A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.
The L-Isomer of bunolol.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.

Modulation of dialysate levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin (5-HT) in the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats by (-)-pindolol alone and in association with 5-HT reuptake inhibitors: comparative roles of beta-adrenergic, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT1B receptors. (1/69)

(-)-Pindolol, which possesses significant affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and beta 1/2-adrenergic receptors (AR)s, dose-dependently increased extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NAD) versus 5-HT, in dialysates of the frontal cortex (FCX), but not accumbens and striatum, of freely-moving rats. In distinction, the preferential beta 1-AR antagonist, betaxolol, and the preferential beta 2-AR antagonist, ICI118,551, did not increase basal levels of DA, NAD, or 5-HT. Further, they both dose-dependently and markedly blunted the influence of (-)-pindolol upon DA and NAD levels. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100,635, slightly attenuated the (-)-pindolol-induced increase in DA and NAD levels, while the selective 5-HT1B antagonist, SB224,289, was ineffective. These data suggest that (-)-pindolol facilitates frontocortical dopaminergic (and adrenergic) transmission primarily by activation of beta 1/2-ARs and, to a lesser degree, by stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors, whereas 5-HT1B receptors are not involved. (-)-Pindolol potentiated the increase in FCX levels of 5-HT elicited by the 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, fluoxetine and duloxetine, and also enhanced their ability to elevate FCX levels of DA--though not of NAD. In contrast to (-)-pindolol, betaxolol and ICI118,551 did not affect the actions of fluoxetine, whereas both WAY100,635 and SB224,289 potentiated the increase in levels of 5-HT--but not DA or NAD levels--elicited by fluoxetine. In conclusion, (-)-pindolol modulates, both alone and together with 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic transmission in the FCX via a complex pattern of actions at beta 1/2-ARs, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT1B receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical studies of the influence of (-)-pindolol upon the actions of antidepressant agents.  (+info)

Constitutively active mutants of the beta1-adrenergic receptor. (2/69)

We provide the first evidence that point mutations can constitutively activate the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR). Leucine 322 of the beta(1)-AR in the C-terminal portion of its third intracellular loop was replaced with seven amino acids (I, T, E, F, C, A and K) differing in their physico-chemical properties. The beta(1)-AR mutants expressed in HEK-293 cells displayed various levels of constitutive activity which could be partially inhibited by some beta-blockers. The results of this study might have interesting implications for future studies aiming at elucidating the activation process of the beta(1)-AR as well as the mechanism of action of beta-blockers.  (+info)

Effects of betaxolol on light responses and membrane conductance in retinal ganglion cells. (3/69)

