Bethanechol compounds are parasympathomimetic agents that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors, primarily used to treat urinary retention and nonobstructive bladder dysfunction by increasing bladder contractility and decreasing post-void residual volume.
A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.

The effects of ammonia on pancreatic enzyme secretion in vivo and in vitro. (1/103)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies clearly demonstrate that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach causes persistent elevation of ammonia (NH3) in gastric juice leading to hypergastrinemia and enhanced pancreatic enzyme secretion. METHODS: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of NH4OH on plasma gastrin level and exocrine pancreatic secretion in vivo in conscious dogs equipped with chronic pancreatic fistulas and on secretory activity of in vitro isolated acini obtained from the rat pancreas by collagenase digestion. The effects of NH4OH on amylase release from pancreatic acini were compared with those produced by simple alkalization of these acini with NaOH. RESULTS: NH4OH given intraduodenally (i.d.) in increasing concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mM/L) resulted in an increase of pancreatic protein output, reaching respectively 9%, 10%, 19%, 16% and 17% of caerulein maximum in these animals and in a marked increase in plasma gastrin level. NH4OH (8 x 0 mM/L, i.d.) given during intravenous (i.v.) infusion of secretin (50 pmol/kg-h) and cholecystokinin (50 pmol/kg-h) reduced the HCO3 and protein outputs by 35% and 37% respectively, as compared to control obtained with infusion of secretin plus cholecystokinin alone. When pancreatic secretion was stimulated by ordinary feeding the same amount of NH4OH administered i.d. decreased the HCO3- and protein responses by 78% and 47% respectively, and had no significant effect on postprandial plasma gastrin. In isolated pancreatic acini, increasing concentrations of NH4OH (10(-7)-10(-4) M) produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of amylase release, reaching about 43% of caerulein-induced maximum. When various concentrations of NH4OH were added to submaximal concentration of caerulein (10(-12) M) or urecholine (10(-5) M), the enzyme secretion was reduced at a dose 10(-5) M of NH4OH by 38% or 40%, respectively. Simple alkalization with NaOH of the incubation medium up to pH 8.5 markedly stimulated basal amylase secretion from isolated pancreatic acini, whereas the secretory response of these acini to pancreatic secretagogues was significantly diminished by about 30%. LDH release into the incubation medium was not significantly changed in all tests indicating that NH4OH did not produce any apparent damage of pancreatic acini and this was confirmed by histological examination of these acini. CONCLUSIONS: 1. NH4OH affects basal and stimulated pancreatic secretion. 2. The excessive release of gastrin may be responsible for the stimulation of basal pancreatic enzyme secretion in conscious animals, and 3. The inhibitory effects of NH4OH on stimulated secretion might be mediated, at least in part, by its direct action on the isolated pancreatic acini possibly due to the alkalization of these acini.  (+info)

Vitamin A deficiency and colonic electrogenic absorption and secretion in the rat. (2/103)

The effects of vitamin A deficiency on electrogenic transport in the colon were examined in rats made vitamin A deficient at weaning by feeding a vitamin A deficient diet for 40 days. A pair fed control group was given the same diet but supplemented with soluble vitamin A in their drinking water. The basal and stimulated electrogenic secretory and absorptive functions of the muscle stripped proximal, mid, and distal colon were examined in vitro using the short circuit current (Isc) as the index of net ion transport. A significant increase in the basal and secretory Isc (mainly Cl-ions) induced by the cholinergic agonist bethanechol was observed in the mid-colon of the vitamin A deficient rats. In the distal colon, however, vitamin A deficiency caused a significant reduction in both the basal and secretory Isc response to bethanechol compared with the vitamin A supplemented pair fed control. Secretory Isc induced by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate was not significantly altered by vitamin A deficiency. The condition abolished the response of the distal colon to luminal amiloride (0.1 mmol/l). Thyroid hormone induced reduction in the distal colonic response to aldosterone is implicated in this lack of response. This is the first experimental linkage between vitamin A action, the thyroid hormone and aldosterone on colonic function. The colonic changes induced by vitamin A deficiency, namely hypersecretion and a reduced electrogenic distal absorptive function, together with the previously described small intestine hypersecretion may be the underlying basis for the diarrhoea observed in human and animal vitamin A deficiency.  (+info)

Characterization of muscarinic receptors that mediate contraction of guinea-pig isolated trachea to choline esters: effect of removing epithelium. (3/103)

1. The muscarinic receptor subtype that mediates contraction of guinea-pig trachea, in the presence and absence of epithelium, to acetic and carbamic acid choline esters was determined by use of preferential muscarinic receptor antagonists: pirenzepine (M1 receptor), methoctramine (M2 receptor) and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) (M3 receptor). 2. Acetylcholine (ACh), methacholine (MeCh), carbachol (CCh), bethanechol (BeCh) and oxotremorine induced concentration-dependent contraction of guinea-pig isolated tracheal strips in the presence and absence of epithelium. Contraction to acetic choline esters (ACh and MeCh) was augmented by removal of the epithelium, whereas contraction to carbamic acid choline esters (CCh and BeCh) and oxotremorine was not influenced by removal of the epithelium. 3. Pirenzepine, methoctramine and 4-DAMP caused parallel rightward displacements of the concentration-contraction curves to the muscarinic agonists. The pA2 values (determined from Arunlakshana-Schild graphs) for pirenzepine and 4-DAMP in guinea-pig trachea in the presence of epithelium were: ACh as the agonist, 7.6 and 9.0, respectively; CCh as the agonist, 7.6 and 9.1, respectively. The apparent pKB values for methoctramine with the same system were: ACh as the agonist, 5.6; CCh as the agonist, 5.6. Similar values were obtained with MeCh, BeCh and oxotremorine as the agonists. These values were agonist- and epithelium-independent. 4. It is concluded from the pA2 and apparent pKB values obtained for the muscarinic receptor antagonists used in this study that contraction of guinea-pig isolated trachea, with and without epithelium, to both acetic and carbamic acid choline esters is mediated via the muscarinic M3 receptor subtype.Differential contractile responses of guinea-pig trachea to acetic and carbamic acid choline esters upon the mechanical removal of the epithelium may not be explained by activation of different muscarinic receptor subtypes by these agonists.  (+info)

