A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.

Complete sequence of enzootic nasal tumor virus, a retrovirus associated with transmissible intranasal tumors of sheep. (1/68)

The sequence of the complete genome of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus, an exogenous retrovirus associated exclusively with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep, was determined. The genome is 7,434 nucleotides long and exhibits a genetic organization characteristic of type B and D oncoviruses. Enzootic nasal tumor virus is closely related to the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and to sheep endogenous retroviruses.  (+info)

Jaagsiekte retrovirus is widely distributed both in T and B lymphocytes and in mononuclear phagocytes of sheep with naturally and experimentally acquired pulmonary adenomatosis. (2/68)

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a type D retrovirus specifically associated with a contagious lung tumor of sheep, sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA). JSRV replicates actively in the transformed epithelial cells of the lung, and JSRV DNA and RNA have been detected in lymphoid tissues of naturally affected animals. To determine the lymphoid target cells of JSRV, CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, B lymphocytes, and adherent cell (macrophage/monocyte) populations were isolated from the mediastinal lymph nodes of naturally affected sheep and lambs inoculated with JSRV. Cells were enriched to high purity and then analyzed for JSRV proviral DNA by heminested PCR, and the proviral burden was quantitated by limiting dilution analysis. JSRV proviral DNA was found in all subsets examined but not in appropriate negative controls. In sheep naturally affected with SPA, JSRV proviral burden was greatest in the adherent cell population. In the nonadherent lymphocyte population, surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells contained the greatest proviral burden, while CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contained the lowest levels of JSRV proviral DNA. In most of the cases (5 of 8), provirus also could be detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population. A kinetic study of JSRV infection in the mediastinal lymphocyte population of newborn lambs inoculated with JSRV found that JSRV proviral DNA could be detected as early as 7 days postinoculation before the onset of pulmonary adenomatosis, although the proviral burden was greatly reduced compared to adult natural cases. This was reflected in the levels found in PBMC since proviral DNA was detected in 2 of 13 animals. At the early time points studied (7 to 28 days postinoculation) no one subset was preferentially infected. These data indicate that JSRV can infect lymphoid and phagocytic mononuclear cells of sheep and that dissemination precedes tumor formation. Infection of lymphoid tissue, therefore, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SPA.  (+info)

Novel endogenous type D retroviral particles expressed at high levels in a SCID mouse thymic lymphoma. (3/68)

A xenograft model of the human disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was investigated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Transplantation of human LCH biopsy material into SCID mice resulted in the generation of mouse tumors resembling lymphomas. A thymoma cell line (ThyE1M6) was generated from one of these mice and found to display significant levels of Mg2+-dependent reverse transcriptase activity. Electron microscopy revealed particles with type D retroviral morphology budding from ThyE1M6 cells at a high frequency, whereas control cultures were negative. Reverse transcription-PCR of virion RNA with degenerate primers for conserved regions of various mouse, human, and primate retroviruses amplified novel sequences related to primate type D retroviruses, murine intracisternal A particles, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, and murine long interspersed nuclear elements but not other retroviral classes. We demonstrate that these sequences represent a novel group of endogenous retroviruses expressed at low levels in mice but expressed at high levels in the ThyE1M6 cell line. Furthermore, we propose that the activation of endogenous retroviral elements may be associated with a high incidence of thymomas in SCID mice.  (+info)

Improved Mg2+-based reverse transcriptase assay for detection of primate retroviruses. (4/68)

The reverse transcriptase (RT) assay is a simple, relatively inexpensive, widely used assay that can detect all retroviruses (known and novel retroviruses as well as infectious and defective retroviruses) on the basis of the divalent cation requirement of their RT enzyme, i.e., Mg2+ or Mn2+. Descriptions of various RT assays have been published; however, they cannot be directly applied to the analysis of biological products or clinical samples without further standardization to determine the lower limit of virus detection (sensitivity), assay variability (reproducibility), or ability to detect different retroviruses (specificity). We describe the detection of type E and type D primate retroviruses, which may be pathogenic for humans, by a new 32P-based, Mg2+-containing RT assay. The results show that the sensitivity of detection is <3.2 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50s) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and <1 TCID50 for simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a rhesus macaque (SIVmac). Analysis of recombinant HIV-1 RT enzyme indicated that 10(-5) U, which is equivalent to 4.25 x 10(4) virions, could be detected. Additionally, genetically distinct type D retroviruses such as simian AIDS retrovirus and squirrel monkey retrovirus were also detected in the assay with similar sensitivities. Thus, the improved RT assay can be used to detect genetically divergent Mg2+-dependent retroviruses of human and simian origin that can infect human cells and that therefore pose a potential health risk to humans.  (+info)

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is necessary and sufficient to induce a contagious lung cancer in sheep. (5/68)

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA) is a contagious and experimentally transmissible lung cancer of sheep resembling human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. A type D retrovirus, known as jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), has been associated with the etiology of SPA, but its exact role in the induction of the tumor has not been clear due to the lack of (i) a tissue culture system for the propagation of JSRV and (ii) an infectious JSRV molecular clone. To investigate the role of JSRV in the etiology of SPA, we isolated a full-length JSRV proviral clone, pJSRV21, from a tumor genomic DNA library derived from a natural case of SPA. pJSRV21 was completely sequenced and showed open reading frames in agreement with those deduced for the original South African strain of JSRV. In vivo transfection of three newborn lambs by intratracheal inoculation with pJSRV21 DNA complexed with cationic lipids showed that pJSRV21 is an infectious molecular clone. Viral DNA was detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the transfected animals by a highly sensitive JSRV-U3 heminested PCR at various time points ranging from 2 weeks to 6 months posttransfection. In addition, proviral DNA was detected in the PBMCs, lungs, and mediastinal lymph nodes of two lambs sacrificed 9 months posttransfection, but no macroscopic or histological SPA lesion was induced. We prepared JSRV particles by transient transfection of 293T cells with a JSRV construct (pCMV2JS21) in which the upstream U3 was replaced with the cytomegalovirus early promoter. Four newborn lambs were inoculated with JSRV21 particles produced in this manner, and two of them showed the classical signs of SPA 4 months postinfection. The resulting tumors were positive for JSRV DNA and protein. Thus, JSRV21 is an infectious and pathogenic molecular clone and is necessary and sufficient to induce sheep pulmonary adenomatosis.  (+info)

