Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.
A bibliography is a list of sources, such as books, articles, and documents, that an author has used in researching a piece of writing, typically shown in alphabetical order by the authors' last names and includes details like title, publisher, and publication date, providing a reader with the opportunity to explore the subject further.
A bibliography which lists all the books and other publications published, or distributed in significant quantity, in a particular country. Sometimes the term is used with respect to the new publications published within a specific period, and sometimes with respect to all those published within a lengthy period of many years. It is also used to indicate a bibliography of publications about a country (whether written by its nationals or not) and those written in the language of the country as well as those published in it. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The area of bibliography which makes known precisely the material conditions of books, i.e., the full name of the author, the exact title of the work, the date and place of publication, the publisher's and printer's names, the format, the pagination, typographical particulars, illustrations, and the price, and for old books, other characteristics such as the kind of paper, binding, etc. It is also called analytical bibliography and physical bibliography. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
"In the context of medicine, 'History' refers to the detailed narrative account of a patient's past and present health conditions, symptoms, treatments, lifestyle, and other relevant information, obtained through interviewing the patient or their significant others."
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
'Dental libraries' are collections of resources, including books, journals, databases, and multimedia materials, that provide information and knowledge to support dental education, research, and practice.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
'Medical Libraries' are repositories or digital platforms that accumulate, organize, and provide access to a wide range of biomedical information resources including but not limited to books, journals, electronic databases, multimedia materials, and other evidence-based health data for the purpose of supporting and advancing clinical practice, education, research, and administration in healthcare.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
'History of Medicine' is a branch of knowledge that deals with the evolution, development, and progression of healthcare practices, medical theories, institutions, and personalities from ancient times to the present.
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A computer in a medical context is an electronic device that processes, stores, and retrieves data, often used in medical settings for tasks such as maintaining patient records, managing diagnostic images, and supporting clinical decision-making through software applications and tools.
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and their causes.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Medical philosophy is a branch of philosophy that deals with the concepts, values, and nature of medicine, including its ethical implications, epistemological foundations, and societal impact, aimed at informing and improving medical practice, research, and education.
A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
Branch of medicine involved with management and organization of public health response to disasters and major events including the special health and medical needs of a community in a disaster.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.

Update on XplorMed: A web server for exploring scientific literature. (1/18)

As scientific literature databases like MEDLINE increase in size, so does the time required to search them. Scientists must frequently inspect long lists of references manually, often just reading the titles. XplorMed is a web tool that aids MEDLINE searching by summarizing the subjects contained in the results, thus allowing users to focus on subjects of interest. Here we describe new features added to XplorMed during the last 2 years (http://www.bork.embl-heidelberg.de/xplormed/).  (+info)

Design and evaluation of a personal digital assistant- based alerting service for clinicians. (2/18)

PURPOSE: This study describes the system architecture and user acceptance of a suite of programs that deliver information about newly updated library resources to clinicians' personal digital assistants (PDAs). DESCRIPTION: Participants received headlines delivered to their PDAs alerting them to new books, National Guideline Clearinghouse guidelines, Cochrane Reviews, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Alerts, as well as updated content in UpToDate, Harrison's Online, Scientific American Medicine, and Clinical Evidence. Participants could request additional information for any of the headlines, and the information was delivered via e-mail during their next synchronization. Participants completed a survey at the conclusion of the study to gauge their opinions about the service. RESULTS/OUTCOME: Of the 816 headlines delivered to the 16 study participants' PDAs during the project, Scientific American Medicine generated the highest proportion of headline requests at 35%. Most users of the PDA Alerts software reported that they learned about new medical developments sooner than they otherwise would have, and half reported that they learned about developments that they would not have heard about at all. While some users liked the PDA platform for receiving headlines, it seemed that a Web database that allowed tailored searches and alerts could be configured to satisfy both PDA-oriented and e-mail-oriented users.  (+info)

Language and country preponderance trends in MEDLINE and its causes. (3/18)

OBJECTIVE: The authors characterized the output of MEDLINE papers by language and country of publication during a thirty-four-year time period. METHODS: We classified MEDLINE's journal articles by country of publication (Anglos/Non-Anglos) and language (English/Non-English) for the years 1966 and from 1970 to 2000 at five-year intervals. Eight English-speaking countries were considered Anglos. Linear regression analysis of number of papers versus time was performed. RESULTS: The global number of papers increased linearly at a rate of 8,142 papers per year. Anglo and English papers also increased linearly (6,740 and 9,199, respectively). Journals of Non-Anglo countries accounted for 25% of the English language increase (2,438 per year). Only Non-English papers decreased at a rate of 1,056 fewer papers per year. These trends have led to overwhelming shares of English and Anglo papers in MEDLINE. In 2000, 68% of all papers were published in the 8 Anglo countries and 90% were written in English. CONCLUSIONS: The Anglo and English preponderances appear to be a consequence of at least two phenomena: (1) editorial policy changes in MEDLINE and in some journals from Non-Anglo countries and (2) factors affecting Non-Anglo researchers in the third world (publication constraints, migration, and undersupport). These are tentative conclusions that need confirmation.  (+info)

So many filters, so little time: the development of a search filter appraisal checklist. (4/18)

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The selection of high-impact health informatics literature: a comparison of results between the content expert and the expert searcher. (5/18)

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Quantity, design, and scope of the palliative oncology literature. (6/18)

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The Bockus International Society of Gastroenterology: historical review. (7/18)

The Bockus International Society of Gastroenterology was founded in 1958 in honour of Dr Henry L Bockus (1894-1982) by his former students, residents and fellows at the Graduate School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. It was a celebrated tribute to Dr Bockus' outstanding leadership in the development and teaching of clinical gastroenterology as a subspecialty, which was in its infancy in the post-World War II era. He established the first formal training course in clinical gastroenterology in America. His department of gastroenterology became the leading graduate school of clinical gastroenterology in the world, training many clinical gastroenterologists in America and from many regions around the world. For many years, Dr Bockus was the most prominent American in world gastroenterology. The Bockus Society holds biennial scientific congresses in different continents, thus continuing to foster Dr Bockus' lifelong interest and vision to promote international medical friendship, and excellence in education and research collaboration.  (+info)

Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library. (8/18)

This revised list of 492 books and 138 journals is intended as a selection guide for small or medium-sized hospital libraries or for the small medical library serving a specified clientele. It can also be used as a core list by small hospital library consortia. Books and journals are categorized by subject, with the books being followed by an author index and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries are indicated by an asterisk. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual subscriptions to all the journals would require an expenditure of about $22,500. The cost of only the asterisked items, recommended for first purchase, totals approximately $6,100.  (+info)

A bibliography, when used as a medical topic, typically refers to a list of sources or references that have been cited in a research paper, article, or other scholarly work. It is an organized compilation of the titles, authors, publication dates, and other relevant information about the sources that have been consulted during the course of researching a particular topic.

In medical literature, a bibliography may include sources such as:

* Original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals
* Review articles summarizing current knowledge on a specific topic
* Books or book chapters written by experts in the field
* Conference proceedings or abstracts
* Government reports or guidelines
* Dissertations or theses

The purpose of a bibliography is to provide readers with a comprehensive list of sources that have been used in the research, allowing them to follow up on any references that may be of interest. It also helps to ensure transparency and accountability by providing evidence of the sources that have informed the work.

In addition to being included at the end of scholarly works, bibliographies can also be standalone resources that provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on a particular topic. These may be compiled by experts in the field or created through systematic reviews of the literature.

The "Bibliography of Medicine" is a comprehensive and authoritative bibliographic database that indexes and abstracts biomedical literature from scientific journal articles, books, conference proceedings, and other important sources. It has been produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the United States since 1964.

The "Bibliography of Medicine" covers a wide range of topics related to medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the preclinical sciences, and the health care system. It includes articles from over 5,000 scientific journals published worldwide in more than 40 languages.

The database is available online through various platforms such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and NLM's Literature Selection Unit (LSU). The information in the "Bibliography of Medicine" is organized using a controlled vocabulary called Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), which helps users to search for and retrieve relevant articles based on their specific research interests.

The "Bibliography of Medicine" is an essential resource for medical professionals, researchers, students, and anyone interested in the latest developments in biomedical research. It provides access to high-quality, peer-reviewed literature that can inform clinical practice, guide research agendas, and support evidence-based decision making.

A bibliography is a list of sources (such as books, articles, or websites) that have been referenced or used in a research paper, report, or other type of scholarly work. It provides detailed information about each source, including the author's name, title of the work, publication date, and publisher.

In medical contexts, bibliographies are often included in research articles, review papers, and other types of publications to provide readers with a comprehensive list of sources that were used in the study or analysis. This allows other researchers to easily locate and access the same sources, promoting further investigation and collaboration in the field.

Bibliographies may be organized alphabetically by author's last name, chronologically by publication date, or thematically by subject area. The specific format and style of a bibliography will depend on the citation guidelines established by the publication or academic discipline.

A "National Bibliography" is a list or database of all the publications that have been produced in a particular country during a specific period of time. It is typically compiled and maintained by a national library or other designated organization, and may include books, journals, newspapers, maps, manuscripts, and other types of printed or digital materials. The purpose of a national bibliography is to provide a comprehensive record of a nation's intellectual output and cultural heritage, as well as to support research, education, and cultural preservation efforts.

A "Bibliography" in general is a list of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.) that have been used in the preparation of a piece of writing, such as a research paper or article. It typically includes information about the title, author, publisher, publication date, and pagination of each source, and may also include additional details such as the URL or DOI (digital object identifier) for online sources.

Therefore, a "Medical definition of 'Bibliography, National'" would refer to a comprehensive list of medical publications produced within a specific country over a certain period of time. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the medical field, providing them with access to a wide range of domestic medical resources and information.

A descriptive bibliography in a medical context is a detailed and systematic list or catalog of books, journals, articles, or other printed materials that provides a description of each item. This description includes information such as the title, author, publisher, publication date, place of publication, pagination, physical description, and any relevant notes about the item's condition, edition, or special features.

Descriptive bibliographies are often used in medical research to document and provide access to a comprehensive collection of sources related to a particular topic, author, or time period. They can help researchers identify and locate specific items, compare different editions or printings, and understand the context in which the materials were produced.