L-365,260, a potent CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, suppresses gastric acid secretion induced by histamine and bethanechol as well as pentagastrin in rats. (4/103)

We evaluated the effects of a potent cholecystokinin (CCK)-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, L-365,260 (3R(+)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin - 3-yl)-N'-( 3-methylphenyl) urea); a selective CCK-A receptor antagonist, devazepide (L-364,718); and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion induced by pentagastrin, histamine and bethanechol in anesthetized rats. We also evaluated the effects of L-365,260 and cimetidine on acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Intravenous administration of L-365,260, L-364,718 and cimetidine dose-dependently reduced acid secretion induced by pentagastrin (20 nmol/kg/hr), with ED50 values of 0.63, 19.1 and 2.5 mumol/kg, respectively. Of interest was the finding that L-365,260, like cimetidine, dose-dependently inhibited acid secretion induced by histamine (100 mumol/kg/hr) and bethanechol (5 mumol/kg/hr) with ED50 values of 5.9 and 4.3 mumol/kg, respectively. L-364,718, even at 30 mumol/kg, i.v., had only a slight effect on histamine- or bethanechol-induced acid secretion. Gastric acid secretion was suppressed by treatment with L-365,260 (3-100 mumol/kg, i.v.) and cimetidine (11.9-396.4 mumol/kg, i.v.) in pylorus-ligated rats, with ED50 values of 13.3 and 96.9 mumol/kg, respectively. These results indicate that L-365,260 suppresses acid secretion induced by histamine and bethanechol in rats and that the gastrin receptor plays an important role in acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats.  (+info)

Enhanced electrogenic secretion in vitro by small intestine from glucagon-treated rats: implications for the diarrhoea of starvation. (5/103)

Glucagon treatment of fed rats (50 micrograms I.P. every 6 h for 3 days) induces significant increases in vitro of the basal short-circuit currents of the jejunum (52%) and proximal ileum (81%) and in their electrogenic secretory responses to stimulation by bethanechol, a muscarinic agonist. The results support a role for glucagon in the intestinal hypersecretion observed in starvation and nutrient deprivation.  (+info)

Intestinal hypersecretion of the refed starved rat: a model for alimentary diarrhoea. (6/103)

Fluid transport was gravimetrically measured in vivo in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of anaesthetised fed, 72 hour starved and 72 hour starved rats refed for up to five days after starvation. Basal unstimulated fluid transport was monitored by instilling 0.9% NaCl into the lumen and measuring the gain or loss in weight of the closed intestinal loop. Fluid was absorbed in all the areas of the intestine in the fed rats. Increasing basal fluid absorption was observed in the duodenum over the three days of starvation but in the jejunum there was no significant change. In the ileum, the pattern was very different, on day 1 the fluid was absorbed but on days 2 and 3 there was an increasing secretion of fluid. Refeeding the rats with their normal diet restored the basal absorption of fluid in the duodenum within 24 hours, had no effect in the jejunum but in the case of the ileum the hypersecretion of fluid observed in the day 3 starved rat was maintained on day 1 of refeeding, increased further on day 2, decreased on day 3 but returned to absorption on day 4. The normal absorption was restored to the ileum on day 5 of refeeding. Fluid secretion was induced in all the rat groups by bethanechol (ip 60 micrograms/kg bw) a stable cholinergic agonist, PGE2 (ip 10 micrograms/kg (bw) and E coli STa (luminally instilled, 500 ng/ml) a secretory enterotoxin. All the secretagogues gave enhanced secretion compared with the fed by day 2 of starvation which increased considerably on day 3. Refeeding returned their secretion back to the fed level in the duodenum within 24 hours, in the jejunum within 48 hours but in the ileum their induced secretion on day 2 of refeeding was greater than that of the day 2 of refeeding was greater than that of day 3 starved and took until day 4 to return to the fed levels for behanechol and PGE2 and until day 5 for E. coli STa. This behaviour of rat small intestine showing even greater hypersecretion in the refed state than the starved mimics the human condition of alimentary induced diarrhoea where incautious feeding of starved humans induces severe, often lethal diarrhoea. The refed starved rat appears to be a possible model for this condition.  (+info)

Cholinergic agonists and interleukin 1 regulate processing and secretion of the Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor. (7/103)

Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters is known to accelerate the processing and secretion of the beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor. We have now examined various first messengers that increase protein kinase C activity of target cells for their ability to affect beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor metabolism. Acetylcholine and interleukin 1, which are altered in Alzheimer disease, were shown to increase processing of the beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor via the secretory cleavage pathway. Cholinergic agonists stimulated secretion in human glioma and neuroblastoma cells as well as in PC12 cells transfected with the M1 receptor, while interleukin 1 stimulated secretion in human endothelial and glioma cells.  (+info)

Role of leptin in the control of postprandial pancreatic enzyme secretion. (8/103)

