Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Carbonic Anhydrases: A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Ethoxzolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Acidosis, Respiratory: Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.HEPES: A dipolar ionic buffer.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Hemodialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.SLC4A Proteins: Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.CitratesAcidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methazolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Hemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/3033)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive African Americans: antipressor and hemodynamic effects of potassium bicarbonate. (2/3033)

In 16 African Americans (blacks, 14 men, 2 women) with average admission mean arterial pressure (MAP, mm Hg) 99.9+/-3.5 (mean+/-SEM), we investigated whether NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction attends salt sensitivity and, if so, whether supplemental KHCO3 ameliorates both conditions. Throughout a 3-week period under controlled metabolic conditions, all subjects ate diets containing 15 mmol NaCl and 30 mmol potassium (K+) (per 70 kg body wt [BW] per day). Throughout weeks 2 and 3, NaCl was loaded to 250 mmol/d; throughout week 3, dietary K+ was supplemented to 170 mmol/d (KHCO3). On the last day of each study week, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using renal clearances of PAH and inulin. Ten subjects were salt sensitive (SS) (DeltaMAP >+5%) and 6 salt resistant (SR). In NaCl-loaded SS but not SR subjects, RBF (mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 920+/-75 to 828+/-46 (P<0.05); filtration fraction (FF, %) increased from 19. 4+/- to 21.4 (P<0.001); and renal vascular resistance (RVR) (10(3)xmm Hg/[mL/min]) increased from 101+/-8 to 131+/-10 (P<0.001). In all subjects combined, DeltaMAP varied inversely with DeltaRBF (r =-0.57, P=0.02) and directly with DeltaRVR (r = 0.65, P=0.006) and DeltaFF (r = 0.59, P=0.03), but not with MAP before NaCl loading. When supplemental KHCO3 abolished the pressor effect of NaCl in SS subjects, RBF was unaffected but GFR and FF decreased. The results show that in marginally K+-deficient blacks (1) NaCl-induced renal vasoconstrictive dysfunction attends salt sensitivity; (2) the dysfunction varies in extent directly with the NaCl-induced increase in blood pressure (BP); and (3) is complexly affected by supplemented KHCO3, GFR and FF decreasing but RBF not changing. In blacks, NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction may be a pathogenetic event in salt sensitivity.  (+info)

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (3/3033)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (4/3033)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (5/3033)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (6/3033)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium. (7/3033)

1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response.  (+info)

A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes. (8/3033)

1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration.  (+info)

Diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common problem in Veterans and progresses to end-stage renal disease in many people. It is important to identify treatment strategies that will help prevent the progression of CKD to overt kidney failure. The purpose of this study is to see if sodium bicarbonate reduces urinary markers of kidney damage in Veterans with diabetic CKD and normal serum bicarbonate levels ...
When running in vivo experiments, it is imperative to keep arterial blood pressure and acid-base parameters within the normal physiological range. The aim of this investigation was to explore the consequences of anesthesia-induced acidosis on basal and PGE2-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial acid-base balance, and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were studied. Two intra-arterial fluid support strategies were used: a standard Ringer solution and an isotonic Na2CO3 solution. Duodenal single perfusion was used, and DMBS was assessed by back titration of the effluent. PGE2 was used to stimulate DMBS. In Ringer solution-infused mice, isoflurane-induced acidosis became worse with time. The blood pH was 7.15-7.21 and the base excess was about -8 mM at the end of experiments. The continuous infusion of Na2CO3 solution completely compensated for the ...
A recent report from the National Kidney Foundation 2011 Spring Clinical Meetings retrospectively evaluated 50 hemodialysis patients hospitalized in October 2010. Their outpatient dialysate prescription included a 35 mEq/L bicarbonate solution and an acid concentrate which contained 8 mEq/L of acetate (total bicarbonate of 43 mEq/L). At presentation, the patients mean serum bicarbonate level was 31.3 mEq/L and 54 percent had a serum bicarbonate ,30 mEq/L. (Pande S, Raja R, Bloom E, Chewaproug D, Dissanayake I. Effect of dialysate baths on serum bicarbonate levels in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Disease 2011; 57(4): A75 (Abstract #234)) (journal subscription or payment is required to view ...
