Bhopal Accidental Release: 1984 accident in Bhopal, INDIA at a PESTICIDES facility, resulting when WATER entered a storage tank containing ISOCYANATES. The following accidental chemical release and uncontrolled reaction resulted in several thousand deaths.Sverdlovsk Accidental Release: ANTHRAX outbreak that occurred in 1979 and was associated with a research facility in Sverdlovsk, in the Ural mountain region of central RUSSIA. Most victims worked or lived in a narrow zone extending from the facility. The zone of anthrax-caused livestock mortality paralleled the northerly wind that prevailed shortly before the outbreak. It was concluded that an escape of ANTHRAX caused outbreak.Seveso Accidental Release: 1976 accidental release of DIOXINS from a manufacturing facility in Seveso, ITALY following an equipment failure.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Gas PoisoningDisasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.OhioZinc Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Lead PoisoningPaintPetroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.WashingtonToxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis: A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Hyphomicrobiaceae: A family in the order Rhizobiales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA comprised of many genera of budding or appendaged bacteria.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.

Bhopal Gas Tragedy: review of clinical and experimental findings after 25 years. (1/3)


Status of inflammatory biomarkers in the population that survived the Bhopal gas tragedy: a study after two decades. (2/3)

Bhopal gas tragedy is considered as one of the world's worst industrial disaster. Approximately, 3,000-6,000 people died and 200,000 injured due to the leak of 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a pesticide plant. We aimed to decipher any persistent and subtle immunotoxic effects of MIC in the survivors of the tragedy. The study was divided into 3 groups i.e. group I (n=40); Age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places within the geographical region of Bhopal but from unaffected zones, group II (n=40); Age and gender matched non-exposed healthy controls recruited from places well outside geographical region of Bhopal and group III (n=40); Age and gender matched MIC exposed subjects from affected zones inside geographical region of Bhopal and the status of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-8, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF, IL-10, IL-12p70 cytokines and C-reactive protein) were analysed. The results displayed a significant increase in the levels of all circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the MIC exposed group in comparison to non-exposed cohorts. A toxin induced genetic and/or epigenetic alteration seems to be the likely underlying cause. However, further studies are essential for both mechanistic understanding and clinical implications of these patterns.  (+info)

Epidemiologic methods lessons learned from environmental public health disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina. (3/3)