Leptin released by adipocytes has been implicated in the control of food intake but recent detection of specific leptin receptors in the pancreas suggests that this peptide may also play some role in the modulation of pancreatic function. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of exogenous leptin on pancreatic enzyme secretion in vitro using isolated pancreatic acini, or in vivo in conscious rats with chronic pancreatic fistulae. Leptin plasma level was measured by radioimmunoassay following leptin administration to the animals. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of leptin (0.1, 1, 5, 10, 20 or 50 microg/kg), failed to affect significantly basal secretion of pancreatic protein, but markedly reduced that stimulated by feeding. The strongest inhibition has been observed at dose of 10 microg/kg of leptin. Under basal conditions plasma leptin level averaged about 0.15 +/- 0.04 ng/ml and was increased by feeding up to 1.8 +/- 0.4 ng/ml. Administration of leptin dose-dependently augmented this plasma leptin level, reaching about 0.65 +/- 0.04 ng/ml at dose of 10 microg/kg of leptin. This dose of leptin completely abolished increase of pancreatic protein output produced by ordinary feeding, sham feeding or by diversion of pancreatic juice to the exterior. Leptin (10(-10)-10(-7) M) also dose-dependently attenuated caerulein-induced amylase release from isolated pancreatic acini, whereas basal enzyme secretion was unaffected. We conclude that leptin could take a part in the inhibition of postprandial pancreatic secretion and this effect could be related, at least in part, to the direct action of this peptide on pancreatic acini.  (+info)

Bethanechol compounds are a type of cholinergic agent used in medical treatment. They are parasympathomimetic drugs, which means they mimic the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Specifically, bethanechol compounds stimulate the muscarinic receptors in the smooth muscle of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract, increasing tone and promoting contractions.

Bethanechol is primarily used to treat urinary retention and associated symptoms, such as those that can occur after certain types of surgery or with conditions like spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. It works by helping the bladder muscle contract, which can promote urination.

It's important to note that bethanechol should be used with caution, as it can have various side effects, including sweating, increased salivation, flushed skin, and gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's crucial to discuss any potential risks with a healthcare provider before starting this treatment.

Bethanechol is a parasympathomimetic drug, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system. This system is responsible for regulating many automatic functions in the body, including digestion and urination. Bethanechol works by causing the smooth muscles of the bladder to contract, which can help to promote urination in people who have difficulty emptying their bladder completely due to certain medical conditions such as surgery, spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis.

The medical definition of 'Bethanechol' is:

A parasympathomimetic agent that stimulates the muscarinic receptors of the autonomic nervous system, causing contraction of smooth muscle and increased secretion of exocrine glands. It is used to treat urinary retention and associated symptoms, such as those caused by bladder-neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy or neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Bethanechol may also be used to diagnose urinary tract obstruction and to test the integrity of the bladder's innervation.

Parasympathomimetics are substances or drugs that mimic the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two branches of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological functions. It is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, and its neurotransmitter is acetylcholine.

Parasympathomimetic drugs work by either directly stimulating muscarinic receptors or increasing the availability of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. These drugs can have various effects on different organs, depending on the specific receptors they target. Some common effects include decreasing heart rate and contractility, reducing respiratory rate, constricting pupils, increasing glandular secretions (such as saliva and sweat), stimulating digestion, and promoting urination and defecation.

Examples of parasympathomimetic drugs include pilocarpine, which is used to treat dry mouth and glaucoma; bethanechol, which is used to treat urinary retention and neurogenic bladder; and neostigmine, which is used to treat myasthenia gravis and reverse the effects of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.

Muscarinic agonists are a type of medication that binds to and activates muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which are found in various organ systems throughout the body. These receptors are activated naturally by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and when muscarinic agonists bind to them, they mimic the effects of acetylcholine.

Muscarinic agonists can have a range of effects on different organ systems, depending on which receptors they activate. For example, they may cause bronchodilation (opening up of the airways) in the respiratory system, decreased heart rate and blood pressure in the cardiovascular system, increased glandular secretions in the gastrointestinal and salivary systems, and relaxation of smooth muscle in the urinary and reproductive systems.

Some examples of muscarinic agonists include pilocarpine, which is used to treat dry mouth and glaucoma, and bethanechol, which is used to treat urinary retention. It's important to note that muscarinic agonists can also have side effects, such as sweating, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, due to their activation of receptors in various organ systems.

Tropicamide is a muscarinic antagonist, which is a type of drug that blocks the action of acetylcholine in the body. In particular, it blocks the muscarinic receptors found in the eye, which results in pupil dilation (mydriasis) and paralysis of the ciliary muscle (cycloplegia).

Tropicamide is commonly used in ophthalmology as a diagnostic aid during eye examinations. It is often instilled into the eye to dilate the pupil, which allows the eye care professional to more easily examine the back of the eye and assess conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, or retinal disorders. The cycloplegic effect of tropicamide also helps to relax the accommodation reflex, making it easier to measure the refractive error of the eye and determine the appropriate prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses.

It is important to note that tropicamide can cause temporary blurring of vision and sensitivity to light, so patients should be advised not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of the medication have worn off.

Ageusia is a medical term that refers to the complete loss of taste. It can affect a person's ability to detect sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory flavors. Ageusia can be caused by various factors such as damage to the nerves responsible for transmitting taste signals to the brain, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation therapy, and some medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and upper respiratory infections. In some cases, ageusia may be temporary, while in others, it can be permanent. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing a loss of taste, as it could be a sign of an underlying health issue.

