Modulation of dialysate levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin (5-HT) in the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats by (-)-pindolol alone and in association with 5-HT reuptake inhibitors: comparative roles of beta-adrenergic, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT1B receptors. (1/69)

(-)-Pindolol, which possesses significant affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and beta 1/2-adrenergic receptors (AR)s, dose-dependently increased extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NAD) versus 5-HT, in dialysates of the frontal cortex (FCX), but not accumbens and striatum, of freely-moving rats. In distinction, the preferential beta 1-AR antagonist, betaxolol, and the preferential beta 2-AR antagonist, ICI118,551, did not increase basal levels of DA, NAD, or 5-HT. Further, they both dose-dependently and markedly blunted the influence of (-)-pindolol upon DA and NAD levels. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100,635, slightly attenuated the (-)-pindolol-induced increase in DA and NAD levels, while the selective 5-HT1B antagonist, SB224,289, was ineffective. These data suggest that (-)-pindolol facilitates frontocortical dopaminergic (and adrenergic) transmission primarily by activation of beta 1/2-ARs and, to a lesser degree, by stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors, whereas 5-HT1B receptors are not involved. (-)-Pindolol potentiated the increase in FCX levels of 5-HT elicited by the 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, fluoxetine and duloxetine, and also enhanced their ability to elevate FCX levels of DA--though not of NAD. In contrast to (-)-pindolol, betaxolol and ICI118,551 did not affect the actions of fluoxetine, whereas both WAY100,635 and SB224,289 potentiated the increase in levels of 5-HT--but not DA or NAD levels--elicited by fluoxetine. In conclusion, (-)-pindolol modulates, both alone and together with 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic transmission in the FCX via a complex pattern of actions at beta 1/2-ARs, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT1B receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical studies of the influence of (-)-pindolol upon the actions of antidepressant agents.  (+info)

Constitutively active mutants of the beta1-adrenergic receptor. (2/69)

We provide the first evidence that point mutations can constitutively activate the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR). Leucine 322 of the beta(1)-AR in the C-terminal portion of its third intracellular loop was replaced with seven amino acids (I, T, E, F, C, A and K) differing in their physico-chemical properties. The beta(1)-AR mutants expressed in HEK-293 cells displayed various levels of constitutive activity which could be partially inhibited by some beta-blockers. The results of this study might have interesting implications for future studies aiming at elucidating the activation process of the beta(1)-AR as well as the mechanism of action of beta-blockers.  (+info)

Effects of betaxolol on light responses and membrane conductance in retinal ganglion cells. (3/69)

PURPOSE: To examine the physiological effects of betaxolol, a beta1-adrenergic receptor blocker commonly used in the treatment of glaucoma, on retinal ganglion cells and to evaluate its potential to elicit responses consistent with a neuroprotective agent against ganglion cell degeneration. METHODS: Single-unit extracellular recording, electroretinogram (ERG), intracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques were made from flatmounted, isolated retina, superfused eyecup, and living retinal slice preparations of the larval tiger salamander. RESULTS: Bath application of 20 microM betaxolol reduced the glutamate-induced increase of spontaneous spike rate in retinal ganglion cell by approximately 30%. The glutamate-induced postsynaptic current recorded under voltage-clamp conditions was reduced by 50 microM betaxolol, and the difference current-voltage (I-V) relation (I(Control)-I(betaxolol)) was N-shaped and AP5-sensitive, characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated current. Application of 50 microM betaxolol reversibly reduced the voltage-gated sodium and calcium currents by approximately one third of their peak amplitudes. The times-to-action of betaxolol on ganglion cells are long (15-35 minutes for 20-50 microM betaxolol), indicative of modulation through slow biochemical cascades. Betaxolol, up to 100 microM, exerted no effects on horizontal cells or the ERG, suggesting that the primary actions of this beta1 blocker are restricted to retinal ganglion cells. CONCLUSIONS: These physiological experiments provide supporting evidence that betaxolol acts in a manner consistent with preventing retinal ganglion cell death induced by elevated extracellular glutamate or by increased spontaneous spike rates under pathologic conditions. The physiological actions of betaxolol lead to reducing neurotoxic effects in ganglion cells, which are the most susceptible retinal neurons to glutamate-induced damages under ischemic and glaucomatous conditions. Therefore, betaxolol has the potential to be a neuroprotective agent against retinal degeneration in patients with disorders mediated by such mechanisms.  (+info)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. (4/69)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of glaucoma, is known to be neuroprotective in paradigms of ischaemia/excitotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether betaxolol and other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists interact directly with neurotoxin binding to sites 1 and 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Na(+) channel) in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Betaxolol inhibited specific [(3)H]-batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate ([(3)H]-BTX-B) binding to neurotoxin site 2 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 9.8 microM. Comparison of all the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists tested revealed a potency order of propranolol>betaxolol approximately levobetaxolol>levobunolol approximately carteolol>/=timolol>atenolol. None of the drugs caused a significant inhibition of [(3)H]-saxitoxin binding to neurotoxin receptor site 1, even at concentrations as high as 250 microM. Saturation experiments showed that betaxolol increased the K(D) of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding but had no effect on the B(max). The association kinetics of [(3)H]-BTX-B were unaffected by betaxolol, but the drug significantly accelerated the dissociation rate of the radioligand. These findings argue for a competitive, indirect, allosteric mode of inhibition of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding by betaxolol. Betaxolol inhibited veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx in rat cortical synaptosomes with an IC(50) value of 28. 3 microM. Carteolol, levobunolol, timolol and atenolol were significantly less effective than betaxolol at reducing veratridine-evoked Na(+) influx. The ability of betaxolol to interact with neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel and inhibit Na(+) influx may have a role in its neuroprotective action in paradigms of excitotoxicity/ischaemia and in its therapeutic effect in glaucoma.  (+info)

Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. (5/69)

AIMS: To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. METHODS: 141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for analysis, performed using analysis of variance and the chi(2) test. RESULTS: Latanoprost had the greatest mean IOP lowering effect in both the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (p = 0.005) and the "presumed" normal tension glaucoma (NTG) groups (p = 0.33), reducing the IOP by 8.9 mm Hg and 4.1 mm Hg respectively. Timolol was associated with lowered pulse rates and reductions in the spirometry measurements. 41% of patients using brimonidine complained of systemic side effects and over 55% of patients using betaxolol complained of ocular irritation. 28% of patients required an alteration in their glaucoma management. CONCLUSIONS: Latanoprost appears to be a useful primary treatment for glaucoma patients, in view of superior IOP control and a low incidence of local and systemic side effects. Timolol causes a reduction in measurements of respiratory function, a concern in view of the potential subclinical reversible airways disease in the elderly glaucoma population. Brimonidine is associated with substantial, unpredictable systemic side effects and betaxolol causes ocular irritation and weak IOP control. Spirometry is advised in all patients receiving topical beta blocker therapy to control their glaucoma.  (+info)

Ligand regulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged forms of the human beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors; comparisons with the unmodified receptors. (6/69)

Stable clones of HEK293 cells expressing either FLAG(TM) epitope-tagged, wild type human beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptors or C-terminally green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged forms of these receptors were established. The binding affinity of [(3)H]-dihydroalprenolol and other ligands was little affected by addition of GFP to the C-terminal of either receptor. Isoprenaline induced the internalisation of both beta(1)-adrenoceptor-GFP and beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP and following removal of the agonist both constructs were able to recycle to the cell surface. The extent of internalisation of beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP produced by isoprenaline was substantially greater than for beta(1)-adrenoceptor-GFP. C-terminal addition of GFP slowed markedly the rate of internalization of both the beta(1)-adrenoceptor and the beta(2)-adrenoceptor in response to isoprenaline. Sustained exposure to isoprenaline (24 h) produced substantially greater levels of downregulation of native beta(2)-adrenoceptor compared to beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP although both were equally effectively removed from the plasma membrane. Sustained exposure to isoprenaline resulted in a large fraction of beta(2)-adrenoceptor-GFP becoming trapped in internal vesicles/lysosomes but not degraded. Even after sustained exposure to isoprenaline a significant fraction of beta(1)-adrenoceptor-GFP remained at the cell surface. These results indicate that although GFP tagging of beta-adrenoceptors can provide qualitative visual patterns of agonist-induced receptor trafficking and regulation in HEK293 cells the quantitative details vary markedly from those obtained with the unmodified receptors.  (+info)

Topical ophthalmic beta blockers may cause release of histamine through cytotoxic effects on inflammatory cells. (7/69)