Identification of novel import and export signals of human TAP, the protein that binds to the constitutive transport element of the type D retrovirus mRNAs. (6/68)

The nuclear export of the unspliced type D retrovirus mRNA depends on the cis-acting constitutive transport RNA element (CTE) that has been shown to interact with the human TAP (hTAP) protein promoting the export of the CTE-containing mRNAs. We report here that hTAP is a 619-amino-acid protein extending the previously identified protein by another 60 residues at the N terminus and that hTAP shares high homology with the predicted rat and mouse TAP proteins. We found that hTAP is a nuclear protein that accumulates in the nuclear rim and the nucleoplasm. We further demonstrated that hTAP is able to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Identification of the signals responsible for nuclear import (NLS) and export (NES) revealed that they are distinct but partially overlapping. NLS and NES of hTAP are active transferable signals that do not share similarities with known elements. The C-terminal portion contributes further to hTAP's nuclear retention and contains a signal(s) for nuclear rim association. Taken together, our data show that hTAP is a dynamic protein capable of bidirectional trafficking across the nuclear envelope. These data further support hTAP's role as an export factor of the CTE-containing mRNAs.  (+info)

In vitro infection of ovine cell lines by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. (7/68)

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA), also known as jaagsiekte or ovine pulmonary carcinoma, is a contagious lung cancer of sheep, originating from type II pneumocytes and Clara cells. Previous studies have implicated a type D retrovirus (jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus [JSRV]) as the causative agent of SPA. We recently isolated a proviral clone of JSRV from an animal with a spontaneous case of SPA (JSRV(21)) and showed that it harbors an infectious and oncogenic virus. This demonstrated that JSRV is necessary and sufficient to induce SPA. A major impediment in research on JSRV has been the lack of an in vitro tissue culture system for the virus. The experiments reported here show the first successful in vitro infection with this virus, using the JSRV(21) clone. JSRV(21) virus was obtained by transiently transfecting human 293T cells with a plasmid containing the JSRV(21) provirus driven by the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter. Virus produced in this manner exhibited reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that banded at 1.15 g/ml in sucrose density gradients. Infection of concentrated JSRV(21) into ovine choroid plexus (CP), testes (OAT-T3), turbinate (FLT), and intestinal carcinoma (ST6) cell lines resulted in establishment of infection as measured by PCR amplification. Evidence that this reflected genuine infection included the fact that heat inactivation of the virus eliminated it, the levels of viral DNA increased with passage of the infected cells, and the infected cells released active RT as measured by the sensitive product enhancement RT assay. The RT activity released from the infected cells banded at 1.15 g/ml, and JSRV(21) provirus was transmitted from infected cells to uninfected ones by cocultivation. However, the amount of virus released from infected cells was low. These results suggest that the JSRV receptor is present on many ovine cell types and that the observed restriction of JSRV expression in vivo to tumor cells might be controlled by factors other than the viral receptor. Finally we tagged the U3 of pJSRV(21) with the bacterial supF gene, an amber suppressor tRNA gene. The resulting clone, termed pJSRV(supF), is infectious in vitro. It may be a useful tool for future studies on viral DNA integration, since the normal sheep genome contains 15 to 20 copies of highly JSRV-related endogenous sequences that cross-react with many JSRV hybridization probes.  (+info)

Porcine endogenous retroviral mRNAs in pancreas and a panel of tissues from specific pathogen-free pigs. (8/68)

Pigs are potential providers of donor tissues for xenotransplantation (e.g. of pancreatic islets) in Type 1 diabetes. In this context, our group has studied the use of islets from specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs as a means of reducing the risks of "conventional zoonosis". Although this approach does not prevent the transmission of pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV) to humans, we attempted to determine the presence of C-type PERV mRNAs for gag, pol, and env subtypes as a first descriptive step in the retroviral characterisation of SPF pig tissues (especially pancreas). Using semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase polymer chain reaction with 18S rRNA and beta-actin as internal controls, PERV mRNA levels were compared in a large panel of tissues from SPF and conventional pigs. PERV mRNAs for gag, pol, env-A and env-B were present in all tissues studied from the nine SPF pigs tested. Signals for env-C mRNAs were of much lower intensity than those for env-A and B, and most often undetectable in pancreas. The mRNA levels for gag, pol, env-A, env-B and env-C mRNAs were lower in pancreas (p < 0.01) than in all other tissues. Among other porcine tissues likely to be grafted in man, the highest retroviral mRNA levels were detected in kidney (p < 0.01), followed by liver, lung and heart. Amplified PERV mRNA signals were about 17 times less frequent in pig pancreas than in the retroviral-producing porcine cell line G2, while kidney contained about 6 times more PERV mRNAs than pancreas. The levels of gag, pol, env-A, env-B, and env-C mRNAs also varied between tissues of conventional pigs: PERV mRNA levels were lowest in pancreas, and env-C mRNAs were most often undetectable. For all SPF tissues tested, pol, gag, env-A, env-B, and env-C mRNA levels were in the same range or slightly higher than in corresponding tissues of conventional pigs. In summary, this study of C-type PERV mRNAs in a large panel of tissues from SPF pigs, in the context of our strategy of quality assurance and sanitary control, indicated that PERV mRNA levels were in the same range in SPF and corresponding conventional pig tissues, confirming that the use of SPF pigs would not prevent the risk of PERV transmission to human recipients of xenografts. PERV-A and PERV-B may be mainly represented, and PERV-C much less, in these pig tissues (particularly pancreas). The fact that pancreas expressed the lowest PERV mRNA levels and kidney the highest, among porcine tissues likely to be grafted, could be of interest from a clinical point of view. Pig tissues may differ in their loads of PERV sequences, which could be a factor in the risk of PERV transmission during xenotransplantation.  (+info)