In addition to providing detailed descriptions of each item, descriptive bibliographies may also include critical assessments or evaluations of the sources, highlighting their strengths, weaknesses, and relevance to the research question at hand. Overall, a descriptive bibliography is an essential tool for medical researchers seeking to conduct a thorough and systematic review of the literature on a particular topic.

A biography is a written or oral account of someone’s life. It can be written in either objective or subjective style, depending on the author’s approach and purpose. A biography typically includes information about the person’s birth, major life events, relationships, accomplishments, and death. It may also include an analysis of the person’s character and impact on society.

Biographies can be written about people from all walks of life, including politicians, artists, scientists, religious figures, and historical figures. They can be used for a variety of purposes, such as to educate readers about a particular person or period in history, to inspire or entertain, or to provide insight into the human experience.

Biographies can be classified into several types, including:

1. Autobiography: A biography written by the subject themselves.
2. Memoir: A type of autobiography that focuses on specific events or aspects of the author's life.
3. Authorized biography: A biography written with the cooperation and approval of the subject or their estate.
4. Unauthorized biography: A biography written without the subject's cooperation or approval.
5. Collective biography: A biography that covers multiple subjects who share a common theme, such as members of a particular family, group, or profession.
6. Fictionalized biography: A biography that includes fictional elements to enhance the narrative or fill in gaps in the historical record.

Regardless of the type, a well-written biography can provide valuable insights into the life and times of its subject, shedding light on their achievements, struggles, and contributions to society.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

A bibliographic database is a type of database that contains records of publications, such as books, articles, and conference proceedings. These records typically include bibliographic information, such as the title, author, publication date, and source of the publication. Some bibliographic databases also include abstracts or summaries of the publications, and many provide links to the full text of the publications if they are available online.

Bibliographic databases are used in a variety of fields, including academia, medicine, and industry, to locate relevant publications on a particular topic. They can be searched using keywords, author names, and other criteria. Some bibliographic databases are general, covering a wide range of topics, while others are specialized and focus on a specific subject area.

In the medical field, bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE and PubMed are widely used to search for articles related to biomedical research, clinical practice, and public health. These databases contain records of articles from thousands of biomedical journals and can be searched using keywords, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, and other criteria.

In the context of medical terminology, "history" refers to the detailed narrative of the patient's symptoms, illnesses, treatments, and other related information gathered during a medical consultation or examination. This is usually obtained by asking the patient a series of questions about their past medical conditions, current health status, family medical history, lifestyle habits, and any medications they are taking. The information collected in the medical history helps healthcare professionals to diagnose, treat, and manage the patient's health concerns more effectively. It is also an essential part of continuity of care, as it provides valuable insights into the patient's health over time.

MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) is a computerized system for searching, retrieving, and disseminating biomedical literature. It was developed by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the 1960s as a tool to help medical professionals quickly and efficiently search through large volumes of medical literature.

The MEDLARS system includes several databases, including MEDLINE, which contains citations and abstracts from biomedical journals published worldwide. The system uses a controlled vocabulary thesaurus called Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to help users find relevant articles by searching for specific medical concepts and keywords.

MEDLARS was eventually replaced by the more advanced online database system known as PubMed, which is now widely used by healthcare professionals, researchers, and students to search for biomedical literature. However, the term "MEDLARS" is still sometimes used to refer to the older system or to describe the process of searching medical databases using controlled vocabulary terms.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can provide some information on this topic. "Dental libraries" generally refer to collections of resources related to dental medicine and oral health. These libraries may contain various materials such as books, journals, articles, multimedia resources, and electronic databases. They serve as a valuable source of knowledge and information for dental professionals, students, researchers, and educators in the field of dentistry. Dental libraries play an essential role in supporting evidence-based practice, continuing education, and research advancements in oral health care.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

Bioethics is a branch of ethics that deals with the ethical issues and dilemmas arising from biological and medical research and practices. It involves the study of moral principles, values, and conduct in relation to medicine, healthcare, biotechnology, and life sciences. The field of bioethics addresses questions and concerns related to topics such as end-of-life care, genetic engineering, cloning, stem cell research, organ donation, patient autonomy, informed consent, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. Bioethicists aim to provide guidance and recommendations for addressing these complex issues in a way that respects individual rights, promotes social justice, and upholds ethical integrity.

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a system of medicine that has been developed in China over thousands of years. It is based on the philosophy that the body's vital energy (Qi) circulates through a network of channels called meridians, and that disease results from an imbalance or blockage in this flow of Qi.

TCM uses a variety of treatments to restore balance and promote health, including acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion (the burning of herbs near the skin), cupping, dietary therapy, and tuina (Chinese massage). The use of Chinese herbal medicines is a major component of TCM, with formulas often consisting of combinations of several different herbs tailored to the individual patient's needs.

In addition to these treatments, TCM practitioners may also use diagnostic techniques such as pulse diagnosis and tongue examination to assess a person's overall health and determine the underlying cause of their symptoms. The goal of TCM is not only to treat specific symptoms or diseases but to address the root causes of illness and promote overall wellness.

Abstracting and indexing are processes used in the field of information science to organize, summarize, and categorize published literature, making it easier for researchers and other interested individuals to find and access relevant information.

Abstracting involves creating a brief summary of a publication, typically no longer than a few hundred words, that captures its key points and findings. This summary is known as an abstract and provides readers with a quick overview of the publication's content, allowing them to determine whether it is worth reading in full.

Indexing, on the other hand, involves categorizing publications according to their subject matter, using a controlled vocabulary or set of keywords. This makes it easier for users to search for and find publications on specific topics, as they can simply look up the relevant keyword or subject heading in the index.

Together, abstracting and indexing are essential tools for managing the vast and growing amount of published literature in any given field. They help ensure that important research findings and other information are easily discoverable and accessible to those who need them, thereby facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and advancing scientific progress.

Individualized medicine, also known as personalized medicine, is a medical model that uses molecular profiling and various diagnostic tests to understand the genetic and environmental variations affecting an individual's health and disease susceptibility. It aims to tailor medical treatments, including prevention strategies, diagnostics, therapies, and follow-up care, to each person's unique needs and characteristics. By incorporating genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and other "omics" data into clinical decision-making, individualized medicine strives to improve patient outcomes, reduce adverse effects, and potentially lower healthcare costs.

Medical libraries are collections of resources that provide access to information related to the medical and healthcare fields. They serve as a vital tool for medical professionals, students, researchers, and patients seeking reliable and accurate health information. Medical libraries can be physical buildings or digital platforms that contain various types of materials, including:

1. Books: Medical textbooks, reference books, and monographs that cover various topics related to medicine, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, and clinical specialties.
2. Journals: Print and electronic peer-reviewed journals that publish the latest research findings, clinical trials, and evidence-based practices in medicine.
3. Databases: Online resources that allow users to search for and access information on specific topics, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library.
4. Multimedia resources: Audio and video materials, such as lectures, webinars, podcasts, and instructional videos, that provide visual and auditory learning experiences.
5. Electronic resources: E-books, databases, and other digital materials that can be accessed remotely through computers, tablets, or smartphones.
6. Patient education materials: Brochures, pamphlets, and other resources that help patients understand their health conditions, treatments, and self-care strategies.
7. Archives and special collections: Rare books, historical documents, manuscripts, and artifacts related to the history of medicine and healthcare.

Medical libraries may be found in hospitals, medical schools, research institutions, and other healthcare settings. They are staffed by trained librarians and information specialists who provide assistance with locating, accessing, and evaluating information resources. Medical libraries play a critical role in supporting evidence-based medicine, continuing education, and patient care.

In the context of healthcare, an Information System (IS) is a set of components that work together to collect, process, store, and distribute health information. This can include hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that are used to create, process, and communicate information.

Healthcare IS support various functions within a healthcare organization, such as:

1. Clinical information systems: These systems support clinical workflows and decision-making by providing access to patient records, order entry, results reporting, and medication administration records.
2. Financial information systems: These systems manage financial transactions, including billing, claims processing, and revenue cycle management.
3. Administrative information systems: These systems support administrative functions, such as scheduling appointments, managing patient registration, and tracking patient flow.
4. Public health information systems: These systems collect, analyze, and disseminate public health data to support disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, and population health management.

Healthcare IS must comply with various regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which governs the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI). Effective implementation and use of healthcare IS can improve patient care, reduce errors, and increase efficiency within healthcare organizations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Collection Development" is not a medical term. It is a term commonly used in the field of library science to refer to the process of building and maintaining a collection of materials (such as books, periodicals, electronic resources, etc.) in a library or information center. This involves selecting, acquiring, organizing, preserving, and making accessible appropriate resources that meet the needs and interests of the library's users.

Medline is not a medical condition or term, but rather a biomedical bibliographic database, which is a component of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM)'s PubMed system. It contains citations and abstracts from scientific literature in the fields of life sciences, biomedicine, and clinical medicine, with a focus on articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Medline covers a wide range of topics, including research articles, reviews, clinical trials, and case reports. The database is updated daily and provides access to over 26 million references from the years 1946 to the present. It's an essential resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and students in the biomedical field.

Internal Medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of internal diseases affecting adults. It encompasses a wide range of medical conditions, including those related to the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hematological, endocrine, infectious, and immune systems. Internists, or general internists, are trained to provide comprehensive care for adult patients, managing both simple and complex diseases, and often serving as primary care physicians. They may also subspecialize in various fields such as cardiology, gastroenterology, nephrology, or infectious disease, among others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases. The radiopharmaceuticals are taken internally, usually through injection or oral administration, and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the radiation emitted by these substances, which helps create detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions.

The images produced in nuclear medicine can help doctors identify abnormalities such as tumors, fractures, infection, or inflammation. Additionally, some radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat certain conditions, like hyperthyroidism or cancer, by delivering targeted doses of radiation directly to the affected area. Overall, nuclear medicine provides valuable information for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of many medical conditions.

