxiety. APV is sometimes used as a treatment for conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and anxiety disorders. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other neurological and psychiatric conditions.
Aminobutyrates are a class of compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) and a butyrate group (-COOCH3). They are derivatives of the amino acid alanine and are used in the medical field as muscle relaxants and as anesthetic agents. Aminobutyrates work by blocking the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in muscle contraction. This leads to muscle relaxation and a decrease in pain and discomfort. Some examples of aminobutyrates used in medicine include amobarbital, pentobarbital, and thiopental. These drugs are typically administered intravenously and are used to induce anesthesia for surgery or to treat certain medical conditions such as epilepsy and insomnia.
Pyridazines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. They are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. Some examples of pyridazine derivatives used in medicine include: 1. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6): A water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. 2. Pyridostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder. 3. Pyrimethamine: An antimalarial drug that inhibits the growth of Plasmodium parasites. 4. Pyrazinamide: An antitubercular drug used to treat tuberculosis. 5. Pyrazinamide: A diuretic used to treat hypertension and edema. Pyridazines have a wide range of pharmacological activities and are used in the treatment of various diseases, including infections, neurological disorders, and metabolic disorders.
Receptors, GABA-B are a type of neurotransmitter receptor found in the brain and other parts of the body. They are activated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Activation of GABA-B receptors can have a variety of effects on the body, including reducing muscle tension, decreasing heart rate and blood pressure, and promoting relaxation and sleep. GABA-B receptors are also involved in a number of other physiological processes, such as regulating appetite and metabolism, and modulating pain perception. In the medical field, GABA-B receptors are the target of several drugs, including some that are used to treat conditions such as anxiety, addiction, and chronic pain.
Pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG) and pregnanediol (PD) are two metabolites of progesterone that are commonly measured in the medical field. They are produced when progesterone is metabolized by the liver and excreted in the urine or feces. In the context of pregnancy, PDG and PD levels can be used as a non-invasive method to assess fetal well-being and predict the risk of preterm labor. High levels of PDG and PD in the mother's urine or blood can indicate a high risk of preterm labor, while low levels can indicate a low risk. In addition to pregnancy, PDG and PD levels can also be used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as ovarian cancer, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. They can also be used to assess the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives and to diagnose and monitor pregnancy-related complications, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes.
Diazepam is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety disorders, panic attacks, muscle spasms, and seizures. Diazepam works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. Diazepam is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, injectable solutions, and intravenous infusions. It is usually taken orally, although it can also be given intravenously or intramuscularly in certain situations. Diazepam can be habit-forming and can cause dependence if used for extended periods of time or in high doses. It can also cause side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. As with any medication, it is important to use diazepam only as directed by a healthcare professional and to avoid using it for longer than necessary.
Seizures are abnormal electrical discharges in the brain that can cause a variety of symptoms, including convulsions, muscle spasms, loss of consciousness, and changes in behavior or sensation. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, infection, genetic disorders, and certain medications. They can be classified into different types based on their symptoms and the part of the brain affected. Treatment for seizures may include medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.
In the medical field, "crotonates" refers to a class of organic compounds that are derived from the plant species Croton tiglium. These compounds are also known as "croton oil" or "tiglium oil" and are commonly used as a laxative or purgative. Crotonates are made up of a long chain of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end. They are typically colorless or yellowish liquids with a strong, unpleasant odor. When ingested, crotonates can cause diarrhea and abdominal cramping due to their ability to stimulate the production of digestive juices and increase the movement of the intestines. While crotonates have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries, they can also be toxic in high doses and may cause liver damage or other serious health problems. As a result, their use as a laxative is now generally discouraged, and alternative treatments are preferred.
Nipecotic acids are a group of organic compounds that are derived from the amino acid, L-phenylalanine. They are commonly used in the medical field as a diagnostic tool for evaluating the function of the kidneys and liver. Nipecotic acids are also used as a treatment for certain types of liver and kidney diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and kidney failure. They work by inhibiting the production of certain enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of amino acids, which can help to reduce the workload on the liver and kidneys. Nipecotic acids are usually administered intravenously or orally in the form of a solution or tablet.