Vla-da Cr-ne Go-re pot-pi-sa-la je kra-jem proš-log tjed-na pr-vi ugo-vor o is-tra-ži-va-nju i eks-plo-ata-ci-ji ug-lji-ko-vo-di-ka u cr-no-gor-skom pod-mor-ju s ta-li-jan-sko-ru-skim kon-zor-ci-jem ko-ji či-ne Eni i No-va-tek, a ra-do-vi bi tre-ba-li po-če-ti ove go-di-ne. Ugo-vor ko-ji je ve-ri-fi-ci-ran, bit će pros-li-je-đen par-la-men-tu na ko-nač-no odo-bre-nje. Usva-ja-nje se oče-ku-je u krat-kom ro-ku. Kom-pa-ni-je su se ugo-vo-rom obve-za-le da će iz-vr-ši-ti tri obvez-ne i jed-nu us-luž-nu bu-šo-ti-nu. To je rad-ni pro-gram ko-ji u pr-vom raz-dob-lju is-tra-ži-va-nja ima vri-jed-nost od 85 mi-li-ju-na eura, a u dru-gom 12 mi-li-ju-na.. ...
WASHINGTON (AP) - Amgen Inc. has won federal approval for the second medicine in a new class of pricey biotech drugs that reduce artery-clogging cholesterol more than older statin drugs that have been used for decades.The drug Repatha could eventually help millions of Americans who face increased risks of heart disease because they cannot control their cholesterol with existing drugs and methods. But concerns about the injectable medications price tag and long-term benefits will likely limit its use in the near-term. ...
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) causes neonatal disease and stillbirth, but its burden in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. We assessed maternal recto-vaginal GBS colonization (7,967 women), stillbirth and neonatal disease. Whole-genome sequencing was used to determine serotypes, sequence types and phylogeny. We found low maternal GBS colonization prevalence (934/7,967, 12%), but comparatively high incidence of GBS-associated stillbirth and early onset neonatal disease (EOD) in hospital (0.91 (0.25-2.3)/1,000 births and 0.76 (0.25-1.77)/1,000 live births, respectively). However, using a population denominator, EOD incidence was considerably reduced (0.13 (0.07-0.21)/1,000 live births). Treated cases of EOD had very high case fatality (17/36, 47%), especially within 24 h of birth, making under-ascertainment of community-born cases highly likely, both here and in similar facility-based studies. Maternal GBS colonization was less common in women with low socio-economic status, HIV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complete sequence of enzootic nasal tumor virus, a retrovirus associated with transmissible intranasal tumors of sheep. AU - Cousens, Christina. AU - Minguijon, Esmeralda. AU - Dalziel, Robert. AU - Ortin, Aurora. AU - Garcia, Mercedes. AU - Park, Jane. AU - Gonzales, L.. AU - Sharp, J. Michael. AU - de las Heras, Marcelo. PY - 1999/5. Y1 - 1999/5. N2 - The sequence of the complete genome of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus, an exogenous retrovirus associated exclusively with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep, was determined. The genome is 7,434 nucleotides long and exhibits a genetic organization characteristic of type B and D oncoviruses. Enzootic nasal tumor virus is closely related to the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and to sheep endogenous retroviruses.. AB - The sequence of the complete genome of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus, an exogenous retrovirus associated exclusively with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep, was determined. The genome is 7,434 nucleotides long ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate a variety of genes involved in eukaryotic cell growth, development, metabolism and other biological processes, and numerous miRNAs are implicated in the initiation and progression of cancer. Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), an epithelial tumor induced in goats and sheep by enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), is a chronic, progressive, contact transmitted disease. In this work, small RNA Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to construct a goat nasal miRNA library. This study aimed to identify novel and differentially expressed miRNAs in the tumor and para-carcinoma nasal tissues of Nanjiang yellow goats with ENA. Four hundred six known miRNAs and 29 novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 116 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in para-carcinoma nasal tissues and ENA (54 downregulated; 60 upregulated; two only expressed in control group); Target gene prediction and functional analysis revealed that 6176 non-redundancy target
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a complex betaretrovirus, which utilizes a Rev-like auxiliary protein Rem to export the unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus. MMTV env mRNA appears to be exported via a distinct, Rem-independent, mechanism. Here, we analysed the effect of an extensively folded region coinciding with the 5′ leader sequence on env gene expression. We found that the presence of the 5′ leader stimulates expression of the envelope protein. Enhanced Env production was accompanied by increased cytoplasmic levels of env mRNA. The 5′ leader promotes nucleocytoplasmic translocation and increases stability of env mRNA. The region responsible for this effect was mapped to the distal part of the 5′ leader. Furthermore, the 5′ leader inserted in the sense orientation into a heterologous luciferase expression construct increased luciferase activity.
Mice of the I/LnJ inbred strain are unique in their ability to mount a robust and sustained humoral immune response capable of neutralizing infection with a betaretrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). Virus-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) coat MMTV virions secreted by infected cells, preventing virus spread and hence the formation of mammary tumors. To investigate whether I/LnJ mice resist infection with other retroviruses besides MMTV, the animals were infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a gammaretrovirus. MuLV-infected I/LnJ mice produced virus-neutralizing Abs that block virus transmission and virally induced disease. Generation of virus-neutralizing Abs required gamma interferon but was independent of interleukin-12. This unique mechanism of retrovirus resistance is governed by a single recessive gene, virus infectivity controller 1 (vic1), mapped to chromosome 17. In addition to controlling the antivirus humoral immune response, vic1 is also required for an antiviral
