Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 4.2.1.1.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
A dipolar ionic buffer.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used as a diuretic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/3033)

The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase.  (+info)

NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive African Americans: antipressor and hemodynamic effects of potassium bicarbonate. (2/3033)

In 16 African Americans (blacks, 14 men, 2 women) with average admission mean arterial pressure (MAP, mm Hg) 99.9+/-3.5 (mean+/-SEM), we investigated whether NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction attends salt sensitivity and, if so, whether supplemental KHCO3 ameliorates both conditions. Throughout a 3-week period under controlled metabolic conditions, all subjects ate diets containing 15 mmol NaCl and 30 mmol potassium (K+) (per 70 kg body wt [BW] per day). Throughout weeks 2 and 3, NaCl was loaded to 250 mmol/d; throughout week 3, dietary K+ was supplemented to 170 mmol/d (KHCO3). On the last day of each study week, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using renal clearances of PAH and inulin. Ten subjects were salt sensitive (SS) (DeltaMAP >+5%) and 6 salt resistant (SR). In NaCl-loaded SS but not SR subjects, RBF (mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 920+/-75 to 828+/-46 (P<0.05); filtration fraction (FF, %) increased from 19. 4+/- to 21.4 (P<0.001); and renal vascular resistance (RVR) (10(3)xmm Hg/[mL/min]) increased from 101+/-8 to 131+/-10 (P<0.001). In all subjects combined, DeltaMAP varied inversely with DeltaRBF (r =-0.57, P=0.02) and directly with DeltaRVR (r = 0.65, P=0.006) and DeltaFF (r = 0.59, P=0.03), but not with MAP before NaCl loading. When supplemental KHCO3 abolished the pressor effect of NaCl in SS subjects, RBF was unaffected but GFR and FF decreased. The results show that in marginally K+-deficient blacks (1) NaCl-induced renal vasoconstrictive dysfunction attends salt sensitivity; (2) the dysfunction varies in extent directly with the NaCl-induced increase in blood pressure (BP); and (3) is complexly affected by supplemented KHCO3, GFR and FF decreasing but RBF not changing. In blacks, NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction may be a pathogenetic event in salt sensitivity.  (+info)

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (3/3033)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (4/3033)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (5/3033)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (6/3033)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium. (7/3033)

1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response.  (+info)

A novel role for carbonic anhydrase: cytoplasmic pH gradient dissipation in mouse small intestinal enterocytes. (8/3033)

1. The spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular H+ ions in response to activation of a proton-coupled dipeptide transporter localized at the apical pole of mouse small intestinal isolated enterocytes was investigated using intracellular carboxy-SNARF-1 fluorescence in combination with whole-cell microspectrofluorimetry or confocal microscopy. 2. In Hepes-buffered Tyrode solution, application of the dipeptide Phe-Ala (10 mM) to a single enterocyte reduced pHi locally in the apical submembranous space. After a short delay (8 s), a fall of pHi occurred more slowly at the basal pole. 3. In the presence of CO2/HCO3--buffered Tyrode solution, the apical and basal rates of acidification were not significantly different and the time delay was reduced to 1 s or less. 4. Following application of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (100 microM) in the presence of CO2/HCO3- buffer, addition of Phe-Ala once again produced a localized apical acidification that took 5 s to reach the basal pole. Basal acidification was slower than at the apical pole. 5. We conclude that acid influx due to proton-coupled dipeptide transport can lead to intracellular pH gradients and that intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, by facilitating cytoplasmic H+ mobility, limits their magnitude and duration.  (+info)

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When running in vivo experiments, it is imperative to keep arterial blood pressure and acid-base parameters within the normal physiological range. The aim of this investigation was to explore the consequences of anesthesia-induced acidosis on basal and PGE2-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Mice (strain C57bl/6J) were kept anesthetized by a spontaneous inhalation of isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial acid-base balance, and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) were studied. Two intra-arterial fluid support strategies were used: a standard Ringer solution and an isotonic Na2CO3 solution. Duodenal single perfusion was used, and DMBS was assessed by back titration of the effluent. PGE2 was used to stimulate DMBS. In Ringer solution-infused mice, isoflurane-induced acidosis became worse with time. The blood pH was 7.15-7.21 and the base excess was about -8 mM at the end of experiments. The continuous infusion of Na2CO3 solution completely compensated for the ...
Due to product restrictions, please Sign In to purchase or view availability for this product. Ammonium bicarbonate does this in the pH 8 to 10 range. It is soluble in water, but insoluble in most organic solvents including ethanol, carbon disulphide and concentrated ammonia. 500mM Ammonium Bicarbonate [(NH 4)HCO 3] (NH 4)HCO 3-1.6g Millipore water-to 40ml final volume Filter through high protein binding filter [Nitrocelulose or PTFE; 0.45um pore size) 25 mM (NH 4)HCO 3. This buffer is recommended for use in PTMScan protocols for … representative of CST, are rejected and are of no force or effect. Linear Formula NH 4 HCO 3. BJ40867-50G. Ammonium Bicarbonate, 1M in HPLC-Grade Water. Ammonium formate can be used as a buffer in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and is suitable for use with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). All contact information provided shall also be maintained in accordance with our We will not share your information for any other purposes. Any ...
The specific heat capacity of the aqueous solution is usually close to that of pure water (4.184 J o C -1 g -1 ). Ammonium carbamate can be formed by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide, and will slowly decompose to those gases at ordinary temperatures and pressures. How to Calculate the Mass Percent of H in Ammonium Bicarbonate. Ammonium sulfate, (NH 4) 2 SO 4, is an important ingredient in many artificial fertilisers supplying to plants the essential mineral elements of nitrogen and sulfur. Since ammonium bicarbonate is thermally unstable, the reaction solution is kept cold, which allows the precipitation of the product as white solid. formula mass of ammonium … (2) - ammonium bicarbonate decomposes into carbon dioxide (#CO_2#), water, and ammonia; (3) - the decomposition of ammonium carbonate - total reaction; Both reaction are endothermic - heat must be supplied in order for the reaction to take place. It will calculate the total mass along with the elemental composition and mass ...
It dissolves in water to give a mildly alkaline solution. DÄ kujeme za pochopenÃ-. Because it entirely decomposes to volatile compounds, this allows rapid recovery of the compound of interest by freeze-drying. 77, No. A leavening agent, and the forerunner of todays baking powder and baking soda. In many cases it may be replaced with baking soda or baking powder, or a combination of both, depending on the recipe composition and leavening requirements. Ammonium Bicarbonate is a white powder or crystalline (sand-like) material with an Ammoniaodor. Buyer Search Info. It is a colourless, crystalline solid with the odour of ammonia. It is a colourless solid that degrades readily to carbon dioxide, water and ammonia. Supplied by: China Ammonium Bicarbonate manufacturer. Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with formula (NH4)HCO3, simplified to NH5CO3. It was commonly used in the home before modern-day baking powder was made available. Originally made from the ground antlers of reindeer, ...
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A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6oF) to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level. Thermostress lead to significant in decrease (P< 0.05) weight gain, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, while FCR was increased. During heat stress, KCl and NaHCO3 at levels of 1.5% and 0.5% respectively, improved weight gain, and FCR and significantly increased (P< 0.05) serum potassium and bicarbonate level. The results showed that combination of KCl and NaHCO3 supplementation alleviated the negative effects of heat stress in broilers ...
