Histamine H2 Antagonists
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Organic Cation Transport Proteins
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
United States Food and Drug Administration
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Receptors, Histamine H1
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Parietal Cells, Gastric
Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.
Receptors, Histamine H3
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Receptors, Histamine H2
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Effect of amodiaquine on gastric histamine methyltransferase and on histamine-stimulated gastric secretion. (1/2)1 Amodiaquine was found to be a potent inhibitor in vitro of gastric histamine methyltransferase from human and canine corpus and from pig antrum. The ID50 for the enzyme, purified from pig antrum mucosa by ultracentrifugation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, was 2.5 muM. 2 In six dogs with Heidenhanin pouches the maximum secretory response to histamine (40 mug/kg i.m.) was augmented by i.m. injection of amodiaquine. The augmentation depended on the dose of amodiaquine, the optimum effect (40% increase in volume of gastric juice, 80% in acid output) being achieved with 2 mg/kg. The maximum secretory response to betazole was also enhanced by amodiaquine. 3 It was suggested that amodiaquine may enhance the histamine and betazole stimulated gastric secretion by an inhibition of gastric histamine methyltransferase in vivo. (+info)
Pathophysiological responses to meals in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Paradoxical postprandial inhibition of gastric secretion. (2/2)The gastric acid, pepsin, and secretory volume output in response to a mixed meal were measured in six patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrin-producing tumour proved subsequently at surgery. The patients were all normocalcaemic, and none had previous abdominal surgery. In four of the six patients, ingestion of the meal markedly inhibited the gastric secretory output, which decreased to below fasting levels, returning later to basal values. In two other patients, whose fasting acid output was considerably lower, the secretory output increased after the meal, but some inhibiton of gastric secretion was also apparent for variable intervals of time. The serum gastrin concentration in all patients remained essentially unchanged or increased after the meal. Two patients were restudied after successful removal of the duodenal gastrin-producing tumour, and in each the normal gastric secretory and gastrin-releasing responses were completely restored. Our studies suggest that, in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrinoma, physiological regulatory mechanisms triggered by food reduce the continuous stimulation of gastric secretion caused by their tumoural hypergastrinaemia. (+info)
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Histamine H2 receptor - Wikipedia
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs. It is a potent stimulant of cAMP production, which leads to activation of protein kinase A. PKA functions to phosphorylate certain proteins, affecting their activity. The drug betazole is an example of a histamine H2 receptor agonist. Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. The histamine receptor H2 belongs to the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and stimulates gastric acid secretion. It also regulates gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion and is thought to be involved in regulating cell growth and differentiation. Histamine H2 receptors are expressed in the following tissues: Peripheral tissues Gastric parietal cells (oxyntic cells) Vascular smooth muscle Neutrophils Mast cells Heart Uterus Central nervous system ...
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Betazole. *Caffeine and sodium benzoate. *Cation exchange resins. *Histamine phosphate. *Methylthioninium chloride ...
Histamine H2 receptor
The drug betazole is an example of a histamine H2 receptor agonist. Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from ...
H2 : Betazole and Impromidine are examples of agonists used in diagnostics to increase histamine. H3 : Betahistine is a weak ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
... betazole MeSH D03.383.129.539.120 - 4,5-dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1h-pyrazol-3-amine MeSH D03.383.129.539.200 - ...
The molecular formula C5H9N3 (molar mass: 111.15 g/mol, exact mass: 111.0796 u) may refer to: Betazole (also called ametazole) ...
ATC code V04
V04CF01 Tuberculin V04CG01 Cation exchange resins V04CG02 Betazole V04CG03 Histamine phosphate V04CG04 Pentagastrin V04CG05 ...
List of drugs: Be
Betaxon Betazole (INN) Bethanechol (INN) Betiatide (INN) Betimol Betnesol Betnovate Betoptic Pilo Betoptic S Betoxycaine (INN) ...