AIM: To evaluate the effects of beta blockers used in ophthalmology on the release of histamine from mixed cell preparations containing human leucocytes and basophils. METHODS: A mixed leucocyte and basophil preparation was obtained from venous blood of healthy non-atopic volunteers. Cell preparations were then incubated with betaxolol, metipranolol, timolol, or carteolol. After incubation for 1 hour the histamine content of the supernatant was analysed by automated fluorometric analysis. Cell viability was tested by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations. RESULTS: Betaxolol and metipranolol in concentrations between 10(-2) M and 10(-3) M liberated histamine from human blood cells in a dose dependent manner. Carteolol and timolol had no effect on histamine at these concentrations. At the same concentrations LDH was also detected in the supernatants of cell suspensions incubated with metipranolol or betaxolol. CONCLUSIONS: Betaxolol and metipranolol induce substantial histamine release from human leucocytes, probably as a result of their cytotoxic effect.  (+info)

Detection of receptor ligands by monitoring selective stabilization of a Renilla luciferase-tagged, constitutively active mutant, G-protein-coupled receptor. (8/69)

The wild-type beta2-adrenoceptor and a constitutively active mutant of this receptor were C-terminally tagged with luciferase from the sea pansy Renilla reniformis. C-terminal addition of Renilla luciferase did not substantially alter the levels of expression of either form of the receptor, the elevated constitutive activity of the mutant beta2-adrenoceptor nor the capacity of isoprenaline to elevate cyclic AMP levels in intact cells expressing these constructs. Treatment of cells expressing constitutively active mutant beta2-adrenoceptor-Renilla luciferase with antagonist/inverse agonist ligands resulted in upregulation of levels of this polypeptide which could be monitored by the elevated luciferase activity. The pEC50 for ligand-induced luciferase upregulation and ligand affinity to bind the receptor were highly correlated. Similar upregulation could be observed following sustained treatment with agonist ligands. These effects were only observed at a constitutively active mutant of the beta2-adrenoceptor. Co-expression of the wild-type beta2-adrenoceptor C-terminally tagged with the luciferase from Photinus pyralis did not result in ligand-induced upregulation of the levels of activity of this luciferase. Co-expression of the constitutively active mutant beta2-adrenoceptor-Renilla luciferase and an equivalent mutant of the alpha1b-adrenoceptor C-terminally tagged with green fluorescent protein allowed pharmacological selectivity of adrenoceptor antagonists to be demonstrated. This approach offers a sensitive and convenient means, which is amenable to high throughput analysis, to monitor ligand binding to a constitutively active mutant receptor. As no prior knowledge of receptor ligands is required this approach may be suitable to identify ligands at orphan G protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

*ATC 코드 S01 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전

S01ED52 Betaxolol, combinations. S01ED54 Metipranolol, combinations. S01ED55 Carteolol, combinations. S01EE 프로스타글란딘 유사체[편집]. ... S01ED02 Betaxolol. S01ED03 Levobunolol. S01ED04 Metipranolol. S01ED05 Carteolol. S01ED06 Befunolol. S01ED51 Timolol, ...

*Cicloprolol

Betaxolol Cocco, G; Alfiero, R; Pouleur, H (1992). "An evaluation of the safety of the beta-modulator cicloprolol in chronic ...

*Ciliary body

Timolol, Levobunolol, and Betaxolol are common beta blockers prescribed to treat glaucoma. Alpha-adrenergic agonists work by ...

*Retrometabolic drug design

The second example involves eye-specific delivery of betaxoxime, the oxime derivative of betaxolol. The administered, inactive ... for the brain-targeted delivery of estradiol and betaxoxime for the eye-targeted delivery of betaxolol In the first example ...

*Glaucoma

Topical beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, such as timolol, levobunolol, and betaxolol, decrease aqueous humor production by ...

*Propanolamine

... s include: Acebutolol Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Metoprolol Nadolol Penbutolol Phenylpropanolamine Pindolol ...

*ATC code S01

... combinations S01ED52 Betaxolol, combinations S01ED54 Metipranolol, combinations S01ED55 Carteolol, combinations S01EE01 ... combinations S01ED01 Timolol S01ED02 Betaxolol S01ED03 Levobunolol S01ED04 Metipranolol S01ED05 Carteolol S01ED06 Befunolol ...

*List of adrenergic drugs

Adaprolol Adimolol Afurolol Alprenolol Alprenoxime Amosulalol Ancarolol Arnolol Arotinolol Atenolol Befunolol Betaxolol ...