This property makes sodium bicarbonate useful for baking, cleaning and deodorizing. It contains the monatomic sodium ion (Na+) and the polyatomic bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) Ammonium bicarbonate … baking soda, bicarb soda, sodium bicarbonate) Bicarbonate of soda is a pure leavening agent, which means it needs to be mixed with moisture and an acidic ingredient for the necessary chemical reaction to take place to create carbon dioxide and for food to rise. porcelain tub, sink, toilet scrub - add distilled white vinegar in a 1:1 solution. Whats more, baking soda has much stronger leavening power than baking powder. … Sodium bicarbonate, better known as baking soda in the United States and bicarbonate of soda in Europe and Australia, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Short-term adverse effects may occur shortly after exposure to this compound. Just add 2 teaspoons of baking soda to a cup of water. Moreover, baking soda baths can help soothe and heal skin conditions, like - eczema and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discrepancy in chloride measurement with decreasing bicarbonate concentrations. AU - Bihari, Shailesh. AU - Galluccio, Steven. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Background: Accurate chloride measurement is important in critically ill patients. Methods: Chloride concentration measured simultaneously between the central laboratory (indirect ion-selective electrode) and blood gas analysis (direct ion-selective electrode) were compared. Results: We report a discrepancy with chloride measurement between the central laboratory and blood gas analysis at low bicarbonate levels. Conclusions: Caution should be applied while interpreting the chloride concentration when indirect ion-selective electrode methodology is used, especially in the setting of low serum bicarbonate levels.. AB - Background: Accurate chloride measurement is important in critically ill patients. Methods: Chloride concentration measured simultaneously between the central laboratory (indirect ion-selective electrode) and blood ...
A recent report from the National Kidney Foundation 2011 Spring Clinical Meetings retrospectively evaluated 50 hemodialysis patients hospitalized in October 2010. Their outpatient dialysate prescription included a 35 mEq/L bicarbonate solution and an acid concentrate which contained 8 mEq/L of acetate (total bicarbonate of 43 mEq/L). At presentation, the patients mean serum bicarbonate level was 31.3 mEq/L and 54 percent had a serum bicarbonate ,30 mEq/L. (Pande S, Raja R, Bloom E, Chewaproug D, Dissanayake I. Effect of dialysate baths on serum bicarbonate levels in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Kidney Disease 2011; 57(4): A75 (Abstract #234)) (journal subscription or payment is required to view ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies of adults have demonstrated an association between metabolic acidosis, as measured by low serum bicarbonate levels, and CKD progression. We evaluated this relationship in children using data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The relationship between serum bicarbonate and a composite end point, defined as 50% decline in eGFR or KRT, was described using parametric and semiparametric survival methods. Analyses were stratified by underlying nonglomerular and glomerular diagnoses, and adjusted for demographic characteristics, eGFR, proteinuria, anemia, phosphate, hypertension, and alkali therapy. RESULTS: Six hundred and three participants with nonglomerular disease contributed 2673 person-years of follow-up, and 255 with a glomerular diagnosis contributed 808 person-years of follow-up. At baseline, 39% (237 of 603) of participants with nonglomerular disease had a bicarbonate level of ≤22 meq/L and 36% (85 of
294846378 - EP 1035847 A1 2000-09-20 - STABLE SOLUTION OF ZINC AND BICARBONATE IONS - [origin: US5855873A] A storage stable aqueous or aqueous/alcoholic solution of zinc ions in the presence of bicarbonate ions is disclosed. The solution comprises: (a) a source of zinc ion, (b) a source of a stabilizing anion which can stabilize soluble zinc and bicarbonate in solution; (c) a source of bicarbonate ion; and (d) a solvent therefor. The solvent comprises: (i) a major proportion of water; (ii) optionally a minor amount of a lower monohydric alcohol; and (iii) optionally a minor amount of a humectant having at least 3 hydroxy groups. The zinc salt is present in an amount A sufficient to provide from about 0.01 weight % to about 1 weight % zinc ion; the stabilizing anion in an amount B of at least 1.2 equivalents per equivalent of zinc ion; and the bicarbonate ion cannot exceed certain levels which are related to the level of the stabilizing anion.[origin: US5855873A] A storage stable aqueous or aqueous
Fig. 4. Number of respondents who currently use calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, or both solutions Eleven of the thirty-eight respondents currently use either or both bicarbonate solutions. Figure 4 shows which of the two (or both) solutions these paper conservators are using. It was particularly interesting to note that all but one of the conservators determine the concentration of bicarbonate solutions by measuring the pH of the solution and adjusting it to levels between pH 6 and pH 9, instead of determining ppm calcium or magnesium. the relationship between the pH and the concentration of bicarbonate solution is, however, only a very tentative one, as has been indicated by several authors. Brederick et al. noted the pH level decreases with increasing solution concentrations as carbon dioxide is added (p. 173, Table 3).3 Wilson et al. determined the pH levels of magnesium bicarbonate solutions from which carbon dioxide has been removed: a 1M solution that had an initial pH of 6.98 ...
The use of ammonium bicarbonate is varied.-Taixing Experimental Chemical Co., Ltd.-1. Ammonium bicarbonate is used as nitrogen fertilizer, suitable for all kinds of soil, and can provide the ammonium nitrogen and carbon dioxide needed for the growth of crops, but the nitrogen conten
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Individuals with a serum bicarbonate level below 24 mEq/L have a 2-fold increased risk of AKI compared with those with a level of 25-28 mEq/L.
Detective Nephron, world-renowned for expert analytical skills, trains budding physician-detectives on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. L.O. Henle presents a new case to the master consultant.
Knowing More About Bicarbonates. Disease prefers the body to be in an acid state and fighting that acidity is not easy unless bicarbonates are employed. The bodys own natural solution to excess acid is to buffer with bicarbonates. The stomach, pancreas and kidneys all produce bicarbonate. With the onslaught of acidity from foods, stress and a host of toxins including prescription drugs our bodies often cannot keep up adequately with sufficient production of bicarbonates. This is where magnesium bicarbonate comes in, providing the body with a form of bicarbonate that is taken directly into the cells at therapeutic levels. It would not be a great exaggeration to look at magnesium bicarbonate as rocked fuel for the cells, especially for the mitochondria. Bicarbonates are the primary transporters of oxygen in the body and are used to buffer acidity, while magnesium is known as the master mineral because its vital for most bodily functions. Usually magnesium and bicarbonates come attached to ...
The authors sought to determine the effects of oral lactate consumption on blood bicarbonate (HCO3−) levels, pH levels, and performance during high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Subjects (N = 11) were trained male and female cyclists. Time to exhaustion (TTE) and total work were measured during high-intensity exercise bouts 80 min after the consumption of 120 mg/kg body mass of lactate (L), an equal volume of placebo (PL), or no treatment (NT). Blood HCO3− increased significantly after ingestion of lactate (p , .05) but was not affected in PL or NT (p , .05). No changes in pH were observed as a result of treatment. TTE and total work during the performance test increased significantly by 17% in L compared with PL and NT (p = .02). No significant differences in TTE and total work were seen between the PL and NT protocols (p = .85). The authors conclude that consuming 120 mg/kg body mass of lactate increases HCO3− levels and increases exercise performance during high-intensity ...