PURPOSE: To examine the physiological effects of betaxolol, a beta1-adrenergic receptor blocker commonly used in the treatment of glaucoma, on retinal ganglion cells and to evaluate its potential to elicit responses consistent with a neuroprotective agent against ganglion cell degeneration. METHODS: Single-unit extracellular recording, electroretinogram (ERG), intracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques were made from flatmounted, isolated retina, superfused eyecup, and living retinal slice preparations of the larval tiger salamander. RESULTS: Bath application of 20 microM betaxolol reduced the glutamate-induced increase of spontaneous spike rate in retinal ganglion cell by approximately 30%. The glutamate-induced postsynaptic current recorded under voltage-clamp conditions was reduced by 50 microM betaxolol, and the difference current-voltage (I-V) relation (I(Control)-I(betaxolol)) was N-shaped and AP5-sensitive, characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated current. Application of 50 microM betaxolol reversibly reduced the voltage-gated sodium and calcium currents by approximately one third of their peak amplitudes. The times-to-action of betaxolol on ganglion cells are long (15-35 minutes for 20-50 microM betaxolol), indicative of modulation through slow biochemical cascades. Betaxolol, up to 100 microM, exerted no effects on horizontal cells or the ERG, suggesting that the primary actions of this beta1 blocker are restricted to retinal ganglion cells. CONCLUSIONS: These physiological experiments provide supporting evidence that betaxolol acts in a manner consistent with preventing retinal ganglion cell death induced by elevated extracellular glutamate or by increased spontaneous spike rates under pathologic conditions. The physiological actions of betaxolol lead to reducing neurotoxic effects in ganglion cells, which are the most susceptible retinal neurons to glutamate-induced damages under ischemic and glaucomatous conditions. Therefore, betaxolol has the potential to be a neuroprotective agent against retinal degeneration in patients with disorders mediated by such mechanisms.  (+info)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. (4/69)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of glaucoma, is known to be neuroprotective in paradigms of ischaemia/excitotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether betaxolol and other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists interact directly with neurotoxin binding to sites 1 and 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Na(+) channel) in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Betaxolol inhibited specific [(3)H]-batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate ([(3)H]-BTX-B) binding to neurotoxin site 2 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 9.8 microM. Comparison of all the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists tested revealed a potency order of propranolol>betaxolol approximately levobetaxolol>levobunolol approximately carteolol>/=timolol>atenolol. None of the drugs caused a significant inhibition of [(3)H]-saxitoxin binding to neurotoxin receptor site 1, even at concentrations as high as 250 microM. Saturation experiments showed that betaxolol increased the K(D) of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding but had no effect on the B(max). The association kinetics of [(3)H]-BTX-B were unaffected by betaxolol, but the drug significantly accelerated the dissociation rate of the radioligand. These findings argue for a competitive, indirect, allosteric mode of inhibition of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding by betaxolol. Betaxolol inhibited veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx in rat cortical synaptosomes with an IC(50) value of 28. 3 microM. Carteolol, levobunolol, timolol and atenolol were significantly less effective than betaxolol at reducing veratridine-evoked Na(+) influx. The ability of betaxolol to interact with neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel and inhibit Na(+) influx may have a role in its neuroprotective action in paradigms of excitotoxicity/ischaemia and in its therapeutic effect in glaucoma.  (+info)

Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. (5/69)

AIMS: To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. METHODS: 141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis, performed using analysis of variance and the chi(2) test. RESULTS: Latanoprost had the greatest mean IOP lowering effect in both the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (p = 0.005) and the "presumed" normal tension glaucoma (NTG) groups (p = 0.33), reducing the IOP by 8.9 mm Hg and 4.1 mm Hg respectively. Timolol was associated with lowered pulse rates and reductions in the spirometry measurements. 41% of patients using brimonidine complained of systemic side effects and over 55% of patients using betaxolol complained of ocular irritation. 28% of patients required an alteration in their glaucoma management. CONCLUSIONS: Latanoprost appears to be a useful primary treatment for glaucoma patients, in view of superior IOP control and a low incidence of local and systemic side effects. Timolol causes a reduction in measurements of respiratory function, a concern in view of the potential subclinical reversible airways disease in the elderly glaucoma population. Brimonidine is associated with substantial, unpredictable systemic side effects and betaxolol causes ocular irritation and weak IOP control. Spirometry is advised in all patients receiving topical beta blocker therapy to control their glaucoma.  (+info)

Ligand regulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged forms of the human beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors; comparisons with the unmodified receptors. (6/69)

Stable clones of HEK293 cells expressing either FLAG(TM) epitope-tagged, wild type human beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors or C-terminally green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged forms of these receptors were established. The binding affinity of [(3)H]-dihydroalprenolol and other ligands was little affected by addition of GFP to the C-terminal of either receptor. Isoprenaline induced the internalisation of both beta(1)-adrenoceptor-GFP and beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP and following removal of the agonist both constructs were able to recycle to the cell surface. The extent of internalisation of beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP produced by isoprenaline was substantially greater than for beta(1)-adrenoceptor-GFP. C-terminal addition of GFP slowed markedly the rate of internalization of both the beta(1)-adrenoceptor and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor in response to isoprenaline. Sustained exposure to isoprenaline (24 h) produced substantially greater levels of downregulation of native beta(2)-adrenoceptor compared to beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP although both were equally effectively removed from the plasma membrane. Sustained exposure to isoprenaline resulted in a large fraction of beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP becoming trapped in internal vesicles/lysosomes but not degraded. Even after sustained exposure to isoprenaline a significant fraction of beta(1)-adrenoceptor-GFP remained at the cell surface. These results indicate that although GFP tagging of beta-adrenoceptors can provide qualitative visual patterns of agonist-induced receptor trafficking and regulation in HEK293 cells the quantitative details vary markedly from those obtained with the unmodified receptors.  (+info)