*Sympatholytic

Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Celiprolol Esmolol Metoprolol Nebivolol β2-selective agents Butaxamine (weak α-adrenergic agonist ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... betaxolol MeSH D02.092.063.624.698.085 --- bisoprolol MeSH D02.092.063.624.698.146 --- bupranolol MeSH D02.092.063.624.698.207 ... betaxolol MeSH D02.033.100.624.111 --- bisoprolol MeSH D02.033.100.624.160 --- bupranolol MeSH D02.033.100.624.210 --- ... betaxolol MeSH D02.033.755.624.111 --- bisoprolol MeSH D02.033.755.624.160 --- bupranolol MeSH D02.033.755.624.210 --- ...

*Adrenergic antagonist

Nebivilol Atenolol Oxprenolol Metoprolol Timolol Pindolol Nadolol Pindolol Esmolol Acebutolol Sotalol Talinolol Betaxolol ...

*ATC code C07

Cloranolol QC07AA90 Carazolol C07AB01 Practolol C07AB02 Metoprolol C07AB03 Atenolol C07AB04 Acebutolol C07AB05 Betaxolol ...

*List of drugs: Be

Betatar Betatrex Betaxin Betaxolol (INN) Betaxon Betazole (INN) Bethanechol (INN) Betiatide (INN) Betimol Betnesol Betnovate ...

*Beta blocker

Acebutolol (has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, ISA) Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Celiprolol (has intrinsic ... sustained-release metoprolol Agents specifically labeled for glaucoma Betaxolol, carteolol, levobunolol, timolol, metipranolol ...

*Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

Betaxolol (in hypertension and glaucoma) Bisoprolol (in hypertension, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, myocardial ...

*Antihypertensive drug

Beta blockers atenolol bisoprolol betaxolol carteolol carvedilol labetalol metoprolol nadolol nebivolol oxprenolol penbutolol ...

*Betaxolol

... also shows greater affininty for beta1 receptors than metoprolol. In addition to its effect on the heart, betaxolol ... Betaxolol was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ocular use as a 0.5% solution (Betoptic) in 1985 and ... Betaxolol (trade names Betoptic, Betoptic S, Lokren, Kerlone) is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in the treatment of ... "Ocular betaxolol. A review of its pharmacological properties, and therapeutic efficacy in glaucoma and ocular hypertension". ...

*ICI-118,551

... is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist or beta blocker[1][2] . ICI binds to the β2 subtype with at least 100 times greater affinity than β1 or β3, the two other known subtypes of the beta adrenoceptor.[3][4] The compound was developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, which was acquired by AkzoNobel in 2008. ICI-118,551 has no known therapeutic use in humans although it has been used widely in research to understand the action of the β2 adrenergic receptor, as few other specific antagonists for this receptor are known.[5] ICI-118,551 has been used in pre-clinical studies using murine models.[6][7][8] When dissolved in saline, the compound crosses the blood-brain barrier. Common systemic doses used in rodent research are 0.5 or 1 mg/kg although efficacy has been demonstrated at doses as low as 0.0001 mg/kg in rhesus monkeys.[9] Doses up to 20 mg/kg have been used without toxicity. At room temperature in saline, the ICI 118,551 hydrochloride is soluble to ...

*Levobunolol

The most common side effect is eye irritation felt as stinging or burning, which occurs in up to a third of patients. Blepharoconjunctivitis occurs in up to 5% of patients. Rarer adverse effects include keratitis, edema and increased lacrimation.[2][3] Allergies are rare, but seem to be more common than under the related drug timolol.[1] If the substance reaches the nasal mucosa via the tear duct, it can be absorbed into the bloodstream and cause systemic side effects. These include orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure) and other effects on the heart and circulatory system, breathing problems in people with asthma, and skin symptoms such as itching and aggravation of psoriasis.[1] ...

*Capsinolol

InChI=1S/C23H40N2O4/c1-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-23(27)25-15-19-12-13-21(22(14-19)28-4)29-17-20(26)16-24-18(2)3/h12-14,18,20,24,26H,5-11,15-17H2,1-4H3,(H,25,27 ...