Parasympatholytics are a type of medication that blocks the action of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's rest and digest response, which includes slowing the heart rate, increasing intestinal and glandular activity, and promoting urination and defecation.

Parasympatholytics work by selectively binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and digestive system. By blocking these receptors, parasympatholytics can cause a range of effects, such as an increased heart rate, decreased glandular secretions, and reduced intestinal motility.

Some common examples of parasympatholytics include atropine, scopolamine, and ipratropium. These medications are often used to treat conditions such as bradycardia (slow heart rate), excessive salivation, and gastrointestinal cramping or diarrhea. However, because they can have significant side effects, parasympatholytics are typically used only when necessary and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Pentagastrin is a synthetic polypeptide hormone that stimulates the release of gastrin and hydrochloric acid from the stomach. It is used diagnostically to test for conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare disorder in which tumors in the pancreas or duodenum produce excessive amounts of gastrin, leading to severe ulcers and other digestive problems.

Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously, and its effects are monitored through blood tests that measure gastric acid secretion. It is a potent stimulant of gastric acid production, and its use is limited to diagnostic purposes due to the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, flushing, and increased heart rate.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is a digestive fluid produced in the stomach. It's primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH of gastric acid is typically between 1.5 and 3.5, making it a strong acid that helps to break down food by denaturing proteins and activating digestive enzymes.

The production of gastric acid is regulated by the enteric nervous system and several hormones. The primary function of gastric acid is to initiate protein digestion, activate pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin, and kill most ingested microorganisms. However, an excess or deficiency in gastric acid secretion can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis, ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Muscarinic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are found in various organ systems, including the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and respiratory system. Muscarinic receptors are activated by muscarine, a type of alkaloid found in certain mushrooms, and are classified into five subtypes (M1-M5) based on their pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

Muscarinic receptors play an essential role in regulating various physiological functions, such as heart rate, smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and cognitive processes. Activation of M1, M3, and M5 muscarinic receptors leads to the activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which increase intracellular calcium levels and activate protein kinase C (PKC). Activation of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors inhibits adenylyl cyclase, reducing the production of cAMP and modulating ion channel activity.

In summary, muscarinic receptors are a type of GPCR that binds to acetylcholine and regulates various physiological functions in different organ systems. They are classified into five subtypes based on their pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

Muscarinic antagonists, also known as muscarinic receptor antagonists or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

Muscarinic antagonists work by binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. By blocking the action of acetylcholine at these receptors, muscarinic antagonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific receptor subtype that is affected.

For example, muscarinic antagonists may be used to treat conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways and reducing bronchoconstriction. They may also be used to treat conditions such as urinary incontinence or overactive bladder by reducing bladder contractions.

Some common muscarinic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and tiotropium. It's important to note that these drugs can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and confusion, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time.

Pirenzepine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called anticholinergics or parasympatholytics. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body, on certain types of muscarinic receptors.

Pirenzepine is primarily used to treat peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by reducing the production of stomach acid. It may also be used to manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea.

The medication is available in the form of tablets or gel for topical application. Side effects of pirenzepine may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and difficulty urinating. It should be used with caution in people with glaucoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by anticholinergic drugs.

It is important to note that this definition is for informational purposes only and should not be taken as medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new medication.

Metiamide is not generally considered a medical term, but it is a medication that has been used in the past. Medically, metiamide is defined as a synthetic histamine H2-receptor antagonist, which means it blocks the action of histamine at the H2 receptors in the stomach. This effect reduces gastric acid secretion and can be useful in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions associated with excessive stomach acid production.

However, metiamide has largely been replaced by other H2 blockers like cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine due to its association with a rare but serious side effect called agranulocytosis, which is a severe decrease in white blood cell count that can increase the risk of infections.

Cholinergic agents are a class of drugs that mimic the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body that is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. These agents work by either increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the synapse (the space between two neurons) or enhancing its action on receptors.

Cholinergic agents can be classified into two main categories: direct-acting and indirect-acting. Direct-acting cholinergic agents, also known as parasympathomimetics, directly stimulate muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Examples of direct-acting cholinergic agents include pilocarpine, bethanechol, and carbamate.

Indirect-acting cholinergic agents, on the other hand, work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down acetylcholine in the synapse. By inhibiting this enzyme, indirect-acting cholinergic agents increase the amount of acetylcholine available to stimulate receptors. Examples of indirect-acting cholinergic agents include physostigmine, neostigmine, and edrophonium.

Cholinergic agents are used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer's disease, glaucoma, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, they can also have significant side effects, such as bradycardia, bronchoconstriction, and increased salivation, due to their stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Therefore, they must be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A muscarinic M3 receptor is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is a subtype of muscarinic receptors, which are named after the muscarine mushroom alkaloid that can activate them.

The M3 receptor is widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder, respiratory system, and vasculature. When activated by acetylcholine or muscarinic agonists, it triggers a range of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to various physiological responses, such as smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and modulation of neurotransmitter release.

The M3 receptor is known to couple primarily to the Gq/11 family of G proteins, which activate phospholipase C (PLC) and increase intracellular calcium levels. This leads to smooth muscle contraction and other downstream effects. The M3 receptor also interacts with other signaling pathways, such as those involving adenylyl cyclase, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and ion channels.

Dysregulation of muscarinic M3 receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders, overactive bladder syndrome, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, selective modulation of this receptor subtype is a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions.