Topical ophthalmic beta blockers may cause release of histamine through cytotoxic effects on inflammatory cells. (7/69)

AIM: To evaluate the effects of beta blockers used in ophthalmology on the release of histamine from mixed cell preparations containing human leucocytes and basophils. METHODS: A mixed leucocyte and basophil preparation was obtained from venous blood of healthy non-atopic volunteers. Cell preparations were then incubated with betaxolol, metipranolol, timolol, or carteolol. After incubation for 1 hour the histamine content of the supernatant was analysed by automated fluorometric analysis. Cell viability was tested by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations. RESULTS: Betaxolol and metipranolol in concentrations between 10(-2) M and 10(-3) M liberated histamine from human blood cells in a dose dependent manner. Carteolol and timolol had no effect on histamine at these concentrations. At the same concentrations LDH was also detected in the supernatants of cell suspensions incubated with metipranolol or betaxolol. CONCLUSIONS: Betaxolol and metipranolol induce substantial histamine release from human leucocytes, probably as a result of their cytotoxic effect.  (+info)

Detection of receptor ligands by monitoring selective stabilization of a Renilla luciferase-tagged, constitutively active mutant, G-protein-coupled receptor. (8/69)

The wild-type beta2-adrenoceptor and a constitutively active mutant of this receptor were C-terminally tagged with luciferase from the sea pansy Renilla reniformis. C-terminal addition of Renilla luciferase did not substantially alter the levels of expression of either form of the receptor, the elevated constitutive activity of the mutant beta2-adrenoceptor nor the capacity of isoprenaline to elevate cyclic AMP levels in intact cells expressing these constructs. Treatment of cells expressing constitutively active mutant beta2-adrenoceptor-Renilla luciferase with antagonist/inverse agonist ligands resulted in upregulation of levels of this polypeptide which could be monitored by the elevated luciferase activity. The pEC50 for ligand-induced luciferase upregulation and ligand affinity to bind the receptor were highly correlated. Similar upregulation could be observed following sustained treatment with agonist ligands. These effects were only observed at a constitutively active mutant of the beta2-adrenoceptor. Co-expression of the wild-type beta2-adrenoceptor C-terminally tagged with the luciferase from Photinus pyralis did not result in ligand-induced upregulation of the levels of activity of this luciferase. Co-expression of the constitutively active mutant beta2-adrenoceptor-Renilla luciferase and an equivalent mutant of the alpha1b-adrenoceptor C-terminally tagged with green fluorescent protein allowed pharmacological selectivity of adrenoceptor antagonists to be demonstrated. This approach offers a sensitive and convenient means, which is amenable to high throughput analysis, to monitor ligand binding to a constitutively active mutant receptor. As no prior knowledge of receptor ligands is required this approach may be suitable to identify ligands at orphan G protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

Betaxolol is a selective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker, which is primarily used in the treatment of glaucoma. It works by reducing the production of aqueous humor inside the eye, thereby decreasing the intraocular pressure (IOP). This can help prevent optic nerve damage and vision loss associated with glaucoma.

Betaxolol ophthalmic solution is usually administered as eyedrops, one or two times per day. Common side effects of betaxolol may include stinging or burning in the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and a bitter taste in the mouth. Serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, slow heart rate, and difficulty breathing.

It is important to note that betaxolol should not be used by people with certain medical conditions, such as severe heart block, uncontrolled heart failure, or asthma. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are taking before starting treatment with betaxolol.

Levobunolol is a non-selective beta blocker used in the treatment of glaucoma and high blood pressure. It works by reducing the production of aqueous humor within the eye, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP). Levobunolol is available as an ophthalmic solution for topical application.