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simian retrovirus serogroup 2 constitutive transport element recognizes the ribosomal L10-like protein and translocon gamma subunit-like protein in a yeast three-hybrid assay. AU - Li, Biao. AU - Li, Xiaorong. AU - Bai, Ying. AU - Hou, Jing Wen. AU - Ma, Mark. AU - Machida, Curtis A.. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - The simian retrovirus (SRV) serogroup 2 genome contains a constitutive transport element (CTE) within its 3′ intergenic region (IR) that mediates the nuclear export of unspliced SRV RNA. In a previous report [Virology 264 (1999) 37], CTE RNA-protein complexes were detected using UV-crosslinking/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). To identify these CTE-interacting cellular proteins, we utilized yeast three-hybrid interaction approaches using the complete IR as bait, modified to eliminate transcriptional termination signals recognized by RNA polymerase III, and identified several interactive clones from a Hela cell cDNA activation ...
Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus) genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus), was 10434 nucleotide (nt) in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent ...
Contagious Respiratory Tumours Also known as: Jaagsiekte, Pulmonary Adenomatosis and Adenomatosis - Pulmonary There are two neoplastic conditions which result in contagious respiratory tumours (or contagious lung cancer) in small ruminants: Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma (also known as ODA, She...
Grad-nja mos-ta pre-ko Sa-ve u Svi-la-ju tre-ba-la bi po-če-ti na-kon što su od-bi-je-ne žal-be na iz-bor iz-vo-đa-ča ra-do-va, pre-no-se me-di-ji u BiH. Ri-ječ je o di-oni-ci auto-ces-te u Hr-vat-skoj od Sre-da-na-ca do gra-ni-ce BiH te u BiH od Odža-ka do gra-ni-ce.. ...
Southern hybridization was also used to investigate the variability in TvERV(D) structure within the genomes of possums.NheI-digested genomic DNA from 12 possums was hybridized with the gag probe described above (Fig. 4B). The TvERV(D) LTRs contain a single NheI site within the U3 region. Neither the TvERV(D) contig nor pTvERV(D) contained any additionalNheI sites, and hybridization of NheI-digested possum DNA to the gag probe would be expected to detect an ∼9.5-kb band generated by restriction within only the LTRs of these proviruses. pTvERV(D)-env, on the other hand, possesses anNheI cut site at nt 1228 to 1233, and NheI digestion of TvERV(D) elements containing intact env genes would be expected to produce an ∼6.6-kb band by digestion within the 5′ LTR and env sites. As can be seen in Fig. 4B,NheI digestion of the DNA of 12 possums and hybridization with the gag probe detected the expected ∼9.5- and ∼6.6-kb bands. In addition, several other NheI fragments, ranging in size from ...
Rasko JE, Battini JL, Gottschalk RJ, Mazo I, Miller AD. The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acidtransporter.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 2;96(5):2129-34. PMID: 10051606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. The RD114/simian type D retroviruses, which include the feline endogenous retrovirus RD114, all strains of simian immunosuppressive type D retroviruses, the avian reticuloendotheliosis group including spleen necrosis virus, and baboon endogenous virus, use a common cell-surface receptor for cell entry. We have used a retroviral cDNA library approach, involving transfer and expression of cDNAs from highly infectable HeLa cells to nonpermissive NIH 3T3 mouse cells, to clone and identify this receptor. The cloned cDNA, denoted RDR, is an allele of the previously cloned neutral amino acid transporter ATB0 (SLC1A5). Both RDR and ATB0 serve as retrovirus receptors and both show specific transport of neutral amino acids. We have localized the receptor by radiation hybrid ...
The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on
The envelope (Env) protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) can transform cells in culture and is likely to be the main factor responsible for lung cancer induction by JSRV in animals. A recent report indicates that the epithelial-cell transforming activity of JSRV Env depends on activation of the cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase Mst1r (called RON for the human and Stk for the rodent orthologs). In the immortalized line of human epithelial cells used (BEAS-2B cells), the virus receptor Hyal2 was found to bind to and suppress the activity of RON. When Env was expressed it bound to Hyal2 causing its degradation, release of RON activity from Hyal2 suppression, and activation of pathways resulting in cell transformation. Due to difficulty with reproducibility of the transformation assay in BEAS-2B cells, we have used more tractable rodent fibroblast models to further study Hyal2 modulation of RON/Stk transforming activity and potential effects of Hyal2 on RON/Stk activation by its natural ligand,
Insertional mutagenesis approaches use oncoretroviruses or transposons to trigger cancer in mice by widespread integration into the cellular genome and activation of oncogenes near the integration site. Mapping the genomic integration sites in tumors allows the identification of genomic regions that are recurrently hit in independent tumors (defined as Common Insertion Sites, CIS) (5), which host genes likely involved in cancer development (6).. We have recently developed a new specifically tailored LV-based insertional mutagen that allowed the induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in 3 different mouse models (4). In order to identify the integration sites from LV-induced tumors and control nontumoral samples, we exploited LAM-PCR (1) followed by 454 pyrosequencing. The analysis of LV integrations in tumors allowed the identification of 4 new liver cancer genes. Here we describe how we applied the LAM-PCR protocol1 for the retrieval of LV integrations from the hepatocellular carcinomas induced ...
1BAX: The three-dimensional solution structure of the matrix protein from the type D retrovirus, the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and implications for the morphology of retroviral assembly.
Many mammalian and viral genes are alternatively spliced and subject to regulation at the post- transcriptional level. However, relatively little is known about the cellular mechanisms for this regulation. We are using retroviruses as model systems to elucidate these mechanisms. Some of our studies focus on HIV Rev, an essential HIV protein. Rev mediates the nucleo-cytoplasmic export of unspliced and incompletely spliced HIV RNAs and provides an important HIV drug target. Another major focus of the laboratory is the function of the constitutive transport element (CTE). The CTE interacts directly with host cell proteins to facilitate export of intron containing RNA. We are currently analyzing the function of cellular proteins that are involved in the CTE mediated export pathway. One is NXF1 (TAP), a protein which has been proposed to play an essential role in cellular mRNA export. A second protein under study is NXT1, an important TAP cofactor. CTE function is also enhanced by SAM68, a major ...