Receptors, Glycine are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter glycine. These receptors are found in the central nervous system and are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including muscle relaxation, sleep regulation, and pain perception. Activation of glycine receptors leads to the opening of ion channels, allowing positively charged ions to flow into the cell and causing a change in the electrical potential across the cell membrane. This change in membrane potential can lead to the generation of an electrical signal, which can then be transmitted to other cells in the nervous system.
Phosphinic acids are a class of organic compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to two carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom. They are derivatives of phosphoric acid and are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds. In the medical field, phosphinic acids have been studied for their potential use as antiviral agents, as well as for their ability to chelate metal ions and remove them from the body. They have also been used as stabilizers for certain drugs and as components of some diagnostic imaging agents.
Kynurenic acid is a neuroactive compound that is produced in the brain and other tissues in the body. It is a metabolite of the amino acid tryptophan and is involved in the regulation of the activity of certain receptors in the brain, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Kynurenic acid has been shown to have a number of effects on brain function, including the modulation of neurotransmission, the regulation of inflammation, and the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic agent for a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and depression.
Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a drug that is commonly used in the medical field to induce seizures in animals and humans for research purposes. It is a type of convulsant drug that works by blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, leading to an increase in neuronal activity and the development of seizures. PTZ is often used in animal models of epilepsy to study the underlying mechanisms of the disorder and to test the efficacy of new antiepileptic drugs. It is also used in humans to diagnose certain types of epilepsy, such as absence seizures, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments. PTZ is a highly toxic drug and should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional. It can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, and muscle spasms, and can be fatal in high doses.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by certain species of marine animals, including pufferfish, cone snails, and some species of sea slugs. TTX is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless compound that is highly toxic to humans and other animals. In the medical field, TTX is primarily used as a research tool to study the function of voltage-gated sodium channels, which are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses. TTX blocks these channels, leading to a loss of electrical activity in nerve cells and muscles. TTX has also been used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as chronic pain and epilepsy. However, its use in humans is limited due to its toxicity and the difficulty in administering it safely. In addition to its medical uses, TTX has also been used as a pesticide and a tool for controlling invasive species. However, its use as a pesticide is controversial due to its potential toxicity to non-target organisms and its persistence in the environment.
Quinoxalines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain two nitrogen atoms in a six-membered ring. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. In the medical field, quinoxalines have been studied for their potential use as antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. Some quinoxalines have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of quinoxalines.
N-Methylaspartate (NMA) is a chemical compound that is found in the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid that is structurally similar to aspartate, another amino acid that is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. NMA is thought to play a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. In the medical field, NMA is often used as a research tool to study the function of the nervous system and to develop new treatments for neurological disorders.
Flurazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is used to treat anxiety disorders, insomnia, and muscle spasms. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. Flurazepam is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms. The immediate-release form is typically taken orally, while the extended-release form is taken once a day at bedtime. Flurazepam can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea, and constipation. It can also be habit-forming and may lead to dependence if used for extended periods of time. Therefore, it is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider and to avoid taking it for longer than recommended.
Chlordiazepoxide is a prescription medication that belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. It is primarily used to treat anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and muscle spasms. Chlordiazepoxide works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to calm the nervous system and reduce anxiety and muscle tension. It is available in both immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is typically taken orally. However, like all benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide can be habit-forming and may cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, and impaired coordination. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Glutamic acid is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body and is essential for various bodily functions. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, but it is still important for maintaining good health. In the medical field, glutamic acid is sometimes used as a medication to treat certain conditions. For example, it is used to treat epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Glutamic acid is also used to treat certain types of brain injuries, such as stroke, by promoting the growth of new brain cells. In addition to its medicinal uses, glutamic acid is also an important component of the diet. It is found in many foods, including meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, and grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement.
Barbiturates are a class of drugs that are used as sedatives, hypnotics, and anesthetics. They work by slowing down the activity of the central nervous system, which can help to reduce anxiety, relieve pain, and induce sleep. Barbiturates are also used to treat certain types of seizures and to control agitation in people with mental illnesses. Barbiturates are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. They are typically prescribed for short-term use, as they can be habit-forming and can cause dependence if used for extended periods of time. Barbiturates can also be dangerous when combined with other drugs, including alcohol, and can cause respiratory depression, which can be life-threatening. In the medical field, barbiturates are used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety, insomnia, and pain. They are also used as anesthetic agents in surgery and for the treatment of certain types of seizures. However, due to their potential for abuse and dependence, barbiturates are now only available by prescription and are typically reserved for use in severe cases where other treatments have been ineffective.
