Complete sequence of enzootic nasal tumor virus, a retrovirus associated with transmissible intranasal tumors of sheep. (1/68)

The sequence of the complete genome of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus, an exogenous retrovirus associated exclusively with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep, was determined. The genome is 7,434 nucleotides long and exhibits a genetic organization characteristic of type B and D oncoviruses. Enzootic nasal tumor virus is closely related to the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and to sheep endogenous retroviruses.  (+info)

Jaagsiekte retrovirus is widely distributed both in T and B lymphocytes and in mononuclear phagocytes of sheep with naturally and experimentally acquired pulmonary adenomatosis. (2/68)

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a type D retrovirus specifically associated with a contagious lung tumor of sheep, sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA). JSRV replicates actively in the transformed epithelial cells of the lung, and JSRV DNA and RNA have been detected in lymphoid tissues of naturally affected animals. To determine the lymphoid target cells of JSRV, CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, B lymphocytes, and adherent cell (macrophage/monocyte) populations were isolated from the mediastinal lymph nodes of naturally affected sheep and lambs inoculated with JSRV. Cells were enriched to high purity and then analyzed for JSRV proviral DNA by heminested PCR, and the proviral burden was quantitated by limiting dilution analysis. JSRV proviral DNA was found in all subsets examined but not in appropriate negative controls. In sheep naturally affected with SPA, JSRV proviral burden was greatest in the adherent cell population. In the nonadherent lymphocyte population, surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells contained the greatest proviral burden, while CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contained the lowest levels of JSRV proviral DNA. In most of the cases (5 of 8), provirus also could be detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population. A kinetic study of JSRV infection in the mediastinal lymphocyte population of newborn lambs inoculated with JSRV found that JSRV proviral DNA could be detected as early as 7 days postinoculation before the onset of pulmonary adenomatosis, although the proviral burden was greatly reduced compared to adult natural cases. This was reflected in the levels found in PBMC since proviral DNA was detected in 2 of 13 animals. At the early time points studied (7 to 28 days postinoculation) no one subset was preferentially infected. These data indicate that JSRV can infect lymphoid and phagocytic mononuclear cells of sheep and that dissemination precedes tumor formation. Infection of lymphoid tissue, therefore, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SPA.  (+info)

Novel endogenous type D retroviral particles expressed at high levels in a SCID mouse thymic lymphoma. (3/68)

A xenograft model of the human disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was investigated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Transplantation of human LCH biopsy material into SCID mice resulted in the generation of mouse tumors resembling lymphomas. A thymoma cell line (ThyE1M6) was generated from one of these mice and found to display significant levels of Mg2+-dependent reverse transcriptase activity. Electron microscopy revealed particles with type D retroviral morphology budding from ThyE1M6 cells at a high frequency, whereas control cultures were negative. Reverse transcription-PCR of virion RNA with degenerate primers for conserved regions of various mouse, human, and primate retroviruses amplified novel sequences related to primate type D retroviruses, murine intracisternal A particles, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, and murine long interspersed nuclear elements but not other retroviral classes. We demonstrate that these sequences represent a novel group of endogenous retroviruses expressed at low levels in mice but expressed at high levels in the ThyE1M6 cell line. Furthermore, we propose that the activation of endogenous retroviral elements may be associated with a high incidence of thymomas in SCID mice.  (+info)

Improved Mg2+-based reverse transcriptase assay for detection of primate retroviruses. (4/68)

The reverse transcriptase (RT) assay is a simple, relatively inexpensive, widely used assay that can detect all retroviruses (known and novel retroviruses as well as infectious and defective retroviruses) on the basis of the divalent cation requirement of their RT enzyme, i.e., Mg2+ or Mn2+. Descriptions of various RT assays have been published; however, they cannot be directly applied to the analysis of biological products or clinical samples without further standardization to determine the lower limit of virus detection (sensitivity), assay variability (reproducibility), or ability to detect different retroviruses (specificity). We describe the detection of type E and type D primate retroviruses, which may be pathogenic for humans, by a new 32P-based, Mg2+-containing RT assay. The results show that the sensitivity of detection is <3.2 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50s) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and <1 TCID50 for simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a rhesus macaque (SIVmac). Analysis of recombinant HIV-1 RT enzyme indicated that 10(-5) U, which is equivalent to 4.25 x 10(4) virions, could be detected. Additionally, genetically distinct type D retroviruses such as simian AIDS retrovirus and squirrel monkey retrovirus were also detected in the assay with similar sensitivities. Thus, the improved RT assay can be used to detect genetically divergent Mg2+-dependent retroviruses of human and simian origin that can infect human cells and that therefore pose a potential health risk to humans.  (+info)

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is necessary and sufficient to induce a contagious lung cancer in sheep. (5/68)