*Etoperidone

... was discovered by scientists at Angelini, who also discovered trazodone.[15] Its development names have included ST-1191 and McN-A-2673-11.[16][1] The INN etoperidone was proposed in 1976 and recommended in 1977.[17][18] The drug was given brand names in Spain (Centren (Esteve) and Depraser (Lepori)) and Italy (Staff (Sigma Tau))[1] and was also given the brand names Axiomin and Etonin,[16] but it is not entirely clear if it was actually marketed; the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia provides no dates for commercial introduction.[19] According to Micromedex's Index Nominum: International Drug Directory, etoperidone was indeed previously marketed in Spain and Italy.[1] ...

*Amidephrine

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...

*Idazoxan

... (INN) is a drug which is used in scientific research. It acts as both a selective α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, and an antagonist for the imidazoline receptor.[1][2] Idazoxan has been under investigation as an antidepressant, but it did not reach the market as such. More recently, it is under investigation as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia. Due to its alpha-2 receptor antagonism it is capable of enhancing therapeutic effects of antipsychotics, possibly by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, a brain area thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ...

*Silodosin

Since silodosin has high affinity for the α1A adrenergic receptor, it causes practically no orthostatic hypotension (in contrast to other α1 blockers). On the other side, the high selectivity seems to be the cause of silodosin's typical side effect of loss of seminal emission.[3] As α1A adrenoceptor antagonists are being investigated as a means to male birth control due to their ability to inhibit ejaculation but not orgasm, a trial with 15 male volunteers was conducted. While silodosin was completely efficacious in preventing the release of semen in all subjects, 12 out of the 15 patients reported mild discomfort upon orgasm. The men also reported the psychosexual side effect of being strongly dissatisfied by their lack of ejaculation.[4] ...

*Bromocriptine

Most frequent side effects are nausea, orthostatic hypotension, headaches, and vomiting through stimulation of the brainstem vomiting centre.[9] Vasospasms with serious consequences such as myocardial infarction and stroke that have been reported in connection with the puerperium, appear to be extremely rare events.[10] Peripheral vasospasm (of the fingers or toes) can cause Raynaud's Phenomenon. Bromocriptine use has been anecdotally associated with causing or worsening psychotic symptoms (its mechanism is in opposition of most antipsychotics, whose mechanisms generally block dopamine).[11] Pulmonary fibrosis has been reported when bromocriptine was used in high doses for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[12] Use to suppress milk production after childbirth was reviewed in 2014 and it was concluded that in this context a causal association with serious cardiovascular, neurological or psychiatric events could not be excluded with an overall incidence rate estimated to range between 0.005% ...