... (also known as ametazole) is a histamine H2 receptor agonist. Betazole hydrochloride is known as gastramine and ... Betazole is used as a stimulant in preference to histamine because of its specificity for the H2 receptor and its advantage of ... The volume of acid secretion is measured following administration of betazole, diagnosis being secretion greater than 60% of ... Hammond JB, Offen WW (1988). "Effect of nizatidine and cimetidine on betazole-stimulated gastric secretion of normal subjects: ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine. A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment. In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist. It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats. However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus. ...
... was first prepared as AH19065 by John Bradshaw in the summer of 1977 in the Ware research laboratories of Allen & Hanburys, part of the Glaxo organization. Its development was a response to the first in class histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, developed by Sir James Black at Smith, Kline and French, and launched in the United Kingdom as Tagamet in November 1976. Both companies would eventually become merged as GlaxoSmithKline following a sequence of mergers and acquisitions starting with the integration of Allen & Hanbury's Ltd and Glaxo to form Glaxo Group Research in 1979, and ultimately with the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham in 2000. Ranitidine was the result of a rational drug-design process using what was by then a fairly refined model of the histamine H2 receptor and quantitative structure-activity relationships. Glaxo refined the model further by replacing the imidazole ring of cimetidine with a furan ring with a nitrogen-containing ...
As of 2017 brands included: Actalor, Actidin, Aerotina, Alaspan, Alavert, Albatrina, Alerdina, Alerfast, Alergan, Alergiano, Alergiatadina, Alergin Ariston, Alergipan, Alergit, Alergitrat L, Aleric Lora, Alermuc, Alernitis, Alerpriv, Alertadin, Alertine, Aleze, Algac, Algecare, Algistop, Alledryl, Aller-Tab, Allerfre, Allerget, Allergex Non Drowsy, Allergyx, Allerhis, Allernon, Allerta, Allertyn, Allohex, Allor, Allorat, Alloris, Alor, Analor, Anhissen, Anti-Sneeze, Antial, Antil, Antimin, Ao Hui Feng, Ao Mi Xin, Ao Shu, Ardin, Atinac, Avotyne, Axcel Loratadine, Bai Wei Le, Bang Nuo, Bedix, Belodin, Benadryl, Besumin, Bi Sai Ning, Bi Yan Tong, Biliranin, Biloina, Biolorat, Bollinol, Boots Hayfever Relief, Boots Hooikoortstabletten, Boots Once-a-Day Allergy Relief, Carin, Carinose, Chang Ke, Civeran, Clara, Claratyne, Clarid, Clarihis, Clarihist, Clarilerg, Clarinese, Claritin, Claritine, Clarityne, Clarityne SP, Clarotadine, Clatatin, Clatine, Clear-Atadine, Clear-Atadine Children's, Clistin, ...
... (Serentil) is a piperidine neuroleptic drug belonging to the class of drugs called phenothiazines, used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a metabolite of thioridazine. The drug's name is derived from the methylsulfoxy and piperidine functional groups in its chemical structure. It has central antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic and weak muscarinic anticholinergic effects. Serious side effects include akathisia, tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Mesoridazine was withdrawn from the United States market in 2004 due to dangerous side effects, namely irregular heart beat and QT-prolongation of the electrocardiogram. It currently appears to be unavailable worldwide. ...
... is widely used in preparations as an enhancing agent for some analgesics and antitussives (acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, codeine, hydrocodone). It is widely used in certain parts of the world as cough suppressant usually with codeine, and sometimes by itself or in addition to dextromethorphan as it, like diphenhydramine, possesses antitussive action of its own and is particularly useful in semi-productive coughs because of its moderate drying action. Phenyltoloxamine has analgesic and anti-spasmodic properties of its own and is used in combination with paracetamol, aspirin and other salicylates and other drugs in proprietary preparations available over the counter for backache, muscle strains and similar conditions. In this respect, it is similar to a closely related antihistamine, orphenadrine, and both drugs are very closely related to diphenhydramine and to doxylamine, the latter of which is the active ingredient in NyQuil and many other cough ...