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA) is a contagious and experimentally transmissible lung cancer of sheep resembling human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. A type D retrovirus, known as jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), has been associated with the etiology of SPA, but its exact role in the induction of the tumor has not been clear due to the lack of (i) a tissue culture system for the propagation of JSRV and (ii) an infectious JSRV molecular clone. To investigate the role of JSRV in the etiology of SPA, we isolated a full-length JSRV proviral clone, pJSRV21, from a tumor genomic DNA library derived from a natural case of SPA. pJSRV21 was completely sequenced and showed open reading frames in agreement with those deduced for the original South African strain of JSRV. In vivo transfection of three newborn lambs by intratracheal inoculation with pJSRV21 DNA complexed with cationic lipids showed that pJSRV21 is an infectious molecular clone. Viral DNA was detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the transfected animals by a highly sensitive JSRV-U3 heminested PCR at various time points ranging from 2 weeks to 6 months posttransfection. In addition, proviral DNA was detected in the PBMCs, lungs, and mediastinal lymph nodes of two lambs sacrificed 9 months posttransfection, but no macroscopic or histological SPA lesion was induced. We prepared JSRV particles by transient transfection of 293T cells with a JSRV construct (pCMV2JS21) in which the upstream U3 was replaced with the cytomegalovirus early promoter. Four newborn lambs were inoculated with JSRV21 particles produced in this manner, and two of them showed the classical signs of SPA 4 months postinfection. The resulting tumors were positive for JSRV DNA and protein. Thus, JSRV21 is an infectious and pathogenic molecular clone and is necessary and sufficient to induce sheep pulmonary adenomatosis.  (+info)

Identification of novel import and export signals of human TAP, the protein that binds to the constitutive transport element of the type D retrovirus mRNAs. (6/68)

The nuclear export of the unspliced type D retrovirus mRNA depends on the cis-acting constitutive transport RNA element (CTE) that has been shown to interact with the human TAP (hTAP) protein promoting the export of the CTE-containing mRNAs. We report here that hTAP is a 619-amino-acid protein extending the previously identified protein by another 60 residues at the N terminus and that hTAP shares high homology with the predicted rat and mouse TAP proteins. We found that hTAP is a nuclear protein that accumulates in the nuclear rim and the nucleoplasm. We further demonstrated that hTAP is able to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Identification of the signals responsible for nuclear import (NLS) and export (NES) revealed that they are distinct but partially overlapping. NLS and NES of hTAP are active transferable signals that do not share similarities with known elements. The C-terminal portion contributes further to hTAP's nuclear retention and contains a signal(s) for nuclear rim association. Taken together, our data show that hTAP is a dynamic protein capable of bidirectional trafficking across the nuclear envelope. These data further support hTAP's role as an export factor of the CTE-containing mRNAs.  (+info)

In vitro infection of ovine cell lines by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. (7/68)

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA), also known as jaagsiekte or ovine pulmonary carcinoma, is a contagious lung cancer of sheep, originating from type II pneumocytes and Clara cells. Previous studies have implicated a type D retrovirus (jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus [JSRV]) as the causative agent of SPA. We recently isolated a proviral clone of JSRV from an animal with a spontaneous case of SPA (JSRV(21)) and showed that it harbors an infectious and oncogenic virus. This demonstrated that JSRV is necessary and sufficient to induce SPA. A major impediment in research on JSRV has been the lack of an in vitro tissue culture system for the virus. The experiments reported here show the first successful in vitro infection with this virus, using the JSRV(21) clone. JSRV(21) virus was obtained by transiently transfecting human 293T cells with a plasmid containing the JSRV(21) provirus driven by the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter. Virus produced in this manner exhibited reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that banded at 1.15 g/ml in sucrose density gradients. Infection of concentrated JSRV(21) into ovine choroid plexus (CP), testes (OAT-T3), turbinate (FLT), and intestinal carcinoma (ST6) cell lines resulted in establishment of infection as measured by PCR amplification. Evidence that this reflected genuine infection included the fact that heat inactivation of the virus eliminated it, the levels of viral DNA increased with passage of the infected cells, and the infected cells released active RT as measured by the sensitive product enhancement RT assay. The RT activity released from the infected cells banded at 1.15 g/ml, and JSRV(21) provirus was transmitted from infected cells to uninfected ones by cocultivation. However, the amount of virus released from infected cells was low. These results suggest that the JSRV receptor is present on many ovine cell types and that the observed restriction of JSRV expression in vivo to tumor cells might be controlled by factors other than the viral receptor. Finally we tagged the U3 of pJSRV(21) with the bacterial supF gene, an amber suppressor tRNA gene. The resulting clone, termed pJSRV(supF), is infectious in vitro. It may be a useful tool for future studies on viral DNA integration, since the normal sheep genome contains 15 to 20 copies of highly JSRV-related endogenous sequences that cross-react with many JSRV hybridization probes.  (+info)

Porcine endogenous retroviral mRNAs in pancreas and a panel of tissues from specific pathogen-free pigs. (8/68)

Pigs are potential providers of donor tissues for xenotransplantation (e.g. of pancreatic islets) in Type 1 diabetes. In this context, our group has studied the use of islets from specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs as a means of reducing the risks of "conventional zoonosis". Although this approach does not prevent the transmission of pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV) to humans, we attempted to determine the presence of C-type PERV mRNAs for gag, pol, and env subtypes as a first descriptive step in the retroviral characterisation of SPF pig tissues (especially pancreas). Using semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase polymer chain reaction with 18S rRNA and beta-actin as internal controls, PERV mRNA levels were compared in a large panel of tissues from SPF and conventional pigs. PERV mRNAs for gag, pol, env-A and env-B were present in all tissues studied from the nine SPF pigs tested. Signals for env-C mRNAs were of much lower intensity than those for env-A and B, and most often undetectable in pancreas. The mRNA levels for gag, pol, env-A, env-B and env-C mRNAs were lower in pancreas (p < 0.01) than in all other tissues. Among other porcine tissues likely to be grafted in man, the highest retroviral mRNA levels were detected in kidney (p < 0.01), followed by liver, lung and heart. Amplified PERV mRNA signals were about 17 times less frequent in pig pancreas than in the retroviral-producing porcine cell line G2, while kidney contained about 6 times more PERV mRNAs than pancreas. The levels of gag, pol, env-A, env-B, and env-C mRNAs also varied between tissues of conventional pigs: PERV mRNA levels were lowest in pancreas, and env-C mRNAs were most often undetectable. For all SPF tissues tested, pol, gag, env-A, env-B, and env-C mRNA levels were in the same range or slightly higher than in corresponding tissues of conventional pigs. In summary, this study of C-type PERV mRNAs in a large panel of tissues from SPF pigs, in the context of our strategy of quality assurance and sanitary control, indicated that PERV mRNA levels were in the same range in SPF and corresponding conventional pig tissues, confirming that the use of SPF pigs would not prevent the risk of PERV transmission to human recipients of xenografts. PERV-A and PERV-B may be mainly represented, and PERV-C much less, in these pig tissues (particularly pancreas). The fact that pancreas expressed the lowest PERV mRNA levels and kidney the highest, among porcine tissues likely to be grafted, could be of interest from a clinical point of view. Pig tissues may differ in their loads of PERV sequences, which could be a factor in the risk of PERV transmission during xenotransplantation.  (+info)