The medical definition of Levobunolol is:

A synthetic, non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with membrane-stabilizing activity and a vasodilating effect. It is used in the form of its hydrochloride salt as an ophthalmic solution for the treatment of glaucoma, reducing intraocular pressure by decreasing aqueous humor production. The drug has a prolonged action due to its poor solubility and slow absorption through the cornea.

Carteolol is a beta-blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances in the body, such as adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce heart rate, lower blood pressure, and increase the amount of fluid that drains from the eye, which can help to lower intraocular pressure in people with glaucoma.

Like other beta-blockers, carteolol may cause side effects such as dizziness, fatigue, and cold hands or feet. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking before starting carteolol. Your doctor will also need to monitor your heart function regularly while you are taking this medication, especially if you have a history of heart disease or other medical conditions.

Timolol is a non-selective beta blocker drug that is primarily used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) on the heart and blood vessels, which helps to lower heart rate, reduce the force of heart muscle contraction, and decrease blood vessel constriction. These effects can help to lower blood pressure, reduce the workload on the heart, and improve oxygen supply to the heart muscle. In glaucoma treatment, timolol reduces the production of aqueous humor in the eye, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure.

The medical definition of Timolol is:

Timolol (tim-oh-lol) is a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of epinephrine on the heart and blood vessels, which results in decreased heart rate, reduced force of heart muscle contraction, and decreased blood vessel constriction. In glaucoma treatment, timolol reduces aqueous humor production, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure. Timolol is available as an oral tablet, solution for injection, and ophthalmic solution.

Adrenergic beta-antagonists, also known as beta blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) on beta-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and blood vessels.

Beta blockers work by binding to these receptors and preventing the activation of certain signaling pathways that lead to increased heart rate, force of heart contractions, and relaxation of blood vessels. As a result, beta blockers can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate, and decrease the workload on the heart.

Beta blockers are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), heart failure, irregular heart rhythms, migraines, and certain anxiety disorders. Some common examples of beta blockers include metoprolol, atenolol, propranolol, and bisoprolol.

It is important to note that while beta blockers can have many benefits, they can also cause side effects such as fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Additionally, sudden discontinuation of beta blocker therapy can lead to rebound hypertension or worsening chest pain. Therefore, it is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a healthcare provider carefully when taking these medications.

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), mitochondrial isoform, is an enzyme found primarily in the mitochondria of cells. It is involved in the transfer of an amino group from aspartic acid to alpha-ketoglutarate, resulting in the formation of oxaloacetate and glutamate. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the cellular energy production process, particularly within the mitochondria.

Elevated levels of AST, mitochondrial isoform, can be found in various medical conditions, including liver disease, muscle damage, and heart injury. However, it's important to note that most clinical laboratories measure a combined level of both cytosolic and mitochondrial AST isoforms when testing for this enzyme. Therefore, the specific contribution of the mitochondrial isoform may not be easily discernible in routine medical tests.

Propanolamines are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that contain a propan-2-olamine functional group, which is a secondary amine formed by the replacement of one hydrogen atom in an ammonia molecule with a propan-2-ol group. They are commonly used as decongestants and bronchodilators in medical treatments.

Examples of propanolamines include:

* Phenylephrine: a decongestant used to relieve nasal congestion.
* Pseudoephedrine: a decongestant and stimulant used to treat nasal congestion and sinus pressure.
* Ephedrine: a bronchodilator, decongestant, and stimulant used to treat asthma, nasal congestion, and low blood pressure.

It is important to note that propanolamines can have side effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and insomnia, so they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Atenolol is a beta-blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of heart rhythm disorders. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones in the body, such as adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce the heart's workload, lower its rate and force of contractions, and improve blood flow.

Beta-blockers like atenolol are also sometimes used to prevent migraines or to treat symptoms of anxiety, such as rapid heartbeat or tremors. Atenolol is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally once or twice a day. As with any medication, atenolol can have side effects, including dizziness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and it may interact with other medications or medical conditions. It is important to use atenolol only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Sodium radioisotopes are unstable forms of sodium, an element naturally occurring in the human body, that emit radiation as they decay over time. These isotopes can be used for medical purposes such as imaging and treatment of various diseases. Commonly used sodium radioisotopes include Sodium-22 (^22Na) and Sodium-24 (^24Na).