Traditional medicine (TM) refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. Although traditional medicine has been practiced since prehistoric times, it is still widely used today and may include:

1. Traditional Asian medicines such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and qigong from China; Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani and Siddha from India; and Jamu from Indonesia.
2. Traditional European herbal medicines, also known as phytotherapy.
3. North American traditional indigenous medicines, including Native American and Inuit practices.
4. African traditional medicines, such as herbal, spiritual, and manual techniques practiced in various African cultures.
5. South American traditional medicines, like Mapuche, Curanderismo, and Santo Daime practices from different countries.

It is essential to note that traditional medicine may not follow the scientific principles, evidence-based standards, or quality control measures inherent to conventional (also known as allopathic or Western) medicine. However, some traditional medicines have been integrated into modern healthcare systems and are considered complementary or alternative medicines (CAM). The World Health Organization encourages member states to develop policies and regulations for integrating TM/CAM practices into their healthcare systems, ensuring safety, efficacy, and quality while respecting cultural diversity.

Kampo medicine is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has been officially integrated into the Japanese healthcare system since the late 19th century. It is based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) principles and theories, but it has evolved independently in Japan over centuries to reflect local medical needs, cultural preferences, and pharmacological research.

Kampo medicine typically involves the use of complex formulas containing multiple herbs, rather than single herbs, to address various health conditions and restore balance within the body. The formulas are often adjusted based on individual patient's symptoms, constitution, and physical condition. Kampo practitioners receive extensive training in both modern Western medicine and traditional Japanese medicine, allowing them to integrate both approaches for a more holistic treatment strategy.

Kampo has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a valuable component of traditional medicine and is increasingly being studied in clinical trials to evaluate its efficacy and safety for various health issues, including gastrointestinal disorders, menopausal symptoms, and mental health conditions.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Medicine is a branch of healthcare that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and illness. It encompasses a variety of health profession practices, including but not limited to, the services provided by physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, and allied health professionals.

Medicine can also refer to the substances or compounds used in the treatment and prevention of disease, often referred to as medications or drugs. These substances can be administered in various forms, such as oral (pills, liquids), topical (creams, ointments), injectable (shots, IVs), or inhaled (aerosols, nebulizers).

Overall, medicine is a multidisciplinary field that combines scientific research, clinical expertise, and patient values to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment for individuals and communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

A zygapophyseal joint, also known as a facet joint, is a type of synovial joint that connects the articulating processes of adjacent vertebrae in the spine. These joints are formed by the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebral bodies and are covered with hyaline cartilage. They allow for smooth movement between the vertebrae, providing stability and limiting excessive motion while allowing flexibility in the spine. The zygapophyseal joints are supported by a capsule and ligaments that help to maintain their alignment and restrict abnormal movements. These joints can become sources of pain and discomfort when they become inflamed or damaged due to conditions such as arthritis, degenerative disc disease, or injury.

Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists or recurs for a period of 3 months or longer, beyond the normal healing time for an injury or illness. It can be continuous or intermittent and range from mild to severe. Chronic pain can have various causes, such as nerve damage, musculoskeletal conditions, or chronic diseases like cancer. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing limitations in mobility, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased overall well-being. Effective management of chronic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, physical therapy, psychological interventions, and complementary therapies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

'Information Storage and Retrieval' in the context of medical informatics refers to the processes and systems used for the recording, storing, organizing, protecting, and retrieving electronic health information (e.g., patient records, clinical data, medical images) for various purposes such as diagnosis, treatment planning, research, and education. This may involve the use of electronic health record (EHR) systems, databases, data warehouses, and other digital technologies that enable healthcare providers to access and share accurate, up-to-date, and relevant information about a patient's health status, medical history, and care plan. The goal is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and coordination of healthcare delivery by providing timely and evidence-based information to support clinical decision-making and patient engagement.

Epidural injection is a medical procedure where a medication is injected into the epidural space of the spine. The epidural space is the area between the outer covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the vertebral column. This procedure is typically used to provide analgesia (pain relief) or anesthesia for surgical procedures, labor and delivery, or chronic pain management.

The injection usually contains a local anesthetic and/or a steroid medication, which can help reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected area. The medication is delivered through a thin needle that is inserted into the epidural space using the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Epidural injections are commonly used to treat various types of pain, including lower back pain, leg pain (sciatica), and neck pain. They can also be used to diagnose the source of pain by injecting a local anesthetic to numb the area and determine if it is the cause of the pain.

While epidural injections are generally safe, they do carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or allergic reactions to the medication. It's important to discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

The "History of Medicine" refers to the evolution and development of medical knowledge, practices, and institutions over time. It includes the study of key figures, discoveries, theories, treatments, and societal attitudes that have shaped the way medicine is practiced and understood in different cultures and historical periods. This can encompass various fields such as clinical medicine, public health, medical ethics, and healthcare systems. The history of medicine provides valuable insights into the advances and setbacks in medical knowledge and offers lessons for addressing current and future medical challenges.

Clinical medicine is a branch of medical practice that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in patients. It is based on the direct examination and evaluation of patients, including taking medical histories, performing physical examinations, ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, and formulating treatment plans. Clinical medicine encompasses various specialties such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology, among others. The goal of clinical medicine is to provide evidence-based, compassionate care to patients to improve their health outcomes and quality of life.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

A meta-analysis is a statistical method used to combine and summarize the results of multiple independent studies, with the aim of increasing statistical power, improving estimates of effect size, and identifying sources of heterogeneity. It involves systematically searching for and selecting relevant studies, assessing their quality and risk of bias, extracting and analyzing data using appropriate statistical models, and interpreting the findings in the context of the existing literature. Meta-analyses can provide more reliable evidence than individual studies, especially when the results are inconsistent or inconclusive, and can inform clinical guidelines, public health policies, and future research directions.

Regenerative medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the repair or replacement of damaged or diseased cells, tissues, and organs using various strategies, including the use of stem cells, tissue engineering, gene therapy, and biomaterials. The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore normal function and structure to tissues and organs, thereby improving the patient's quality of life and potentially curing diseases that were previously considered incurable.

Regenerative medicine has shown promise in a variety of clinical applications, such as the treatment of degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, diabetes, and liver failure. It also holds great potential for use in regenerative therapies for wound healing, tissue reconstruction, and cosmetic surgery.

The field of regenerative medicine is rapidly evolving, with new discoveries and advances being made regularly. As our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that drive tissue repair and regeneration continues to grow, so too will the potential clinical applications of this exciting and promising field.

Emergency medicine is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention. This can include conditions such as severe trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, respiratory distress, and other life-threatening situations. Emergency medicine physicians, also known as emergency doctors or ER doctors, are trained to provide rapid assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a fast-paced and often unpredictable environment. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as nurses, paramedics, and specialists, to ensure that patients receive the best possible care in a timely manner. Emergency medicine is a critical component of the healthcare system, providing essential services for patients who require immediate medical attention, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

Ayurvedic medicine, also known as Ayurveda, is a traditional system of medicine that has been practiced in India for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that health and wellness depend on a delicate balance between the mind, body, and spirit. The goal of Ayurvedic medicine is to promote good health, rather than fight disease.

In Ayurveda, each person has a unique constitution, or dosha, that is determined by the balance of three energies: Vata (air and space), Pitta (fire and water), and Kapha (water and earth). These doshas are believed to govern all physical and mental processes and to be responsible for an individual's physical and mental health.

Ayurvedic treatments may include herbal remedies, special diets, detoxification programs, meditation, yoga, and massage therapy. The aim of Ayurvedic medicine is to cleanse the body of toxins, balance the doshas, and promote good health and well-being.

It's important to note that while some people find Ayurvedic practices helpful for maintaining their overall health, there is limited scientific evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of many Ayurvedic treatments. Additionally, some Ayurvedic products may contain harmful levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, and arsenic, which can be toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin. It's important to consult with a qualified healthcare provider before starting any new treatment regimen, including Ayurvedic medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Intra-articular injections refer to the administration of medication directly into a joint space. This route of administration is used for treating various joint conditions such as inflammation, pain, and arthritis. Commonly injected medications include corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and viscosupplementation agents. The procedure is usually performed using imaging guidance, like ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the medication within the joint.

Complementary therapies refer to a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medicine. They are often used in conjunction with conventional treatments and are intended to facilitate the physical and emotional well-being of the patient. Complementary therapies can include a wide range of interventions such as acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage therapy, herbal medicine, yoga, meditation, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, and homeopathy, among others. It is important to note that while some complementary therapies have been shown to be effective for certain conditions, others lack scientific evidence of their safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new complementary therapy.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Integrative Medicine (IM) is a comprehensive, whole-person approach to healthcare that combines conventional medicine with evidence-based complementary and alternative therapies. The goal of IM is to achieve optimal health and healing by addressing the physical, emotional, mental, social, and spiritual aspects of an individual's life.

The principles of Integrative Medicine include:

1. Patient-centered care: Treating each patient as a unique individual and considering their personal needs, values, and preferences in the treatment plan.
2. Collaboration: Working together with patients, families, and other healthcare providers to create a coordinated and comprehensive care plan.
3. Evidence-informed practice: Using the best available evidence from both conventional and complementary medicine to inform clinical decision making.
4. Incorporation of lifestyle modifications: Encouraging patients to make lifestyle changes that promote health and wellness, such as diet, exercise, stress management, and sleep hygiene.
5. Use of both conventional and complementary therapies: Utilizing a range of treatments, including pharmaceuticals, surgery, acupuncture, herbs, nutrition, and mind-body techniques, to address the root causes of illness and promote healing.
6. Attention to all aspects of health: Addressing physical, emotional, mental, social, and spiritual factors that contribute to health and wellness.
7. Focus on prevention and wellness: Emphasizing the importance of preventing illness and promoting overall health and well-being.
8. Continuous learning and improvement: Staying up-to-date with the latest research and best practices in both conventional and complementary medicine, and using this knowledge to improve patient care.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Osteopathic medicine is a system of medical care that focuses on the unity of the mind, body, and spirit in the diagnosis and treatment of illness. It was founded in the United States in 1874 by Andrew Taylor Still, MD, who developed a philosophy of medicine based on principles of preventive medicine, holistic patient care, and the interrelationship of all body systems.

Osteopathic physicians (DOs), also known as osteopaths, are trained to diagnose and treat medical conditions using a variety of treatment modalities, including manual manipulation of the musculoskeletal system. They receive the same basic medical education as MDs, but also complete additional training in osteopathic principles and practices.