294846378 - EP 1035847 A1 2000-09-20 - STABLE SOLUTION OF ZINC AND BICARBONATE IONS - [origin: US5855873A] A storage stable aqueous or aqueous/alcoholic solution of zinc ions in the presence of bicarbonate ions is disclosed. The solution comprises: (a) a source of zinc ion, (b) a source of a stabilizing anion which can stabilize soluble zinc and bicarbonate in solution; (c) a source of bicarbonate ion; and (d) a solvent therefor. The solvent comprises: (i) a major proportion of water; (ii) optionally a minor amount of a lower monohydric alcohol; and (iii) optionally a minor amount of a humectant having at least 3 hydroxy groups. The zinc salt is present in an amount A sufficient to provide from about 0.01 weight % to about 1 weight % zinc ion; the stabilizing anion in an amount B of at least 1.2 equivalents per equivalent of zinc ion; and the bicarbonate ion cannot exceed certain levels which are related to the level of the stabilizing anion.[origin: US5855873A] A storage stable aqueous or aqueous
Fig. 4. Number of respondents who currently use calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, or both solutions Eleven of the thirty-eight respondents currently use either or both bicarbonate solutions. Figure 4 shows which of the two (or both) solutions these paper conservators are using. It was particularly interesting to note that all but one of the conservators determine the concentration of bicarbonate solutions by measuring the pH of the solution and adjusting it to levels between pH 6 and pH 9, instead of determining ppm calcium or magnesium. the relationship between the pH and the concentration of bicarbonate solution is, however, only a very tentative one, as has been indicated by several authors. Brederick et al. noted the pH level decreases with increasing solution concentrations as carbon dioxide is added (p. 173, Table 3).3 Wilson et al. determined the pH levels of magnesium bicarbonate solutions from which carbon dioxide has been removed: a 1M solution that had an initial pH of 6.98 ...
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Individuals with a serum bicarbonate level below 24 mEq/L have a 2-fold increased risk of AKI compared with those with a level of 25-28 mEq/L.
Detective Nephron, world-renowned for expert analytical skills, trains budding physician-detectives on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. L.O. Henle presents a new case to the master consultant.
The rate of bicarbonate reabsorption (JHCO3) by in vitro initial collecting tubules (ICT) from aquatic- and land-phase Ambystoma tigrinum was measured. These animals intrinsically have different levels of plasma bicarbonate, 17.6 and 27.1 mM, respectively. ICT from both phases reabsorbed bicarbonate at 11 pmol X mm-1 X min-1 when perfused in solutions equilibrated with 3% CO2. The induction of metabolic acidosis or alkalosis had no effect on JHCO3 by in vitro ICT. JHCO3 was abolished when ICT from aquatic animals were perfused with solutions equilibrated with 1% CO2 and returned toward the control value when 3% CO2 was reintroduced. The effect of plasma CO2 partial pressure on JHCO3 of the ICT may explain, at least in part, the observed difference in plasma bicarbonate of the aquatic- and land-phase animals. JHCO3 was reduced to 22% of control with amiloride and to 42% of control when a Na+-free perfusate was used, but was insensitive to ethoxzolamide. These data are consistent with the presence of a
Showing food with ammonium bicarbonate minerals. Use CHOMP to find Vegan, Vegetarian, & Gluten-Free friendly foods, find foods that dont have ingredients you want to avoid, create lists of your favorite foods, read and write food reviews, and more.
Global Ammonium Bicarbonate Market Research Report 2017 contains historic data that spans 2012 to 2016, and then continues to forecast to 2022. That makes this report so invaluable, resources, for the leaders as well as the new entrants in the Industry
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Experiencing fluctuating bicarbonate levels? Some dietary modifications may keep these levels in check, though this is yet to be medically established.
1. Chest. 2013 May;143(5):1284-93. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1132. Serum bicarbonate level improves specificity of STOP-bang screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Chung F, Chau E, Yang Y, Liao P, Hall R, Mokhlesi B. Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. [email protected] BACKGROUND: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for the identification of surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 is highly sensitive but only moderately specific. Apnea/hypopnea during sleep can lead to intermittent hypercapnia and may result in serum bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) retention. The addition of serum HCO₃⁻ level to the STOP-Bang questionnaire may improve its specificity. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-seven preoperative patients were approached for consent and screened by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography was performed and preoperative HCO₃⁻ level was ...