*Retrovirus

Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...

*Retrovirus

Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...

*Virus-Taxonomie

Genus Betaretrovirus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus. *Genus Deltaretrovirus. *Genus Epsilonretrovirus. *Genus Lentivirus (mit Species ...

*Mouse mammary tumor virus

It belongs to the genus Betaretrovirus. MMTV was formerly known as Bittner virus, and previously the "milk factor", referring ...

*Simian retrovirus

"An updated review of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) in macaque hosts". J Med Primatol. 39: 303-314. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0684.2010. ...

*Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus

Hopwood P, Wallace WA, Cousens C, Dewar P, Muldoon M, Norval M, Griffiths DJ (2010). "Absence of markers of betaretrovirus ... Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a betaretrovirus which is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep, ... JSRV belongs to the family Retroviridae, to the subfamily Orthoretrovirinae and the genus Betaretrovirus. JSRV is transmitted ...

*HYAL2

"Role of virus receptor Hyal2 in oncogenic transformation of rodent fibroblasts by sheep betaretrovirus env proteins". J. Virol ...

*Equine foamy virus

... betaretrovirus, gammaretrovirus, deltaretrovirus, epsilonretrovirus and lentiretrovirus. The separation of foamy viruses under ...

*SRV

... a Betaretrovirus SRV, the IATA code for the airport of Stony River, Alaska. ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Betaretrovirus Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus Langur virus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Mouse mammary tumor virus Squirrel monkey ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... betaretrovirus MeSH B04.820.650.124.500 --- mammary tumor virus, mouse MeSH B04.820.650.124.520 --- mason-pfizer monkey virus ... betaretrovirus MeSH B04.909.574.807.124.500 --- mammary tumor virus, mouse MeSH B04.909.574.807.124.520 --- mason-pfizer monkey ... betaretrovirus MeSH B04.909.777.731.124.500 --- mammary tumor virus, mouse MeSH B04.909.777.731.124.520 --- mason-pfizer monkey ...

*List of genera of viruses

Betaguttavirus Betalipothrixvirus Betanecrovirus Betanodavirus Betanudivirus Betapapillomavirus Betapartitivirus Betaretrovirus ...

*Betaretrovirus

... is a genus of the Retroviridae family. It has type B or type D morphology. The type B is common for a few ...

*dsDNA-RT virus

Betaretrovirus. *Mouse mammary tumor virus. *Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Deltaretrovirus *Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1 ...