*Mesoridazine

... (Serentil) is a piperidine neuroleptic drug belonging to the class of drugs called phenothiazines, used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a metabolite of thioridazine. The drug's name is derived from the methylsulfoxy and piperidine functional groups in its chemical structure. It has central antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic and weak muscarinic anticholinergic effects. Serious side effects include akathisia, tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Mesoridazine was withdrawn from the United States market in 2004 due to dangerous side effects, namely irregular heart beat and QT-prolongation of the electrocardiogram.[1] It currently appears to be unavailable worldwide. ...
Betaxolol (trade names Betoptic, Betoptic S, Lokren, Kerlone) is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and glaucoma. Being selective for beta1 receptors, it typically has fewer systemic side effects than non-selective beta-blockers, for example, not causing bronchospasm (mediated by beta2 receptors) as timolol may. Betaxolol also shows greater affininty for beta1 receptors than metoprolol. In addition to its effect on the heart, betaxolol reduces the pressure within the eye (intraocular pressure). This effect is thought to be caused by reducing the production of the liquid (which is called the aqueous humor) within the eye. The precise mechanism of this effect is not known. The reduction in intraocular pressure reduces the risk of damage to the optic nerve and loss of vision in patients with elevated intraocular pressure due to glaucoma. Betaxolol was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ocular use as a 0.5% solution (Betoptic) in 1985 ...
Betaxolol Tablets (Betaxolol) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
HPLC Application #20501: Betaxolol on Lux 5µm Cellulose-2 in NP. Column used: Lux® 5 µm Cellulose-2, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4457-E0
HPLC Application #20088: Betaxolol on Lux 5µm Amylose-2 in NP. Column used: Lux® 5 µm Amylose-2, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4472-E0
Betaxolol containing medications, Betaxolol indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names information from Drugs-about.com
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Betaxolol ophthalmic is sometimes given together with other eye medications. Do not use any other eye medication unless your doctor has prescribed it for you. If you use another eye medication, use it at least 10 minutes before or after using betaxolol ophthalmic. Do not use the medications at the same time.. Betaxolol ophthalmic can cause blurred vision. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be able to see clearly. Do not use this medication while you are wearing contact lenses. Betaxolol ophthalmic may contain a preservative that can be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Wait at least 15 minutes after using betaxolol before putting your contact lenses in. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse 30-day outcomes after cardiac surgery. T2 - predictive role of intraoperative myocardial acidosis. AU - Kumbhani, Dharam J.. AU - Healey, Nancy A.. AU - Biswas, Kunda S.. AU - Birjiniuk, Vladimir. AU - Crittenden, Michael D.. AU - Treanor, Patrick R.. AU - Khuri, Shukri F.. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Background. Regional myocardial acidosis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery has been shown to be reflective of regional myocardial ischemia. This study elucidates the relationship between intraoperative regional myocardial acidosis and 30-day postoperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. Methods. Intramyocardial tissue pH in the anterior and posterior left ventricular walls was measured in 397 adult patients undergoing valve replacement or coronary revascularization surgery between 1987 and 2001. Dedicated nurses and research assistants prospectively collected preoperative, intraoperative, and outcomes data. Regional myocardial acidosis was defined in terms of pH ...
Order cheap Betoptic (Betaxolol Hydrochloride) ophthalmic solution from $8.21 per bottle online to treat open-angle glaucoma and high eye pressure.
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· Chronic open-angle glaucoma · Intraocular Hypertonia. · The recommended dosage is one drop of BETOPTIC 0.25%, ophthalmic suspension in the affected eye, twice a day (morning and evening). · In some patients, normalization of pressure, intraocular pressure by BETOPTIC 0.25 PERCENT, suspension, ophthalmic sometimes requires a few weeks, so evaluation of the treatment should include a determination of the intra-ocular pressure -ocular after one treatment period with BETOPTIC
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Luminita Iliuta, Ruxandra Christodorescu, Daniela Filpescu, Horatiu Moldovan, Bogdan Radulescu, Rasvan Vasile].
Many patients who have high blood pressure will not notice any signs of the problem. In fact, many may feel normal. It is very important that you take your medicine exactly as directed and that you keep your appointments with your doctor even if you feel well .. Remember that this medicine will not cure your high blood pressure, but it does help control it. You must continue to take it as directed if you expect to lower your blood pressure and keep it down. You may have to take high blood pressure medicine for the rest of your life. If high blood pressure is not treated, it can cause serious problems such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, stroke, or kidney disease .. Do not interrupt or stop taking this medicine without first checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are taking before stopping it completely. Some conditions may become worse when the medicine is stopped suddenly, which can be dangerous .. ...
This medicine is only for use in the eye. Do not take by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Wash hands before and after use. Shake well before use. Tilt your head back slightly and pull your lower eyelid down with your index finger to form a pouch. Try not to touch the tip of the dropper to your eye, fingertips, or any other surface. Squeeze the prescribed number of drops into the pouch. Close the eye for a few moments to spread the drops and apply gentle finger pressure to the inner corner of the eye for 1 to 2 minutes. Use your doses at regular intervals. Do not use your medicine more often than directed. Do not stop using except on the advice of your doctor or health care professional.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
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Not exactly: The ability to react to certain proteins in an allergic way is passed on from parents to their children, but a specific allergy is not. So if a mom is allergic to pollen and the dad is allergic to fire ants, their child may develop allergies but it may be to a food instead. If 1 parent has allergies, the child is 50% likely to develop allergies, but its a 75% chance if both parents are allergic. ...Read more ...
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Longer-term stud- ies have shown that this drug has similar tolerability to betaxolol, timolol, and pilocarpine. Improving lopinavir genotype algorithm through phenotype correlations novel muta- tion quue and amprenavir cross-resistance. The key players who are obligated under GCP regulations are described below and will be referenced throughout this article Investigator. J Antimicrob Chemother 2002;50 1059в1063 73.
A comparison of the efficacy of betaxolol and timolol in ocular hypertension with or without adrenaline (pages 173-177). J. B. Clark, A. M. V. Brooks, C. A. Harper, N. Mantzioros and W. E. Gillies. Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2007 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.1989.tb00509.x. ...
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Has a generic version of BETAXOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE been approved? Find suppliers, manufacturers, and wholesalers ... BETAXOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE. betaxolol hydrochloride. SOLUTION/DROPS;OPHTHALMIC. 075386. ANDA. Akorn, Inc.. N. 17478-705-10. ... BETAXOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE. betaxolol hydrochloride. SOLUTION/DROPS;OPHTHALMIC. 075386. ANDA. Akorn, Inc.. N. 17478-705-11. ... BETAXOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE. betaxolol hydrochloride. SOLUTION/DROPS;OPHTHALMIC. 075386. ANDA. Akorn, Inc.. N. 17478-705-12. ...
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Betaxolol allergy in children - Things You Didnt KnowBetaxolol allergy in children - Things You Didn't Know