  • Airborne concentrations of chemicals capable of causing such adverse health effects or of impeding escape from high-risk conditions may arise from a variety of nonroutine workplace situations, including special work procedures (e.g., in confined spaces), industrial accidents (e.g., chemical spills or explosions), and chemical releases into the community (e.g., during transportation incidents or other uncon- trolled-release scenarios). (
  • This and other accidental releases of highly toxic chemicals focused international attention on the need for governments to identify hazardous substances and help local communities deal with them. (
  • The AEGL Program was established to provide guidance for emergency preparedness programs and emergency responders by developing hazard level guidelines for accidental or intentional chemical releases of airborne chemicals. (
  • Under EPCRA regulations, companies of certain size are required to submit annual reports to EPA and state authorities listing the amounts of regulated chemicals that their facilities release into the environment through routine activities or as a result of accidents. (
  • Up to 300 different chemicals may be released from building materials and are thus present in the house or office's atmosphere. (
  • As the United States has become more industrialized and the use of chemicals has increased, the likelihood of unintentional releases of hazardous materials also has increased (1,2). (
  • To prevent morbidity and mortality resulting from unintentional releases of chemicals, public health authorities must know where these incidents occur and where the potential exists to prevent harm. (
  • Back then, she was an accidental activist who worked with whistleblowers, organized protests, and eventually sunk her own boat to stop the plastic-manufacturing giant Formosa from releasing dangerous chemicals into water she shrimped in, grew up on, and loved. (
  • and Assist in the preparation of public reports on annual release of toxic chemicals into the air, water, and soil. (
  • EPCRA does not place limits on which chemicals can be stored, used, released, disposed, or transferred at a facility. (
  • This included not informing local authorities of the dangers of chemicals used and manufactured at Bhopal. (
  • Of this waste, around 190 separate chemicals were released into the groundwater. (
  • Unlike apoptosis , cells that die by necrosis may release harmful chemicals that damage other cells. (
  • A catastrophic explosion, fire or release of toxic chemicals, however, will not discriminate based on the company's size or its level of sophistication. (
  • Prior to taking steps to reduce terrorist threats, a vulnerability assessment will help owners determine whether their facility is likely to be a target by virtue of 1) chemicals present, 2) susceptibility to malicious intent causing a release and 3) proximity to population centers or strategic receptors. (
  • The company recently filed the emissions numbers with the Environmental Protection Agency in response to a sweeping new federal law that has the potential to revolutionize what the public knows about the toxic chemicals released by American industry into the air, water and land around them. (
  • The law requires that, for the first time, information on more than 1,000 hazardous chemicals stored and released, both accidentally and routinely, be made available to the public through local, state and federal agencies. (
  • Others are subject to rules that require permits or "best available" technological controls that reduce but do not eliminate the release of chemicals into the environment. (
  • The Risk Management Program (RMP) is a law created to protect the greater community from the accidental release of highly hazardous chemicals. (
  • The accidental inhalation or consumption of industrial chemicals should be treated as a medical emergency. (
  • As a result, concern is growing about the public health effects of chemical plants, particularly the release of chemicals, as happened at Flixbrough, Bhopal and Seveso (9-13). (
  • Cohen would go on to use Bhopal as a rallying cry to push for the passage of a U.S. law, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act , requiring companies operating in American communities to report what chemicals they use and to maintain emergency plans. (
  • The Chemical Accident Prevention and Risk Management Planning (RMP) is a database of the worst-case-scenarios for accidental releases of toxic chemicals for over 60,000 facilities around the U.S. Combined these two data products will take us well beyond what we know about toxic chemicals in our communities, now available through the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). (
  • Bhopal victims, on the other hand, represented by non-profit Earth Rights International (ERI), are hopeful that the American court will honour the new evidence that shows that one UCC employee, Lucas John Couvaras, managed the construction of the plant. (
  • Materials and Methods: Inter-(SSR) analysis was used to characterize microsatellite instability in 52 MIC victims of Bhopal, suffering from COPD using (CA) 8 RG and (CA) 8 R[Y-Q] primer. (
  • Methods: The spirometry data of both gas victims and non gas exposed population who attended the Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre for evaluation of their respiratory complaints from August 2001 to December 2009, were retrospectively evaluated and compared. (
  • Both the Bhopal and the Institute incidents underscored the reality of modern-day chemical production-no matter what safety precautions are taken, no matter how well trained a plant's employees may be, and no matter how prepared a plant may be to handle an emergency situation, accidents may still occur. (
  • Chemical weapons first were used in 1915, when the German military released 168 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium, killing an estimated 5,000 Allied troops. (
  • We implemented a community based interventional health screening for individuals located within one mile of a 54 metric tons release of liquid chlorine following a 16 tanker car train derailment on 6 January, 2005 in Graniteville, South Carolina, USA. (
  • Another less publicized event is the train derailment in Graniteville, South Carolina, in 2005 that resulted in an immediate release of 46 tons of liquid chlorine near a textile mill where 183 people were working the night shift. (
  • The chemical process employed in the Bhopal plant had methylamine reacting with phosgene to form MIC, which was then reacted with 1-naphthol to form the final product, carbaryl. (
  • In June 2010, seven former employees, including the former UCIL chairman, were convicted in Bhopal of causing death by negligence and sentenced to two years imprisonment and a fine of about $2,000 each, the maximum punishment allowed by Indian law . (
  • The UCIL Bhopal plant manager and the MIC supervisor formulated a modified water-washing procedure that was supposed to establish a more direct water access route to a malfunctioning diaphragm motor valve (DMV) due to trimethyl isocyanurate crystal deposition. (
  • The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. (
  • Unintentional releases of hazardous substances can have serious consequences, including adverse health outcomes and in some cases death, need for decontamination, evacuations, environmental degradation, and financial losses. (
  • Settings and Design: The isocyanate-exposed population of Bhopal city suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. (
  • But when the Environmental Protection Agency released a draft report in the mid-1990s, citing hospital incinerators as the country's No. 1 source of carcinogenic dioxin emissions, Cohen, a longtime environmental activist, simply couldn't abide the irony. (
  • Cohen calls himself an accidental activist. (
  • Another classification by cause (Parrish, Falk and Melius 1987) included weather and geological events among natural disasters, whereas human-made causes were defined as non-natural, technological, purposeful events perpetuated by people (e.g., transportation, war, fire/explosion, chemical and radioactive release). (
  • A run-away nuclear reaction resulted in a horrific fire and explosion , claiming the lives of 50 personnel instantly and expelling more than 400 times the radiation released during the Hiroshima atom bomb. (
  • In July of 1976, an explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant north of Milan, Italy released Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) into the atmosphere. (
  • Earlier, in June 2012, judges had ruled in favour of UCC's erstwhile chief executive officer Warren Anderson in denying that they faced any individual liability because he did not personally approve the location of the Bhopal plant. (
  • The plant officials said that it conformed to the latest safety standards and had an excellent incident rate," states a release by CBG. (
  • The recent releases by Dow Chemical highlight the need for the company to continue to reduce and eliminate potential hazards from the plant and to replace them with less toxic alternatives," said Diane Hebert of Environmental Health Watch. (
  • During crises, when nuclear-capable forces are readied for use, the possibilities for inadvertent use, breakdowns in command and control, and accidental use grow. (
  • Irritant gases are those that, on inhalation, dissolve in the water of the respiratory tract mucosa and provoke an inflammatory response, usually from the release of acidic or alkaline radicals. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing to amend the Accidental Release Prevention Requirements of Risk Management Programs (RMP) under the Clean Air Act, Section 112(r)(7). (
  • Wikipedia describes it well: "An explosive device is a device that relies on the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy. (
  • The injuries received by the cell may compromise the lysosome membrane, or may initiate an disorganized chain reaction which causes the release in enzymes. (
  • This reaction is an extremely rapid decomposition of the compound, which usually releases a lot of gas and heat. (
  • the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. (
  • 4 If the intended conditions of the use of a chemical can be expected to involve hazards of elevated temperatures or pressures that may result in the release or creation of another hazardous chemical, those hazards must also be included in the MSDS.5 In addition to the MSDS for a particular material, one should review technical bulletins, labels, instructions for use, and industry publications concerning the chemical or material. (