*Lentivirus

Betaretrovirus. *Mouse mammary tumor virus. *Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Deltaretrovirus *Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1 ...
Vla-da Cr-ne Go-re pot-pi-sa-la je kra-jem proš-log tjed-na pr-vi ugo-vor o is-tra-ži-va-nju i eks-plo-ata-ci-ji ug-lji-ko-vo-di-ka u cr-no-gor-skom pod-mor-ju s ta-li-jan-sko-ru-skim kon-zor-ci-jem ko-ji či-ne Eni i No-va-tek, a ra-do-vi bi tre-ba-li po-če-ti ove go-di-ne. Ugo-vor ko-ji je ve-ri-fi-ci-ran, bit će pros-li-je-đen par-la-men-tu na ko-nač-no odo-bre-nje. Usva-ja-nje se oče-ku-je u krat-kom ro-ku. Kom-pa-ni-je su se ugo-vo-rom obve-za-le da će iz-vr-ši-ti tri obvez-ne i jed-nu us-luž-nu bu-šo-ti-nu. To je rad-ni pro-gram ko-ji u pr-vom raz-dob-lju is-tra-ži-va-nja ima vri-jed-nost od 85 mi-li-ju-na eura, a u dru-gom 12 mi-li-ju-na.. ...
WASHINGTON (AP) - Amgen Inc. has won federal approval for the second medicine in a new class of pricey biotech drugs that reduce artery-clogging cholesterol more than older statin drugs that have been used for decades.The drug Repatha could eventually help millions of Americans who face increased risks of heart disease because they cannot control their cholesterol with existing drugs and methods. But concerns about the injectable medications price tag and long-term benefits will likely limit its use in the near-term. ...
Mice of the I/LnJ inbred strain are unique in their ability to mount a robust and sustained humoral immune response capable of neutralizing infection with a betaretrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). Virus-neutralizing antibodies (Abs) coat MMTV virions secreted by infected cells, preventing virus spread and hence the formation of mammary tumors. To investigate whether I/LnJ mice resist infection with other retroviruses besides MMTV, the animals were infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a gammaretrovirus. MuLV-infected I/LnJ mice produced virus-neutralizing Abs that block virus transmission and virally induced disease. Generation of virus-neutralizing Abs required gamma interferon but was independent of interleukin-12. This unique mechanism of retrovirus resistance is governed by a single recessive gene, virus infectivity controller 1 (vic1), mapped to chromosome 17. In addition to controlling the antivirus humoral immune response, vic1 is also required for an antiviral
Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus) genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and delta-retroviral genera for initial searches, a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus), was 10434 nucleotide (nt) in length with the usual retroviral genome structure of 5LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-3LTR. The LTRs were 1361 nt long, and differed approximately 1% from each other, suggestive of a relatively recent integration. Coding sequences for gag, pro and pol were present in three different reading-frames, as common for beta-retroviruses, and the reading frames were completely open, except that the env gene was interrupted by a single stopcodon. No reading frame was apparent ...
Contagious Respiratory Tumours Also known as: Jaagsiekte, Pulmonary Adenomatosis and Adenomatosis - Pulmonary There are two neoplastic conditions which result in contagious respiratory tumours (or contagious lung cancer) in small ruminants: Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma (also known as ODA, She...
Grad-nja mos-ta pre-ko Sa-ve u Svi-la-ju tre-ba-la bi po-če-ti na-kon što su od-bi-je-ne žal-be na iz-bor iz-vo-đa-ča ra-do-va, pre-no-se me-di-ji u BiH. Ri-ječ je o di-oni-ci auto-ces-te u Hr-vat-skoj od Sre-da-na-ca do gra-ni-ce BiH te u BiH od Odža-ka do gra-ni-ce.. ...
Southern hybridization was also used to investigate the variability in TvERV(D) structure within the genomes of possums.NheI-digested genomic DNA from 12 possums was hybridized with the gag probe described above (Fig. 4B). The TvERV(D) LTRs contain a single NheI site within the U3 region. Neither the TvERV(D) contig nor pTvERV(D) contained any additionalNheI sites, and hybridization of NheI-digested possum DNA to the gag probe would be expected to detect an ∼9.5-kb band generated by restriction within only the LTRs of these proviruses. pTvERV(D)-env, on the other hand, possesses anNheI cut site at nt 1228 to 1233, and NheI digestion of TvERV(D) elements containing intact env genes would be expected to produce an ∼6.6-kb band by digestion within the 5′ LTR and env sites. As can be seen in Fig. 4B,NheI digestion of the DNA of 12 possums and hybridization with the gag probe detected the expected ∼9.5- and ∼6.6-kb bands. In addition, several other NheI fragments, ranging in size from ...
Rasko JE, Battini JL, Gottschalk RJ, Mazo I, Miller AD. The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acidtransporter.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 2;96(5):2129-34. PMID: 10051606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. The RD114/simian type D retroviruses, which include the feline endogenous retrovirus RD114, all strains of simian immunosuppressive type D retroviruses, the avian reticuloendotheliosis group including spleen necrosis virus, and baboon endogenous virus, use a common cell-surface receptor for cell entry. We have used a retroviral cDNA library approach, involving transfer and expression of cDNAs from highly infectable HeLa cells to nonpermissive NIH 3T3 mouse cells, to clone and identify this receptor. The cloned cDNA, denoted RDR, is an allele of the previously cloned neutral amino acid transporter ATB0 (SLC1A5). Both RDR and ATB0 serve as retrovirus receptors and both show specific transport of neutral amino acids. We have localized the receptor by radiation hybrid ...
The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on
Insertional mutagenesis approaches use oncoretroviruses or transposons to trigger cancer in mice by widespread integration into the cellular genome and activation of oncogenes near the integration site. Mapping the genomic integration sites in tumors allows the identification of genomic regions that are recurrently hit in independent tumors (defined as Common Insertion Sites, CIS) (5), which host genes likely involved in cancer development (6).. We have recently developed a new specifically tailored LV-based insertional mutagen that allowed the induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in 3 different mouse models (4). In order to identify the integration sites from LV-induced tumors and control nontumoral samples, we exploited LAM-PCR (1) followed by 454 pyrosequencing. The analysis of LV integrations in tumors allowed the identification of 4 new liver cancer genes. Here we describe how we applied the LAM-PCR protocol1 for the retrieval of LV integrations from the hepatocellular carcinomas induced ...
1BAX: The three-dimensional solution structure of the matrix protein from the type D retrovirus, the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and implications for the morphology of retroviral assembly.
Many mammalian and viral genes are alternatively spliced and subject to regulation at the post- transcriptional level. However, relatively little is known about the cellular mechanisms for this regulation. We are using retroviruses as model systems to elucidate these mechanisms. Some of our studies focus on HIV Rev, an essential HIV protein. Rev mediates the nucleo-cytoplasmic export of unspliced and incompletely spliced HIV RNAs and provides an important HIV drug target. Another major focus of the laboratory is the function of the constitutive transport element (CTE). The CTE interacts directly with host cell proteins to facilitate export of intron containing RNA. We are currently analyzing the function of cellular proteins that are involved in the CTE mediated export pathway. One is NXF1 (TAP), a protein which has been proposed to play an essential role in cellular mRNA export. A second protein under study is NXT1, an important TAP cofactor. CTE function is also enhanced by SAM68, a major ...
Looking for online definition of sclerosing adenomatosis in the Medical Dictionary? sclerosing adenomatosis explanation free. What is sclerosing adenomatosis? Meaning of sclerosing adenomatosis medical term. What does sclerosing adenomatosis mean?