The rate of bicarbonate reabsorption (JHCO3) by in vitro initial collecting tubules (ICT) from aquatic- and land-phase Ambystoma tigrinum was measured. These animals intrinsically have different levels of plasma bicarbonate, 17.6 and 27.1 mM, respectively. ICT from both phases reabsorbed bicarbonate at 11 pmol X mm-1 X min-1 when perfused in solutions equilibrated with 3% CO2. The induction of metabolic acidosis or alkalosis had no effect on JHCO3 by in vitro ICT. JHCO3 was abolished when ICT from aquatic animals were perfused with solutions equilibrated with 1% CO2 and returned toward the control value when 3% CO2 was reintroduced. The effect of plasma CO2 partial pressure on JHCO3 of the ICT may explain, at least in part, the observed difference in plasma bicarbonate of the aquatic- and land-phase animals. JHCO3 was reduced to 22% of control with amiloride and to 42% of control when a Na+-free perfusate was used, but was insensitive to ethoxzolamide. These data are consistent with the presence of a
Industries served include biotechnology, pharmaceutical, laboratory reagents, personal care, fine chemicals, electronics, food and beverage, nutraceuticals, waste and water treatment, constructions, and roofing. Find a Certified Distributor near you for for less than truck load quantities. Available as reagent grade powder in package sizes from 2 kg to bulk orders up to 10,000 kg & above. Other applications include plastic and rubber manufacturing. Vendor management inventory programs available. Product modifications/adaptations are also offered for physical and chemical properties, packaging and labeling. Sodium bicarbonate … Bakers ammonia (ammonium carbonate) is a classic leavener, called for in your grandmothers or great-grandmothers recipes. NA. Ammonium bicarbonate is a common leavening agent which releases CO2 without the need for an acid. Training, testing, repair, troubleshooting and water analysis services are also offered. In order meet the necessities of our patrons we are ...
Bicarbonate of Soda can also be used to keep your home clean. Dr. Oetker Bicarbonate of Soda is a gentle raising agent for gingerbread, parkin, cookies and other recipes. How to clean your mattress with Bicarbonate of Soda. It can be used on chrome car fittings … Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes used as a supplement because it provides dietary bicarbonate. Top 33 Ways to Use Baking Soda Today Baking Soda Uses - Natural Beauty and Skin. Simply form a paste from one tablespoon of bicarb and one tablespoon of water then use as a homemade cleaning solution. Does Dr. Oetker Bicarbonate of Soda still work for teeth whitening rather then arm and hammer? Warning: For cleaning … Buy Dr. Oetker Bicarbonate of Soda 200g online for only £0.99, delivered right to your front door. Brand Marketing. Find Bicarbonate Of Soda at ALDI. It can be used to create baking powder when combined with cream of tartar, or even … I know baking soda is not good for enamel i also know to only do it 1 ever 2 weeks , but ...
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AMMONIUM BICARBONATE ... - Brenntag product information page Brenntag is Beneluxs leading distributor and exporter of industrial chemicals and specialties, located in Belgium (Deerlijk, Antwerpen & Mouscron) and the Netherlands (Dordrecht, Loosdrecht, Zwijndrecht, Moerdijk, Rotterdam, Enschede).
Global Ammonium Bicarbonate Market Research Report 2017 contains historic data that spans 2012 to 2016, and then continues to forecast to 2022. That makes this report so invaluable, resources, for the leaders as well as the new entrants in the Industry
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Baking soda and bicarbonate of soda are both terms referring to the same thing.. In the UK the substance is usually referred to a bicarbonate of soda, however, the US commonly refers to the product as baking soda.. Bicarbonate of soda is often used as a raising agent in food, especially in baking.. Bicarbonate of soda consists of sodium and hydrogen carbonate.. Bicarbonate of soda is alkaline, and it is often used in recipes for things like cakes and bread.. BBC Good Food explains: Bicarbonate of soda, or baking soda, is an alkali which is used to raise soda breads and full-flavoured cakes such as gingerbread, fruit cake, chocolate cake and carrot cake.. It needs an acid (as well as moisture) to activate it so is often combined with cream of tartar, yogurt, buttermilk or milk.. Bicarbonate of soda gives off carbon dioxide, which expands in a mixture.. Once the mixture is cooked, the carbon dioxide is replaced by air, leaving a light cake or bread.. As with all raising agents, use the amount ...
Experiencing fluctuating bicarbonate levels? Some dietary modifications may keep these levels in check, though this is yet to be medically established.
1. Chest. 2013 May;143(5):1284-93. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1132. Serum bicarbonate level improves specificity of STOP-bang screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Chung F, Chau E, Yang Y, Liao P, Hall R, Mokhlesi B. Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. [email protected] BACKGROUND: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for the identification of surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 is highly sensitive but only moderately specific. Apnea/hypopnea during sleep can lead to intermittent hypercapnia and may result in serum bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) retention. The addition of serum HCO₃⁻ level to the STOP-Bang questionnaire may improve its specificity. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-seven preoperative patients were approached for consent and screened by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography was performed and preoperative HCO₃⁻ level was ...
1. Chest. 2013 May;143(5):1284-93. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-1132. Serum bicarbonate level improves specificity of STOP-bang screening for obstructive sleep apnea. Chung F, Chau E, Yang Y, Liao P, Hall R, Mokhlesi B. Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. [email protected] BACKGROUND: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for the identification of surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 is highly sensitive but only moderately specific. Apnea/hypopnea during sleep can lead to intermittent hypercapnia and may result in serum bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) retention. The addition of serum HCO₃⁻ level to the STOP-Bang questionnaire may improve its specificity. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-seven preoperative patients were approached for consent and screened by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography was performed and preoperative HCO₃⁻ level was ...
The present invention provides devices and methods for stabilizing bicarbonate-based solutions for peritoneal dialysis or hemofiltration. The bicarbonate-based solutions of the present invention are formulated and stored in at least two parts-an alkaline bicarbonate concentrate and an acidic concentrate. The alkaline bicarbonate concentrate is adjusted to have a pH of about 8.6 to 10.0. The acidic concentrate is adjusted to have a stable, acidic pH ranging from about 1.0 to 3.0. Upon mixing, although some variation in the pH of the mixed bicarbonate solution exists, the inventors have discovered that with the appropriate selection of the parameters of the concentrates, the pH of the mixed solution is always within an acceptable physiological range.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in rabbit cortical collecting tubules. AU - Schuster, V. L.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - We studied the effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) on HCO3- transport by rabbit cortical collecting tubules perfused in vitro. Net HCO3- secretion was observed in tubules from NaHCO3- loaded rabbits. 8-Bromo-cAMP-stimulated net HCO3- secretion, whereas secretion fell with time in control tubules. Both isoproterenol and vasopressin (ADH) are known to stimulate adenylate cyclase in this epithelium; however, only isoproterenol stimulated net HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of cAMP-stimulated HCO3- secretion was examined. If both HCO3- and H+ secretion were to occur simultaneously in tubules exhibiting net HCO3- secretion, cAMP might increase the net HCO3- secretory rate by inhibiting H+ secretion, by stimulating HCO3- secretion, or both. These possibilities were examined using basolateral addition of the disulfonic stilbene ...
Synonyms for Bicarbonate soda in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Bicarbonate soda. 4 synonyms for sodium bicarbonate: baking soda, bicarbonate of soda, saleratus, sodium hydrogen carbonate. What are synonyms for Bicarbonate soda?
The human body has four native buffer systems - bicarbonate, hemoglobin, protein, and phosphate systems. An ideal buffering system has a pKa of ~ 7.4 (normal physiologic pH). Bicarbonate has a pKa of 6.1, which is NOT ideal in normal physiologic conditions. In fact, the pH range of effectiveness is probably ~ 5.1 - 7.1 for the bicarbonate buffer system. Bicarbonate is better described as a CO2 transport mechanism and not as a buffer - protons combine with hydrogen ions which are at equilibrium with carbonic acid (H2CO3), water, and CO2.. According to Miller, Volatile acid is principally buffered by hemoglobin. Deoxygenated hemoglobin is a strong base, and there would be a huge increase in the pH of venous blood if hemoglobin did not bind hydrogen ions that are produced by metabolism. Thus, it seems that the primary function of bicarbonate is to accept protons which can be ultimately converted to water and CO2 (and excreted as volatile acid), whereas the protons produced by accumulation of ...