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Foamy viruses (FVs) differ from all other genera of retroviruses (orthoretroviruses) in many aspects of viral replication. In this review, we discuss FV assembly, with special emphasis on Pol incorporation. FV assembly takes place intracellularly, near the pericentriolar region, at a site similar to that used by betaretroviruses. The regions of Gag, Pol and genomic RNA required for viral assembly are described. In contrast to orthoretroviral Pol, which is synthesized as a Gag-Pol fusion protein and packaged through Gag-Gag interactions, FV Pol is synthesized from a spliced mRNA lacking all Gag sequences. Thus, encapsidation of FV Pol requires a different mechanism. We detail how WT Pol lacking Gag sequences is incorporated into virus particles. In addition, a mutant in which Pol is expressed as an orthoretroviral-like Gag-Pol fusion protein is discussed. We also discuss temporal regulation of the protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase activities of WT FV Pol.
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A nasal polyp that does not appear gray and opalescent should arouse suspicion, as should a polyp that bleeds spontaneously. A solid-looking hyperemic polyp
3d_structure_of_the_protein_complex_that_allows_the_retrovirus_to_penetrate_living_cells_retroviruses_are_among_the_trickier_and_more_m
Služba funguje v pokrytí siete Orange 3G a s nižšou prenosovou rýchlosťou aj v pokrytí EDGE a GPRS. Dávam Táto rýchlosť bráni zamyslenému ponoreniu sa do prijatých internetových správ a pomalému. Kazaně dostal do rukou čs. legionářů, se po-.
Endogenous retroviruses are relics of ancient infections from retroviruses that managed to integrate into the genome of germline cells and remained vertically transmitted from parent to progeny. Subsequent to the endogenization process, these sequences can move and multiply in the host genome, which can have deleterious consequences and disturb genomic stability. Natural selection favored the establishment of silencing pathways that protect host genomes from the activity of endogenous retroviruses. RNA silencing mechanisms are involved, which utilize piRNAs. The response to exogenous viral infections uses siRNAs, a class of small RNAs that are generated via a distinct biogenesis pathway from piRNAs. However, interplay between both pathways has been identified, and interactions with anti-bacterial and anti-fungal immune responses are also suspected. This review focuses on Diptera (Arthropods) and intends to compile pieces of evidence showing that the RNA silencing pathway of endogenous retrovirus
Ventilation and some sunshine could go a long way to reduce tuberculosis risks in hospitals and prisons, two strongholds of the contagious lung disease, the World Health Organization said.
Secular Humanists claim that ERVs Endogenous (splicing) Retro (backwards copying) Viruses are undeniable proof that apes and humans evolved from a common ancestor.. So lets dissect this so every one can see the facts.. First, a retrovirus injects a small strand of RNA into a cell where it splices and backwards copies itself into the victims DNA to become an ERV sequence.. Note: the ERV must occur in DNA pertaining to reproduction in order to be passed on to the next generation and research reveals that ERVs can move around after they have spliced into a gene.. Second, Darwinists ignore the fact that ERVs can move around and assume that an inherited ERV will always show up in the same genetic location. Then they search for ERVs in chimp DNA that are located in the same spot as those found in human DNA claiming that any such ERV is proof we have a common ancestor.. Indeed, 14 out of 98,000 human ERVs are found in the same location as are 14 chimp ERVs (.00014%). However, this means that ...
Berv, J. S. & Prum, R.O. 2014. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae, Aves) with a comparative evolutionary analysis of breeding system and plumage dimorphism and a revised phylogenetic classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81: 120-136. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.001 Full article (PDF)Reference page ...
Optimus- Its just an answer. Maybe if it were an exogenous retrovirus, we could try antiretrovirals…. PaperHand- Its actually rather odd that humans dont have a retrovirus that exists in exogenous and endogenous form (another reason scientists were wary about the MS virus being endogenous)- lots of other species do (eg MMTV).. Jason- When BPR3 started it was super-serial. I am not a serious blagger, so I felt it was inappropriate for me to join their group. Now I might, but Im just not in the habit.. Mito and Sili- Dunno. Active ERV proteins could be a cause of MS, an effect of the cause of MS, or an effect of a cause that ends up perpetuating MS. So even though the putative ERV gene is on X, what starts the production of the protein might not be on X, thus wouldnt be sex-linked.. And its really hard to figure this all out because we all have the same ERVs (see tims comment, #2). Our lab is currently playing some scientific tricks with mice that lack certain ERVs to see what happens to them ...
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
Erin joins the TWiVirions to discuss a computer exploit encoded in DNA, creation of pigs free of endogenous retroviruses, and mutations in the gene encoding an innate sensor of RNA in children with severe viral respiratory disease.. ...
The exogenous simian type D retroviruses (SRV) are a group of closely related viruses that have been isolated from Asian monkeys. These isolates are related to the prototypic type D retrovirus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV). SRV has been isolated from many macaque species including rhesus, cynomolgus, and pig-tailed monkeys. Although all macaque species appear susceptible to all serotypes, some general serotype-host species associations have been recognized. Cynomolgus and pig-tailed macaques are predominantly infected with serotype 2, while in rhesus SRV-1 is the predominant serotype. Prevalence of SRV infection in captive populations of macaques is variable. Geographic origin of animals, as well as management and husbandry practices, are factors influencing the level of SRV endemicity in macaque populations.. SRV has a broad cellular tropism, including both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. SRV can be demonstrated in many tissues and organs and has been isolated from many body fluids, ...
Hudachek SF, Kraft SL, Thamm DH, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, DeMartini JC, Miller AD, Dernell WS. 2010. Lung tumor development and spontaneous regression in lambs coinfected with Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and ovine lentivirus.. Veterinary pathology. 47(1):148-62. Abstract ...