1. Chest. 2013 May;143(5):1284-93. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1132. Serum bicarbonate level improves specificity of STOP-bang screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Chung F, Chau E, Yang Y, Liao P, Hall R, Mokhlesi B. Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. [email protected] BACKGROUND: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for the identification of surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 is highly sensitive but only moderately specific. Apnea/hypopnea during sleep can lead to intermittent hypercapnia and may result in serum bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) retention. The addition of serum HCO₃⁻ level to the STOP-Bang questionnaire may improve its specificity. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-seven preoperative patients were approached for consent and screened by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography was performed and preoperative HCO₃⁻ level was ...
The present invention provides devices and methods for stabilizing bicarbonate-based solutions for peritoneal dialysis or hemofiltration. The bicarbonate-based solutions of the present invention are formulated and stored in at least two parts-an alkaline bicarbonate concentrate and an acidic concentrate. The alkaline bicarbonate concentrate is adjusted to have a pH of about 8.6 to 10.0. The acidic concentrate is adjusted to have a stable, acidic pH ranging from about 1.0 to 3.0. Upon mixing, although some variation in the pH of the mixed bicarbonate solution exists, the inventors have discovered that with the appropriate selection of the parameters of the concentrates, the pH of the mixed solution is always within an acceptable physiological range.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in rabbit cortical collecting tubules. AU - Schuster, V. L.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - We studied the effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) on HCO3- transport by rabbit cortical collecting tubules perfused in vitro. Net HCO3- secretion was observed in tubules from NaHCO3- loaded rabbits. 8-Bromo-cAMP-stimulated net HCO3- secretion, whereas secretion fell with time in control tubules. Both isoproterenol and vasopressin (ADH) are known to stimulate adenylate cyclase in this epithelium; however, only isoproterenol stimulated net HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of cAMP-stimulated HCO3- secretion was examined. If both HCO3- and H+ secretion were to occur simultaneously in tubules exhibiting net HCO3- secretion, cAMP might increase the net HCO3- secretory rate by inhibiting H+ secretion, by stimulating HCO3- secretion, or both. These possibilities were examined using basolateral addition of the disulfonic stilbene ...
The human body has four native buffer systems - bicarbonate, hemoglobin, protein, and phosphate systems. An ideal buffering system has a pKa of ~ 7.4 (normal physiologic pH). Bicarbonate has a pKa of 6.1, which is NOT ideal in normal physiologic conditions. In fact, the pH range of effectiveness is probably ~ 5.1 - 7.1 for the bicarbonate buffer system. Bicarbonate is better described as a CO2 transport mechanism and not as a buffer - protons combine with hydrogen ions which are at equilibrium with carbonic acid (H2CO3), water, and CO2.. According to Miller, "Volatile acid is principally buffered by hemoglobin. Deoxygenated hemoglobin is a strong base, and there would be a huge increase in the pH of venous blood if hemoglobin did not bind hydrogen ions that are produced by metabolism." Thus, it seems that the primary function of bicarbonate is to accept protons which can be ultimately converted to water and CO2 (and excreted as volatile acid), whereas the protons produced by accumulation of ...
Generally healthy older individuals with normal or high bicarbonate levels in the blood had a similar risk of dying during follow-up, but patients with low bicarbonate had a 24 percent increased risk compared with these groups.
Inappropriate prescription of NaturaLyte and GranuFlo products can lead to a high serum bicarbonate level in patients undergoing hemodialysis. These products can help kidney failure patients during the process of dialysis by converting into bicarbonate, which helps clean the bloodstream of a patient in a way that the kidneys would otherwise be able to do. However, the FDA investigation showed that doctors were administering the drug at too high a level for healthy human consumption. Dosage errors may contribute to metabolic alkalosis, which is a significant risk factor associated with low blood pressure, hypokalemia, hypoxemia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia, which, if not appropriately treated, may culminate in cardiopulmonary arrest. This product may cause serious adverse health consequences, including death ...