Generally healthy older individuals with normal or high bicarbonate levels in the blood had a similar risk of dying during follow-up, but patients with low bicarbonate had a 24 percent increased risk compared with these groups.
Inappropriate prescription of NaturaLyte and GranuFlo products can lead to a high serum bicarbonate level in patients undergoing hemodialysis. These products can help kidney failure patients during the process of dialysis by converting into bicarbonate, which helps clean the bloodstream of a patient in a way that the kidneys would otherwise be able to do. However, the FDA investigation showed that doctors were administering the drug at too high a level for healthy human consumption. Dosage errors may contribute to metabolic alkalosis, which is a significant risk factor associated with low blood pressure, hypokalemia, hypoxemia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia, which, if not appropriately treated, may culminate in cardiopulmonary arrest. This product may cause serious adverse health consequences, including death ...
Background Serum bicarbonate is associated with mortality, heart failure (HF) and progression of renal failure in studies of healthy people and patients with chronic kidney disease, but the...
Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven
Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven
We all want to look well and be healthy regardless of our age, seasons, weather or our finances. More and more people are getting interested in natural and affordable beauty products. The most accessible, natural and affordable products get often overlooked though. Did you know for instance that bicarbonate of soda is an amazing product that can be used for health and beauty purposes?. I discovered bicarbonate of soda or baking soda a couple of years ago and it is officially the second of my two favourite beauty and health products - after coconut oil. Bicarbonate of soda is another universal body care product that I use a lot. Instead of a number of bottles, tubes and colourful boxes that I used to have a few years ago I now have two pots - with coconut oil and bicarbonate of soda!. NB! If you decide to give it a go after reading this article, make sure the label reads bicarbonate of soda or baking soda and not baking powder! Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and a dry acid, such as ...
সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড, আপনি যা করতে পারেন কেনা ভাল মানের সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড , আমরা সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড পরিবেশক & সোডিয়াম Bicarbonate খাদ্য গ্রেড উত্পাদক চীন থেকে বাজার.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the extent of agreement between central venous and arterial values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate in a group of intensive care unit (ICU) patients.. Methods: A prospective study of a convenience sample of patients deemed by their treating doctor to require blood gas analysis as part of their clinical care in ICU. It compared pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate on arterial and central venous samples taken within five minutes of each other. Data were analysed using bias (Bland-Altman) methods.. Results: A total of 168 matched sample pairs from 110 patients were entered into the study. All variables showed close agreement. The mean difference between arterial and venous values of pH was 0.03 pH units, for bicarbonate 0.52 mmol/l, for lactate 0.08 mmol/l, and for base excess 0.19 mmol/l. All showed acceptably narrow 95% limits of agreement.. Conclusion: Central venous pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate values showed a high level of ...
Of 1328 records reviewed, hospital discharge data, ETCO2, and all 6 prehospital vital signs were available in 1088 patients. Low ETCO2 levels were the strongest predictor of mortality in the overall group (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.85), as well as subgroup analysis excluding prehospital cardiac arrest (AUC of 0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.87). The sensitivity of abnormal ETCO2 for predicting mortality was 93% (95% CI 79%-98%), the specificity was 44% (95% CI 41%-48%), and the negative predictive value was 99% (95% CI 92%-100%). There were significant associations between ETCO2 and serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.429, P , .001), anion gap (r = -0.216, P , .001), and lactate (r = -0.376, P , .001).. ...
This is the first, large scale, community-based randomized controlled trial evidence demonstrating that comprehensive community-based intervention by multidisciplinary care team in conjunction with a community care network teams of non-healthcare members can slow the rate of eGFR decline and is feasible and in CKD patients residing in resource-limited settings. Given similar medical care between the two groups including medication in particular ACEi/ARBs and educational materials, our study demonstrated that integrated CKD care significantly improved several clinical parameters with respect to serum bicarbonate levels, 24-h urine nPNA, 24-h urine Na, HbA1C, and serum triglyceride levels. Each parameter had been proven effectiveness on delaying CKD progression or lowering cardiovascular events by single-factorial intervention studies [22-27]. In other words, we may imply that the key factors in delaying CKD progression of Integrated CKD Care were improvement of compliance with medication and ...
The bicarbonate buffer system, and how it gets us from being more acidic to more alkaline. Bicarbonate goes into pancreatic duct, and hydrogen goes into the blood. Q: How is bicarbonate made in the pancreas ...
Adjustments of acid-base balance - in each patient, protein turnover will be measured twice, at a standard bicarbonate concentration of ,19 mmol/l and ,25 mmol/l respectively, with an interval between the two measurements (random order) of 3-4 weeks. The acid-base status will be altered by adjusting the dose of bicarbonate (oral and/or via dialysis) and protein turnover will be measured when the predialysis bicarbonate level have been low or normal for at least one week. ...
We present an original method for the preparation of stable dialysate containing 35 mEq/l of bicarbonate. The dialysate was utilized with 4 patients for periods ranging from 4 months to 1 year according to a short-term recirculated dialysis schedule in closed circuit (20-40L) (2-2 1/2 hrs) on alternate days. Preliminary results are reported here with respect to the tollerance of the dialytic run and correction of the acid-base balance equilibrium. The clinical tollerance is excellent despite high dehydration rates even in patients particularly sensitive to ultrafiltration. The acidosis correction would seem to be much better with bicarbonate than with traditional dialysis. The difference is even higher if we consider the brevity of the dialysis. During the bicarbonate dialysis we do not observe any fall of the PCO2 or significant difference in PO2 in the patients blood. The correction of acidosis probably causes the normalization of pre-dialytic potassiemia in spite the net removal of K ...
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Bicarbonate of Soda happyhippy « Tue Jun 12, 2018 8:46 am. Replies: 14 Helsbells » Mon Feb 11, 2013 6:08 pm. ...
Bicarbonate of Soda happyhippy « Tue Jun 12, 2018 8:46 am. Replies: 14 Helsbells » Mon Feb 11, 2013 6:08 pm. ...
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Bicarbonate of Soda uses ? Last post by Mo « 22 Jan 2018, 13:44. ...
and bicarbonate as we do not test these locally.. Ave Min Max Units. Sulfate 85 20 128 mg/L. Calcium 118 88 150 mg/L as CaCO3. ... Bicarbonate (HCO3) 78. Alkalinity (as CaCO3) ,1. pH 7.5 - 8.0. Good luck!. Take care,. John T. Dailey. Operations Supervisor / ... Bicarbonate (HCO3) 78. Alkalinity (as CaCO3) ,1. pH 7.5 - 8.0. You can draw your own conclusions. The alkalinity number is ... So, if BeerSmith is asking for bicarbonate HCO3, what do I enter? Does it matter? ...
1 tsp bicarbonate of soda. *1 tsp vanilla essence. *2 tbsp milk- I used oat milk. ...
Steroid generic prednisone from india received bicarbonate, en Asociación Astronomía UPM. ipuxuul ...
The effect of sodium bicarbonate on squat/bench performance Last post by galapogos « Tue Jul 01, 2014 2:12 pm. ...
It is easily made at home from sodium bicarbonate.. While ramen may be a cheap street food it can make an elegant dish. ...