When both imidazole ring nitrogens are protonated, their 15N chemical shifts are similar (about 200 ppm, relative to nitric acid on the sigma scale, on which increased shielding corresponds to increased chemical shift). NMR shows that the chemical shift of N1-H drops slightly, whereas the chemical shift of N3-H drops considerably (about 190 vs. 145 ppm). This indicates that the N1-H tautomer is preferred, it is presumed due to hydrogen bonding to the neighboring ammonium. The shielding at N3 is substantially reduced due to the second-order paramagnetic effect, which involves a symmetry-allowed interaction between the nitrogen lone pair and the excited π* states of the aromatic ring. As the pH rises above 9, the chemical shifts of N1 and N3 become approximately 185 and 170 ppm. An entirely deprotonated form of the imidazole ring, the imidazolate ion, would be formed only above a pH of 14, and is therefore not physiologically relevant. This change in chemical shifts can be explained by the ...
Brand names include Eskazinyl, Eskazine, Jatroneural, Modalina, Stelazine, Terfluzine, Trifluoperaz, Triftazin. In the United Kingdom and some other countries, trifluoperazine is sold and marketed under the brand 'Stelazine'. The drug is sold as tablet, liquid and 'Trifluoperazine-injectable USP' for deep intramuscular short-term use. GP studying pharmacological data has indicated cases of neck vertebrae irreversible fusing leading to NHS preparations being predominantly of the liquid form trifluoperazine as opposed to the tablet form as in Stela zine etc. In the past, trifluoperazine was used in fixed combinations with the MAO inhibitor (antidepressant) tranylcypromine (tranylcypromine/trifluoperazine) to attenuate the strong stimulating effects of this antidepressant. This combination was sold under the brand name Jatrosom N. Likewise a combination with amobarbital (potent sedative/hypnotic agent) for the amelioration of psychoneurosis and insomnia existed under the brand name Jalonac. In ...
In the United States, Seldane was brought to market in 1985 as the first nonsedating antihistamine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In June 1990, evidence of serious ventricular arrhythmias among those taking Seldane prompted the FDA to issue a report on the risk factors associated with concomitant use of the drug with macrolide antibiotics and ketoconazole. Two months later, the FDA required the manufacturer to send a letter to all physicians, alerting them to the problem; in July 1992, the existing precautions were elevated to a black box warning and the issue attracted mass media attention in reports that people with liver disease or who took ketoconazole, an antifungal agent, or the antibiotic erythromycin, could suffer cardiac arrhythmia if they also took Seldane. In January 1997, the same month when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had earlier approved a generic version of Seldane made by IVAX Corporation of Miami, the FDA recommended terfenadine-containing ...
... (INN, USAN, codenamed AH25352) is a long-acting competitive H2 receptor antagonist which was under development as an antiulcerant by Glaxo (now GlaxoSmithKline). It was planned to be a follow-up compound to ranitidine (Zantac). When taken in doses of 600 mg twice daily it induced virtually 24-hour gastric anacidity thus closely resembling the antisecretory effect of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. Its development was terminated in 1989 from phase III clinical trials based on the appearance of carcinoid tumors in long-term toxicity testing in rodents. ...
Medhurst AD, Atkins AR, Beresford IJ, Brackenborough K, Briggs MA, Calver AR, Cilia J, Cluderay JE, Crook B, Davis JB, Davis RK, Davis RP, Dawson LA, Foley AG, Gartlon J, Gonzalez MI, Heslop T, Hirst WD, Jennings C, Jones DN, Lacroix LP, Martyn A, Ociepka S, Ray A, Regan CM, Roberts JC, Schogger J, Southam E, Stean TO, Trail BK, Upton N, Wadsworth G, Wald JA, White T, Witherington J, Woolley ML, Worby A, Wilson DM. GSK189254, a novel H3 receptor antagonist that binds to histamine H3 receptors in Alzheimer's disease brain and improves cognitive performance in preclinical models. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2007 Jun;321(3):1032-45. PMID 17327487 ...