Foamy viruses (FVs) differ from all other genera of retroviruses (orthoretroviruses) in many aspects of viral replication. In this review, we discuss FV assembly, with special emphasis on Pol incorporation. FV assembly takes place intracellularly, near the pericentriolar region, at a site similar to that used by betaretroviruses. The regions of Gag, Pol and genomic RNA required for viral assembly are described. In contrast to orthoretroviral Pol, which is synthesized as a Gag-Pol fusion protein and packaged through Gag-Gag interactions, FV Pol is synthesized from a spliced mRNA lacking all Gag sequences. Thus, encapsidation of FV Pol requires a different mechanism. We detail how WT Pol lacking Gag sequences is incorporated into virus particles. In addition, a mutant in which Pol is expressed as an orthoretroviral-like Gag-Pol fusion protein is discussed. We also discuss temporal regulation of the protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase activities of WT FV Pol.
OncoLink, the Webs first cancer resource,provides comprehensive information on coping with cancer, cancer treatments, cancer research advances, continuing medical education, cancer prevention, and clinical trials
A nasal polyp that does not appear gray and opalescent should arouse suspicion, as should a polyp that bleeds spontaneously. A solid-looking hyperemic polyp
Endogenous retroviruses are relics of ancient infections from retroviruses that managed to integrate into the genome of germline cells and remained vertically transmitted from parent to progeny. Subsequent to the endogenization process, these sequences can move and multiply in the host genome, which can have deleterious consequences and disturb genomic stability. Natural selection favored the establishment of silencing pathways that protect host genomes from the activity of endogenous retroviruses. RNA silencing mechanisms are involved, which utilize piRNAs. The response to exogenous viral infections uses siRNAs, a class of small RNAs that are generated via a distinct biogenesis pathway from piRNAs. However, interplay between both pathways has been identified, and interactions with anti-bacterial and anti-fungal immune responses are also suspected. This review focuses on Diptera (Arthropods) and intends to compile pieces of evidence showing that the RNA silencing pathway of endogenous retrovirus
Ventilation and some sunshine could go a long way to reduce tuberculosis risks in hospitals and prisons, two strongholds of the contagious lung disease, the World Health Organization said.
Berv, J. S. & Prum, R.O. 2014. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae, Aves) with a comparative evolutionary analysis of breeding system and plumage dimorphism and a revised phylogenetic classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81: 120-136. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.001 Full article (PDF)Reference page ...
Optimus- Its just an answer. Maybe if it were an exogenous retrovirus, we could try antiretrovirals…. PaperHand- Its actually rather odd that humans dont have a retrovirus that exists in exogenous and endogenous form (another reason scientists were wary about the MS virus being endogenous)- lots of other species do (eg MMTV).. Jason- When BPR3 started it was super-serial. I am not a serious blagger, so I felt it was inappropriate for me to join their group. Now I might, but Im just not in the habit.. Mito and Sili- Dunno. Active ERV proteins could be a cause of MS, an effect of the cause of MS, or an effect of a cause that ends up perpetuating MS. So even though the putative ERV gene is on X, what starts the production of the protein might not be on X, thus wouldnt be sex-linked.. And its really hard to figure this all out because we all have the same ERVs (see tims comment, #2). Our lab is currently playing some scientific tricks with mice that lack certain ERVs to see what happens to them ...
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
Erin joins the TWiVirions to discuss a computer exploit encoded in DNA, creation of pigs free of endogenous retroviruses, and mutations in the gene encoding an innate sensor of RNA in children with severe viral respiratory disease.. ...
The exogenous simian type D retroviruses (SRV) are a group of closely related viruses that have been isolated from Asian monkeys. These isolates are related to the prototypic type D retrovirus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV). SRV has been isolated from many macaque species including rhesus, cynomolgus, and pig-tailed monkeys. Although all macaque species appear susceptible to all serotypes, some general serotype-host species associations have been recognized. Cynomolgus and pig-tailed macaques are predominantly infected with serotype 2, while in rhesus SRV-1 is the predominant serotype. Prevalence of SRV infection in captive populations of macaques is variable. Geographic origin of animals, as well as management and husbandry practices, are factors influencing the level of SRV endemicity in macaque populations.. SRV has a broad cellular tropism, including both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. SRV can be demonstrated in many tissues and organs and has been isolated from many body fluids, ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[3] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease. The role of endogenous retroviruses in human gene evolution is explored in a 2005 peer-reviewed article.[4]. While transcription was classically thought to only occur ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - G2 Cell Cycle Arrest and Cyclophilin A in Lentiviral Gene Transfer. AU - Zhang, Shangming. AU - Joseph, Guiandre. AU - Pollok, Karen. AU - Berthoux, Lionel. AU - Sastry, Lakshmi. AU - Luban, Jeremy. AU - Cornetta, Kenneth. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Lentiviral vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have a higher propensity to transduce nondividing cells compared to vectors based on oncoretroviruses. We report here that genistein, a previously known protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor and G2 cell cycle arrest inducer, significantly enhanced lentiviral transduction in a dose-dependent manner. Increased transduction, as measured by vector expression, was seen in a variety of human cell lines, murine primary lymphocytes, and primary human CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells as well. Increased vector expression was also associated with an increase in vector DNA copy number, as assessed by quantitative PCR. Genistein-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest, ...
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma is a contagious viral disease of sheep that results in pulmonary neoplasia in some animals. The economic impact can be significant: up to 80% of the flock can be lost upon first exposure to the virus, with continuing losses that may be as high as 20% each year in some flocks. Excluding this disease from a flock is difficult, in part because no diagnostic test can detect animals in the preclinical stage. No effective treatment or vaccine is available, and eradication is challenging. Currently, ovine pulmonary adenomatosis exists in most sheep-raising areas of the world, with the exception of New Zealand and Australia. Iceland is the only country to have successfully eradicated this disease.
The Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene plays an important role in mammalian urogenital development, and dysregulation of this gene is observed in many human cancers. Alternative splicing of WT1 RNA leads to the expression of two major protein isoforms, WT1(+KTS) and WT1(−KTS). Whereas WT1(−KTS) acts as a transcriptional regulator, no clear function has been ascribed to WT1(+KTS), despite the fact that this protein is crucial for normal development. Here we show that WT1(+KTS) functions to enhance expression from RNA possessing a retained intron and containing either a cellular or viral constitutive transport element (CTE). WT1(+KTS) expression increases the levels of unspliced RNA containing a CTE and specifically promotes the association of this RNA with polyribosomes. These studies provide further support for links between different steps in RNA metabolism and for the existence of post-transcriptional operons. ...