Video: Methods of carbon dioxide transport - carbaminohemoglobin and bicarbonate ions For a complete list of videos, visit our ...
Sodium Bicarbonate and turning into Sodium Carbonate:. Dissolving and stirring sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in boiling water -, ... Sodium Bicarbonate and turning into Sodium Carbonate:. Dissolving and stirring sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in boiling water -, ...
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  • Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a white crystalline powder commonly known to as baking soda. (bookrags.com)
  • Baking Soda Baking soda is a white crystalline powder (NaHCO3) better known to chemists as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate of soda, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or sodium acid carbonate. (bookrags.com)
  • The prefix "bi" in "bicarbonate" comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that there is twice as much carbonate (CO2− 3) per sodium ion in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and other bicarbonates than in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and other carbonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common salt of the bicarbonate ion is sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3, which is commonly known as baking soda. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda (especially in North America and New Zealand) or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. (dbpedia.org)
  • La Natria bikarbonato aŭ Hidrogenkarbonato de natrio (laŭ IUPAK) estas kemia kombinaĵo kun molekula formulo NaHCO3, kristala blankokolora solido, solvebla en akvo, kaj gusto iomete alkala. (dbpedia.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), commonly known as baking soda, is a time-honored odor absorber and acid neutralizer. (tomsofmaine.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate, known chemically as NaHCO3, is a form of salt that has many names, including baking soda, bread soda, and bicarbonate of soda. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Taxus baccata (yew) intoxication treated with sodium bicarbonate and lipid emulsion. (springer.com)
  • Take sodium bicarbonate exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not take sodium bicarbonate on an overly full stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take sodium bicarbonate at least 2 hours apart from other medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your doctor has told you to take sodium bicarbonate on a certain schedule, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How should I take sodium bicarbonate? (cigna.com)
  • Should Triathletes Take Sodium Bicarbonate? (trainingpeaks.com)
  • Very few solid bicarbonates other than those of the alkali metals and ammonium ion are known to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate is used in digestive biscuit manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate is an ionic compound . (everything2.com)
  • It has a one to one ratio of ammonium ions to bicarbonate ions . (everything2.com)
  • These results suggest that low urine ammonium excretion identifies individuals at high risk of chronic kidney disease progression or death irrespective of the serum bicarbonate concentration," said Kalani Raphael from the University of Utah in the US. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • What is Ammonium Bicarbonate? (wisegeek.com)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate, also known as hartshorn or baker's ammonia, is a white powdered chemical that is generally used as a leavening agent in baking recipes. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate was used more often prior to the eighteenth century with the inventions of other leavening agents, baking soda and baking powder . (wisegeek.com)
  • When ammonium bicarbonate is added to batter or dough and exposed to heat from an oven, the high temperature will begin to activate the chemical and cause a reaction. (wisegeek.com)
  • Although ammonium bicarbonate is usually successful at giving baked goods light, flaky textures, it can also impart a strong taste if used in large amounts. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate can have an extended shelf life of several years if stored properly in an airtight container. (wisegeek.com)
  • If you find your ammonium bicarbonate is not active by testing it in vinegar or lemon juice, use the same amount of baking powder your recipe calls for as a substitute. (wisegeek.com)
  • When cooking with ammonium bicarbonate you may get a little bit of an ammonia smell. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate provides greatly improved pH stabilization, thus offering an interesting alternative. (primenewswire.com)
  • Manufacturer of ammonium bicarbonate and other specialty chemicals. (primenewswire.com)
  • Ammonium Bicarbonate is used as a raising agent in flat baked goods such as cookies and crackers and other similar applications in the food industry. (primenewswire.com)
  • Plot No. We are highly acknowledged organization engaged in presenting remarkable range of Ammonium Bicarbonate. (primenewswire.com)
  • Desc: Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound with formula HCO₃, simplified to NH₅CO₃. (primenewswire.com)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate is also known with other names such as acid ammonium carbonate, ammonium hydrogen carbonate. (primenewswire.com)
  • Office No. Business listings of Ammonium Bicarbonate, Ammonium hydrogen carbonate manufacturers, suppliers and exporters in Hyderabad, Telangana along with their contact details & address. (primenewswire.com)
  • PURE Ammonium Bicarbonate (2 lb. (primenewswire.com)
  • Acid will take reaction with Ammonium Bicarbonate, causing carbon dioxide. (primenewswire.com)
  • Global Ammonium Bicarbonate Market Size Worth Around USD 970 Million by 2024, from USD 1480 Million in 2020, at a CAGR of -6.8% During 2020-2024 with … Ammonium Bicarbonate cooking information, facts and recipes. (primenewswire.com)
  • 1066-33-7 Type : solid Ammonium Bicarbonate CAS 1066-33-7 is a inorganic compound manufactured through chemical synthesis, available as white crystals or crystalline powder. (primenewswire.com)
  • Get contact details & address of companies manufacturing and supplying Ammonium Bicarbonate, Ammonium hydrogen carbonate, NH4HCO3 across India. (primenewswire.com)
  • Also known as hartshorn and rock ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate is soluble in water but decomposes when heated. (primenewswire.com)
  • Ammonium bicarbonate will also decompose during baking and release ammonia and carbon dioxide leavening gases without reacting with a leavening acid. (primenewswire.com)
  • Compared to baking soda, Ammonium Bicarbonate will not affect the taste of flat baked goods. (primenewswire.com)
  • In the fertilizer industry, Ammonium Bicarbonate can be used as an inexpensive source of ammonia. (primenewswire.com)
  • The Global Ammonium Bicarbonate Sales 2015 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Ammonium Bicarbonate market. (bharatbook.com)
  • The report provides a basic overview of the Ammonium Bicarbonate industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. (bharatbook.com)
  • The report then analyzes the global Ammonium Bicarbonate market size (volume and value), and the sales segment market is also discussed by product type, application and region. (bharatbook.com)
  • Then we forecast the 2016-2021 market size of Ammonium Bicarbonate. (bharatbook.com)
  • Then the Ammonium Bicarbonate OEM market and Ammonium Bicarbonate production market status is discussed. (bharatbook.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is used in a serious condition called metabolic acidosis. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Sodium bicarbonate Minijet is used for the correction of metabolic acidosis associated with cardiac arrest after other resuscitation measures such as cardiac compression, ventilation, adrenaline and anti-arrhythmic agents have been used. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Sodium bicarbonate neutralises the excess acid.Sodium bicarbonate Minijet is used for the correction of metabolic acidosis associated with cardiac arrest after other resuscitation measures such as cardiac compression, ventilation, adrenaline and anti-arrhythmic agents have been used. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is indicated for treatment of metabolic acidosis, some drug intoxications, poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol, and severe diarrhea. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. (hindawi.com)
  • You may develop metabolic acidosis if you have kidney disease, if you lose too much sodium bicarbonate from your body -- typically through severe diarrhea -- if acidic substances called ketones build up in your body during uncontrolled diabetes or if lactic acid builds up in your body through prolonged exercise, liver failure, alcohol consumption, seizures or prolonged oxygen deprivation, according to MedlinePlus. (livestrong.com)
  • Intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy increases plasma bicarbonate, buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, raises blood pH and reverses the clinical manifestations of acidosis. (nih.gov)
  • But since an appreciable time interval may elapse before all of the ancillary effects are brought about, bicarbonate therapy is indicated to minimize risks inherent to the acidosis itself. (nih.gov)
  • Vigorous bicarbonate therapy is required in any form of metabolic acidosis where a rapid increase in plasma total CO 2 content is crucial-e.g., cardiac arrest, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, and in severe primary lactic acidosis or severe diabetic acidosis. (nih.gov)