Background Serum bicarbonate is associated with mortality, heart failure (HF) and progression of renal failure in studies of healthy people and patients with chronic kidney disease, but the...
Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven
We all want to look well and be healthy regardless of our age, seasons, weather or our finances. More and more people are getting interested in natural and affordable beauty products. The most accessible, natural and affordable products get often overlooked though. Did you know for instance that bicarbonate of soda is an amazing product that can be used for health and beauty purposes?. I discovered bicarbonate of soda or baking soda a couple of years ago and it is officially the second of my two favourite beauty and health products - after coconut oil. Bicarbonate of soda is another universal body care product that I use a lot. Instead of a number of bottles, tubes and colourful boxes that I used to have a few years ago I now have two pots - with coconut oil and bicarbonate of soda!. NB! If you decide to give it a go after reading this article, make sure the label reads bicarbonate of soda or baking soda and not baking powder! Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and a dry acid, such as ...
সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড, আপনি যা করতে পারেন কেনা ভাল মানের সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড , আমরা সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড পরিবেশক & সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড উত্পাদক চীন থেকে বাজার.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients.. Methods: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods.. Results: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement.. Conclusion: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of ...
Of 1328 records reviewed, hospital discharge data, ETCO2, and all 6 prehospital vital signs were available in 1088 patients. Low ETCO2 levels were the strongest predictor of mortality in the overall group (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.85), as well as subgroup analysis excluding prehospital cardiac arrest (AUC of 0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.87). The sensitivity of abnormal ETCO2 for predicting mortality was 93% (95% CI 79%-98%), the specificity was 44% (95% CI 41%-48%), and the negative predictive value was 99% (95% CI 92%-100%). There were significant associations between ETCO2 and serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.429, P , .001), anion gap (r = -0.216, P , .001), and lactate (r = -0.376, P , .001).. ...
This is the first, large scale, community-based randomized controlled trial evidence demonstrating that comprehensive community-based intervention by multidisciplinary care team in conjunction with a community care network teams of non-healthcare members can slow the rate of eGFR decline and is feasible and in CKD patients residing in resource-limited settings. Given similar medical care between the two groups including medication in particular ACEi/ARBs and educational materials, our study demonstrated that integrated CKD care significantly improved several clinical parameters with respect to serum bicarbonate levels, 24-h urine nPNA, 24-h urine Na, HbA1C, and serum triglyceride levels. Each parameter had been proven effectiveness on delaying CKD progression or lowering cardiovascular events by single-factorial intervention studies [22-27]. In other words, we may imply that the key factors in delaying CKD progression of Integrated CKD Care were improvement of compliance with medication and ...
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Previous studies that have evaluated the Na(+)-H+ antiporter in cells from hypertensive subjects were generally performed under conditions in which HCO3-CO2, the physiological buffer system, was absent from the assay media. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter and that of the Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchangers in cells assayed in the presence of HCO3-CO2 in the media. Lymphocytes from 6- to 8-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were obtained from the thymus gland and assayed immediately after isolation. The activity of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter after stimulation by cell acidification (pHi approximately 6.4) was similar in SHR and WKY rats (18.67 +/- 1.03 and 16.12 +/- 0.92 mmol H+/L per minute, respectively). Recovery from cell alkalinization was effected by an Na(+)-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchanger, with maximal activity at an alkaline pHi (approximately 7.7). The ...
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Insert the stopper of a Black Top Tube into the Cups transfer port. This will pierce the stopper and allow the tube to automatically fill. Allow tube to fill until flow ceases ...
71-52-3 - BVKZGUZCCUSVTD-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Bicarbonate ion - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate. However, the scaling formed on the inner surface of the pipes would be released into the water under certain conditions. The Larson Index (LI), used for a synthetic consideration of anion effects on iron stability, was selected to investigate the iron release under multi-factor conditions. Moreover, a well fitted linear model was established to gain a better
Haihua China, Detailed Product Description Features: 1) Total alkali NH4HCO3: 99.2% - 101.0% 2) Chloride Cl: 0.003% max. 3) Sulphate SO4: 0.007% max. 4) Ash: 0.008% max. 5) As: 0.0002% max. 6) Heavy
PURPOSE: To test our hypothesis that differences in urinary calcium excretion among blacks and whites may be secondary to ethnic variations in acid (H(+)) metabolism and to prove that increases in titratable acid excretion would be found among indivi
For some people with kidney disease and kidney failure, maintaining serum bicarbonate at clinically appropriate levels has shown to slow the rate of kidney failure or kidney disease progression.