Pregnanolone is a naturally occurring neurosteroid hormone that is produced in the brain and body. It is a metabolite of progesterone and plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including mood regulation, memory consolidation, and stress response. In the medical field, pregnanolone is sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions such as anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. It is also being studied for its potential use in the treatment of other conditions, such as traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease. Pregnanolone is available as a prescription medication and is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It can cause side effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, and nausea, and may interact with other medications. As with any medication, it is important to use pregnanolone only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Chlorides are a type of anion that are commonly found in the human body. They are produced when chlorine combines with other elements, such as sodium or potassium, to form compounds. In the body, chlorides are primarily found in the fluid that surrounds cells, known as extracellular fluid, and in the fluid that fills the lungs and other cavities, known as intracellular fluid. Chlorides play an important role in maintaining the balance of fluids in the body and in regulating the pH of the blood. They also help to transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body. Chlorides are an essential component of many bodily functions, including the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which aids in the digestion of food. In the medical field, chlorides are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess the overall health of the body. Abnormal levels of chlorides in the blood can be a sign of a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disorders.
Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor found in the central nervous system. They are named after the agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which binds to and activates these receptors. NMDA receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. They are also involved in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes composed of two subunits, NR1 and NR2, which can be differentially expressed in various brain regions and cell types. The NR2 subunit determines the pharmacological properties and functional profile of the receptor, while the NR1 subunit is essential for receptor function. Activation of NMDA receptors requires the binding of both glutamate and a co-agonist, such as glycine or d-serine, as well as the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to the opening of a cation-permeable channel that allows the influx of calcium ions, which can trigger various intracellular signaling pathways and modulate gene expression. In summary, NMDA receptors are a type of glutamate receptor that play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system.
Receptors, Glutamate are a type of ionotropic receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. These receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and play a critical role in many important brain functions, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. There are several different subtypes of glutamate receptors, each with its own unique properties and functions. Some of the most well-known subtypes include the NMDA receptor, the AMPA receptor, and the kainate receptor. These receptors are activated by glutamate binding, which leads to the opening of ion channels and the flow of ions across the cell membrane. This can result in changes in the electrical activity of the cell and can trigger a variety of cellular responses, including the release of other neurotransmitters and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways.
Kainic acid is a chemical compound that is naturally found in the brains of certain animals, including humans. It is a non-competitive antagonist of the glutamate receptors, which are a type of neurotransmitter receptor that plays a key role in the transmission of signals between nerve cells in the brain. When kainic acid binds to these receptors, it blocks the normal transmission of signals, leading to a range of effects on the brain and nervous system. In the medical field, kainic acid is sometimes used as a tool to study the function of the glutamate receptors and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia. It is also used in some experimental treatments for these conditions, although its use in humans is generally limited due to its potential for causing serious side effects, including seizures, psychosis, and even death.
3-Mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) is a sulfur-containing organic acid that has been used in the medical field as a chelating agent to remove heavy metals from the body. It is particularly effective in removing lead from the bloodstream and has been used in the treatment of lead poisoning. 3-MPA works by binding to the lead ions and forming water-soluble complexes that can be easily excreted by the kidneys. It is also used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder that causes the body to accumulate excess copper. In this case, 3-MPA is used to bind to the excess copper and remove it from the body.
Flunitrazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is primarily used as a sedative and hypnotic to treat insomnia and anxiety. It is also sometimes used as an anxiolytic and muscle relaxant. Flunitrazepam is a powerful benzodiazepine and has a high potential for abuse and addiction. It is a controlled substance in many countries and is only available by prescription. Flunitrazepam is typically taken orally, but it can also be administered intravenously or intramuscularly. It is important to note that flunitrazepam can have serious side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and memory impairment. It can also cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms if stopped abruptly.