... is an antihistamine and anticholinergic of the pyridine chemical class which was developed in the early 1950s. It was sold under the trade names Co-Pyronil and Histadyl EC. It has relatively strong sedative effects, to the extent that its primary use was as a medication for insomnia rather than for its antihistamine action. Together with scopolamine, it was the main ingredient in Sominex, Nytol, and Sleep-Eze. It also provided the sedative component of Excedrin PM. All of these products were reformulated in the late 1970s when methapyrilene was demonstrated to cause liver cancer in rats when given chronically. ...
... , sold under the brand name Azafen or Azaphen, is an antidepressant approved in Russia for the treatment of depression. It was introduced in the late 1960s and is still used today. Pipofezine has been shown to act as a potent inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin. In addition to its antidepressant action, pipofezine has sedative effects as well, suggesting antihistamine activity. Other properties such as anticholinergic or antiadrenergic actions are less clear but are likely. ...
It acts by interfering with the signal transmission between vestibular apparatus of the inner ear and the vomiting centre of the hypothalamus by limiting the activity of the vestibular hair cells which send signals about movement. The disparity of signal processing between inner ear motion receptors and the visual senses is abolished, so that the confusion of brain whether the individual is moving or standing is reduced. Vomiting in motion sickness could be a physiological compensatory mechanism of the brain to keep the individual from moving so that it can adjust to the signal perception, but the true evolutionary reason for this malady is currently unknown. When prescribed for balance problems and vertigo, cinnarizine is typically taken two or three times daily depending on the amount of each dose and when used to treat motion sickness, the pill is taken at least two hours before travelling and then again every four hours during travel. However, a recent 2012 study comparing the ...
As of 2017, loratadine was available under many brand names and dosage forms worldwide, including several combination drug formulations with pseudoephedrine, paracetamol, betamethasone, ambroxol, salbutamol, phenylephrine, and dexamethasone. As of 2017[update] brands included: Actalor, Actidin, Aerotina, Alaspan, Alavert, Albatrina, Alerdina, Alerfast, Alergan, Alergiano, Alergiatadina, Alergin Ariston, Alergipan, Alergit, Alergitrat L, Aleric Lora, Alermuc, Alernitis, Alerpriv, Alertadin, Alertine, Aleze, Algac, Algecare, Algistop, Alledryl, Aller-Tab, Allerfre, Allerget, Allergex Non Drowsy, Allergyx, Allerhis, Allernon, Allerta, Allertyn, Allohex, Allor, Allorat, Alloris, Alor, Analor, Anhissen, Anti-Sneeze, Antial, Antil, Antimin, Ao Hui Feng, Ao Mi Xin, Ao Shu, Ardin, Atinac, Avotyne, Axcel Loratadine, Bai Wei Le, Bang Nuo, Bedix, Belodin, Benadryl, Besumin, Bi Sai Ning, Bi Yan Tong, Biliranin, Biloina, Biolorat, Bollinol, Boots Hayfever Relief, Boots Hooikoortstabletten, Boots ...
组氨酸脱羧酶 - 维基百科，自由的百科
Betazole（英语：Betazole）. *Dimaprit（英语：Dimaprit）. *組織胺. *HTMT（英语：Histamine trifluoromethyl toluidide） ...
Stacher, G.; Starker, D. (1 February 1974). "Inhibitory effect of bromazepam on basal and betazole-stimulated gastric acid ...
হিস্টামিন - উইকিপিডিয়া
Windaus এবং Vogt ১৯০৭ সালে প্রথম সংশ্লেষণ দ্বারা হিস্টামিন সংশ্লেষণ করেন, তখনও হিস্টামিন যে জীবিত প্রাণী দেহে পাওয়া যায় তা আবিষ্কৃত হয়নি। ১৯১০ সালে Barger এবং Dale প্রথম ইস্ট থেকে হিস্টামিন নিষ্কাষন করেন এবং প্রব্ররতীতে প্রাণীদেহে এর ভুমিকা আবিষ্কার ক্রেন। ১৬২৭ সালে বেষ্ট ও তার সহকর্মীরা যক্রত কোষ ও ফুসফুস কোষ হতে হিস্টামিন নিষ্কাষন করেন। একই বছরে আরেকজন গবেষক লুইস প্রমান করেন হিস্টামিন ...