Over 40% of mammalian genomes comprise the products of reverse transcription. Among such retrotransposed sequences are those characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs), including the endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are inherited genetic elements closely resembling the proviruses formed following exogenous retrovirus infection. Sequences derived from ERVs make up at least 8 to 10% of the human and mouse genomes and range from ancient sequences that predate mammalian divergence to elements that are currently still active. In this chapter we describe the discovery, classification and origins of ERVs in mammals and consider cellular mechanisms that have evolved to control their expression. We also discuss the negative effects of ERVs as agents of genetic disease and cancer and review examples of ERV protein domestication to serve host functions, as in placental development. Finally, we address growing evidence that the gene regulatory potential of ERV LTRs has been exploited
The current edition of the New Yorker magazine has a fascinating story about endogenous retroviruses in the genomes of humans and other species. Although researchers have known about such non-functional retroviral fossils in the human genome for some time, the large amount of recent genomic data u...
Cytological, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of pulmonary carcinomas with basaloid features | John P. Crapanzano; Kristina Loukeris; Alain C. Borczuk; Anjali Saqi | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are endogenous viral elements in the genome that closely resemble and can be derived from retroviruses. They are abundant in the genomes of jawed vertebrates, and they comprise up to 5-8% of the human genome (lower estimates of ~1%). ERVs are a subclass of a type of gene called a transposon, which can be packaged and moved within the genome to serve a vital role in gene expression and in regulation. They are distinguished as retrotransposons, which are Class I elements. Researchers have suggested that retroviruses evolved from a type of transposable gene called a retrotransposon, which includes ERVs; these genes can mutate and instead of moving to another location in the genome they can become exogenous or pathogenic. This means that not all ERVs may have originated as an insertion by a retrovirus but that some may have been the source for the genetic information in the retroviruses they resemble. When integration of viral DNA occurs in the germ-line, it can give ...
This question reveals a misunderstanding of the case for common descent from ERVs. Retroviruses occasionally cross to other species, often distantly related ones, such as from gibbons to koalas. They can also become endogenous in two distantly related species. The presence of the same retroviruses or ERVs is not evidence for common ancestry. It is ERVs in corresponding locations in the DNA of two species that is evidence of common descent - because a bunch of them are highly unlikely (to say the least) to have ended up in corresponding locations, by chance, from independent infections. The only viable explanation is that both species inherited the corresponding ERVs from the same ancestors. Inheritance guarantees corresponding locations. Separate infections do not. ...
1. Nucleic-acid mediated immunity & Inflammation· Innate immune sensing pathways of foreign RNA/DNA · Innate immune sensing of endogenous retroviruses and inflamm...
Modular Fluid Dispensing Devices | SAMPLE VESSEL ASSEMBLY | LABORATORY PRODUCT TRANSPORT ELEMENT AND PATH ARRANGEMENT | ASSAY TESTING DIAGNOSTIC ANALYZER | METHODS FOR CANNABINOID QUANTIFICATION |
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Teenage Engineering PO-33 K.O. Teenage Engineering PO-33 K.O., Micro-Sampler; Built-in Mic; 40 sec. sampling time; 8 Melody-Sample-Slots; 8 Drum-Slots; 16-Step Sequenzer; 16 Patterns; 16 Effects; parameter locks; Built-in speaker; 3.5mm audio I/O; Jam sync; Animated LCD display; Folding stand; Break away lock tab; Clock... Al prodotto ...
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util-linux (4034), cups (2187), mono (665), glibc (27), mesa, avahi, tasksel (2), krb5 (1851), systemd, gtk+2.0 (1729), e2fsprogs (1545), gnupg2 (2187), pam (122), grub2, samba, vlc (5979), lvm2, vim, gvfs (411), gtk+3.0 (2227), pulseaudio, apt (715), gcr, boost1.62, policykit-1, glib2.0 (1083), gconf, gettext (2), gdk-pixbuf (211), atk1.0 (169), cups-filters, network-manager, python-apt (137), evince, evolution-data-server, colord, debconf (74), texinfo (192), dpkg (599), cogl (80), speech-dispatcher, newt (4), shadow (589), xz-utils (156), gst-plugins-base1.0 (198), caribou, p11-kit (81), aptitude (1582), packagekit, acl (52), sane-backends (1038), glib-networking (29), rygel (303), gnome-online-accounts, tracker, rhythmbox, at-spi2-core (2), libsoup2.4, gimp, totem, firefox-esr, json-glib, aspell (294), libgphoto2 (76), heimdal (178), procps (792), zeitgeist (2), libgnome, brltty (796), network-manager-applet, upower, brasero, linux, libsecret, system-config-printer, v4l-utils (156), parted ...
Connect with Featured Speakers and Experts from USA, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific at Retroviruses and Novel drug Conferences, Emerging Retroviruses and Novel drug Conferences, Retroviruses and Novel drug Meetings scheduled from July 27-28, 2017 Vancoure,Canada
An exogenous retrovirus (XRV) that integrates into a germ cell may be inherited as a Mendelian gene; it becomes an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). The human genome consists of up to 8% HERVs.. The gammaretroviral (ERV class I) HERV-H, with 926 members, is the largest ERV group. Despite millions of years since integration, it has polymorphic envelope open reading frames in at least three loci. Selections for functional envelopes are indicated on chromosomes 1 and 2. However, envelopes were present only in a fraction of the total HERV-H. Mutated polymerases, indicating old ERVs, contradicted relatively intact long terminal repeats. To explain this, we formulated a "Midwife" element theory where proteins are complemented in trans.. A phylogenetic analysis did not support separate HERV-H and -F groups. The new taxonomy included HERV-H like (RGH2-like and RTVLH2-like subgroups) and Adjacent HERV-H like. A bioinformatic reconstruction of a putative ancestral HERV-H exposed novel traits. Two nucleocapsid ...
Not all nasal congestion is due to inflammation. In some cases, inability to breathe through the nose is due to the growth of nasal polyps.
Retroviruses replicate by integrating a DNA version of their genomes (called a provirus) into host DNA. The provirus consists of several genes, all of them oriented to the retroviral replication cycle. But these genes are useless to the process unless they are transcribed back into RNA by the host. This is why retroviral genomes also include transcription promoters. Retroviral promoters are called Long Term Repeats, or LTRs. They are very powerful and indiscriminate promoters likely to promote some "native" DNA as well as retroviral genes - the retrovirus doesnt "care". There are many "solo LTRs" which can be understood as remnants of mutational and recombination events in the genome. Drop an LTR at random into a hosts genome, and there is a good chance it will promote something. Just as with more conventionally understood mutations, some of these will be harmful, some will have little or no effect, and some will be beneficial. As these are heritable, good old natural selection will go to work ...
Endogenous retroviruses wormed into the human genome eons ago. Today viral genes continue to produce a variety of mysterious proteins in the body ...
Engineered retrovirii also have great potential for curing genetic diseases, and possibly other viral diseases. Their most important property is that th...