Taurine is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body and is also found in many foods, including meat, fish, and dairy products. In the medical field, taurine is often used as a dietary supplement to improve athletic performance, support heart health, and promote overall well-being. Taurine has been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including reducing blood pressure, improving athletic performance, and supporting the immune system. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of taurine on human health.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which are sudden, unprovoked electrical disturbances in the brain. These seizures can cause a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered behavior, and sensory experiences such as tingling or flashing lights. Epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, brain injury, infection, or brain tumors. It can also be idiopathic, meaning that the cause is unknown. There are several types of epilepsy, including partial seizures, generalized seizures, and absence seizures. Treatment for epilepsy typically involves medication to control seizures, although surgery or other interventions may be necessary in some cases.
In the medical field, a decerebrate state refers to a condition in which the brainstem is damaged or removed, resulting in a lack of control over movement and reflexes. This can occur as a result of injury or disease affecting the brainstem, such as a stroke, tumor, or trauma. In a decerebrate state, the individual may have difficulty maintaining posture and balance, and may exhibit abnormal movements such as tremors or jerky, uncoordinated movements. They may also have difficulty swallowing and speaking, and may experience changes in their level of consciousness or responsiveness. Treatment for a decerebrate state depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy to improve movement and coordination, and other supportive care. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the condition.
In the medical field, glutamates refer to a group of amino acids that are important for various physiological functions in the body. Glutamate is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in many important processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of blood pressure. In the brain, glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter, meaning that it stimulates the activity of neurons. However, excessive levels of glutamate can be toxic to neurons and have been implicated in the development of several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Glutamates are also important for the regulation of blood pressure, as they help to relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure. In addition, glutamates play a role in the immune system, as they help to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. Overall, glutamates are a critical component of many physiological processes in the body and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemicals that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more organic groups, such as alkyl, aryl, or alkoxy groups. These compounds are widely used in agriculture as pesticides, in the manufacturing of plastics, and as solvents. In the medical field, organophosphorus compounds are primarily used as nerve agents, which are toxic chemicals that interfere with the nervous system by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This inhibition leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, in the synapses, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and potentially leading to death. Organophosphorus compounds are also used as medications to treat certain medical conditions, such as myasthenia gravis, a disorder that causes muscle weakness. However, they can also have toxic effects on the body, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and respiratory distress.
Secobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is used to treat insomnia, anxiety, and seizures. It is a central nervous system depressant that works by slowing down activity in the brain and nervous system. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically prescribed for short-term use only. Secobarbital can be habit-forming and can cause dependence if used for an extended period of time. It is also a controlled substance and is subject to strict regulations regarding its use and distribution.
In the medical field, "Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic" refers to a class of organic compounds that contain two rings of carbon atoms, with one or more heteroatoms (atoms other than carbon) such as nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur, incorporated into the structure. These compounds are often used as pharmaceuticals or as intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. They can exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, and antitumor effects. Examples of bicyclo compounds include the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin.
Receptors, Neurotransmitter are proteins found on the surface of neurons that bind to specific neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, or glutamate. These receptors are responsible for transmitting signals across the synapse, the gap between neurons, and play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, memory, and movement. Dysfunction of neurotransmitter receptors has been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.
Chloride channels are ion channels that selectively allow chloride ions to pass through cell membranes. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of chloride ions across cell membranes, which is important for many physiological processes, including the regulation of fluid balance, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the secretion and absorption of fluids in various organs and tissues. There are several types of chloride channels, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels, which are involved in the regulation of fluid balance in the lungs and other organs, and volume-regulated chloride channels, which are involved in the regulation of cell volume and the movement of fluids across cell membranes. Disruptions in the function of chloride channels can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that affect the function of CFTR channels in the lungs and other organs. Other conditions that may be associated with disruptions in chloride channel function include epilepsy, ataxia, and certain types of hearing loss.
In the medical field, Bicyclo Compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain two rings connected by a single carbon-carbon bond. These compounds are often used as pharmaceuticals and have a wide range of biological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Some examples of bicyclo compounds include the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and the anti-cancer drug taxol.
Chlorisondamine is a medication that is used to treat allergic reactions, including hay fever and allergic rhinitis. It works by blocking the release of histamine, a chemical that is produced by the body in response to an allergen and causes symptoms such as itching, swelling, and runny nose. Chlorisondamine is available as a nasal spray or tablet and is usually taken as needed, usually once or twice a day. It is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, but like all medications, it can cause side effects. Some common side effects of chlorisondamine include dizziness, headache, and nausea.