Abstract: Background: Renal potassium excretion (JK) is enhanced by hormones such as vasopressin, and in conditions where urine bicarbonate excretion rises. The presence of impermeant anions such as sulfate has also been shown to enhance renal potassium secretion. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the role of vasopressin and of impermeant anions and alkaline pH in JK. Methods: Stationary microperfusion was performed on late distal segments, which were punctured with a K-sensitive resin / reference microelectrode. A single micropipette impaled another loop, and the voltage between the electrode barrels was used to obtain K+ activities; transepithelial PD was also measured, and secretory K+ fluxes (JK) were calculated from the rate of increase of K+ concentration and tubule geometry.Results: Control rates of JK were 0.65±0.05(n = 15) nmol.cm-2.s-1.When 10-12 to 10-9 M vasopressin was perfused luminally, JK increased up to 49% by action on V1 receptorsWhen 20 mM NaCl and 53 mM ...
We studied the changes in urinary bicarbonate, urinary pH and some physical parameters such as minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO,sub,2,/sub,), respiratory carbon dioxide (VCO,sub,2,/sub,), heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate, before and after the submaximal exercise. Six male subjects aged 28-33 years were involved in the study. They performed the incremental exercise test using a bicycle ergometer until exhaustion. Levels of VE, VO,sub,2,/sub,, VCO,sub,2,/sub,, heart rate, and blood pressure increased continuously with an increase in cycling intensity. These parameters markedly decreased and reached the baseline levels within 5-10 minutes after the termination of exercise. According to an increase in cycling intensity, blood lactate increased continuously during exercise, but after termination of exercise the return of lactate to the baseline level was markedly retarded. Urinary bicarbonate and pH were within the range of those at 0 time (baseline levels) from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bicarbonate kinetics and predicted energy expenditure in critically ill children. AU - Sy, Jama. AU - Gourishankar, Anand. AU - Gordon, William E.. AU - Griffin, Debra. AU - Zurakowski, David. AU - Roth, Rachel M.. AU - Coss-Bu, Jorge. AU - Jefferson, Larry. AU - Heird, William. AU - Castillo, Leticia. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Background: To determine nutrient requirements by the carbon oxidation techniques, it is necessary to know the fraction of carbon dioxide produced during the oxidative process but not excreted. This fraction has not been described in critically ill children. By measuring the dilution of 13C infused by metabolically produced carbon dioxide, the rates of carbon dioxide appearance can be estimated. Energy expenditure can be determined by bicarbonate dilution kinetics if the energy equivalents of carbon dioxide (food quotient) from the diet ingested are known. Objective: We conducted a 6-h, primed, continuous tracer infusion of NaH13CO3 in critically ...
The back-titration procedure, associated with the Gran Plot method to detect the process end point, was compared with other volumetric procedures for the potentiometric acid-base titration determination of bicarbonate and was explored as a tool for the determination of the bicarbonate content in substrates used as growing media. This procedure was compared with the second derivative approach as well as with continuous titration with standard HCl on the extract solution (direct measurement), until reaching pH 4.0. By using known standard samples, it was noted that the results obtained with the second derivative method were both lower and inconsistent, because of the high dilution of both the sample solution and the titrant. On the other hand, the continuous direct titration (until pH 4.0) presents positive errors due to the presence of dissolved CO2 in the titrated solution. Although comparable in precision, the best performance and accuracy were observed for the back-titration with the Gran ...
The chemical formula for zinc bicarbonate is Zn(HCO3)2, according to EndMemo. Zinc bicarbonate is also referred to as zinc hydrogen carbonate. Zn is the chemical symbol for zinc, H is the chemical...