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine should be under the supervision of trained medical professionals, as improper handling or exposure can pose health risks.

Adrenergic beta-1 receptor antagonists, also known as beta blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) on beta-1 receptors. These receptors are found primarily in the heart and kidneys, where they mediate various physiological responses such as increased heart rate, contractility, and conduction velocity, as well as renin release from the kidneys.

By blocking the action of adrenaline and noradrenaline on these receptors, beta blockers can help to reduce heart rate, lower blood pressure, decrease the force of heart contractions, and improve symptoms of angina (chest pain). They are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, and certain types of tremors. Examples of beta blockers include metoprolol, atenolol, and propranolol.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure within the eye, specifically within the anterior chamber, which is the space between the cornea and the iris. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The aqueous humor, a clear fluid that fills the anterior chamber, is constantly produced and drained, maintaining a balance that determines the IOP. Normal IOP ranges from 10-21 mmHg, with average values around 15-16 mmHg. Elevated IOP is a key risk factor for glaucoma, a group of eye conditions that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss if not treated promptly and effectively. Regular monitoring of IOP is essential in diagnosing and managing glaucoma and other ocular health issues.

Aqueous humor is a clear, watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It is produced by the ciliary processes in the posterior chamber and circulates through the pupil into the anterior chamber, where it provides nutrients to the cornea and lens, maintains intraocular pressure, and helps to shape the eye. The aqueous humor then drains out of the eye through the trabecular meshwork and into the canal of Schlemm, eventually reaching the venous system.

Metoprolol is a type of medication known as a beta blocker. According to the US National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus, metoprolol is used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and heart conditions that may occur after a heart attack. It works by blocking the action of certain natural chemicals in your body, such as epinephrine, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce the heart's workload, lower its blood pressure, and regulate its rhythm.

Metoprolol is available under various brand names, including Lopressor and Toprol-XL. It can be taken orally as a tablet or an extended-release capsule. As with any medication, metoprolol should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects.

It is important to note that this definition is intended to provide a general overview of the medical use of metoprolol and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice.