Receptors, presynaptic are specialized proteins located on the surface of nerve terminals, which are the endings of neurons that release neurotransmitters. These receptors are responsible for detecting and responding to signals from other neurons or from the environment, and they play a crucial role in the transmission of signals within the nervous system. When a neurotransmitter binds to a presynaptic receptor, it can trigger a series of events that lead to the release of additional neurotransmitters or the inhibition of neurotransmitter release. This process is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and for the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes, including mood, cognition, and movement. Presynaptic receptors can be classified into several different types, including ionotropic receptors, which are directly linked to ion channels and can cause rapid changes in the membrane potential of the neuron, and metabotropic receptors, which are linked to intracellular signaling pathways and can cause slower, more prolonged changes in the neuron's activity.
Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that are commonly used as sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics in the medical field. They work by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety, fear, and tension. Benzodiazepines are often prescribed to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety disorders, insomnia, muscle spasms, seizures, and alcohol withdrawal. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but they can also be habit-forming and may cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, memory problems, and impaired coordination. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can also lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms when the medication is stopped abruptly. Therefore, it is important to use these drugs only as directed by a healthcare professional and to follow a gradual tapering schedule when discontinuing their use.
In the medical field, Isoquinolines are a class of organic compounds that are derived from the isoquinoline ring system. They are nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds that have a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and four carbon atoms. Isoquinolines have a variety of biological activities and are used in the development of drugs for the treatment of various diseases. For example, some isoquinolines have been found to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-tumor properties. They are also used as antimalarial agents, antiarrhythmics, and as inhibitors of various enzymes. Some well-known drugs that contain isoquinoline rings include quinine, which is used to treat malaria, and hyoscine, which is used as an antispasmodic. Other examples include the anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide and the antiarrhythmic drug quinidine.
4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase (4-ABAT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. It catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from 4-aminobutyrate (4-ABA) to alpha-ketoglutarate, producing succinyl-CoA and glutamate. This reaction is reversible, and the enzyme can also catalyze the reverse reaction, which is important for maintaining the balance of GABA and glutamate in the brain. 4-ABAT is primarily found in astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell that plays a key role in supporting neurons in the brain. It is involved in the metabolism of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and is important for regulating brain activity and preventing seizures. Abnormal levels of 4-ABAT activity have been associated with several neurological disorders, including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. In addition, mutations in the gene encoding 4-ABAT have been identified in some cases of inherited epilepsy.
Flumazenil is a medication that is used to reverse the effects of benzodiazepines, a class of drugs that are commonly used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. It works by binding to the same receptors in the brain that benzodiazepines do, but it has a much shorter duration of action and does not produce the same sedative or hypnotic effects. Flumazenil is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can be used to reverse the effects of benzodiazepines that have been taken orally or intravenously. It is often used in emergency situations, such as when a patient has taken an overdose of benzodiazepines or when they are experiencing benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Flumazenil can cause side effects, including anxiety, agitation, tremors, and seizures. It is important to use flumazenil under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may not be appropriate for everyone.
GABA receptor antagonist
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
Glycine receptor antagonist
Martin R. Ralph
Bicuculline methiodide ≥99% (HPLC) | 2503 | Tocris Bioscience
Distinct neural mechanisms construct classical versus extraclassical inhibitory surrounds in an inhibitory nucleus in the...
D(−)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid NMDA receptor antagonist | 79055-68-8
The Journal of Physiology
SciELO - Brazil - Dopamine depletion in wistar rats with epilepsy Dopamine depletion in wistar rats with epilepsy
Sonic hedgehog expression in the postnatal brain | Biology Open | The Company of Biologists
Bidirectional Control of Social Behavior by Activity within Basolateral and Central Amygdala of Primates
124-87-8・Picrotoxin・168-17961・164-17963[Detail Information] | [Life Science]|Laboratory Chemicals-FUJIFILM Wako Chemicals U.S.A...
Colonic Delivery of Active Agents - Patent application
Category:Pages with broken file links - wikidoc
Homogeneity of intracellular electrophysiological properties in different neuronal subtypes in medial preoptic slices...