Betaxolol (Definition) Betaxolol is a high strength steroid which is a kind of topical steroid (skin-related medication). ... ... Betoptic (betaxolol): Betoptic (betaxolol) is FDA pregnancy category C. This means it has not been studied adequately in human ... Betoptic (betaxolol): Betoptic (betaxolol) can be beneficial in treatment of ocular hypertension and chronic open-angle ... Betoptic (betaxolol): "Hypersensitivity to any component of this product. BETOPTIC (betaxolol) Ophthalmic Solution is ...
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  • Betaxolol is effective in the treatment of hypertension in once-daily doses of 5-20 mg, while chlorthalidone is effective in doses of 12.5-50 mg. (rxlist.com)
  • In clinical trials of betaxolol/chlorthalidone combination therapy using betaxolol doses of 5-20 mg and chlorthalidone doses of 12.5-25 mg, the antihypertensive effects increased with increasing doses of either component. (rxlist.com)
  • Therapy with a combination of betaxolol and chlorthalidone will be associated with both sets of dose-independent adverse effects and to minimize these, it may be appropriate to begin combination therapy only after a patient has failed to achieve the desired effect with monotherapy. (rxlist.com)
  • On the other hand, regimens that combine low doses of betaxolol and chlorthalidone should produce minimal dose-dependent adverse effects, ie, bradycardia and decreases in serum potassium (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). (rxlist.com)
  • A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with monotherapy using either betaxolol (usually 10-20 mg) or chlorthalidone may be switched to Kerledex 5/12.5 mg. (rxlist.com)
  • Subsequent titration (14-day intervals) could add additional betaxolol, chlorthalidone, or both, using single entity products, Kerledex 5/12.5, or Kerledex 10/12.5 as appropriate. (rxlist.com)
  • Betaxolol was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ocular use as a 0.5% solution (Betoptic) in 1985 and as a 0.25% solution (Betoptic S) in 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaxolol also shows greater affininty for beta1 receptors than metoprolol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do not stop taking betaxolol without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you suddenly stop taking betaxolol, your blood pressure may increases and you may develop new or worsening chest pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you experience such symptoms, stop taking betaxolol and call your doctor immediately. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • A patient whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled with monotherapy using either betaxolol (usually 10-20 mg) or chlorthalidone may be switched to Kerledex 5/12.5 mg. (rxlist.com)
  • Subsequent titration (14-day intervals) could add additional betaxolol, chlorthalidone, or both, using single entity products, Kerledex 5/12.5, or Kerledex 10/12.5 as appropriate. (rxlist.com)
  • Using betaxolol with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. (drugs.com)
  • It is not known whether betaxolol passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (livingcountryside.org.uk)
  • Betaxolol is used alone or with other medications to control high blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaxolol should be used with caution in people with diabetes, especially insulin-dependent diabetes, since the drug may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Your doctor may tell you not to take betaxolol if you have heart failure or other heart problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaxolol slows the rate and force of contraction of the heart by blocking certain nerve impulses, thus reducing blood pressure. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • This is because sufficient betaxolol may be absorbed from the eye into the bloodstream to cause side effects on other parts of the body, or to react with medicines being taken by mouth, injection or suppository. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • When you are taking betaxolol, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. (drugs.com)
  • Using betaxolol with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. (drugs.com)
  • Betaxolol may be associated with depression &/or short-term memory loss . (healthtap.com)
  • Betaxolol controls high blood pressure but does not cure it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably start you on an average dose of betaxolol and may increase your dose after 7-14 days if your blood pressure is not controlled. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell any doctor, dentist, or eye doctor who will be treating you that you are taking betaxolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using betaxolol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaxolol also blocks beta-receptors found on the blood vessels that supply the ciliary body. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Betaxolol is used to reduce the pressure inside the eyeball. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The overall effect of betaxolol is to reduce the inflow of aqueous humour into the eyeball, which decreases the pressure within the eye. (netdoctor.co.uk)