Osteopathic medicine emphasizes the importance of preventive care, lifestyle modifications, and patient education in maintaining health and preventing illness. DOs are trained to use their hands to diagnose and treat structural and functional problems in the body, with a focus on the musculoskeletal system. They believe that the body has an inherent ability to heal itself, and that manipulation of the bones, muscles, and other tissues can help promote this natural healing process.

DOs are licensed to practice medicine and surgery in all 50 states and are recognized as fully qualified physicians. They may choose to specialize in any area of medicine, including family practice, internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery, psychiatry, and neurology, among others.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. ClinicalTrials.gov: A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Sports medicine is a branch of healthcare that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of injuries and illnesses related to sports and exercise. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical doctors, orthopedic surgeons, physical therapists, athletic trainers, and other healthcare professionals who work together to help athletes and active individuals return to their desired level of activity as quickly and safely as possible.

The scope of sports medicine includes the management of acute injuries such as sprains, strains, fractures, and dislocations, as well as chronic overuse injuries like tendinitis, stress fractures, and bursitis. It also addresses medical conditions that can affect athletic performance or overall health, including concussions, asthma, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Preventive care is an essential component of sports medicine, with healthcare providers educating athletes on proper warm-up and cool-down techniques, nutrition, hydration, and injury prevention strategies to reduce the risk of future injuries. Additionally, sports medicine professionals may work with coaches, trainers, and athletes to develop safe training programs that promote optimal performance while minimizing the risk of injury.

Internship: In medical terms, an internship is a supervised program of hospital-based training for physicians and surgeons who have recently graduated from medical school. The duration of an internship typically ranges from one to three years, during which the intern engages in a variety of clinical rotations in different departments such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology. The primary aim of an internship is to provide newly graduated doctors with hands-on experience in patient care, diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication skills under the close supervision of experienced physicians.

Residency: A residency is a structured and intensive postgraduate medical training program that typically lasts between three and seven years, depending on the specialty. Residents are licensed physicians who have completed their internship and are now receiving advanced training in a specific area of medicine or surgery. During this period, residents work closely with experienced attending physicians to gain comprehensive knowledge and skills in their chosen field. They are responsible for managing patient care, performing surgical procedures, interpreting diagnostic tests, conducting research, teaching medical students, and participating in continuing education activities. Residency programs aim to prepare physicians for independent practice and board certification in their specialty.

African traditional medicine (ATM) refers to the practices and beliefs regarding both physical and spiritual health and well-being that are indigenous to Africa. It includes various forms of healing, such as herbalism, spiritualism, and ancestral veneration, which may be practiced by traditional healers, including herbalists, diviners, and traditional birth attendants. These practices are often closely intertwined with the cultural, religious, and social beliefs of the community. It's important to note that the specific practices and beliefs can vary widely among different African cultures and communities.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), also known as Physiatry, is a medical specialty that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with disabilities or functional limitations related to musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurologic, and other systems. The main goal of this discipline is to restore optimal function, reduce symptoms, and improve the overall quality of life for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or disabling conditions.

PRM physicians use a variety of techniques, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, assistive devices, medications, and various types of injections to manage pain and spasticity. They also perform electrodiagnostic studies to diagnose neuromuscular disorders and provide comprehensive rehabilitation plans tailored to each patient's unique needs and goals.

In addition to direct patient care, PRM specialists often work as part of multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and outpatient clinics, collaborating with other healthcare professionals such as nurses, therapists, psychologists, and social workers to provide coordinated, holistic care for patients.

Occupational medicine is a branch of clinical medicine that deals with the prevention and management of diseases and injuries that may arise in the workplace or as a result of work-related activities. It involves evaluating the health risks associated with various jobs, recommending measures to reduce these risks, providing medical care for workers who become ill or injured on the job, and promoting overall health and wellness in the workplace. Occupational medicine physicians may also be involved in developing policies and procedures related to workplace safety, disability management, and return-to-work programs. The ultimate goal of occupational medicine is to help ensure that workers are able to perform their jobs safely and effectively while maintaining their overall health and well-being.

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medical science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and injuries in non-human animals. The profession of veterinary medicine is dedicated to the care, health, and welfare of animals, as well as to the promotion of human health through animal research and public health advancements. Veterinarians employ a variety of diagnostic methods including clinical examination, radiography, laboratory testing, and ultrasound imaging. They use a range of treatments, including medication, surgery, and dietary management. In addition, veterinarians may also advise on preventative healthcare measures such as vaccination schedules and parasite control programs.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

"Essential drugs" is a term used in the medical and public health fields to refer to a list of medications that are considered necessary to meet the most important needs of a healthcare system. The concept of essential drugs was first introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977, with the aim of promoting access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

The WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) is regularly updated and contains a core list of essential medicines that should be available at all times in adequate quantities, in the appropriate dosage forms, and at a price that the majority of the population can afford. The list includes drugs for a wide range of medical conditions, from infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

The selection of essential medicines is based on several criteria, including the burden of disease in a population, the safety and efficacy of the drug, its cost-effectiveness, and its place in the overall treatment strategy for a particular condition. The goal is to ensure that healthcare systems have access to a basic set of medicines that can address the most common health needs of their populations, while also allowing for flexibility to meet the specific needs of individual countries and regions.

In summary, essential drugs are a list of medications considered necessary to meet the most important healthcare needs of a population, selected based on criteria such as disease burden, safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and treatment strategy. The concept is promoted by the World Health Organization to improve access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

Environmental medicine is a branch of medicine that focuses on the study of how various environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological agents, can impact human health. It involves understanding and addressing the causes and effects of environmental exposures on individual health and disease. This may include assessing and managing exposure to pollutants, allergens, infectious agents, and other environmental stressors in order to prevent or treat related health issues. Additionally, environmental medicine also considers how individual susceptibility, such as genetic factors or pre-existing health conditions, can influence the impact of environmental exposures on health.

Korean traditional medicine (KTM) is a system of medicine that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years. It is also known as Hanbang medicine or Han-ui. KTM is based on the principles of Daoism and the concept of Yin and Yang, and it emphasizes the balance and harmony between the body, mind, and environment.

Korean traditional medicine includes a variety of treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion, cupping, and dietary therapy. The use of herbs is a major component of KTM, with thousands of different herbs being used to treat various health conditions. These herbs can be taken in the form of teas, powders, pills, or decoctions.

Acupuncture is also an important part of KTM and involves the insertion of fine needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the flow of Qi (vital energy) and restore balance. Moxibustion involves burning herbs near the skin to warm the area and promote healing, while cupping uses suction cups to increase circulation and relieve pain.

Korean traditional medicine places great emphasis on prevention and encourages individuals to maintain a healthy lifestyle through proper diet, exercise, stress management, and other self-care practices. Practitioners of KTM undergo rigorous training and must pass national exams in order to become licensed.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

"Medical Schools" is a term that refers to educational institutions specifically designed to train and educate future medical professionals. These schools offer comprehensive programs leading to a professional degree in medicine, such as the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree. The curriculum typically includes both classroom instruction and clinical training, covering topics like anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, medical ethics, and patient care. Medical schools aim to equip students with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes to become competent, compassionate, and ethical healthcare providers. Admission to medical schools usually requires a bachelor's degree and completion of specific prerequisite courses, as well as a strong performance on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT).

Community medicine, also known as social medicine or public health medicine, is a branch of medical science that deals with the health of populations and communities rather than individual patients. It focuses on preventing diseases and promoting health through organized community efforts, including education, advocacy, and policy development. Community medicine aims to improve the overall health status of a population by addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, education, and access to healthcare services. It involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, community members, policical leaders, and organizations, to identify and address the health needs of the community.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Tropical medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with health problems that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. These regions are typically characterized by hot and humid climates, and often have distinct ecological systems that can contribute to the spread of infectious diseases.

The field of tropical medicine encompasses a wide range of health issues, including:

1. Infectious diseases: Many tropical diseases are caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Some of the most common infectious diseases in the tropics include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika virus, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and Chagas disease.
2. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): A group of chronic infectious diseases that primarily affect poor and marginalized populations in the tropics. NTDs include diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).
3. Zoonotic diseases: Diseases that are transmitted between animals and humans, often through insect vectors or contaminated food and water. Examples of zoonotic diseases in the tropics include rabies, leptospirosis, and Rift Valley fever.
4. Environmental health issues: The tropical environment can pose unique health challenges, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, heat stress, and poor air quality. Tropical medicine also addresses these environmental health issues.
5. Travel medicine: As global travel increases, there is a growing need for medical professionals who are knowledgeable about the health risks associated with traveling to tropical destinations. Tropical medicine physicians often provide pre-travel consultations and post-travel evaluations for international travelers.

Overall, tropical medicine is an essential field that addresses the unique health challenges faced by populations living in or traveling to tropical and subtropical regions.

Medical education is a systematic process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and values necessary for becoming a healthcare professional, such as a doctor, nurse, or allied health professional. It involves a combination of theoretical instruction, practical training, and experiential learning in clinical settings. The goal of medical education is to produce competent, compassionate, and ethical practitioners who can provide high-quality care to patients and contribute to the advancement of medicine. Medical education typically includes undergraduate (pre-medical) studies, graduate (medical) school, residency training, and continuing medical education throughout a healthcare professional's career.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Social medicine is a branch of medicine that focuses on the social determinants of health and illness, and the organization and delivery of healthcare services. It emphasizes the role of socio-economic factors such as poverty, education, housing, employment, and social support networks in shaping population health outcomes. Social medicine also examines how healthcare systems can be designed and implemented to reduce health disparities and promote equity in health.

The field of social medicine draws on a range of disciplines including epidemiology, sociology, anthropology, health policy, and medical ethics. It seeks to understand the complex interplay between individual biology, behavior, and social context in shaping health and illness, and to develop evidence-based policies and interventions that can improve population health and reduce health inequities.

Social medicine is concerned not only with treating individual patients but also with promoting the health of communities and populations. It recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining health outcomes, and that social and economic policies have a profound impact on health and wellbeing. As such, social medicine advocates for a comprehensive approach to improving health that includes addressing the root causes of health disparities and working towards greater social justice and equity.