... also shows greater affinity for beta1 receptors than metoprolol. In addition to its effect on the heart, betaxolol ... Ophthalmic betaxolol is an available treatment for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and optical hypertension. Betaxolol ... "Betaxolol: MedlinePlus Drug Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2023-01-12. Tajran J, Goyal A (2022). "Betaxolol". ... Betaxolol is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. Being selective for beta1 ...
Betaxolol Cocco, G; Alfiero, R; Pouleur, H (1992). "An evaluation of the safety of the beta-modulator cicloprolol in chronic ...
Timolol, Levobunolol, and Betaxolol are common beta blockers prescribed to treat glaucoma. Alpha-adrenergic agonists work by ...
... has a higher degree of β1-selectivity compared to atenolol, metoprolol and betaxolol. With a selectivity ranging ...
The second example involves eye-specific delivery of betaxoxime, the oxime derivative of betaxolol. The administered, inactive ... for the brain-targeted delivery of estradiol and betaxoxime for the eye-targeted delivery of betaxolol In the first example ...
Langer discovered and developed five compounds : diltiazem, a calcium antagonist (for coronary insufficiency); betaxolol, a ...
Furthermore, one study conducted in January 1988 found that even through chronic administration of betaxolol (1 mg kg-1 daily, ... Palmina, Petruzzo (1988-01-01). "The beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, betaxolol, is not released from the heart of the ...
Satoh E, Narimatsu A, Hosohata Y, Tsuchihashi H, Nagatomo T (February 1993). "The affinity of betaxolol, a beta 1-adrenoceptor- ...
These include: Topical beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, such as timolol, levobunolol, and betaxolol, decrease aqueous ...
Acebutolol (has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, ISA) Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Celiprolol (has intrinsic ... sustained-release metoprolol Agents specifically labeled for glaucoma Betaxolol, carteolol, levobunolol, timolol, metipranolol ...
30 Betaxolol Acebutelol Esmolol Atenolol Metoprolol LMNOP Lasix Morphine Nitrites Oxygen VassoPressors FAILUREp. 30 Forgot ...
... betaxolol, bisoprolol, atenolol and others) have shown a larger antihypertensive effect. This approach also enables separate ...
... combinations S01ED52 Betaxolol, combinations S01ED54 Metipranolol, combinations S01ED55 Carteolol, combinations S01EE01 ... combinations S01ED01 Timolol S01ED02 Betaxolol S01ED03 Levobunolol S01ED04 Metipranolol S01ED05 Carteolol S01ED06 Befunolol ...
Adaprolol Adimolol Afurolol Alprenolol Alprenoxime Amosulalol Ancarolol Arnolol Arotinolol Atenolol Befunolol Betaxolol ...
... include: Acebutolol Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Metoprolol Nadolol Penbutolol Phenylpropanolamine Pindolol ...
Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Celiprolol Esmolol Metoprolol Nebivolol β2-selective agents Butaxamine (weak α-adrenergic agonist ...
... betaxolol MeSH D02.033.100.624.111 - bisoprolol MeSH D02.033.100.624.160 - bupranolol MeSH D02.033.100.624.210 - carteolol MeSH ... betaxolol MeSH D02.033.755.624.111 - bisoprolol MeSH D02.033.755.624.160 - bupranolol MeSH D02.033.755.624.210 - carteolol MeSH ... betaxolol MeSH D02.092.063.624.698.085 - bisoprolol MeSH D02.092.063.624.698.146 - bupranolol MeSH D02.092.063.624.698.207 - ...
Nebivilol Atenolol Oxprenolol Metoprolol Timolol Pindolol Nadolol Pindolol Esmolol Acebutolol Sotalol Talinolol Betaxolol ...
Cloranolol QC07AA90 Carazolol C07AB01 Practolol C07AB02 Metoprolol C07AB03 Atenolol C07AB04 Acebutolol C07AB05 Betaxolol ...
Betatar Betatrex Betaxin Betaxolol (INN) Betaxon Betazole (INN) Bethanechol (INN) Betiatide (INN) Betimol Betnesol Betnovate ...
Betaxolol (in hypertension and glaucoma) Bisoprolol (in hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, myocardial ...
The molecular formula C18H29NO3 (molar mass: 307.43 g/mol, exact mass: 307.2147 u) may refer to: Betaxolol Butamirate ...
Beta blockers acebutolol atenolol bisoprolol betaxolol carteolol carvedilol labetalol metoprolol nadolol nebivolol oxprenolol ...
Betaxolol also shows greater affinity for beta1 receptors than metoprolol. In addition to its effect on the heart, betaxolol ... Ophthalmic betaxolol is an available treatment for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and optical hypertension. Betaxolol ... "Betaxolol: MedlinePlus Drug Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2023-01-12. Tajran J, Goyal A (2022). "Betaxolol". ... Betaxolol is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. Being selective for beta1 ...
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  • Betoptic (Betaxolol) belongs to a class of drugs known as beta blockers. (bigmountaindrugs.com)
  • Betaxolol (BETOPTIC, BETOPTIC S), levobunolol (BETAGAN) and timolol (TIMOPTIC) belong to the beta-blocker family of drugs. (worstpills.org)
  • Is Betaxolol eye drops better than Timolol? (yourdoctors.online)
  • When used as oral tablets, both betaxolol and timolol can be used to treat heart disease. (worstpills.org)
  • Levobunolol and timolol can decrease lung function by 30 percent, an adverse effect not seen as much with use of betaxolol. (worstpills.org)
  • Forty eyes in 20 patients with elevated intraocular pressure were treated with either a 0.125% betaxolol ophthalmic solution or a placebo. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Hypersensitivity to the drug Patients with sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, and overt cardiac failure The adverse side-effects of betaxolol can be categorized into local and systemic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium acetate decreases effects of betaxolol by unspecified interaction mechanism. (medscape.com)
  • Ophthalmic betaxolol is an available treatment for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and optical hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ophthalmic betaxolol is used to treat glaucoma, a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can lead to gradual loss of vision. (safemedication.com)