... bethanechol compounds MeSH D02.675.276.148.100 - bethanechol MeSH D02.675.276.175 - bretylium compounds MeSH D02.675.276.175. ... trimethyl ammonium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.883.077 - betaine MeSH D02.092.877.883.088 - bethanechol compounds MeSH D02.092. ... trialkyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.910 - triethyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.950 - trimethyltin compounds MeSH ... mustard compounds MeSH D02.455.526.728.468 - mustard gas MeSH D02.455.526.728.650 - nitrogen mustard compounds MeSH D02.455. ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, Choline esters, Carbamates, Muscarinic agonists, Peripherally selective drugs). ... The name bethanechol refers to its structure as the urethane of beta-methylcholine. Bethanechol alleviates dry mouth and is ... Bethanechol should be used to treat these disorders only after mechanical obstruction is ruled out as a possible cause. Its ... Use of bethanechol, as well as all other muscarinic receptor agonists, is contraindicated in patients with asthma, coronary ...
Examples include: Betaine Bethanechol Carnitine and its derivatives Choline and its derivatives Methacholine Muscarine ... Trimethyl ammonium compounds are a type of quaternary ammonium compound with three methyl groups at the nitrogen, with a more ... Trimethylglycine Benzyltrimethylammonium Trimethyl+ammonium+compounds at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
The compound gained by this technique was compared with the natural, purified margatoxin. Both compounds had the same physical ... Upon activation of muscarinic ACh receptors with bethanechol, margatoxin-sensitive current was suppressed. Therefore, it was ... potassium channels but ensures purity as toxin isolated from the scorpion venom risks contamination by other active compounds. ...
Now Pfizer) Phenylpiperazine Prado WA, Segalla DK (August 2004). "Antinociceptive effects of bethanechol or ... Quaternary ammonium compounds, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
Bethanechol may also be able to alleviate the sexual-dysfunction symptoms which may occur in the context of tricyclic- ... Imipramine is a tricyclic compound, specifically a dibenzazepine, and possesses three rings fused together with a side chain ... "Anti-cholinergic" side-effects, including urinary hesitancy/retention, may be treated/reversed with bethanechol and/or other ... Everett HC (November 1975). "The use of bethanechol chloride with tricyclic antidepressants". The American Journal of ...
Bethanechol is a muscarinic agonist. It is included in the therapy for underactive bladder with poor contraction of detrusor ... Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system ... A low dose of Bethanechol is often used in treatment as increasing the dose can cause side effects like nausea, diarrhea and ... Since contraction of detrusor muscle in the bladder is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system, Bethanechol can bind ...
Pilocarpine - a similar parasympathomimetic medication for dry mouth (xerostomia) Bethanechol - a similar muscarinic ... Spiro compounds, Daiichi Sankyo). ...
In extreme cases, patients may require treatment with bethanechol, a drug that reverses this particular side effect. A common ... Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E (1997). "Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at ... which is similar to that of other TCAs Protriptyline is a tricyclic compound, specifically a dibenzocycloheptadiene, and ...
The most widely studied agents include bethanechol, metoclopramide, domperidone … ... Bethanechol Compounds / pharmacology * Child * Cisapride * Erythromycin / pharmacology * Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy ... The most widely studied agents include bethanechol, metoclopramide, domperidone and cisapride. These drugs act either by ...
Cholinomimetic compounds (eg, pilocarpine, methacholine, bethanechol). *Nicotine alkaloids (eg, nicotine, coniine). *Muscarine- ...
Cholinomimetic compounds (eg, pilocarpine, methacholine, bethanechol). *Nicotine alkaloids (eg, nicotine, coniine). *Muscarine- ...
Cabergoline Compound at PetMart Pharmacy. Call 877-220-6337 for more information. ... Cabergoline Compound is used in dogs to induce estrus, treatment of anestrus, mastitis, pseudopregnancy, and as a treatment ...
... bethanechol compounds MeSH D02.675.276.148.100 - bethanechol MeSH D02.675.276.175 - bretylium compounds MeSH D02.675.276.175. ... trimethyl ammonium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.883.077 - betaine MeSH D02.092.877.883.088 - bethanechol compounds MeSH D02.092. ... trialkyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.910 - triethyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.950 - trimethyltin compounds MeSH ... mustard compounds MeSH D02.455.526.728.468 - mustard gas MeSH D02.455.526.728.650 - nitrogen mustard compounds MeSH D02.455. ...
04155 BETALIN COMPOUND 40205 BETATREX 04190 BETHANECHOL 40210 BI-K 04225 BICARBONATE OF SODA 04230 BICHLORACETIC ACID 04235 ... 11215 EMPIRIN COMPOUND 11230 EMPIRIN COMPOUND #3 11235 EMPIRIN COMPOUND #4 11240 EMPIRIN COMPOUND W/CODEINE 11245 EMPIRIN NO. 2 ... 28815 SOMA COMPOUND 28820 SOMA COMPOUND W/ CODEINE 28840 SOMOPHYLLIN 28920 SORBITRATE 29015 SPARINE 29050 SPASTOLATE 41505 ... 16125 ISUPREL COMPOUND ELIXIR 16210 K-LOR 41915 K-LYTE 16215 K-LYTE DS 16220 K-LYTE/CL 16245 K-PHOS 16268 K-TAB 16310 KANTREX ...
Cholinomimetic compounds (e.g., pilocarpine, methacholine, bethanechol). *Nicotine alkaloids (e.g., nicotine, coniine) ... The CDC provides many reference materials for recognizing and treating the effects of all types of chemical compounds. These ... include "reference cards" for dozens of individual chemical compounds that outline essential information for emergency and ...
... or impaired glucose tolerance will respond to a bethanechol and N-acetylcysteine treatment is taught. Blood... ... LINKER COMPOUND AND COMPLEX COMPOUND CONTAINING SAME. Provided are: a linker compound that can design, by molecular design, the ... The compound of formula (V), the compound of formula (VI) and the compound of formula (VII... ... A naphthalene compound according to the pr... WO/2023/057545A1 SUBSTITUTED CHALCONES. A compound of formula (I), or a ...