Religion and medicine are two distinct fields that can intersect in various ways. While religion can be defined as a set of beliefs, practices, and rituals related to the divine or supernatural, medicine is concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure of disease, illness, and other physical and mental impairments in humans.

A medical definition of "Religion and Medicine" might refer to the study of the relationship between religious beliefs, practices, and experiences, and health outcomes, healthcare delivery, and medical decision-making. This can include exploring how religious beliefs and practices influence health behaviors, coping mechanisms, social support networks, and access to care, as well as how they shape attitudes towards medical interventions, end-of-life decisions, and bioethical issues.

Religion can also play a role in the provision of healthcare services, such as through faith-based organizations that operate hospitals, clinics, and other health facilities. Additionally, religious leaders and communities may provide spiritual care and support to patients and their families, complementing the medical care provided by healthcare professionals.

Overall, the intersection of religion and medicine is a complex and multifaceted area of study that requires an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on insights from fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, theology, and public health.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. Sleep-related problems such as snoring, sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias, circadian rhythm disorders, and unusual behaviors during sleep are among the conditions that sleep medicine physicians diagnose and treat.

Sleep medicine specialists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other healthcare professionals such as neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, pulmonologists, otolaryngologists, and dentists to provide comprehensive care for patients with sleep disorders. They use various diagnostic tools, including polysomnography (sleep studies), actigraphy, and multiple sleep latency tests, to evaluate patients' sleep patterns and diagnose their conditions accurately. Based on the diagnosis, they develop individualized treatment plans that may include lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, medical devices, or surgery.

To become a sleep medicine specialist, physicians typically complete a residency in a related field such as neurology, pulmonology, psychiatry, or internal medicine and then pursue additional training and certification in sleep medicine. The American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes sleep medicine as a subspecialty, and the American Board of Sleep Medicine offers certification to qualified physicians who pass a rigorous examination.

Medical education, graduate refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study leading to a doctoral degree in medicine (MD) or osteopathic medicine (DO). These programs typically include rigorous coursework in the basic medical sciences, clinical training, and research experiences. The goal of medical education at this level is to prepare students to become competent, caring physicians who are able to provide high-quality medical care to patients, conduct research to advance medical knowledge, and contribute to the improvement of health care systems.

Graduate medical education (GME) typically includes residency programs, which are postgraduate training programs that provide specialized clinical training in a particular field of medicine. Residency programs typically last three to seven years, depending on the specialty, and provide hands-on experience in diagnosing and treating patients under the supervision of experienced physicians.

Medical education at the graduate level is designed to build upon the foundational knowledge and skills acquired during undergraduate medical education (UME) and to prepare students for licensure and certification as practicing physicians. Graduates of GME programs are eligible to take licensing exams and apply for certification in their chosen specialty through professional organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS).

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

The term "Faculty, Medical" generally refers to the faculty members who are involved in medical education and training within a medical school or academic institution. These individuals are responsible for teaching and instructing medical students, residents, and fellows in various areas of medical knowledge and clinical skills. They may hold positions such as professor, associate professor, assistant professor, or instructor, and they may specialize in a particular area of medicine such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, or psychiatry. Medical faculty members may also be involved in research, patient care, and administrative duties within the institution.

"Medicine in Literature" is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study that explores the representation and interpretation of medicine, health, and illness in literature. It is an interdisciplinary approach that combines literary analysis with medical humanities to understand the cultural, historical, and social contexts of medical practices, theories, and experiences as depicted in various forms of literature. This field often examines how literature reflects and shapes societal attitudes towards health, disease, and medical care, and how it can contribute to medical education and empathic understanding of patients' experiences.

I'm assuming you are asking for a definition of "medical students." Here it is:

Medical students are individuals who are enrolled in a program of study to become medical doctors. They typically complete four years of undergraduate education before entering a medical school, where they spend another four years studying basic sciences and clinical medicine. After completing medical school, they become physicians (M.D.) and continue their training through residency programs in their chosen specialties. Some medical students may choose to pursue a research career and complete a Ph.D. during or after medical school.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Preventive medicine, also known as preventive medicine or prophylaxis, refers to measures taken to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. This can include various strategies such as vaccination, regular screenings and check-ups, early detection and intervention for medical issues, lifestyle modifications, and environmental changes.

The goal of preventive medicine is to protect, promote, and maintain health and well-being and to prevent disease, disability, and death. It is a proactive approach to healthcare that focuses on keeping people healthy and minimizing the negative impact of diseases or injuries when they do occur. Preventive medicine can be practiced by various healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and public health practitioners.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

Defensive medicine is a term used in the medical field to describe the practice of healthcare providers ordering tests, treatments, or procedures primarily to reduce their risk of liability, rather than to provide the most appropriate care for the patient's medical condition. This behavior can be driven by fear of malpractice lawsuits and the desire to avoid any potential legal consequences.

Defensive medicine can take two main forms:

1. **Offensive defensive medicine**: This refers to the practice of ordering additional tests, consultations, or treatments that go beyond what is medically necessary to confirm a diagnosis or guide treatment. The goal here is to create a more comprehensive medical record that could help defend against potential malpractice claims in the future.
2. **Defensive defensive medicine**: This involves avoiding high-risk procedures or patients and may even lead to the denial of care for certain individuals due to fear of legal repercussions. Healthcare providers might also refrain from treating patients with complex medical conditions or those who have a history of suing physicians.

While defensive medicine is intended to protect healthcare providers, it can result in unnecessary costs, overtreatment, and potentially even patient harm due to additional procedures or treatments that may not be medically indicated. The practice remains controversial, as some argue that it is necessary to protect providers from frivolous lawsuits, while others believe it contributes to the rising healthcare costs without improving patient outcomes.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Medical philosophy is a branch of philosophy that deals with the concepts, issues, and arguments specific to medicine and healthcare. It involves the application of philosophical inquiry and reasoning to various aspects of medicine, such as:

1. Ethics: Examining moral principles and values that guide medical practice, including patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes issues related to end-of-life care, informed consent, research ethics, and resource allocation.
2. Epistemology: Exploring the nature of knowledge in medicine, including how medical knowledge is acquired, validated, and disseminated. It also involves examining the limitations and uncertainties of medical knowledge.
3. Metaphysics: Examining the fundamental nature of reality as it relates to medicine, such as the nature of disease, health, and the human body. This includes exploring questions about the mind-body relationship and the role of emergent properties in understanding health and illness.
4. Logic and Rationality: Applying logical reasoning and critical thinking skills to medical decision making, including the evaluation of evidence, the assessment of risks and benefits, and the formulation of clinical guidelines.
5. Aesthetics: Exploring the role of values and subjective experience in medicine, such as the importance of empathy, compassion, and communication in the patient-physician relationship. This also includes examining the ethical implications of medical aesthetics, such as cosmetic surgery and enhancement technologies.

Medical philosophy is an interdisciplinary field that draws on insights from a variety of disciplines, including philosophy, medicine, ethics, law, psychology, and sociology. It seeks to provide a deeper understanding of the complex issues that arise in medical practice and to inform the development of evidence-based, ethical, and compassionate healthcare policies and practices.

Oral medicine is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis, management, and treatment of oral diseases and disorders. These may include conditions that affect the oral mucosa (the lining of the mouth), salivary glands, jaw joints, and other oral structures. Oral medicine also deals with the oral manifestations of systemic diseases, such as diabetes or HIV/AIDS, and the oral side effects of medications. Practitioners of oral medicine often work closely with other healthcare professionals, including medical doctors, dentists, and pharmacists, to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

A career choice refers to the decision or selection of a job or profession that an individual makes, typically based on their interests, skills, values, and personal goals. It involves considering various factors such as education and training requirements, job outlook, salary potential, and work-life balance. A well-informed career choice can lead to long-term job satisfaction, success, and fulfillment. It is essential to note that career choices can change over time due to various reasons, including personal growth, industry trends, or changes in life circumstances.

Disaster medicine is a branch of medical science that deals with the prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery from disasters, including natural disasters (such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods), technological disasters (such as chemical spills and radiation exposure), and human-made disasters (such as terrorism and mass shootings). It involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes medical and public health professionals, emergency responders, and other stakeholders working together to provide effective medical care and support to affected populations during and after a disaster. The goal of disaster medicine is to minimize the impact of disasters on human health and well-being, reduce morbidity and mortality, and promote resilience in communities.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

Medical education, undergraduate, refers to the initial formal educational phase in which students learn the basic sciences and clinical skills required to become a physician. In the United States, this typically involves completing a four-year Bachelor's degree followed by four years of medical school. The first two years of medical school are primarily focused on classroom instruction in subjects such as anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and pathology. The final two years involve clinical rotations, during which students work directly with patients under the supervision of licensed physicians. After completing medical school, graduates must then complete a residency program in their chosen specialty before they are eligible to practice medicine independently.