  • In relation to bicarbonate, millions of people in the world either consume bicarbonate ions in drinking water or have been treated clinically with bicarbonate in hospitals, medical centers, or emergency units for the prevention and treatment of clinical acidosis as well as numerous other conditions. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • The theory behind bicarbonate supplementation then, is that if one could increase the reservoir of bicarbonate in the blood prior to exercise, then it may be possible to forestall the onset of acidosis and delay the onset of muscular exertion that is precipitated by all of that extra hydrogen ion that's been liberated. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • Further, mice given BHB developed clinical acidosis and became extremely susceptible to mucormycosis, but not aspergillosis, while sodium bicarbonate reversed this susceptibility. (jci.org)
  • According to the company, "Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis, in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in certain hemolytic reactions. (pharmtech.com)
  • Minjet sodium bicarbonate is an intravenous form of sodium bicarbonate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Using of potassium supplements whilst having intravenous treatment with sodium bicarbonate may reduce potassium concentrations in the blood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • ANAHEIM, CA - Neither intravenous (IV) sodium bicarbonate nor oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly reduces adverse outcomes in patients at high risk for renal complications undergoing angiography, new research suggests [ 1 ] . (medscape.com)
  • Affected vials of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP, 7.5%, 44.6 mEq/50 mL Single Dose Vial NDC and 8.4%, 50 mEq/50 mL, Single Dose Vial NDC, both made by American Regent, may damage blood vessels in the lung and may cause localized swelling and granuloma formation after intravenous administration, the FDA said in a statement. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Accordingly, the investigators hypothesized that urinary alkalinization might protect kidney function in patients at increased risk of acute kidney injury undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass needs to be confirmed in an international multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of intravenous sodium bicarbonate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) in water for injection for administration by the intravenous route as an electrolyte replenisher and systemic alkalizer. (nih.gov)
  • Minijet sodium bicarbonate is given by slow injection or infusion into a vein. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The manufacturer of a sodium bicarbonate injection recalled the product due to particles that may form in vials prior to the drug's expiration. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is contraindicated in patients who are losing chloride by vomiting or from continuous gastrointestinal suction, and in patients receiving diuretics known to produce a hypochloremic alkalosis. (nih.gov)
  • Like other jurisdictions across North America, AHS is facing a shortage of sodium bicarbonate injection, due to a manufacturing issue by producer Hospira Inc., a Pfizer company. (albertahealthservices.ca)
  • Hospira recalls one lot of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP, due to particulate matter found within a single-dose glass fliptop vial. (pharmtech.com)
  • Hospira, a Pfizer company, announced on March 18, 2016 that the company is voluntarily recalling one lot of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP (NDC: 0409-6625-02, Lot 56-148-EV, Expiry 1AUG2017) because of particulate matter found in a single-dose fliptop vial. (pharmtech.com)
  • serum bicarbonate (HCO3) of 10. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sulfur BiCarbonate would have the formula S(HCO3)6. (halfbakery.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate in water dissociates to provide sodium (Na+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) i ons. (nih.gov)
  • Bicarbonate (HCO3-)is a normal constituent of body fluids and the normal plasma level ranges from 24 to 31 mEq/liter. (nih.gov)
  • 0.01) decrease in capillary blood bicarbonate concentration (HCO3-), pH, base excess (BE), and PCO2 at exhaustion and during the recovery period. (nih.gov)
  • Significantly higher HCO3-, pH, and BE were found during bicarbonate infusion and postexercise in comparison with the placebo trial. (nih.gov)
  • The chemical formula for zinc bicarbonate is Zn(HCO3)2, according to EndMemo. (reference.com)
  • The chemical name for HCO3 is the bicarbonate anion. (reference.com)
  • 3 ) per sodium ion in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and other bicarbonates than in sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) and other carbonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium bicarbonate , also called calcium hydrogen carbonate , has a chemical formula Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • As water containing carbon dioxide (including extra CO 2 acquired from soil organisms) passes through limestone or other calcium carbonate-containing minerals, it dissolves part of the calcium carbonate, hence becomes richer in bicarbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the groundwater enters the cave, the excess carbon dioxide is released from the solution of the bicarbonate, causing the much less soluble calcium carbonate to be deposited. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reverse process, dissolved carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in rainwater (H 2 O) reacts with limestone calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) to form soluble calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, chemical compound, NaHCO 3 , a white crystalline or granular powder, commonly known as bicarbonate of soda or baking soda . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because the bicarbonate is less soluble than the carbonate, carbon dioxide gas is bubbled into a saturated solution of pure carbonate, and the bicarbonate precipitates out to be collected and dried. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogen carbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrilla can use free carbon dioxide from surrounding water when it is available and can switch to bicarbonate utilization when conditions favors its use i.e., high pH and high carbonate concentration(or KH) (Salvucci and Bowes 1983). (actwin.com)
  • The reaction strips dissolved calcium hydroxide out of the water, where the calcium hydroxyl group bonds to the two carbon atoms in sodium bicarbonate, making calcium carbonate and a free sodium ion. (ehow.com)
  • Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is a crystalline salt found in baking powder and antacids. (ehow.com)
  • The compound sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda, sodium bicarbonate and bicarbonate of soda, is a white crystalline powder that is solubl. (reference.com)
  • Made from the Carbonate in the same way as the Potassium Bicarbonate is made. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Zinc bicarbonate is also referred to as zinc hydrogen carbonate. (reference.com)
  • With carbonic acid as the central intermediate species , bicarbonate - in conjunction with water, hydrogen ions , and carbon dioxide - forms this buffering system, which is maintained at the volatile equilibrium [3] required to provide prompt resistance to pH changes in both the acidic and basic directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • All waters in contact with the atmosphere absorb carbon dioxide, and as these waters come into contact with rocks and sediments they acquire metal ions, most commonly calcium and magnesium , so most natural waters that come from streams, lakes, and especially wells, can be regarded as dilute solutions of these bicarbonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In freshwater ecology, strong photosynthetic activity by freshwater plants in daylight releases gaseous oxygen into the water and at the same time produces bicarbonate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In darkness, when no photosynthesis occurs, respiration processes release carbon dioxide, and no new bicarbonate ions are produced, resulting in a rapid fall in pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow of bicarbonate ions from rocks weathered by the carbonic acid in rainwater is an important part of the carbon cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes can be triggered by bicarbonate ions and depend on increased production of cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate). (sciencemag.org)
  • The mammalian sAC protein is closely related to adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria that are also stimulated by bicarbonate ions. (sciencemag.org)
  • The number two outside the parenthesis indicates that the formula contains two ions of bicarbonate for every one ion of zinc. (reference.com)
  • Within the blood, naturally-occurring bicarbonate acts as a buffer to soak up those hydrogen ions so they don't have any effect on acid-base status. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid used to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are using sodium bicarbonate as an antacid, it should be taken 1 to 2 hours after meals, with a full glass of water. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer Heartburn Relief) is an alkalinizing agent (antacid) that reduces stomach acid. (medicinenet.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid that neutralizes stomach acid. (cigna.com)
  • In over-the-counter products such as tablets, powders and capsules, sodium bicarbonate is also known as an antacid. (livestrong.com)
  • ZEGERID® (omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate) is a combination of omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, and sodium bicarbonate, an antacid. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is used as a leavening in breads, as an antacid for upset stomachs, as a buffering agent to adjust the acidity or alkalinity of a product, as a mild abrasive in toothpaste, and as an odor absorber. (sci-toys.com)