ABSTRACT. Inverted papilloma represents 0.5% to 7% of all nasal tumors, and 70% of sinonasal papillomas. Diagnosis implies several clinic, endoscopic and image aspects. Advances in surgical endoscopic techniques have provided an important control of the disease, and have diminished the morbidity that was traditionally present in these patients. We present the case of a 59-year-old male, with a nasal tumor that was resected by endoscopic surgery. The pathologic study revealed inverted papilloma. Nowadays 2 years after the surgery patient has no endoscopic, nor radiologic evidence of recurrence. The main objective of this paper is to make a review of the sickness and the therapeutic options, as well as the endoscopic surgery benefits ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[3] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as junk DNA. However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease. The role of endogenous retroviruses in human gene evolution is explored in a 2005 peer-reviewed article.[4]. While transcription was classically thought to only occur ...
ANSWER: Viral, bacterial and fungal infections can cause sneezing as well. Other things that can cause sneezing include teeth problems or nasal tumors. Sneezing can be a calming signal for dogs just like lip licking and yawning. Finally, sneezing can be due to excitement, bug bites or rolling around
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TY - JOUR. T1 - G2 Cell Cycle Arrest and Cyclophilin A in Lentiviral Gene Transfer. AU - Zhang, Shangming. AU - Joseph, Guiandre. AU - Pollok, Karen. AU - Berthoux, Lionel. AU - Sastry, Lakshmi. AU - Luban, Jeremy. AU - Cornetta, Kenneth. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Lentiviral vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have a higher propensity to transduce nondividing cells compared to vectors based on oncoretroviruses. We report here that genistein, a previously known protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor and G2 cell cycle arrest inducer, significantly enhanced lentiviral transduction in a dose-dependent manner. Increased transduction, as measured by vector expression, was seen in a variety of human cell lines, murine primary lymphocytes, and primary human CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells as well. Increased vector expression was also associated with an increase in vector DNA copy number, as assessed by quantitative PCR. Genistein-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest, ...
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma is a contagious viral disease of sheep that results in pulmonary neoplasia in some animals. The economic impact can be significant: up to 80% of the flock can be lost upon first exposure to the virus, with continuing losses that may be as high as 20% each year in some flocks. Excluding this disease from a flock is difficult, in part because no diagnostic test can detect animals in the preclinical stage. No effective treatment or vaccine is available, and eradication is challenging. Currently, ovine pulmonary adenomatosis exists in most sheep-raising areas of the world, with the exception of New Zealand and Australia. Iceland is the only country to have successfully eradicated this disease.
Animals and virus infection. Eighteen female RMs (Macaca mulatta) of Chinese origin, aged 4-5 years, were confirmed prior to infection as seronegative for simian T leukemia virus type 1, simian retrovirus type 1 (type D retrovirus), herpes B viruses, and SIVmac. All animals were housed in compliance with French regulations for animal care and use and were inoculated intravenously with the pathogenic SIVmac251 strain (ten 50% animal infectious doses). The pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate was provided by A.M. Aubertin (INSERM U74, Strasbourg, France) and was titrated in Chinese RMs by intravenous inoculation. RMs of Chinese origin are useful for monitoring immune dynamics, as their pathology closely mimics that in humans (17). Animals (n = 6) were treated with Q-VD-OPH (SM Biochemicals; the compound was diluted in sterile physiological water in the presence of 15% DMSO) at a dose of 20 mg/kg by the intravenous route (1 bolus was injected via the saphenous vein) on days 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 after ...
The Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene plays an important role in mammalian urogenital development, and dysregulation of this gene is observed in many human cancers. Alternative splicing of WT1 RNA leads to the expression of two major protein isoforms, WT1(+KTS) and WT1(−KTS). Whereas WT1(−KTS) acts as a transcriptional regulator, no clear function has been ascribed to WT1(+KTS), despite the fact that this protein is crucial for normal development. Here we show that WT1(+KTS) functions to enhance expression from RNA possessing a retained intron and containing either a cellular or viral constitutive transport element (CTE). WT1(+KTS) expression increases the levels of unspliced RNA containing a CTE and specifically promotes the association of this RNA with polyribosomes. These studies provide further support for links between different steps in RNA metabolism and for the existence of post-transcriptional operons. ...
Over 40% of mammalian genomes comprise the products of reverse transcription. Among such retrotransposed sequences are those characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs), including the endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are inherited genetic elements closely resembling the proviruses formed following exogenous retrovirus infection. Sequences derived from ERVs make up at least 8 to 10% of the human and mouse genomes and range from ancient sequences that predate mammalian divergence to elements that are currently still active. In this chapter we describe the discovery, classification and origins of ERVs in mammals and consider cellular mechanisms that have evolved to control their expression. We also discuss the negative effects of ERVs as agents of genetic disease and cancer and review examples of ERV protein domestication to serve host functions, as in placental development. Finally, we address growing evidence that the gene regulatory potential of ERV LTRs has been exploited
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as junk DNA. However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term retro in retrovirus refers to ...
The current edition of the New Yorker magazine has a fascinating story about endogenous retroviruses in the genomes of humans and other species. Although researchers have known about such non-functional retroviral fossils in the human genome for some time, the large amount of recent genomic data u...
Cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of pulmonary carcinomas with basaloid features | John P. Crapanzano; Kristina Loukeris; Alain C. Borczuk; Anjali Saqi | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are endogenous viral elements in the genome that closely resemble and can be derived from retroviruses. They are abundant in the genomes of jawed vertebrates, and they comprise up to 5-8% of the human genome (lower estimates of ~1%). ERVs are a subclass of a type of gene called a transposon, which can be packaged and moved within the genome to serve a vital role in gene expression and in regulation. They are distinguished as retrotransposons, which are Class I elements. Researchers have suggested that retroviruses evolved from a type of transposable gene called a retrotransposon, which includes ERVs; these genes can mutate and instead of moving to another location in the genome they can become exogenous or pathogenic. This means that not all ERVs may have originated as an insertion by a retrovirus but that some may have been the source for the genetic information in the retroviruses they resemble. When integration of viral DNA occurs in the germ-line, it can give ...
Almost 8% of the human genome comprises endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). While they have been shown to cause specific pathologies in animals, such as cancer, their association with disease in humans remains controversial. The limited evidence is partly due to the physical and bioethical restrictions
This question reveals a misunderstanding of the case for common descent from ERVs. Retroviruses occasionally cross to other species, often distantly related ones, such as from gibbons to koalas. They can also become endogenous in two distantly related species. The presence of the same retroviruses or ERVs is not evidence for common ancestry. It is ERVs in corresponding locations in the DNA of two species that is evidence of common descent - because a bunch of them are highly unlikely (to say the least) to have ended up in corresponding locations, by chance, from independent infections. The only viable explanation is that both species inherited the corresponding ERVs from the same ancestors. Inheritance guarantees corresponding locations. Separate infections do not. ...
1. Nucleic-acid mediated immunity & Inflammation· Innate immune sensing pathways of foreign RNA/DNA · Innate immune sensing of endogenous retroviruses and inflamm...
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Retrovirus This article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be
Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
It belongs to the genus Betaretrovirus. MMTV was formerly known as Bittner virus, and previously the "milk factor", referring ...
... others include Rous sarcoma virus Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus Genus Gammaretrovirus; type ...
Genus Betaretrovirus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus. *Genus Deltaretrovirus. *Genus Epsilonretrovirus. *Genus Lentivirus (mit Species ...
... (JSRV) is a betaretrovirus which is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep, ... The involvement of the betaretrovirus enJSRV in the sheep conceptus trophoblasts further argues for its involvement in sheep ... JSRV belongs to the family Retroviridae, to the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae and the genus Betaretrovirus. JSRV is transmitted ... "Absence of markers of betaretrovirus infection in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma". Human Pathology. 41 (11): 1631-40. doi: ...
... es are group VI retrovirus belongs to betaretrovirus genus of orthoretroviridae subfamily. M-PMV was ... Montiel NA (October 2010). "An updated review of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) in macaque hosts". Journal of Medical Primatology ... Betaretrovirus sequences can also be isolated from humans, possum, and mice. "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Retroviridae". ...
ENTV belongs to the family Retroviridae, to the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae and the genus Betaretrovirus. The tumors that are ... The enzootic nasal tumor virus of the betaretrovirus genus is a carcinogenic retrovirus that causes enzootic nasal ...
"Role of virus receptor Hyal2 in oncogenic transformation of rodent fibroblasts by sheep betaretrovirus env proteins". J. Virol ...
Phylogenetically, the HERV-K group belongs to the ERV2 or Class II or Betaretrovirus-like supergroup. Over the past several ...
Bat betaretroviruses span the entire breadth of betaretrovirus diversity, similar to those of rodents, which may indicate that ...
... a betaretrovirus Stony River, Alaska, airport, US, IATA code Score Runoff Voting, later named STAR voting This disambiguation ...
Betanucleorhabdovirus Betanudivirus Betapapillomavirus Betapartitivirus Betapleolipovirus Betapolyomavirus Betaretrovirus ...
... betaretrovirus MeSH B04.820.650.124.500 - mammary tumor virus, mouse MeSH B04.820.650.124.520 - mason-pfizer monkey virus MeSH ... betaretrovirus MeSH B04.909.574.807.124.500 - mammary tumor virus, mouse MeSH B04.909.574.807.124.520 - mason-pfizer monkey ... betaretrovirus MeSH B04.909.777.731.124.500 - mammary tumor virus, mouse MeSH B04.909.777.731.124.520 - mason-pfizer monkey ...
... is a genus of the Retroviridae family. It has type B or type D morphology. The type B is common for a few ...
Betaretrovirus. *Mouse mammary tumor virus. *Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Deltaretrovirus *Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1 ...
Betaretrovirus. *Mouse mammary tumor virus. *Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Deltaretrovirus *Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1 ...
Betaretrovirus is a genus of the Retroviridae family. It has type B or type D morphology. The type B is common for a few ...
... Journal ... The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus), was 10434 nucleotide (nt) in ... a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. ...
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Genetic variability and in vitro transcriptional permissibility of primary ovine beta-retrovirus promoter isolates. American ... Genetic variability and in vitro transcriptional permissibility of primary ovine beta-retrovirus promoter isolates. In: ... Genetic variability and in vitro transcriptional permissibility of primary ovine beta-retrovirus promoter isolates. / Eckstrand ... title = "Genetic variability and in vitro transcriptional permissibility of primary ovine beta-retrovirus promoter isolates", ...
Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
Genus Betaretrovirus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus. *Genus Deltaretrovirus. *Genus Epsilonretrovirus. *Genus Lentivirus (mit Species ...
Beta-retrovirus. intracytoplasmic assembly. mouse mammary tumor virus. mice. mammary and ovarian. (B- or D-type). carcinoma; ...
Betaretrovirus. Genus. Gammaretrovirus. Genus. Deltaretrovirus. Genus. Epsilonretrovirus. Genus. Lentivirus. Subfamily. ...
Envelope Protein-Driven Neoplasia in Betaretrovirus Infection; HOST DEFENSES THAT INHIBIT RETROVIRAL ENTRY ALSO DRIVE ENVELOPE ...