"Diamond". UCLA Evolutionary Medicine. Retrieved 30 September 2023. "Jared M. Diamond". OpenAlex. Retrieved 15 September 2023. " ... Bibliographies by writer, Bibliographies of American writers, Works by Jared Diamond). ... This bibliography includes both his scientific and popular works. Cody ML, --, eds. (1975). Ecology and Evolution of ...
Diller, Theodore (1912). Franklin's contribution to medicine, being a collection of letters written by Benjamin Franklin ... Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson Bibliography of the American Revolution Bibliography of the War of 1812 List of bibliographies ... Biography portal American Revolution portal Bibliography of early American publishers and printers Bibliography of George ... The Bibliography of Benjamin Franklin is a comprehensive list of primary and secondary works by or about Benjamin Franklin, one ...
Women in medicine: An encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2002. ISBN 1576073920. Bibliography of encyclopedias Biographical dictionary ... bibliographies, and bio-bibliographies of old Lithuanian authors to 1865.) Išleido JAV LB Kultūros fondas, 1960-1965. Geron, ... Women and medicine. Scarecrow Press, 2002. ISBN 0810842386. Litoff, Judy Barrett, Judith McDonnell. European immigrant women in ... A Bibliography of Australian multicultural writers. Centre for Studies in Literary Education, Humanities, Deakin University, ...
The medical war: British military medicine in the First World War (Oxford University Press, 2010) Jones, Edgar, and Simon ... ISBN 978-3941866027 Bibliography of Canadian military history Bibliography of United States military history List of ... "The Ottoman Empire in the first world war: A rational disaster" ( MA thesis Eastern Michigan U. 2013)). online, bibliography pp ... America and World War I: A Selected Annotated Bibliography of English-Language Sources (2nd ed. 2007) excerpt Afflerbach, ...
3-10 Avicenna (Abū ʻAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʻAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā) (1999). The canon of medicine of Avicenna: [Edited and translated by ... This bibliography of biology is a list of notable works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of biology. Biology is a ... Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) (1025). The Canon of Medicine. Vesalius, Andreas (1543). De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (On the ... Overmier, Judith A. (1989). The history of biology: a selected, annotated bibliography. New York: Garland Pub. ISBN 978-0-8240- ...
Quarterly Journal of Medicine. 14: 207-219. PMID 21011421. "The Logical Inversion of the Notion of the Random Variable". ... The Ronald Fisher bibliography contains the works published by the English statistician and biologist Ronald Fisher (1890-1962 ... Bibliographies of English writers, English eugenicists, English geneticists, English mathematicians, English statisticians, ...
2002). Women in medicine: An encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-392-6. Young, Serinity, ed. (1998). ... The list will not include reprinted editions but it is intended to list an alphabetical bibliography by theme and language to ... An annotated bibliography of American Indian and Eskimo autobiographies. University of Nebraska Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8032-1175-9 ... Collier's Encyclopedia with Bibliography and Index, 1950. Collins Gem Encyclopedia. William Collins Sons & Company. 1979. The ...
Efron, Robert (Autumn 1967). "Biology Without Consciousness - And Its Consequences". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 2 (1 ... This is a bibliography for Ayn Rand and Objectivism. Objectivism is a philosophical system initially developed in the 20th ... Chronology & Bibliography of Ayn Rand's Life & Works - Detailed chronological listing of Rand's articles, books, lectures and ... Perinn, Vincent L. (1990). Ayn Rand: First Descriptive Bibliography. Rockville, Maryland: Quill & Brush. ISBN 0-9610494-8-0. ...
Paul's Bibliographies. ISBN 978-1-873040-42-3. OCLC 901699770. Myers, Robin; Harris, Michael (1998). Medicine, mortality, and ... Ezra Pound: A Bibliography, by Donald Gallup, 1983 A Bibliography of the Writings of Robert Graves, Fred H. Higginson and ... Eric Gill: a Bibliography, 1991. Leonard Woolf: A Bibliography, by Leila Luedeking and Michael Edmonds. 1992. W.H. Davies: A ... Anthony Powell, A Bibliography. by George Lilley with a foreword by Anthony Powell, 1993. Elspeth Huxley, A Bibliography, by ...
"Medicine at Harvard in the Seventeenth Century". Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin (October 1933). "Nathaniel Eaton, First Head ... The Samuel Eliot Morison bibliography contains a list of books and articles written by American historian Samuel Eliot Morison ... "Sir Charles Firth and Master Hugh Peter, with a Hugh Peter Bibliography". Harvard Graduates' Magazine 39 (December 1930): 121- ... 1930s "The Autobiography of Thomas Shepherd with Introduction and Bibliography". Publications of the Colonial Society of ...
Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine. Routledge, 1994. Kohn, George C. Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence: From ... Bibliography of encyclopedias Guide to Reference: Genealogy Guide to Reference: General History Kister, 1994, p. 379. Kister, ... International bibliography of historical sciences: Internationale Bibliographie der Geschichtswissenschaften. Librairie Armand ...
ISBN 978-0-8130-5529-9. Doering, J. Frederick (1936). "Pennsylvania German Folk Medicine in Waterloo County, Ontario". Journal ... Ontario portal Bibliography of Canada Bibliography of Canadian history Bibliography of Nova Scotia Bibliography of Alberta ... Winearls, Joan (1973). "Towards a Bibliography of 18th & 19th Century Maps of Ontario". Papers of the Bibliographical Society ... history Bibliography of British Columbia Bibliography of the 1837-38 insurrections in Lower Canada List of books about the War ...
"Are You My Guru?: How Medicine, Meditation & Madonna Saved My Life Paperback". Publishers Weekly. July 5, 2010. Archived from ... Bibliographies of people, Books about Madonna, Works about Madonna, Music bibliographies). ... Cowden, Robert H. (1999). Popular Singers of the Twentieth Century: A Bibliography of Biographical Materials. Greenwood Press. ...
Shikes, Robert H. (1986). Rocky Mountain Medicine: Doctors, Drugs, and Disease in Early Colorado. Boulder, Colorado: Johnson ... This is a bibliography of the U.S. State of Colorado. Abbot, Carl; Stephen J. Leonard; David McComb (2011). Colorado: A History ... Bibliographies of the United States and territories, Colorado, Colorado-related lists, Books about Colorado). ... of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles List of Colorado-related lists Outline of Colorado List of bibliographies on ...
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 90(3), 363-393. Alexopoulos, G. (2017). Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag (Yale- ... Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War Bibliography of the Post Stalinist Soviet Union Bibliography of Ukrainian ... Bibliography on the social history of the Stalin era. Good bibliography for historiography. Bibliography of Stalin, his inner ... For a bibliography of the de-Stalinisation period, please see Bibliography of the Post Stalinist Soviet Union. The Cambridge ...
Articles with short description, Short description with empty Wikidata description, Ebola, Bibliographies of medicine). ... This is a bibliography of the Ebola virus disease, also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans ... ISBN 978-0198759997 Evans, Nicholas G. et al (Eds.) (2016) Ebola's Message: Public Health and Medicine in the Twenty-First ... New England Journal of Medicine, 372 (12): 1089-91. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1501355. PMID 25714039. Walsh, Sinead & Oliver Johnson. ( ...
2014). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology. Stagg, J. C. A. (2012). The War of ... Bibliography of the American Civil War Bibliography of the United States Constitution List of bibliographies on American ... Bibliographies of the United States and territories, Bibliographies of history). ... This is a bibliography of selected publications on the history of the United States. Agnew, Jean-Christophe; Rosenzweig, Roy, ...
ISBN 978-1-56695-470-9. Trails Illustrated-Two Medicine, Glacier National Park, Montana (315) (Map) (Revised ed.). 1:50000. ... Bibliographies of the United States and territories, Books about Montana, Bibliographies of places). ... List of Glacier National Park (U.S.) related articles Buchholtz, C. W. (1976). "Further Reading-A Selected Bibliography". Man ... ISBN 0-916792-01-3. Holterman, Jack (2006). "Bibliography". Place Names of Glacier National Park. Helena, Montana: Riverbend ...
W.B., Medicine in New Brunswick, Moncton: New Brunswick Medical Society, 1974. 413 pp. Toner, Peter M. New Ireland Remembered: ... This is a bibliography of notable works on New Brunswick, Canada. McNutt, W.S. New Brunswick: A history: 1784-1867 MacMillan, ... Canada portal Bibliography of Canadian provinces and territories Provincial Archives of New Brunswick Archives & Special ... MacFarlane, William G. New Brunswick Bibliography: The books and writers of the province. Saint John, 1895. Belliveau, Edward. ...
Medicine and the American Revolution: How Diseases and Their Treatments Affected the Colonial Army. Jefferson, North Carolina: ... List of bibliographies on American history Bibliography of George Washington Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson Bibliography of ... Bibliographies of United States military history, Bibliographies of wars and conflicts). ... The following bibliography includes notable books concerning the American Revolutionary War. These books are listed in the ...
Many specialized topics such as Abraham Lincoln, women, and medicine have their own lengthy bibliographies. The books on major ... An Annotated Bibliography of Civil War Medicine (1993) Woodworth, Steven; et al., eds. The American Civil War: A Handbook of ... There is no complete bibliography to the war; the largest guide to books is over 40 years old and lists over 6,000 titles ... The American Civil War bibliography comprises books that deal in large part with the American Civil War. There are over 60,000 ...
Medicine in Chicago, 1850-1950: A Chapter in the Social and Scientific Development of a City. ( 1957, 2d ed. 1991). 335 pp. ... Bibliographies of history, History of Chicago, Chicago-related lists, Works about Chicago, Bibliographies of cities in the ... This is a bibliography of selected publications on the history of Chicago. For most topics, the easiest place to start is ... See also Frank Jewel, Annotated bibliography of Chicago history (Chicago Historical Society 1979; not online. Reiff, Janice L. ...
Frontiers of Medicine: A History of Medical Education and Research at the University of Alberta (University of Alberta, 1990). ... Canada portal Bibliography of Canada Bibliography of Canadian history Bibliography of Nova Scotia Bibliography of Saskatchewan ... Taking medicine: women's healing work and colonial contact in southern Alberta, 1880-1930 (UBC Press, 2010). Corbet, Elise. ... history Bibliography of British Columbia Bibliography of the 1837-1838 insurrections in Lower Canada List of books about the ...
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium, Karolinska Institute, Sweden, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Harvard ... "My Bibliography". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 8 December 2021. "Professor Afolabi Delivers 4th Inaugural Lecture". unilag.edu. ... In addition, she joined the College of Medicine at the University of Lagos as a Lecturer II; she progressed through several ... "Bosede B Afolabi College of Medicine University of Lagos • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology". researchgate.net. ...
"Pubmed Bibliography". National Library of Medicine. Dana, Reza (2010). Encyclopedia of the Eye. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12-374198- ... "LSUHSC School of Medicine". www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu. Retrieved 2020-10-20. "The Association for Research in Vision and ... Dana attended medical school at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and also obtained a master's degree in Public Health from ... "Roger F. Meyer Lectureship in Cornea , Ophthalmology , Michigan Medicine". Ophthalmology. 2017-08-28. Retrieved 2020-10-20. " ...