Bethanechol D2.241.81.251.133.100 Bethanechol Compounds D2.241.81.251.133 Bibliotherapy E2.760.169.63.500.169 Bicuculline ... Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings D3.549 D3.633.400 (Replaced for 2016 by Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings) ... Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring D3.438 D3.633.100 Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring D3.494 D3.633.300 Heterotrophic Processes ... Pyrvinium Compounds D3.438.810.824.700 D3.633.100.810.824.700 Quality of Life N6.850.505.400.425.837 Quercetin D3.438.150.266. ...
Bethanechol D2.241.81.251.133.100 Bethanechol Compounds D2.241.81.251.133 Bibliotherapy E2.760.169.63.500.169 Bicuculline ... Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings D3.549 D3.633.400 (Replaced for 2016 by Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings) ... Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring D3.438 D3.633.100 Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring D3.494 D3.633.300 Heterotrophic Processes ... Pyrvinium Compounds D3.438.810.824.700 D3.633.100.810.824.700 Quality of Life N6.850.505.400.425.837 Quercetin D3.438.150.266. ...
Bethanechol D2.241.81.251.133.100 Bethanechol Compounds D2.241.81.251.133 Bibliotherapy E2.760.169.63.500.169 Bicuculline ... Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings D3.549 D3.633.400 (Replaced for 2016 by Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings) ... Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring D3.438 D3.633.100 Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring D3.494 D3.633.300 Heterotrophic Processes ... Pyrvinium Compounds D3.438.810.824.700 D3.633.100.810.824.700 Quality of Life N6.850.505.400.425.837 Quercetin D3.438.150.266. ...
Bethanechol D2.241.81.251.133.100 Bethanechol Compounds D2.241.81.251.133 Bibliotherapy E2.760.169.63.500.169 Bicuculline ... Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings D3.549 D3.633.400 (Replaced for 2016 by Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings) ... Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring D3.438 D3.633.100 Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring D3.494 D3.633.300 Heterotrophic Processes ... Pyrvinium Compounds D3.438.810.824.700 D3.633.100.810.824.700 Quality of Life N6.850.505.400.425.837 Quercetin D3.438.150.266. ...
Bethanechol D2.241.81.251.133.100 Bethanechol Compounds D2.241.81.251.133 Bibliotherapy E2.760.169.63.500.169 Bicuculline ... Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings D3.549 D3.633.400 (Replaced for 2016 by Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings) ... Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring D3.438 D3.633.100 Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring D3.494 D3.633.300 Heterotrophic Processes ... Pyrvinium Compounds D3.438.810.824.700 D3.633.100.810.824.700 Quality of Life N6.850.505.400.425.837 Quercetin D3.438.150.266. ...
Bethanechol Compounds [D02.241.081.251.133] * Carbadox [D02.241.081.251.140] * Carbamyl Phosphate [D02.241.081.251.145] ... Heterocyclic Compounds [D03] * Heterocyclic Compounds, Fused-Ring [D03.633] * Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring [D03.633.100] * ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds Uremia Ureohydrolases Ureter Ureteral Calculi Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds Uremia Ureohydrolases Ureter Ureteral Calculi Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds Uremia Ureohydrolases Ureter Ureteral Calculi Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds. Uremia. Ureohydrolases. Ureter. Ureteral Calculi. Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds Uremia Ureohydrolases Ureter Ureteral Calculi Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds. Uremia. Ureohydrolases. Ureter. Ureteral Calculi. Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds Uremia Ureohydrolases Ureter Ureteral Calculi Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
Urecholine use Bethanechol Compounds Uremia Ureohydrolases Ureter Ureteral Calculi Ureteral Cancer use Ureteral Neoplasms ...
hydralazine hydrochloride syrup compounded from tablets. Am J Schlatter JL, Saulnier JL. Bethanechol chloride oral solutions: ... Bethanechol Chloride 5 mg/mL The initial pH of the Ora-Sweet SF:Ora-Plus mixture was 4.4.. Bethanechol Chloride 50 mg Tablets ... 1. How many prescriptions do you compound per month? _ 2. What powders do you use in your compounding? BRC today!. Pharmacy ... SecundumArtem Current & Practical Compounding Information for the Pharmacist. STABILITY OF EXTEMPORANEOUSLY PREPARED PEDIATRIC ...
Bethanechol Compounds. *Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds. *Bretylium Compounds. *Cetrimonium Compounds. *Chlorisondamine. * ...
Bethanechol Compounds. *Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds. *Bretylium Compounds. *Butylscopolammonium Bromide. *Cetrimonium ... "Tetraethylammonium Compounds" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Tetraethylammonium Compounds" by people in UAMS Profiles by ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Tetraethylammonium Compounds" by people in Profiles over the past ten ...
Bephenium Compounds. *Betaine. *Betalains. *Bethanechol Compounds. *Bis-Trimethylammonium Compounds. *Cetrimonium Compounds. * ... "Benzalkonium Compounds" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Benzalkonium Compounds" by people in this website by year, and ... A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in ...
Compounded medications are very useful in certain situations because without them, we would not be able to treat certain ... However, this is not a good reason to use a compounded drug. So it is important to know what a compounded drug is if your vet ... I use compounded drugs all the time but if an FDA-approved drug is available, it should be used as a first choice. ... Compounded medications are very useful in certain situations because without them, we would not be able to treat certain ...