Retroviridae - The Full WikiRetroviridae - The Full Wiki

Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Retroviridae

Plus itPlus it

These results confirmed electron microscope observations that a betaretrovirus was present in milk from healthy women and those ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/71/8_Supplement/2302

Identification of Atypic and Classic, Mucinous and Nonmucinous Forms of Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma (OPA) and TTF1 Marker...Identification of Atypic and Classic, Mucinous and Nonmucinous Forms of Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma (OPA) and TTF1 Marker...

2010) Absence of markers of betaretrovirus infection in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol. 41: 1631-1640.## ... is a worldwide contagious bronchioalveolar carcinoma caused by infection of a beta retrovirus in sheep and less in goat. ... Absence of markers of betaretrovirus infection in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol. 41: 1631-1640.## ...
more infohttps://ijvm.ut.ac.ir/article_63185.html

Replication of beta- and gammaretroviruses is restricted in I/LnJ mice by L K. Case, L Petell et al."Replication of beta- and gammaretroviruses is restricted in I/LnJ mice" by L K. Case, L Petell et al.

... their ability to mount a robust and sustained humoral immune response capable of neutralizing infection with a betaretrovirus, ... their ability to mount a robust and sustained humoral immune response capable of neutralizing infection with a betaretrovirus, ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/stfb2000_2009/1721/

Betaretrovirus - WikipediaBetaretrovirus - Wikipedia

Betaretrovirus is a genus of the Retroviridae family. It has type B or type D morphology. The type B is common for a few ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betaretrovirus

Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus)Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus)

... Journal ... The provirus, tentatively named EqERV-beta1 (for the first equine endogenous beta-retrovirus), was 10434 nucleotide (nt) in ... a full-length beta-retrovirus genome was retrieved from a horse chromosome 5 contig. ...
more infohttp://dare.uva.nl/search?metis.record.id=362037

Retrovirus - WikipediaRetrovirus - Wikipedia

Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SsRNA-RT_virus

Retrovirus - WikipediaRetrovirus - Wikipedia

Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retrovirus

Virus-Taxonomie - WikipediaVirus-Taxonomie - Wikipedia

Genus Betaretrovirus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus. *Genus Deltaretrovirus. *Genus Epsilonretrovirus. *Genus Lentivirus (mit Species ...
more infohttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus-Taxonomie

retrovirus facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about retrovirusretrovirus facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about retrovirus

Beta-retrovirus. intracytoplasmic assembly. mouse mammary tumor virus. mice. mammary and ovarian. (B- or D-type). carcinoma; ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/microbes-algae-and-fungi/moneran-and-protistan/retrovirus