সিনারিজিন - উইকিপিডিয়া
Pianese, C. P.; Hidalgo, L. O.; Gonz??Lez, R. H.; Madrid, C. E.; Ponce, J. E.; Ram??Rez, A. M.; Mor??n, L. M.; Arenas, J. E.; Rubio, A. T.; Uribe, J. O.; Abiuso, J. ?; Hanuch, E.; Alegr??a, J.; Volpi, C.; Flaskamp, R.; Sanju??n, A. P. ?A.; g??Mez, J. M. G. ?A.; Hern??Ndez, J.; Pedraza, A.; Quijano, D.; Mart??Nez, C.; Casta??Eda, J. R. ?N.; Guerra, O. J. C. ?O.; f, G. V. (২০০২)। "New approaches to the management of peripheral vertigo: Efficacy and safety of two calcium antagonists in a 12-week, multinational, double-blind study"। Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society \and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology। 23 (3): 357-363। doi:10.1097/00129492-200205000-00023। PMID 11981396 ...
Betazole - Wikipedia
Betazole (also known as ametazole) is a histamine H2 receptor agonist. Betazole hydrochloride is known as gastramine and ... Betazole is used as a stimulant in preference to histamine because of its specificity for the H2 receptor and its advantage of ... The volume of acid secretion is measured following administration of betazole, diagnosis being secretion greater than 60% of ... Hammond JB, Offen WW (1988). "Effect of nizatidine and cimetidine on betazole-stimulated gastric secretion of normal subjects: ...
Betazole dihydrochloride - Annex III inventory - ECHA
Magnesium sulfate - Wikipedia
Ranitidine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Cimetidine Injection - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
When food and betazole were used to stimulate secretion, inhibition of hydrogen ion concentration usually ranged from 45 to 75 ... 3) Intrinsic Factor: Intrinsic factor secretion was studied with betazole as a stimulant. Oral cimetidine 300 mg inhibited the ... Chemically Stimulated: Oral cimetidine significantly inhibited gastric acid secretion stimulated by betazole (an isomer of ... rise in intrinsic factor concentration produced by betazole, but some intrinsic factor was secreted at all times. ...
Ranitidine Syrup (Ranitidine Oral Solution, USP) 15 mg/mL
DailyMed - RANITIDINE tablet
Histamine H2 receptor - Wikipedia
هيستامين - المعرفة
G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Targets for Approved Drugs: How Many Targets and How Many Drugs? | Molecular Pharmacology
TABLE 1 One hundred thirty-four GPCRs have FDA-approved drugs. Exceptions are those marked as follows: *, EMA approved; 1, approved in the United Kingdom by the The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA); 2, suramin is not listed in the FDAs Orange Book, but is distributed by the Centers for Disease Control and is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organization; and #, GABBR1 and 2 combine to form a single active signaling complex that is activated by baclofen. Entries in bold in indicate GPCRs considered primary targets for the listed drug based on affinity and/or functional response (in the majority of cases, both). Entries not in bold indicate GPCRs targeted by approved drugs but for which such an interaction is not likely a primary aspect of the intended therapeutic use of such drugs. ...
Irritation inside the nose - Doctors respond
ZANTAC Oral 150 or 300 (ranitidine hydrochloride) Tablets, USP; ZANTAC|sup|®|/sup| 25 (ranitidine hydrochloride effervescent)...
Gastric tubes, meals, acid, and analysis: rise and decline | Clinical Chemistry
Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Nizatidine (HMDB0014723)
The abnormal lower oesophageal sphincter in pernicious anaemia | Gut
Zantac 150 and 300 Tablets (ranitidine hydrochloride) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions... from PDR.net
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1994
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SYNGAP1 Controls the Maturation of Dendrites, Synaptic Function, and Network Activity in Developing Human Neurons - European...
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Achlorhydria - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice
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Captodiame - Wikipedia
Captodiame (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine. A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment. In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist. It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats. However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus. ...