  • Your doctor also may prescribe sodium bicarbonate to make your blood or urine less acidic in certain conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate will cause the urine to become alkaline. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Patients receiving sodium bicarbonate achieved urine pHs of 6.5 as opposed to 5.6 with those receiving sodium chloride. (earthlink.net)
  • Sodium bicarbonate may increase the blood concentration of flecainide ( Tambocor ) by increasing the pH of urine, leading to less excretion of flecainide. (medicinenet.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a salt that breaks down in fluids, including blood and urine, to form sodium and bicarbonate. (webmd.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate reduces the acid level in your urine, allowing it to pass more easily. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate improves urine composition and reduces the risk of calcium oxalate formation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about potassium bicarbonate and potassium chloride? (rexhealth.com)
  • Potassium bicarbonate and potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia). (rexhealth.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking potassium bicarbonate and potassium chloride? (rexhealth.com)
  • If you have any of these conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take potassium bicarbonate and potassium chloride. (rexhealth.com)
  • How should I take potassium bicarbonate and potassium chloride? (rexhealth.com)
  • In medicine, calcium bicarbonate is sometimes administered intravenously to immediately correct the cardiac depressor effects of hypokalemia by increasing calcium concentration in serum, and at the same time, correcting the acid usually present. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium bicarbonate Also known as baking soda or bicarbonate of soda (chemically NaHCO 3 ), liberates carbon dioxide when in contact with acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • citation needed] Bicarbonate (HCO− 3) is a vital component of the pH buffering system of the human body (maintaining acid-base homeostasis). (wikipedia.org)
  • When heated or exposed to an acid such as acetic acid (vinegar), sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diagnostic medicine, the blood value of bicarbonate is one of several indicators of the state of acid-base physiology in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate neutralises the excess acid. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Oral sodium bicarbonate is used for the temporary relief of occasional episodes of acid ingestion, heartburn, and upset stomach. (medicinenet.com)
  • Oral sodium bicarbonate provides rapid relief (within 15 minutes) of heartburn symptoms and should only be used to provide temporary relief of occasional episodes of stomach acid problems. (medicinenet.com)
  • Oral administration of sodium bicarbonate results in the neutralization of hydrochloric acid in the stomach (raises blood and urinary pH) and the formation of sodium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water. (medicinenet.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer Heartburn Relief) is a drug used to treat excess stomach acid and heartburn. (medicinenet.com)
  • This will increase the rate of removal of tetracyclines (especially doxycycline) but will increase the duration of action of medicines such as quinidine, amphetamines, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine.Hypochloraemic alkalosis may occur if sodium bicarbonate is used together with potassium-depleting diuretics such as bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, frusemide and thiazides. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • and it is sufficient to shake it in order for it to seize upon the acid and form bicarbonate of potassium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In general, to make a BiCarbonate molecule, you need Carbonic Acid to react with something. (halfbakery.com)
  • Carbon dioxide in your blood is present in three forms: carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), CO 2 dissolved in blood, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ), the predominant form. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Measuring bicarbonate gives an estimation of acid-base balance. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Bicarbonate may also be measured when your doctor is evaluating your acid-base balance , to screen for an imbalance, and to monitor a known problem during treatment. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • When bicarbonate levels are higher or lower than normal, it suggests that your body is having trouble maintaining its acid-base balance either by failing to remove carbon dioxide or perhaps because of an electrolyte imbalance, particularly a deficiency of potassium. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Taking sodium bicarbonate has some medicinal properties, mostly because it is a mild base that reacts with acid in the body. (livestrong.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate helps neutralize stomach acid. (livestrong.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate helps neutralize excessive amounts of stomach acid, which can help relieve problems such as heartburn, acid indigestion, sour stomach and symptoms from stomach ulcers, according to MayoClinic.com. (livestrong.com)
  • Taking sodium bicarbonate may also help reduce conditions such as kidney stones and gout, which are related to a high level of uric acid in the kidneys. (livestrong.com)
  • Bicarbonate anion is considered 'labile' since at a proper concentration of hydrogen inon (H+) it may be converted to carbonic acid (H2CO3) and thence to its volatile form, carbon dioxide (CO2) excreted by the lung. (nih.gov)
  • Normally a ratio of 1:20 (carbonic acid:bicarbonate) is present in the extracellular fluid. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is so slowly absorbed, and is, in comparison with potassium salts, so poor a solvent of uric acid, that it is rarely used for any effects it may have after absorption. (chestofbooks.com)
  • When bicarbonate combines with hydrogen it forms carbolic acid that then dissociates into water and carbon dioxide, and that carbon dioxide is then quickly eliminated by our lungs. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • Combined sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid could prevent contrast-induced nephropathy following catheterization in CKD patients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • I am trying to balance the equation for the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfuric acid. (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • The polyatomic anion HCO 3 - or a compound, such as sodium bicarbonate, containing it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The company said Zegerid OTC (omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate capsules, 20mg/1100mg) is indicated for the treatment of frequent heartburn. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Read the side effects of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • Each capsule contains either 40 mg or 20 mg of omeprazole and 1100 mg of sodium bicarbonate with the following excipients: croscarmellose sodium and sodium stearyl fumarate. (rxlist.com)
  • ZEGERID (omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate ) is indicated for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer . (rxlist.com)
  • ZEGERID (omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate) is available as a capsule and as a powder for oral suspension in 20 mg and 40 mg strengths of omeprazole for adult use. (rxlist.com)
  • Omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate is a combination medicine used to treat heartburn and other symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ). (rxlist.com)
  • If you use omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate for longer than 3 years, you could develop a vitamin B-12 deficiency. (rxlist.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid, Zegerid OTC)? (rxlist.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before taking omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid, Zegerid OTC)? (rxlist.com)
  • You should not take this medicine if you are allergic to omeprazole or sodium bicarbonate, or if you are also taking any medication that contains rilpivirine ( Edurant , Juluca , Complera , Odefsey ). (rxlist.com)
  • If you are on a low-salt diet, you may not be able to use omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate. (rxlist.com)
  • For baking soda, see sodium bicarbonate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as baking soda or sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate of soda is one of the main ingredients in ready-mixed baking powder, it gives off the gas carbon dioxide when it is heated in conjunction with other ingredients. (waitrose.com)
  • Use either baking soda or potassium bicarbonate. (ehow.com)
  • Είναι ένα συστατικό του ορυκτού νάτρον και βρίσκεται διαλυμένο σε πολλές μεταλλικές πηγές (mineral springs).Είναι μεταξύ των κωδικοποιημένων προσθέτων τροφίμων από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, ταυτοποιημένο ως E 500.Επειδή είναι γνωστό από παλιά και χρησιμοποιείται πλατιά, το άλας έχει πολλά σχετικά ονόματα όπως μαγειρική σόδα (baking soda), σόδα άρτου (bread soda), μαγειρική σόδα (cooking soda) και διττανθρακική σόδα (bicarbonate of soda). (dbpedia.org)
  • People also use sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda , as an ingredient in baking. (webmd.com)
  • This condition is usually not harmful and can be treated at home using sodium bicarbonate, commonly known as baking soda. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Bicarbonate, a key ingredient in baking soda, makes sparkling water sparkle, causes bread to rise, absorbs odors and can be used to clean all sorts of stuff, including your teeth. (harvard.edu)
  • Sodium bicarbonate, otherwise known as baking soda, is a chemical compound that serves a variety of roles in household cleaning and baking. (livestrong.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is commonly known as baking soda. (reference.com)