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What is the Spanish word for bicarbonate of soda? bicarbonate of soda is translated by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as
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The diagnostic criteria for DKA and HHS are shown in Table 1. The initial laboratory evaluation of patients include determination of plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, electrolytes (with calculated anion gap), osmolality, serum and urinary ketones, and urinalysis, as well as initial arterial blood gases and a complete blood count with a differential. An electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and urine, sputum, or blood cultures should also be obtained.. The severity of DKA is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the severity of metabolic acidosis (blood pH, bicarbonate, and ketones) and the presence of altered mental status (4). Significant overlap between DKA and HHS has been reported in more than one-third of patients (36). Although most patients with HHS have an admission pH ,7.30 and a bicarbonate level ,18 mEq/l, mild ketonemia may be present (4,10).. Severe hyperglycemia and dehydration with altered mental status in the absence of significant acidosis characterize HHS, ...
The mathematical analysis showed that the diluent [SID] required to maintain unmodified the baseline pH equals the baseline bicarbonate concentration, [HCO3−], assuming constant PCO2 throughout the process. The experimental data confirmed the theoretical analysis. In fact, at the baseline [HCO3−] of 18.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l (PCO2 35 mmHg) the pH was 7.332 ± 0.004 and remained 7.333 ± 0.003 when the diluting [SID] was 18.5 ± 0.0 mEq/l. At baseline [HCO3−] of 19.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l (PCO2 78 mmHg) the pH was 7.010 ± 0.003 and remained 7.004 ± 0.003 when the diluting [SID] was 19.1 ± 0.1 mEq/l. At both PCO2 values infusion with [SID] lower or greater than baseline [HCO3−] led pH to decrease or increase, respectively.. ...
to make a bite, make this paste, easy to apply: mix 2 to 3 measures of bicarbonate, 1 measure of water or sweet almond oil. Rub the stitched part. For stinging insects or ticks with heads under the skin, consult a pharmacist or doctor. Prevent sprinkling bicarbonate on animal carpets and cushions (1 to 2 tablespoons / m2) to discourage mites, fleas and ticks.For sunburn or superficial burns, make the same recipe on a compress, to apply on the skin, for a soothing effect. ...
Magnesium bicarbonate is a complex hydrated salt only found in liquid form, it is naturally present in water, it is not found in any foods.
Question 4: Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor ________ and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function, but it is also used to measure blood pH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions. ...
Calculate volume of Bicarbonate of soda per weight, it weighs 2 200 kg/m³ (137.34151 lb/ft³). Materials weight to volume conversions
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There are so many uses for Bicarbonate of Soda that you could write a book on the subject. So I did www.bakingsodabook.co.uk ...
Revenue and Customs Brief 8/18 -VAT liability of bicarbonate of soda by HM Revenue and Customs in Tax Articles section. Our business articles section has business related and useful articles from Experts. Free article submission, submit your articles to your business resources today.
Bicarbonate of soda also known as baking soda, is more than just a raising agent used in baking your favourite treats. Take a look at just some of the uses for this incredibly versatile product.
This guide offers tips for all manner of household tasks using bicarbonate of soda, including cleaning, laundry, and beauty. With simple text and attractive illustration.
To evaluate the safety of administration of TRC101 in CKD patients with metabolic acidosis (blood bicarbonate 12 to 20 mEq/L) To evaluate the efficacy of TRC101
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I use Bicarb to buffer my KH. Normally I mix this up in a bucket and pour into the pond. Is there any issue with adding the powder directly into a mov
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Bicarbonate soda, also known as baking soda or soda bicarbonate has been used since the ancient times as it can help in curing many ailments. It has m
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Characterization of HCO3-/CO2 pool sizes and kinetics in infants.: The first bicarbonate pool sizes and kinetic data necessary for the interpretation of substra
There could be a new way to detect disease, researchers say. The technique uses MRI of hyperpolarized bicarbonate to measure tissue pH, which often is
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Sodium bicarbonate. Combinations and complexes. of aluminium, calcium and magnesium. *Almagate. *Almasilate ...
... can be prepared in laboratory by reaction between any soluble magnesium salt and sodium bicarbonate: MgCl2( ... High purity industrial routes include a path through magnesium bicarbonate, which can be formed by combining a slurry of ... magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide at high pressure and moderate temperature.[5] The bicarbonate is then vacuum dried, ...