Bibliography: 1979. Philip C. Bankwitz, Professor Emeritus of History, Trinity College, Hartford: 1979. Lance Banning, ... Michael A. Becker, Professor of Medicine, University of Chicago: 1979. Jere R. Behrman, William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of ... Professor Emeritus of Community Medicine and of Sociology, State University of New York at Stony Brook: 1979. William J. ... Alberto Juan Solari, Professor of Histology and Cell Biology, University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine: 1979. Victor ...
Surgeons, Smallpox, and the Poor: A History of Medicine and Social Conditions in Nova Scotia, 1749-1799. McGill-Queen's U. Pr ... of Canada Bibliography of Canadian history Bibliography of Saskatchewan history Bibliography of Alberta history Bibliography of ... This is a bibliography of major works on Nova Scotia. Beck, J. Murray. The Government of Nova Scotia University of Toronto ... online Barrington History Digby County Annapolis Valley Kings County Minas Basin Queen's County Canada portal Bibliography ...
MacDermot, H.E., One Hundred Years of Medicine in Canada 1867-1967, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1967. OECD, Reviews of ... Canada portal Science portal Technology portal Books portal Bibliography of Canada Lists of books List of bibliographies Lists ... This is a bibliography on the history of science and technology in Canada. G. Bruce Doern; Peter W. B. Phillips; David Castle ( ... MacDermot, H.E., One Hundred Years of Medicine in Canada 1867-1967, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1967. Macpherson, Burgess ...
Krauss, B. H., & Harold L. Lyon Arboretum (Honolulu, H. (1981). Native plants used as medicine in Hawaii. Harold L. Lyon ... Krauss, Beatrice H. (1970). Bibliography of Macadamia. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station. OCLC 499161814. Krauss, Beatrice ... Shelton Pinkney, Deborah (26 January 1990). "Native healers; sharing the cures and hopes of traditional Hawaiian medicine". ...
"Renee Hsia's Bibliography". National Library of Medicine. Retrieved May 4, 2022. "RWJPFSP: Scholars: Renee Hsia, M.D., M.Sc". ... "National Academy of Medicine Elects 100 New Members". National Academy of Medicine. October 18, 2021. Retrieved November 5, ... She has published on these issues in a broad range of journals, including the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of ... In 2021, Hsia was elected a member of the National Academy of Medicine "for expertise in health disparities of emergency care, ...
Medicine -- United States -- History -- 18th century -- Sources -- Bibliography. Filed under: Medicine -- United States -- ... Filed under: Medicine -- United States -- History -- 18th century -- Sources -- Bibliography*. Early American Medical Imprints ... Filed under: Medicine -- History -- 20th century*. Social Work in Hospitals: A Contribution to Progressive Medicine. (New York ... Filed under: Medicine -- Biography*. Makers of Modern Medicine. (New York: Fordham University Press, 1907), by James J. Walsh ( ...
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Annotated Bibliography of Women in Medicine. Toronto: Ontario Medical Association, 1993.. Weatherall, D. Science and the Quiet ... Mount Sinai School of Medicine of New York University, NY 309. New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry ... Queens University, Faculty of Medicine, ON 367. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of ... University of Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, NY 312. SUNY Downstate Medical Center, College of Medicine, ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Medicine Genre Bibliography ✖Remove constraint Genre: Bibliography Copyright Public domain ✖Remove constraint Copyright: Public ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Libraries, Medical ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Libraries, Medical Subjects Medicine ✖ ...
Pearl Buck - Explore Bibliography *Physics Prizes. *Chemistry Prizes. *Medicine Prizes. *Literature Prizes ... MLA style: Pearl Buck - Bibliography. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2023. Mon. 2 Oct 2023. ,https://www.nobelprize. ... org/prizes/literature/1938/buck/bibliography/, Back to top ...
Elfriede Jelinek - Explore Bibliography *Physics Prizes. *Chemistry Prizes. *Medicine Prizes. *Literature Prizes ... https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/literature/2004/jelinek/bibliography/, Back to top ... MLA style: Elfriede Jelinek - Bibliography. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2023. Wed. 6 Dec 2023. , ...
Extreme Heat Bibliography -Selected articles and resources on Extreme Heat and Heath. Provided by the Centers for Disease ... American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002; 22(4):221-7.. *Nielsen B. Olympics in Atlanta: a fight against physics. Medicine ... International Journal of Sports Medicine 1998; 19:S146-9.. *Nugent SK. Pediatric heatstroke: a case report. Indiana Medicine ... Military Medicine 1990; 155(3):116-9.. *Berko J, Ingram D, Saha S,Parker J. "Deaths Attributed to Heat, Cold, and Other Weather ...
"Diamond". UCLA Evolutionary Medicine. Retrieved 30 September 2023. "Jared M. Diamond". OpenAlex. Retrieved 15 September 2023. " ... Bibliographies by writer, Bibliographies of American writers, Works by Jared Diamond). ... This bibliography includes both his scientific and popular works. Cody ML, --, eds. (1975). Ecology and Evolution of ...
Bibliography. Alternative Medicine. *Herbal Supplements Are Often Not What They Seem. Diet. * The Carbohydrate Hypothesis of ...
Start Over You searched for: Formats Text ✖Remove constraint Formats: Text Genre Bibliography ✖Remove constraint Genre: ... National Library of Medicine (U.S.) Publication: Bethesda, Md. : U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health ... 1. A short title catalogue of eighteenth century printed books in the National Library of Medicine ... A short title catalogue of eighteenth century printed books in the National Library of Medicine1 ...
National Library of Medicine. 8600 Rockville Pike. Bethesda, MD 20894. Web Policies. FOIA. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure ...
National Library of Medicine. 8600 Rockville Pike. Bethesda, MD 20894. Web Policies. FOIA. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure ...
Bibliography. "Dr. Virginia Alexander." Changing the Face of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://cfmedicine. ... Alexander described Aspiranto as an example of "socialized" medicine. She treated many patients free of charge. ...
List of Polish people (Biology, medicine). Bibliography[edit]. *. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap: ... Between 1945 and 1952, he served as the head of the Institute of Microbiology of the School of Medicine of Maria Sklodowska- ... From 1923 to 1935 Fleck worked in the department of internal medicine at Lwów General Hospital, then became director of the ...
Filed under: Traditional medicine -- Southwest, New*. Las Yerbas de la Gente: A Study of Hispano-American Medicinal Plants. ( ... Southwest, New -- In literature -- Bibliography. Filed under: Southwest, New -- Bibliography*. Guide to Life and Literature of ... Filed under: American fiction -- Southwest, New -- Bibliography*. Heart of the Southwest: A Selective Bibliography of Novels, ... Filed under: Southwest, New -- In literature -- Bibliography*. Heart of the Southwest: A Selective Bibliography of Novels, ...
bibliography:. O. Metchnikoff, Life of Elie Metchnikoff, 1845-1916 (1921), incl. bibl.; H. Zeiss, Elias Metschnikow, Leben und ... by P. C. Mitchell (New York, 1908); and The Founders of Modern Medicine; Pasteur, Koch, Lister, trans. by D. Berger (New York, ... Élie Metchnikoff was a pioneer in the field of immunology and won the 1908 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his ... BIBLIOGRAPHY. I. Original Works. A complete list of Metchnikoffs arts. and bks. is available in the Zeiss trans, of Olga ...
If developments in biology and medicine have fueled the bioethics train and philosophy has laid down the tracks on which it has ... BIBLIOGRAPHY. Annas, George J. 1988. Judging Medicine. Clifton, NJ: Humana Press.. Annas, George J. 1993. Standard of Care: The ... "How Medicine Saved the Life of Ethics." Perspectives in Life and Medicine 25: 736-750. ... It would strain the point to say that medicine saved the law, as Stephen Toulmin observed medicine did for philosophy. But the ...
residency, Internal Medicine. Yale University, New Haven CT Bibliography. The Patient Safety Adoption Framework: A Practical ... MD, Medicine. Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland MS, Healthcare Delivery. Dartmouth College, Hanover ... He is associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and part of the Division of General Internal Medicine at the ... Baystate Health and Baystate Medical Center in Massachusetts and Professor of Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine. ...
Medicine , * Psychology , * Psychology and Psychiatry , * mental retardation , * mental retardation: Bibliography mental ... Bibliography See M. Adams, Mental Retardation and Its Social Dimensions. (1971); A. Clarke et al., ed., Mental Retardation: The ...
Bibliography[edit]. *Borja, A. (2010). Medical pluralism in Peru-Traditional medicine in Peruvian society . (Master in Arts in ... 3Traditional and indigenous medicine. Toggle Traditional and indigenous medicine subsection * 3.1Intersection of traditional ... Giovannini, Peter; Heinrich, Michael (2009-01-30). "Xki yoma (our medicine) and xki tienda (patent medicine)--interface ... a b c d Borja, A. (2010). Medical pluralism in Peru-Traditional medicine in peruvian society. ...
Bibliography Lago, A., S. M. McGuirk, T. B. Bennett, N. B. Cook and K. V. Nordlund. 2006. Calf respiratory disease and pen ... Ambulatory and Production Medicine for service on farms within 30 miles of Ithaca, NY ...
Science, Medicine & Man 1974;1:181-193.. Fleming R, Baum A, Giesriel MM, Gatchel RJ. Mediating influences of social support on ... Appendix B: Bibliography for the Psychological Effects Program. Historical Document. This document is provided by the Agency ... Annals of Emergency Medicine 1989;18(8):149-52.. Sethi BB, Sharma M, Trivedi JK, Singh H. Psychiatric morbidity in patients ... Environmental hazards and public health: lessons for the practice of medicine and for public policy. M Sinai J Med 1992 Jan;59( ...
ABIM - An Annotated Bibliography of Indian Medicine is powered by EPrints 3 which is developed by the School of Electronics and ...
A short bibliography of the Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory medical staff. ... Goldmans Cecil Medicine. 25th Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. *Montoya JG, Boothroyd J, Kovacs J. "Toxoplasma gondii ... Goldmans Cecil Medicine. 26th Edition -2017. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. *Montoya JG, Gomez CA. "Toxoplasmosis in Solid ... Goldmans Cecil Medicine. 25th Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. *Montoya JG, Boothroyd J, Kovacs J. "Toxoplasma gondii ...
Bibliography. Bone mineral density and the risk of incident dementia: A meta-analysis. Lary CW, Ghatan S, Gerety M, Hinton A, ... MD, 2005, Medicine. Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands PhD, 2009, Neuroepidemiology. Erasmus University Rotterdam, ...
Readings/Bibliography. Turatto M. (Ed.). PSICOLOGIA GENERALE. Mondadori, 2018.. Teaching methods. Lectures and individual/group ... Degree Programme Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 5904) ... Degree Programme Single cycle degree programme (LMCU) in Medicine and Surgery (cod. 5904) ...
BIBLIOGRAPHY:. B. Harrow, Casimir Funk, Pioneer in Vitamins and Hormones (1955); S.R. Kagan, Jewish Medicine (1952), 192-3. ...
  • It lists clear expectations for all involved in NP education and gives resources for preceptors in the form of a bibliography and Web-based citations. (medscape.com)