Antiepileptic Drugs: Overview, Mechanism of Action, Sodium Channel Blockers
Binding competitive. Medical search. Web
Author Report for: Zhang D
K<sub>ATP</sub>-dependent neurotransmitter release in the neuronal network of the rat caudate...
The Pathological Role of Astrocytic MAOB in Parkinsonism Revealed by Genetic Ablation and Over-expression of MAOB
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Peripheral vibration causes an adenosine-mediated postsynaptic inhibitory potential in dorsal horn neurons of the cat spinal...
Small-molecule inhibitors of mTOR signalling pathway
July | 2023 | Mirna1
- There was a dose- and calcium-dependent release of dopamine from turtle retinas incubated in $\sp3$H-dopamine after perfusion of the GABA antagonist bicuculline. (tmc.edu)
- Depolarization and hyperpolarization of the cell to different membrane potentials reveals that these PSPs are both excitatory and inhibitory (A). Blocking GABAA-receptor mediated inhibition with the local application of bicuculline demonstrates that the inhibitory PSPs control the amplitude of the "UP" state of the slow oscillation (B). (yale.edu)
- Bicuculline blocked the fast IPSPs, which reversed near the Cl2 equilibrium potential (‐71 ± 5mV), indicating their mediation by gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. (korea.ac.kr)
- Research Fellow, Laboratory of Experimental Neurosurgery, Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moléculaire. (silverchair.com)
Blocked by the GABAA antagonist1
- These effects were blocked by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we used single-cell recordings and bicuculline (GABAA antagonist) injections to elucidate the role of VP both in the encoding of aversive context and in active avoidance. (uzh.ch)
- Met), the ETSP employs additional chemoconvulsant tests wherein a seizure is induced by the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline, and the GABAA chloride-channel blocker, picrotoxin. (nih.gov)
- this inhibition could be blocked by intra-LPBN application of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline. (neurosciencenews.com)
- Tiagabine has little efficacy against maximal electroshock seizures in rats and is only partially effective against subcutaneous PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice, picrotoxin-induced tonic seizures in the mouse, bicuculline-induced seizures in the rat, and photic seizures in photosensitive baboons. (nih.gov)
- Bicuculline and Picrotoxin are other drugs. (pharmacampus.in)
- Assessment of the effect of an investigational compound against the chemoconvulsants, bicuculline and picrotoxin. (nih.gov)
- i.e., the s.c. bicuculline (BIC) or s.c. picrotoxin (PIC) tests that can be used for evaluating the anticonvulsant potential of investigational ASD s. (nih.gov)
- Bicuculline and picrotoxin are two widely-used chemoconvulsant models of seizure susceptibility and seizure threshold. (nih.gov)
- Whether those compounds that are effective in other ETSP screens are also found to elevate seizure threshold in the subcutaneous bicuculline and picrotoxin tests may provide therapeutic efficacy in the clinical management of epilepsy but will necessarily have to await the results of any ongoing or planned clinical trials in the patient with epilepsy. (nih.gov)
- 1. The isolated frog spinal cord was used to study the effects of picrotoxin, bicuculline, and strychnine on the responses of primary afferents to amino acids. (bocsci.com)
- 3. Picrotoxin and bicuculline antagonized the primary afferent depolarizations of a number of amino acids tested with equal specificity. (bocsci.com)
- The neurosteroid, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, protects against bicuculline-induced seizures during ethanol withdrawal in rats. (nih.gov)
- Bicuculline appears to induce seizures by disrupting normal inhibitory neurotransmission (i.e., weakening synaptic inhibition) through GABA receptor disruption [1, 2]. (nih.gov)
- There is a synergistic anxiogenic effect between histamine and bicuculline in mice. (bvsalud.org)
- We found that a 2-h neonatal propofol exposure did not significantly reduce paired pulse inhibition, alter the effect of muscimol (3 µM) to inhibit field excitatory postsynaptic potentials or alter the effect of bicuculline (100 µM) to increase the population spike in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from adult mice. (smarttots.org)
- 11. Effect of bicuculline-induced status epilepticus on prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in rat brain subcellular fractions. (nih.gov)