Glukozo - Wikipedia's Glucose as translated by GramTrans
Cimetidine - Uses, Dosage, Mechanism of Action, Side Effects
When food and betazole were used to stimulate secretion, inhibition of hydrogen ion concentration usually ranged from 45-75% ... Betazole. 1.5 mg/kg (sc). 300 mg (po). 85% at 2 1/2 hours. ... Intrinsic factor secretion was studied with betazole as a ... Oral Cimetidine 300 mg inhibited the rise in intrinsic factor concentration produced by betazole, but some intrinsic factor was ... Oral Cimetidine significantly inhibited gastric acid secretion stimulated by betazole (an isomer of histamine), pentagastrin, ...
Ranitidine (Contract Pharmacy Services-PA): FDA Package Insert
ranitidine - meddic
Certain preparations of ranitidine are available over the counter (OTC) in various countries. In the United States, 75-mg and 150-mg tablets are available OTC. Zantac OTC is manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim. In Australia, packs containing seven or 14 doses of the 150-mg tablet are available in supermarkets, small packs of 150-mg and 300-mg tablets are schedule 2 pharmacy medicines. Larger doses and pack sizes still require a prescription.. Outside the United States and Canada, ranitidine is combined with bismuth (which acts as a mild antibiotic) as a citrate salt (ranitidine bismuth citrate, Tritec), to treat Helicobacter pylori infections. This combination is usually given with clarithromycin, an antibiotic.. Ranitidine can also be coadministered with NSAIDs to reduce the risk of ulceration. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are more effective for the prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers.. Ranitidine can be administered preoperatively to reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia. The drug not ...
ketotifen - meddic
Ketotifen relieves and prevents eye itchiness and/or irritation associated with most seasonal allergies. It starts working within minutes after administering the drops. The drug has not been studied in children under three. The mean elimination half life is 12 hours. Besides its anti-histaminic activity, it is also a functional leukotriene antagonist and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.. The drug may also help relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.. ...
- The volume of acid secretion is measured following administration of betazole, diagnosis being secretion greater than 60% of the maximal acid secretion following betazole stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, no change in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure occurred in patients after stimulation with subcutaneous betazole (1·5 mg/kg). (bmj.com)
- To validate this hypothesis, we gave magnesium to two groups of young adult volunteers following either betazole stimulation or cimetidine inhibition of acid secretion. (elsevier.com)
- We conclude that H2-receptor antagonists inhibit betazole stimulation of intrinsic factor output in addition to their well-known inhibition of acid secretion. (cafenun.info)
- The drug also decreases the gastric acid response to stimuli such as food, caffeine, insulin, betazole, or pentagastrin. (hmdb.ca)
- It appears that basal-, nocturnal-, and betazole-stimulated secretions are most sensitive to inhibition by Zantac, responding almost completely to doses of 100 mg or less, while pentagastrin- and food‑stimulated secretions are more difficult to suppress. (captcenter.org)
- Cimetidine also decreases the amount of gastric acid released in response to other stimuli including food, caffeine, insulin, betazole, or pentagastrin. (empowerpharmacy.com)
- It reduces basal and nocturnal gastric acid secretion and a reduction in gastric volume, acidity, and amount of gastric acid released in response to stimuli including food, caffeine, insulin, betazole, or pentagastrin. (pharmacycode.com)
Histamine H2 receptor agon2
- In group I we gave subcutaneous betazole and gave magnesium in doses from 10 to 200 mg. (elsevier.com)
- This competitive inhibition results in reduced basal and nocturnal gastric acid secretion and a reduction in gastric volume, acidity, and amount of gastric acid released in response to stimuli including food, caffeine , insulin, betazole, or pentagastrin. (rx24drugs.com)
- Betazole is used as a stimulant in preference to histamine because of its specificity for the H2 receptor and its advantage of not generating the undesirable side effects that histamine would induce. (wikipedia.org)
- In group II we gave oral betazole and used a constant dose of 150 mg of magnesium. (elsevier.com)