Mouse mammary tumor virus - WikipediaMouse mammary tumor virus - Wikipedia

It belongs to the genus Betaretrovirus. MMTV was formerly known as Bittner virus, and previously the "milk factor", referring ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse_mammary_tumor_virus

Discovery of endogenous viruses | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesDiscovery of endogenous viruses | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Murine mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is the prototype beta-retrovirus. Breast cancer susceptibility in mice has taken a full ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/368/1626/20120494

Stoye JP[au] - PubMed - NCBIStoye JP[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Structure of the capsid amino-terminal domain from the betaretrovirus, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Stoye+JP%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Similar articles for PubMed (Select 17553872) - PubMed - NCBISimilar articles for PubMed (Select 17553872) - PubMed - NCBI

Cyclosporine A inhibits in vitro replication of betaretrovirus associated with primary biliary cirrhosis. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=17553872

Viruses  | Free Full-Text | Structural and Functional Comparisons of Retroviral Envelope Protein C-Terminal Domains: Still Much...Viruses | Free Full-Text | Structural and Functional Comparisons of Retroviral Envelope Protein C-Terminal Domains: Still Much...

JSRV is a retrovirus in the Betaretrovirus genus that is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). JSRV is ... Role of virus receptor Hyal2 in oncogenic transformation of rodent fibroblasts by sheep betaretrovirus env proteins. J. Virol. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/6/1/284/htm

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Xu L, Shen Z, Guo L, et al Does a betaretrovirus infection trigger primary biliary cirrhosis?. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100: ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/64/12/4105

Why was PERV not transmitted during preclinical and clinical xenotransplantation trials and after inoculation of animals? |...Why was PERV not transmitted during preclinical and clinical xenotransplantation trials and after inoculation of animals? |...

Ericsson T, Oldmixon B, Blomberg J, Rosa M, Patience C, Andersson G. Identification of novel porcine endogenous betaretrovirus ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12977-018-0411-8

ASMscience | Retroviral DNA TransposiASMscience | Retroviral DNA Transposi

... betaretrovirus MMTV is mouse mammary tumor virus; gammaretrovirus MMLV is Moloney murine leukemia virus; deltaretrovirus HTLV-1 ... betaretrovirus MMTV is mouse mammary tumor virus; gammaretrovirus MMLV is Moloney murine leukemia virus; deltaretrovirus HTLV-1 ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555819217.chap48

Frontiers | HERV-K(HML-2), the Best Preserved Family of HERVs: Endogenization, Expression, and Implications in Health and...Frontiers | HERV-K(HML-2), the Best Preserved Family of HERVs: Endogenization, Expression, and Implications in Health and...

... element resembles a typical betaretrovirus (31). As HERV-K(HML-2) elements, in addition to the four major ORFs for gag, pro, ... Colonization of the human genome by this betaretrovirus did not occur at the same frequency all the time: there were bursts of ... All HML families belong to the class II/betaretrovirus group, which also contain the endogenous and exogenous MMTV, Mason- ... indicates their relationship to the murine betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). More than 90 proviruses of the HML- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2013.00246/full

Evaluating the expression level of HERV-K env, np9, rec and gag in breast tissue | SpringerLinkEvaluating the expression level of HERV-K env, np9, rec and gag in breast tissue | SpringerLink

Furthermore, the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) as another risk factor, which is belonged to genus Betaretrovirus in cancer ... betaretrovirus-like) and class III (spumaretrovirus-like) [12, 13, 14, 15]. Among all HERV families, HERV-K has integrated into ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13027-019-0260-7

Endogenous Retroviruses and Cancer | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEndogenous Retroviruses and Cancer | Springer for Research & Development

Role of virus receptor Hyal2 in oncogenic transformation of rodent fibroblasts by sheep betaretrovirus env proteins. J. Virol. ... Putative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) binding motifs in ovine betaretrovirus Env proteins are not essential for rodent ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-09581-3_5
  • Mice of the I/LnJ inbred strain are unique in their ability to mount a robust and sustained humoral immune response capable of neutralizing infection with a betaretrovirus, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). (jax.org)
  • Absence of markers of betaretrovirus infection in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma Human Pathology 41(11):1631-1340. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Escalera-Zamudio M , Zepeda LM, Heeger F, Loza-Rubio E, Rojas-Anaya E, Méndez-Ojeda M, Taboada B, Mazzoni CJ , Arias CF, Greenwood AD (2015): A novel endogenous betaretrovirus in the common vampire bat ( Desmodus rotundus ) suggests multiple independent infection and cross-species transmission events. (leibniz-izw.de)
  • For several years, Dr. Andrew Mason at the University of Alberta has been studying the association between Primary Biliary Sclerosis, and a Betaretrovirus bearing a close resemblance to Murine Mammary Tumor virus. (blogspot.com)
  • Andrew Mason 's betaretrovirus associated with primary billiary cirrhosis, clinical trials with antiretrovirals ongoing, Sidney Grossberg 's JHK gammaretrovirus which he has identified in CFS patients, and Hervé Perron 's MSRV, particles from HERV-W transcripts, with an immunopathogenic envelope protein, severity of illness correlates to viral load, replication competence still unknown. (x-rx.net)
  • Here, we show that a region of basic residues in the capsid protein of the betaretrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) contributes to interaction of Gag with nucleic acid. (asm.org)
  • The best studied of these retroviral, post-transcriptional effectors are the trans-acting Rev protein of lentiviruses and the cis-acting constitutive transport element (CTE) of the betaretrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV). (umassmed.edu)