Bicarbonate ion Aqueous HCO3- −689.93 Carbonate ion Aqueous CO32- −675.23 ...
See also bicarbonate. See also[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to sulfates. ...
10mM potassium bicarbonate. *0.1mM EDTA. *Adjust pH to 7.2-7.4. Lysis buffer in DNA and RNA studies[edit]. In studies like DNA ...
Ammonium bicarbonate - NH4HCO3. *Ammonium bisulfate - NH4HSO4 ...
... bicarbonate; Moffettes; Subalpine tonic-stimulant bioclimate; Stănescu Spring: output of 405 l / h, T 7 °C, pH 6.2; naturally ... bicarbonate, sodium, calcium; Mikes Spring: free output, T 14 °C, pH 5.6; hypotonic, naturally carbonated, mildly ferruginous, ... with chlorine, bicarbonate, sodium. The town is twinned with: Budapest 18th district, Hungary Harkány, Hungary Jászkarajenő, ... carbonated, with bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, magnesium; Apor Spring: output of 7200 l / h, T 7 °C, pH 5.3; hypotonic, ...
Stănescu Spring: output of 405 l / h, T 7 °C, pH 6.2; naturally carbonated, with bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, magnesium; ... Apor Spring: output of 7200 l / h, T 7 °C, pH 5.3; hypotonic, naturally carbonated, ferruginous, with chlorine, bicarbonate, ... Mikes Spring: free output, T 14 °C, pH 5.6; hypotonic, naturally carbonated, mildly ferruginous, with chlorine, bicarbonate, ...
the bicarbonate concentration in the blood at a CO2 of 5.33 kPa, full oxygen saturation and 37 Celsius.[11]. ... Bicarbonate is a base that helps to accept excess hydrogen ions whenever there is acidaemia. However, this mechanism is slower ... In acidaemia, the bicarbonate levels rise, so that they can neutralize the excess acid, while the contrary happens when there ... However, in a critical setting, a patient with a normal pH, a high CO2, and a high bicarbonate means that, although there is a ...
Carbonic acid is consumed by silicate weathering, resulting in more alkaline solutions because of the bicarbonate. This is an ... olivine (forsterite) + carbon dioxide + water ⇌ Magnesium and bicarbonate ions in solution + silicic acid in solution. This ... carbonic acid + calcium carbonate → calcium bicarbonate. Carbonation on the surface of well-jointed limestone produces a ... and forms calcium bicarbonate. This process speeds up with a decrease in temperature, not because low temperatures generally ...
Salivary bicarbonates are synthesized from CO2. The less CO2 available, the fewer bicarbonates can be synthesized; therefore, ... Bicarbonates in the saliva raise the pH inside the mouth. When there is no or low saliva flow, also known as xerostomia, the pH ... The decrease in CO2 affects the amount of bicarbonates available. ... pH inside the mouth depends on the salival flow rate because the higher the flow rate of saliva the more salival bicarbonates ...
Quackwatch lists sodium bicarbonate injections as a "dubious treatment." Simoncini was tried and found guilty of fraud and ... He also says that cancer can be cured with injections of sodium bicarbonate. He says that he was formerly an oncologist, but ... "Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014. "A ... that he was struck off because he prescribed sodium bicarbonate instead of conventional chemotherapy. The mainstream medical ...
"Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 19 February 2013. Retrieved 7 ... According to the American Cancer Society: "evidence also does not support the idea that sodium bicarbonate works as a treatment ... Sodium bicarbonate (or baking soda) - the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3, sometimes promoted as cure for cancer by ...
Used for oral or parenteral therapy, sodium bicarbonate is the commonly preferred alkalinizing agent. Others include potassium ... "Sodium Bicarbonate". Drugs.com. "Alkalinizing". Medical Dictionary, The Free Dictionary. ...
25 mmol/L bicarbonate (higher than plasma). *1.4-39 mmol/L phosphate ...