Betaine is a naturally occurring trimethyl ammonium compound ... Bephenium Compounds ⌊. Bethanechol Compounds ⌊. Bretylium ... Pnictogens Compounds. ⌊Nitrogen compounds (Nitrogen molecular entities). ⌊Ammoniums. ⌊Ammonium Ion Derivatives. ⌊Quaternary ... In organic chemistry, Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine), as an organic compound, is an inner salt trimethyl ammonium compound.. ... In our body, Betaine is a naturally occurring compound that plays a role in osmoregulation. * ...
The diseased cattle can be treated by intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg compound sulfonamide into methoxypyrimidine sodium ... At the same time, with a subcutaneous injection of 10-20 ml Bethanechol injection. ... 3 10 ml vitamin C and 2 pieces of 10 ml compound vitamin B, twice a day for one course of treatment for 1 to 2 days. ... compound vitamin B), or 300 ml 5% glucose sodium chloride injection, 100-200 ml calcium gluconate, or 500 ml 5% glucose sodium ...
  • formulations of alprazolam, bethanechol chloride, Additional aliquots of the vehicle were added with chloroquine phosphate, cisapride, enalapril maleate, mixing until the final volume was obtained. (chestervetclinic.com)
  • Bethanechol chloride retains at least 92% of the original concentration in Ora-Sweet:Ora-Plus at both temperatures for 60 days, and at least 93% Alprazolam 1 mg/mL of the original concentration in Ora-Sweet SF:Ora-Plus at both tempera- Alprazolam 2 mg Tablets tures for 60 days. (chestervetclinic.com)
  • What is bethanechol chloride? (hudsonhighlandsvet.com)
  • How is bethanechol chloride given? (hudsonhighlandsvet.com)
  • Bethanechol chloride is given by mouth in the form of a tablet or a compounded liquid suspension. (hudsonhighlandsvet.com)
  • Bethanechol chloride should be used cautiously in pets that have overactive thyroid, seizures, asthma, bronchitis, or low blood pressure. (hudsonhighlandsvet.com)
  • The following medications should be used with caution when given with bethanechol chloride: anticholinergic drugs, cholinergic drugs, ganglionic blocking drugs, procainamide, or quinidine. (hudsonhighlandsvet.com)
  • How do I store bethanechol chloride? (hudsonhighlandsvet.com)
  • The modulation of essential players from the BMP pathway was Bethanechol chloride supervised upon treatment with BMP type I receptor inhibitors. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • Bethanechol chloride is given by mouth or injection and is used off label to increase urinary or intestinal movement/activity. (baldwinanimalvet.com)
  • Benzalkonium Compounds" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (jefferson.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Benzalkonium Compounds" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)
  • Extemporaneous compounding of this type usuallyinvolves preparing an oral liquid from a commercially Ora-Plus™, Ora-Sweet™ and available dosage form (tablets, capsules, injections) or Ora-Sweet SF™ are vehicles from the pure drug powder. (chestervetclinic.com)
  • Bismuth compounds are given by mouth and are used on and off label to treat diarrhea and upset stomach. (baldwinanimalvet.com)
  • FACA, FASCP the compounding pharmacist in assessing chemicaland physical stability of various additives. (chestervetclinic.com)
  • However, it is important to realize that a compounded medication is made by a pharmacist and there is no oversight by the FDA or any agency to make sure the drug is correct. (vin.com)
  • You are relying entirely on the pharmacist to make the drug correct and this is always a concern, especially when you are using a drug that could be deadly if compounded incorrectly or could cause a severe problem if it is not sterile and injected into an animal. (vin.com)
  • However, many medications needed for animals are not available either as FDA-approved drugs or generics and so we have to resort to using compounded medications. (vin.com)
  • Compounded medications are very useful in certain situations because without them, we would not be able to treat certain conditions in animals. (vin.com)
  • There are disclosed phenethylamine compounds, the use of such compounds in the treatment of diseases associated with a serotonin 5-HT2 receptor, pharmaceutical compositions such as tablet compositions and kits containing the compounds, m. (sumobrain.com)
  • To characterize the type from the hMSC-derived cartilaginous tissue attained by GNAS treatment with the various compounds, gene-expression adjustments of the -panel of transient or articular cartilage personal genes were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. (bakingandbakingscience.com)
  • the process of production and release of chemical compounds from a tissue (gland). (ashp.org)
  • chemical compounds produced by the body (" endogenous ") that relay, amplify, and/or modulate signal transmission between two neurons or between neurons and other cells. (ashp.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Tetraethylammonium Compounds" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Tetraethylammonium Compounds" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Tetraethylammonium Compounds" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • and compounded drugs. (vin.com)
  • One reason some vets use compounded drugs is because they may be less expensive for the client. (vin.com)
  • I use compounded drugs all the time but if an FDA-approved drug is available, it should be used as a first choice. (vin.com)
  • Cabergoline Compound is used in dogs to induce estrus, treatment of anestrus, mastitis, pseudopregnancy, and as a treatment prior to mammary tumor surgery. (petmartpharmacy.com)
  • Provided herein are Myc-Max inhibitory compounds having the structure of Formula I or Formula II and compositions thereof for use in the treatment of cancer. (sumobrain.com)
  • However, this is not a good reason to use a compounded drug. (vin.com)
  • So it is important to know what a compounded drug is if your vet recommends one, and your vet should tell you if a compounded medication is being used. (vin.com)
  • The results show that this compound induced a significant reduction of the acid-induced writhing at doses ranging from 25 to 75 mg/kg. (researchgate.net)
  • In our body, Betaine is a naturally occurring compound that plays a role in osmoregulation. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • The lower the index the poorer bethanechol the correlation, through to generate a detectable current. (irkutsk.ru)