  • One particular supplement that has garnered attention in the athletic realm is bicarbonate, the active ingredient in baking soda. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • It is called sodium bicarbonate, although you may know it as baking soda. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate begins with a basic overview of the everyday item known as baking soda, chronicling its long history of use as an effective home remedy. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • By providing a modern approach to this time-honored remedy, Sodium Bicarbonate illustrates the need to see baking soda in a whole new light. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • This is the first medical review of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) in the history of medicine, and it will change the way you think about baking soda, change the way we practice medicine, and change the way we take care of our children. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate (also known as baking soda) is a refined, soluble, white powder. (lushusa.com)
  • The use of baking soda - or sodium bicarbonate as its known in the science world - dates back to the ancient Egyptians, who used it as cleansing agent. (wisebread.com)
  • However, other research shows that increasing the amount of sodium bicarbonate that is used in standard prescription dialysis does not benefit people with kidney disease. (webmd.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with sodium bicarbonate? (medicinenet.com)
  • Other drugs may interact with sodium bicarbonate, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (cigna.com)
  • A small pinch of sodium bicarbonate preserves the green colour in cooked vegetables (too much destroys the vitamin C). Also helps to reduce acidity when stewing sour plums or rhubarb. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because of this, sodium bicarbonate is often used to treat conditions caused by high acidity in the body, such as heartburn . (webmd.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate decreases the acidity of the blood, which then reverses the release of potassium out of the cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Bicarbonate increases the pH (decreases the acidity) of your stomach. (webmd.com)
  • Taking sodium bicarbonate may reduce blood acidity. (livestrong.com)
  • Because the sodium bicarbonate water treatment method results in a non-soluble precipitate, the water stream typically needs filtration. (ehow.com)
  • L'hidrogencarbonat de sodi és un compost sòlid cristal·lí de color blanc molt soluble en aigua, amb un lleuger gust alcalí semblant al carbonat de sodi. (dbpedia.org)
  • now report that the bicarbonate sensor appears to be the recently cloned soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), which is activated in the presence of bicarbonate to produce more cAMP. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate, USP is chemically designated NaHCO 3, a white crystalline powder soluble in water. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate also is indicated in severe diarrhea which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium bicarbonate reacts with acids to release carbon dioxide gas. (sci-toys.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Bicarbonate Supplementation. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. (nih.gov)
  • Bicarbonate supplementation was shown to not have any effect on how much weight or resistance could be lifted or overcome, but it did have some effects on how many repetitions could be done before failure. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • In fact, several have not, but most authors do believe that the use of bicarbonate supplementation can have positive effects on the ability to lift weights for more reps before failure, but not to lift more weight. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate may decrease blood concentration of amphetamines, atazanavir ( Reyataz ), bisacodyl ( Dulcolax ), captopril ( Capoten ), dabigatran (Pradaxa), itraconazole ( Sporanox ) and many other drugs . (medicinenet.com)
  • The concentration of plasma bicarbonate is usually estimated from measured pH and pCO 2 values when blood gas analyzers are utilized. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the application of this equation to the calculation of the bicarbonate concentration in human plasma may be misleading, as the hydration of carbon dioxide in vivo requires the action of isoenzymes of carbonic anhydrase which either are anchored to the plasma membrane of red blood cells or lie inside the erythrocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Serum PRL concentration was significantly increased 3 min postexercise until the end of the placebo trial, whereas after bicarbonate infusion, serum PRL concentration did not change from values at rest. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies, including meta-analyses, yielded conflicting results regarding the safety and efficacy of sodium bicarbonate hydration versus saline. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A potassium bicarbonate solution can be used to treat powdery mildew on lilacs and other plants. (ehow.com)
  • According to Dr. Horst from Cornell University, potassium bicarbonate is effective at eliminating powdery mildew. (ehow.com)
  • Yes, I have recommended bicarbonate of soda as a remedy for leaf blight, powdery mildew and as a general fungicide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Potassium bicarbonate is effective at eliminating powdery mildew. (ehow.co.uk)
  • While it was once considered simply an ingredient in baked goods and toothpaste, sodium bicarbonate contains powerful properties that may help you balance your system, regain your wellbeing, and avoid future health problems. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • All were randomly assigned, in a 2-by-2 factorial design, to receive IV 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or IV 0.9% sodium chloride plus NAC or placebo. (medscape.com)
  • Results at that point showed that 4.4% of those receiving sodium bicarbonate reached the primary end point vs 4.7% of those receiving sodium chloride, and in 4.6% vs 4.5% of the NAC and placebo groups, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • Bicarbonate de potassium, le 7 juillet 2016. (worldcat.org)
  • Publié aussi en anglais sous le titre : Potassium bicarbonate, 7 July 2016. (worldcat.org)
  • Add tags for "Bicarbonate de potassium, le 7 juillet 2016. (worldcat.org)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions. (drugbank.ca)
  • Among the more popular ergogenic aids is the use of sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate, collectively recognized as "buffers. (nih.gov)
  • Bicarbonate is inorganic, very alkaline and like other mineral type substances supports an extensive list of biological functions. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Like magnesium chloride or sulfates are excellent emergency medicines, basic chemicals, nutritional in nature, sodium bicarbonate is a nutritional medicine meaning it cannot and will not end up controlled by CODEX. (earthlink.net)
  • Sodium bicarbonate is a water treatment method used to soften water (removing calcium and magnesium impurities from it) in older water softener systems. (ehow.com)
  • A group of 24 patients received 120+/-40 mmol sodium bicarbonate. (nih.gov)
  • The bicarbonate-based solutions of the present invention are formulated and stored in at least two parts-an alkaline bicarbonate concentrate and an acidic concentrate. (google.com)
  • The alkaline bicarbonate concentrate is adjusted to have a pH of about 8.6 to 10.0. (google.com)
  • 2. The multi-chamber container of claim 1 wherein the acidic concentrate has a pH effective to obtain, when the alkaline bicarbonate concentrate is mixed with the acidic concentrate, a mixed solution having a pH ranging from about 6.5 to 7.6. (google.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 6 wherein the step of adjusting the acidic concentrate is further defined by adjusting the acidic concentrate to a pH effective to obtain, when the alkaline bicarbonate concentrate is mixed with the acidic concentrate, a mixed solution having a pH ranging from about 6.5 to 7.6. (google.com)
  • 2020. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51698/all/sodium_bicarbonate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Studies have shown how manipulation of tumor pH with sodium bicarbonate enhances some forms of chemotherapy. (earthlink.net)
  • Administration of some forms of chemotherapy without bicarbonate would probably kill patients on the spot. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • So solid is bicarbonate s position in orthodox oncology it would probably be considered malpractice to apply most forms of chemotherapy without it. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Sodium bicarbonate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • We might thus identify sodium bicarbonate as an emergency medicine for cancer with the above supporting approaches working on broader levels to help overall physiology change to a degree where body chemistry is unfavorable for new cancer growth. (earthlink.net)
  • Sodium bicarbonate happens to be one of our most useful medicines because bicarbonate physiology is fundamental to life and health. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • The notion that bicarbonate could have an impact on exercise performance is not new and is based on some pretty basic concepts of physiology. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • According to a 2009 study published in the 'Journal of the American Society of Nephrology,' patients with advanced chronic kidney disease generally had a slower rate of decline in their kidney function when they took sodium bicarbonate as an add-on to their usual care regimen. (livestrong.com)

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