  • Betaxolol eye drops control glaucoma but do not cure it. (safemedication.com)
  • You can get a Betaxolol online prescription refilled to treat open-angle glaucoma, post-myocardial infarction, essential hypertension and chronic stable angina. (yourdoctors.online)
  • Betaxolol is a safe and clinically effective treatment for open-angle glaucoma. (yourdoctors.online)
  • In addition to its effect on the heart, betaxolol reduces the pressure within the eye (intraocular pressure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaxolol effectively prevents the increase of intracellular calcium, which leads to increased production of the aqueous humor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precise mechanism by which betaxolol decreases IOP is believed to be through reduction of aqueous formation. (medscape.com)
  • Inderal Or Betaxolol? (dinet.org)
  • has anyone had more success with betaxolol than with inderal? (dinet.org)
  • and notice alot of you are on betaxolol, and do not see alot on inderal. (dinet.org)
  • I was on Inderal for 7 months, and while beta-blockers have always tended to help some of my symptoms, my new cardio switched me to betaxolol in March to help stabilize my BP and HR. Inderal works well for a little bit, but then drops off, and when it's time to take a new pill, things can get pretty erratic. (dinet.org)
  • but my weight's been pretty stable since I started either the Inderal or the betaxolol. (dinet.org)
  • To decrease the risk of bronchospasm, the clinician may consider administering the cardioselective β-blocker betaxolol. (aao.org)
  • Betaxolol is most commonly ingested orally alone or with other medications for the management of essential hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaxolol is used alone or with other medications to control high blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, betaxolol is additionally able to protect retinal neurones following topical application from excitotoxicity or ischemia-reperfusion, providing a neuroprotective effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • you should know that betaxolol may increase the risk of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and prevent the warning signs and symptoms that would tell you that your blood sugar is low. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaxolol is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you suddenly stop taking betaxolol, you may experience serious heart problems such as angina (chest pain), heart attack, or an irregular heartbeat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaxolol exerts its therapeutic effect by blocking the action of certain stress hormones, like adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels, which results in a slower heart rate and reduced force of contraction, thus decreasing blood pressure. (yourdoctors.online)
  • if you are using another topical eye medication, instill it at least 10 minutes before you instill betaxolol. (safemedication.com)
  • However, please note that the Betaxolol medication will only be refilled online after consultation with the doctor and if the treatment is suitable and safe for you. (yourdoctors.online)
  • Betaxolol is a medication belonging to the class of drugs known as beta-blockers. (yourdoctors.online)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to betaxolol, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in betaxolol tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After 2, 4, and 6 weeks of twice-daily therapy, the eyes receiving the betaxolol had a mean percent reduction in IOP greater than that in the eyes treated only with the drug vehicle (placebo). (jamanetwork.com)
  • Your search - betaxolol - did not match any resources. (muni.cz)
  • Betaxolol also shows greater affinity for beta1 receptors than metoprolol. (wikipedia.org)
  • if you are having surgery, including dental or eye surgery, tell your doctor, dentist, or eye doctor that you are taking betaxolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • you should know that if you have allergic reactions to different substances, your reactions may be worse while you are taking betaxolol, and your allergic reactions may not respond to the usual doses of injectable epinephrine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while taking betaxolol, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ophthalmic betaxolol comes as a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid) to instill in the eyes. (safemedication.com)
  • Betaxolol is not typically available over the counter and requires a prescription due to its potential impact on heart function. (yourdoctors.online)
  • Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of betaxolol and may increase your dose after 1-2 weeks if your blood pressure is not controlled. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not stop taking betaxolol without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take while taking betaxolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may tell you not to take betaxolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Let your doctor know if you are unable to eat or drink normally or are vomiting while you are taking betaxolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lorex and Synthelabo launched three EMA and FDA-approved products (betaxolol, zolpidem, and alfuzosin). (itbusinessnet.com)
  • Betaxolol can result in decreased blood flow to the brain or hands, particularly in patients with vascular disease. (worstpills.org)
  • Betaxolol controls high blood pressure but does not cure it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaxolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • So now I'm on a low-dose betaxolol that keeps my BP from spiking all over the place while I continue the ProAmatine. (dinet.org)

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