  • The Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine , informally known as the Lister Institute , was established as a research institute (the British Institute of Preventive Medicine) in 1891, with bacteriologist Marc Armand Ruffer as its first director, using a grant of £250,000 [1] from Edward Cecil Guinness of the Guinness family . (wikipedia.org)
  • Preventive Medicine [Internet]. (motivationalinterviewing.org)
  • Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Bibliographies . (nih.gov)
  • If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. (philpapers.org)
  • To develop this bibliography, we asked editors of peer-reviewed journals to nominate "flagship" original research papers that appeared in their respective journals in 1999. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Iritani joined the Faculty in Comparative Medicine in 1999. (washington.edu)
  • The content type "[bibliography]" is added after the title if the word is not part of the title. (nih.gov)
  • This is the bibliography of sources used to create the content for this website. (nih.gov)
  • Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, London). (workhouses.org.uk)
  • His books include Medical Ceramics in the Wellcome Institute and Home Medicine: The Newfoundland Experience. (google.com)
  • The research and communication products listed in this bibliography are the result of the outstanding efforts of NIOSH and its partners to produce good science that is usable by workers, employers, the public, and the occupational safety and health community. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational medicine: state of the art reviews 14 (1):97-112. (cdc.gov)
  • To the Ends of the Earth: Women's Search for Education in Medicine. (nih.gov)
  • Precision medicine is an important and powerful technique for the diagnosis of diseases and patients precare. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Bibliographies are collections of references to the literature made for a specific purpose, such as to bring together references on a specific subject or by a particular author. (nih.gov)
  • Find out more about the history of medicine collections in the IHR Wohl Library. (history.ac.uk)
  • This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) issued by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health , solicits applications for institutional research career development (K12) programs from applicant organizations that propose to develop multidisciplinary clinical research training programs in emergency medicine (EM) that prepare clinician-scientists for academic leadership roles and independent research careers in emergency medicine. (nih.gov)
  • A research agenda for geriatric emergency medicine. (omeka.net)
  • This paper presents a summary of the research agenda for emergency medicine. (omeka.net)
  • Research agenda items were defined for multiple topics within geriatric emergency medicine and trauma. (omeka.net)
  • CONCLUSION: A research agenda for geriatric emergency medicine has been developed, using a combination of review of current literature and expert opinion. (omeka.net)
  • It reviews teaching and learning styles and includes a thoughtful section on cultural competence for clinical preceptors with an extensive bibliography. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical Center Department of Transfusion Medicine hosts fall symposiums. (nih.gov)
  • His major clinical interests include small animal medicine and surgery. (washington.edu)
  • Precision medicine is the orienting of clinical strategy to the particular characteristics of the individual patient. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Written by world leaders in the discipline, this companion addresses the ontological, epistemic, and methodological challenges facing philosophers of medicine today, from the debate between evidence-based and person-centered medicine, medical humanism, and gender medicine, to traditional issues such as disease, health, and clinical reasoning and decision-making. (bloomsbury.com)
  • Journal of Clinical Medicine 12 (4), p. 1460. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • References to bibliographies in print or in microform (microfilm, microfiche) are included in this chapter. (nih.gov)
  • For references to bibliographies in electronic form, see Chapter 18 and Chapter 22 . (nih.gov)
  • Annals of Internal Medicine 140 (10): 769-777. (elharo.com)
  • Annals of Internal Medicine 140 (10): 778-85. (elharo.com)
  • Annals of Behavior Medicine, 45 (Suppl 1), S131-S141. (playworks.org)
  • In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. (philpapers.org)
  • Ho, Peng-Yoke, 2007, Explorations in Daoism: Medicine and Alchemy in Literature , J. P. C. Moffett and Cho Sungwu (eds. (philpapers.org)
  • Women in Medicine: a Bibliography of the Literature on Women Physicians. (nih.gov)
  • 2018, Imagining Chinese Medicine , Boston and Leiden: Brill. (philpapers.org)
  • She subsequently did her 4th year of psychiatry residency, focusing on psychosomatic medicine, in the OCD at NIMH. (nih.gov)
  • The research bibliography provides additional resources on the history of women in medicine and a selection of autobiographies by women physicians. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions with traditional Chinese medicine: progress, causes of conflicting results and suggestions for future research. (nih.gov)
  • The National Library of Medicine is the world's largest biomedical library and a leader in research in computational health informatics. (nih.gov)
  • We are proud to bring you the first issue of the Annual Bibliography of Significant Advances in Dietary Supplement Research . (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this bibliography is to help develop an overall perspective on how the dietary supplement field is advancing through quality research, as well as to provide well-deserved peer recognition to investigators. (nih.gov)
  • As per the National Research Council, "personalized medicine" is a traditional word with a meaning close to "precision medication. (kdnuggets.com)
  • A definitive and authoritative guide to a vibrant and growing discipline in current philosophy, The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine presents an overview of the issues facing contemporary philosophy of medicine, the research methods required to understand them and a trajectory for the discipline's future. (bloomsbury.com)
  • Practical and forward-looking, it also includes a detailed guide to research sources, a glossary of key terms, and an annotated bibliography, as well as an introductory survey of research methods and discussion of new research directions emerging in response to the rapid changes in modern medicine. (bloomsbury.com)
  • John K. Crellin, Clinch Professor of the History of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland, is a physician, pharmacist, and historian. (google.com)
  • These include many sources by medical professions and institutions, and, in line with the central core of the social history of medicine, views of patients, long-term sufferers or primary carers. (history.ac.uk)
  • Items where Subject is "Z Bibliography. (alt.ac.uk)
  • I have reviewed many books on the subject (see bibliography) and there is no consensus as to why this happens. (positivehealth.com)
  • In precision medicine, the focus relies on figuring out the methods which can be effective for group of patients. (kdnuggets.com)
  • She is board certified in General Psychiatry, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine. (nih.gov)
  • 1836 -Library of the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army (the present National Library of Medicine) established. (nih.gov)
  • Page 525 - Remarks on the uses of some of the bazaar medicines and common medical plants of India. (google.com)
  • A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • This bibliography is a joint effort of the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health and the Consumer Healthcare Products Association. (nih.gov)
  • New England Journal of Medicine 359 (3): 229-41. (elharo.com)
  • Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Journal, 166 (4), 311-316. (playworks.org)
  • Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. (alt.ac.uk)
  • A list of books provides suggested K-12 reading materials and videos that explore the possibilities for women in the world of medicine. (nih.gov)
  • 2005, "Self-cultivation and the Popular Medical Traditions," in Medieval Chinese Medicine: The Dunhuang Medical Manuscripts , V. Lo and C. Cullen (eds. (philpapers.org)
  • 2005, Medieval Chinese Medicine: The Dunhuang Medical Manuscripts , London: RoutledgeCurzon. (philpapers.org)
  • After studying botany, physics, and mathematics for two semesters, Koch transferred to medicine because of a disinclination for professional teaching and the realization that natural science interests were compatible with a medical career. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1956 -Act of Congress moved Armed Forces Medical Library to U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) and renamed it the National Library of Medicine. (nih.gov)
  • 1965 -Medical Library Assistance Act gave NLM responsibility of helping the nation's medical libraries through a grant program and created the Regional Medical Library Network (now the National Network of Libraries of Medicine ). (nih.gov)
  • Precision medicine is a medical model, which proposes customization of the healthcare to a subgroup of patients, based on a genetics, lifestyle and environment. (kdnuggets.com)
  • By showing how modern medicine provides philosophers with a rich source of material for investigating issues facing contemporary society, The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine introduces the opportunities medicine offers philosophers together with the resources and skills required to contribute to contemporary debates and discussions. (bloomsbury.com)
  • Use this option to import a large number of entries from a bibliography into this category. (philpapers.org)
  • Modern medicine appears to focus exclusively on the components of the physical body - psychological and emotional levels tend to be disregarded. (positivehealth.com)
  • Do you have any questions regarding the use of the Academic Bibliography? (ugent.be)
  • Our academic collaborators work at the WHO, UNICEF, the IASC, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, the Clinton Health Access Initiative and the Heidelberg Institute of Global Health. (stanford.edu)
  • These bibliographies provide materials for the woman physicians featured in the Changing the Face of Medicine exhibition. (nih.gov)
  • You can find an index of all the GURPS bibliographies we have online here . (sjgames.com)
  • Artificial Intelligence has been successfully able to classify problems using different algorithms and solve precision medicine problems e.g. accurate disease diagnosis, disease detection and prediction, treatment optimization. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Reissued as a companion edition to Trying to Give Ease: Tommie Bass and the Story of Herbal Medicine , this illustrated reference guide covers over 700 medicinal plants, of which more than 150 are readily obtainable in health food stores and other outlets. (google.com)
  • Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. (philpapers.org)
  • Civil War Medicine: Challenges and Triumphs (Galen Press, 2002). (sjgames.com)
  • Providing access to biomedical and health information across the country in partnership with the over 8,100 members of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM). (nih.gov)
  • She next pursued Psychosomatic Medicine fellowship training in a joint program with Georgetown University and NIMH. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of the pathway for developing a personalized medicine involve analyzing comprehensive patient information along with broader aspects to monitor and distinguish between healthy and sick people, which will lead to a better understanding of biological indicators that can signal shifts in health. (kdnuggets.com)
  • 10. Patient and Person Centered Medicine: Does the Center Hold? (bloomsbury.com)
  • There is an overlap between the terms "precision medication" and "personalized medicine. (kdnuggets.com)

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