Circulating hydrogen ions and bicarbonate are shifted through the carbonic acid (H2CO3) intermediate to make more CO2 via the ... The Davenport diagram allows clinicians or investigators to outline blood bicarbonate concentrations (and blood pH) after a ... "The effects of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis on net bicarbonate flux along the rat loop of Henle in vivo". American ... here one finds the kidneys have time to decrease the bicarbonate level.[13] ...
... sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3); dimethyl sulfide (DMS) gives an aldehyde and a dimethyl acetal Using acetic anhydride (Ac2O), ...
bicarbonate Hydrogen sulfate. HSO−. 4. bisulfate Hydrogen sulfite. HSO−. 3. bisulfite Hydroxide. OH−. ...
Carbonic acid includes both carbonates and bicarbonates. The graph provides a good visual aid to understanding how more than ...
Primaxin IV is a combination of imipenem, cilastatin sodium, and sodium bicarbonate which is added as a buffer.[7] Primaxin IM ...
The KM values for ATP, propionyl-CoA, and bicarbonate has been determined to be 0.08 mM, 0.29 mM, and 3.0 mM, respectively. The ... Bicarbonate: negative cooperativity d. Mg2+ and MgATP2−: allosteric activation a. 6-Deoxyerythronolide B: decrease in PCC ...
... and bicarbonate.[1] This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of ATP and bicarbonate to produce carboxy phosphate and ADP. Carboxy ... Bicarbonate ion is phosphorylated with ATP to create carboxylphosphate.. *The carboxylphosphate then reacts with ammonia to ...
Sodium bicarbonate should not be given at this time. If the patient does not respond, hemodialysis may be instituted, which is ... Alkalization of the urine with acetazolamide or sodium bicarbonate is controversial. Routine alkalization of urine above pH of ...
Here is the reason: lactate 45 instead of bicarbonate. This is the theoretical basis ,Scribner has no machine that uses lactate ...
Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes added to soften the peas. In 2005, a poll of 2,000 people revealed the pea to be Britain's ...
... , Polycitra, Shohl Solution, Oral Sodium Bicarbonate. ... Bicarbonate Supplementation. Bicarbonate Supplementation Aka: Bicarbonate Supplementation, Polycitra, Shohl Solution, Oral ... Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Bicarbonate in Severe Metabolic Acidosis Tromethamine Urine Alkalinization Vasopressin Receptor ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Bicarbonate Supplementation." Click on the image (or right ...
Potassium bicarbonate is used to prevent or to treat a potassium deficiency (hypokalemia). Potassium bicarbonate may also be ... What other drugs will affect potassium bicarbonate?. The following drugs can interact with potassium bicarbonate. Tell your ... There are many other medicines that can interact with potassium bicarbonate. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and ... What are the possible side effects of potassium bicarbonate?. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an ...
Potassium bicarbonate is considered safe and doesnt require special handling. Storage. Potassium bicarbonate should be kept in ... Potassium bicarbonate is sold by winemaking stores as a pH regulator/buffer. It is more expensive than sodium bicarbonate. ... As potassium bicarbonate is insoluble in alcohol, it will precipitate, while sodium bicarbonate will stay in solution. ... Potassium bicarbonate or potassium hydrogen carbonate is a hygroscopic colorless salt of potassium with the formula KHCO3.It is ...
Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Potassium Bicarbonate Revenue,... ... 121 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Potassium Bicarbonate Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. ... United States Potassium Bicarbonate Market Report 2016 Table of Contents United States Potassium Bicarbonate Market Report 2016 ... Table USA Potassium Bicarbonate Sales Share by Type (2011-2016) Figure USA Potassium Bicarbonate Sales Market Share by Type in ...
of potassium bicarbonate in 10 Cc. of water, should not at once be colored red by 1 drop of phenolphtalein T.S. (limit of ... An impure bicarbonate of potassium, in powder form, known as Sal aeratus, was once used extensively in baking. ... of potassium bicarbonate should require 10 Cc. of normal sulphuric acid (corresponding to 100 per cent of pure salt), methyl ... Potassium bicarbonate, in well-diluted solution, forms an excellent agent for softening and removing the scales formed upon the ...
Justsee provide the top 10 potassium bicarbonate Chennai, addresses, phone numbers, contact information. ... Find the best potassium bicarbonate in Aalanavara. ...
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