It belongs to the genus Betaretrovirus. MMTV was formerly known as Bittner virus, and previously the "milk factor", referring ...
Betaretrovirus. A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes ...
L. Xu, Z. Shen, L. Guo et al., "Does a betaretrovirus infection trigger primary biliary cirrhosis?" Proceedings of the National ...
Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... Alpharetrovirus (Avian leukosis virus, Rous sarcoma virus) - Betaretrovirus (Mouse mammary tumour virus) - Gammaretrovirus ( ...
Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
Does a betaretrovirus infectiontrigger primary biliary cirrhosis? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003.. ... a retroviral sequence cloned from BECs and a proviral genome of a beta retrovirus cloned from the lymph node from patients with ...
Murine mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is the prototype beta-retrovirus. Breast cancer susceptibility in mice has taken a full ...
Structure of the capsid amino-terminal domain from the betaretrovirus, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. ...
Cyclosporine A inhibits in vitro replication of betaretrovirus associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. ...
JSRV is a retrovirus in the Betaretrovirus genus that is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). JSRV is ... Role of virus receptor Hyal2 in oncogenic transformation of rodent fibroblasts by sheep betaretrovirus env proteins. J. Virol. ...
Xu L, Shen Z, Guo L, et al Does a betaretrovirus infection trigger primary biliary cirrhosis?. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100: ...
A novel endogenous betaretrovirus in the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) suggests multiple independent infection and ... A novel endogenous betaretrovirus group characterized from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and giant pandas (Ailuropoda ...
Ericsson T, Oldmixon B, Blomberg J, Rosa M, Patience C, Andersson G. Identification of novel porcine endogenous betaretrovirus ...
... betaretrovirus MMTV is mouse mammary tumor virus; gammaretrovirus MMLV is Moloney murine leukemia virus; deltaretrovirus HTLV-1 ... betaretrovirus MMTV is mouse mammary tumor virus; gammaretrovirus MMLV is Moloney murine leukemia virus; deltaretrovirus HTLV-1 ...
... element resembles a typical betaretrovirus (31). As HERV-K(HML-2) elements, in addition to the four major ORFs for gag, pro, ... Colonization of the human genome by this betaretrovirus did not occur at the same frequency all the time: there were bursts of ... All HML families belong to the class II/betaretrovirus group, which also contain the endogenous and exogenous MMTV, Mason- ... indicates their relationship to the murine betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). More than 90 proviruses of the HML- ...
MMTV is a betaretrovirus transmitted through milk that causes mammary tumors in mice (25). Although mammary epithelial cells ... Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted betaretrovirus that causes mammary tumors in mice. Although mammary ...
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a betaretrovirus that causes mammary tumors in mice (29). Exogenous MMTV is transmitted to ...
The expression of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, a Betaretrovirus, during early stages of ontogeny is thought to ...
Frequent Observation of Human Betaretrovirus proviral Integrations in Autoimmune Liver Disease Gane Ka-Shu Wong, University of ...
... human beta retrovirus), tentatively considered the cause of a severe liver disease called primary biliary cirrhosis. At the ...
Identification of novel porcine endogenous betaretrovirus sequences in miniature swine. J Virol. (2001) 75:2765-70. doi: ...
  • Betaretrovirus is a genus of the Retroviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus Tequatrovirus ( T4virus , T4-ähnliche Viren , en. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the genus Betaretrovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • probable species in the genus Betaretrovirus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • As this retrovirus is similar to SMRV-like retroviruses, it was named SMRVHLB (abbreviated as SMRV-H). This retrovirus belongs to the genus Betaretrovirus , which comprises of both B- and D-type retroviruses. (gydb.org)
  • Now it represents one of the two kinds of viruses in the genus BETARETROVIRUS. (bvsalud.org)
  • 734 B virus A possible species in the genus Betaretrovirus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The designation "K" comes from their use of a lysine tRNA to prime reverse transcription and human mouse mammary tumor virus like-2 (HML-2) indicates their relationship to the murine betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted betaretrovirus that causes mammary tumors in mice. (asm.org)
  • MMTV is a betaretrovirus transmitted through milk that causes mammary tumors in mice ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a complex betaretrovirus, which utilizes a Rev-like auxiliary protein Rem to export the unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 2006). In contrast, the betaretrovirus MMTV packages A3, which then blocks subsequent reverse transcription (MacMillan et al. (lckinhibitor.com)
  • to Infection with and Apparent Antibody Reactivity to Simian Betaretrovirus (SRV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Emerging diagnostic challenges and characteristics of simian betaretrovirus infections in captive macaque colonies. (massbiologics.org)
  • They are grouped as class I, class II, or class III retroviruses considering their homology with Gamma and Epsilon retroviruses, Betaretrovirus or Spumavirus, respectively [ 9 , 10 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Absence of markers of betaretrovirus infection in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma Human Pathology 41(11):1631-1340. (moredun.org.uk)
  • 2003. Role of virus receptor Hyal2 in oncogenic transformation of rodent fibroblasts by sheep betaretrovirus env proteins. . (fredhutch.org)
  • 2003. Putative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) binding motifs in ovine betaretrovirus Env proteins are not essential for rodent fibroblast transformation and PI3K/Akt activation. . (fredhutch.org)
  • Betaretrovirus-like sequences, including HERV-K, belong to the class II and contains ten groups, termed HML1-10. (qscience.com)
  • These results confirmed electron microscope observations that a betaretrovirus was present in milk from healthy women and those with breast cancer (Moore et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is currently thought that an environmental agent triggers disease in a genetically susceptible host and to date, xenobiotics, bacteria and a human betaretrovirus have all been linked with PBC. (lidsen.com)