  • buproban It is important to rimactan extract the compounds and pharmaceuticals. (etest.lt)
  • Goat's Rue contains a compound called guanidine, which has been shown to lower blood sugar levels by increasing insulin production and improving insulin sensitivity. (globalpharmacyplus.su)
  • The present invention relates to the field of organic synthesis and more specifically it concerns a process for preparing compound of formula (I). The compound of formula (V), the compound of formula (VI) and the compound of formula (VII. (sumobrain.com)
  • The present disclosure describes novel compounds and compositions and methods of making and using thereof related that are capable of inhibiting PAK1 and associated diseases or disorders, including tumors and cancerous cells. (sumobrain.com)
  • Linalool is a monoterpene compound commonly found as a major component of the essential oils of several aromatic plant species, many of which are used in traditional medical systems as analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedies. (researchgate.net)
  • It is an imidazolyl derivative of 6-mercaptopurine and many of its biological effects are similar to those of the parent compound. (illnesshacker.com)
  • In patients with detrusor hyporeflexia or bladder atony, bethanechol chloride may be of some benefit. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Bethanechol chloride, a cholinergic agent, is a synthetic ester which is structurally and pharmacologically related to acetylcholine. (nih.gov)
  • Each tablet for oral administration contains 5 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg or 50 mg bethanechol chloride, USP. (nih.gov)
  • Bethanechol chloride acts principally by producing the effects of stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Bethanechol chloride is not destroyed by cholinesterase and its effects are more prolonged than those of acetylcholine. (nih.gov)
  • Effects on the GI and urinary tracts sometimes appear within 30 minutes after oral administration of bethanechol chloride, but more often 60 to 90 minutes are required to reach maximum effectiveness. (nih.gov)
  • Following oral administration, the usual duration of action of bethanechol chloride is one hour, although large doses (300 to 400 mg) have been reported to produce effects for up to six hours. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the selective action of bethanechol chloride, nicotinic symptoms of cholinergic stimulation are usually absent or minimal when orally or subcutaneously administered in therapeutic doses, while muscarinic effects are prominent. (nih.gov)
  • Bethanechol chloride does not cross the blood-brain barrier because of its charged quaternary amine moiety. (nih.gov)
  • 23-24, July 1977) was conducted on the relative effectiveness of oral and subcutaneous doses of bethanechol chloride on the stretch response of bladder muscle in patients with urinary retention. (nih.gov)
  • Bethanechol chloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of acute postoperative and postpartum nonobstructive (functional) urinary retention and for neurogenic atony of the urinary bladder with retention. (nih.gov)
  • Bethanechol chloride works to strengthen the detrusor muscle's contraction. (vin.com)
  • Although apparently less clinically effective, oral doses of bethanechol are also suggested for horses. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Pharmaceutical Compounding-Nonsterile Preparations. (ashp.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds that include BETHANECHOL . (nih.gov)
  • Suggested additional treatment of bladder atony includes both frequent emptying of the bladder by catheterization and administration of bethanechol to increase contraction of the detrusor muscle. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Wedgewood Pharmacy's compounded veterinary preparations are not intended for use in food and food-producing animals. (wedgewoodpharmacy.com)
  • However, lead, like the phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline and unlike the calcium-influx blocker verapamil, did not inhibit bethanechol- or potassium-stimulated contractions and calcium influx into crop tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of casein phosphopeptide, a peptide derivative of casein, stabilizes amorphous calcium phosphate, a compound of soluble salts of calcium and phosphate, which allows more ions to reach the enamel. (jcda.ca)
  • MI Paste contains a compound called Recaldent, which is also a component of Trident Xtra Care Gum (Cadbury Adams USA LLC, Parsippany, NJ). (jcda.ca)
  • Similar compounds are also used as antiparasitics and insecticides, and anesthetics, areas fully described in later chapters of this text. (veteriankey.com)
  • a , Representative field electrode recording epochs (5 min in duration) are shown for the "positive" compounds identified in the locomotion assay. (eneuro.org)
  • The compounded medications featured in this piece have been prescribed and administered by veterinarians who work with Wedgewood Pharmacy. (wedgewoodpharmacy.com)
  • The movement bethanechol of the spectrometer and method may well be the quality terms that are coated with semi-conductor material. (losaltos.com)
  • These products are approved either for administration to pediatric patients as-is or by reconstitution and compounding with specific instructions on the product label. (nih.gov)
  • b , Representative raw locomotion data plots for six individual scn1Lab mutant larvae at baseline (top) and following the addition of a compound resulting in fatality (bottom, gemfibrozil) or hyperactivity (bottom, mepivacaine). (eneuro.org)
  • a , Heat map showing the results of individual zebrafish trials (1-6) for compounds tested at a concentration of 100 µ m in the locomotion-tracking assay. (eneuro.org)
  • It also works better than simple stopped flow when peaks are not symmetrically arrayed with respect to bethanechol the QC environment. (irkutsk.ru)
  • embryo media was then replaced with new embryo media (to mimic the procedure used for test compounds), and a second locomotion response was obtained. (eneuro.org)
  • PMID- 5428633 TI - Observations on the effects on rats of compounds related to acrylamide. (nih.gov)