A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain karatasin and balansain (ENDOPEPTIDASES) and BROMELAINS.

Complete sequence of enzootic nasal tumor virus, a retrovirus associated with transmissible intranasal tumors of sheep. (1/68)

The sequence of the complete genome of ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus, an exogenous retrovirus associated exclusively with contagious intranasal tumors of sheep, was determined. The genome is 7,434 nucleotides long and exhibits a genetic organization characteristic of type B and D oncoviruses. Enzootic nasal tumor virus is closely related to the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and to sheep endogenous retroviruses.  (+info)

Jaagsiekte retrovirus is widely distributed both in T and B lymphocytes and in mononuclear phagocytes of sheep with naturally and experimentally acquired pulmonary adenomatosis. (2/68)

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a type D retrovirus specifically associated with a contagious lung tumor of sheep, sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA). JSRV replicates actively in the transformed epithelial cells of the lung, and JSRV DNA and RNA have been detected in lymphoid tissues of naturally affected animals. To determine the lymphoid target cells of JSRV, CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, B lymphocytes, and adherent cell (macrophage/monocyte) populations were isolated from the mediastinal lymph nodes of naturally affected sheep and lambs inoculated with JSRV. Cells were enriched to high purity and then analyzed for JSRV proviral DNA by heminested PCR, and the proviral burden was quantitated by limiting dilution analysis. JSRV proviral DNA was found in all subsets examined but not in appropriate negative controls. In sheep naturally affected with SPA, JSRV proviral burden was greatest in the adherent cell population. In the nonadherent lymphocyte population, surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells contained the greatest proviral burden, while CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contained the lowest levels of JSRV proviral DNA. In most of the cases (5 of 8), provirus also could be detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population. A kinetic study of JSRV infection in the mediastinal lymphocyte population of newborn lambs inoculated with JSRV found that JSRV proviral DNA could be detected as early as 7 days postinoculation before the onset of pulmonary adenomatosis, although the proviral burden was greatly reduced compared to adult natural cases. This was reflected in the levels found in PBMC since proviral DNA was detected in 2 of 13 animals. At the early time points studied (7 to 28 days postinoculation) no one subset was preferentially infected. These data indicate that JSRV can infect lymphoid and phagocytic mononuclear cells of sheep and that dissemination precedes tumor formation. Infection of lymphoid tissue, therefore, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SPA.  (+info)

Novel endogenous type D retroviral particles expressed at high levels in a SCID mouse thymic lymphoma. (3/68)

A xenograft model of the human disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was investigated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Transplantation of human LCH biopsy material into SCID mice resulted in the generation of mouse tumors resembling lymphomas. A thymoma cell line (ThyE1M6) was generated from one of these mice and found to display significant levels of Mg2+-dependent reverse transcriptase activity. Electron microscopy revealed particles with type D retroviral morphology budding from ThyE1M6 cells at a high frequency, whereas control cultures were negative. Reverse transcription-PCR of virion RNA with degenerate primers for conserved regions of various mouse, human, and primate retroviruses amplified novel sequences related to primate type D retroviruses, murine intracisternal A particles, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, and murine long interspersed nuclear elements but not other retroviral classes. We demonstrate that these sequences represent a novel group of endogenous retroviruses expressed at low levels in mice but expressed at high levels in the ThyE1M6 cell line. Furthermore, we propose that the activation of endogenous retroviral elements may be associated with a high incidence of thymomas in SCID mice.  (+info)

Improved Mg2+-based reverse transcriptase assay for detection of primate retroviruses. (4/68)

The reverse transcriptase (RT) assay is a simple, relatively inexpensive, widely used assay that can detect all retroviruses (known and novel retroviruses as well as infectious and defective retroviruses) on the basis of the divalent cation requirement of their RT enzyme, i.e., Mg2+ or Mn2+. Descriptions of various RT assays have been published; however, they cannot be directly applied to the analysis of biological products or clinical samples without further standardization to determine the lower limit of virus detection (sensitivity), assay variability (reproducibility), or ability to detect different retroviruses (specificity). We describe the detection of type E and type D primate retroviruses, which may be pathogenic for humans, by a new 32P-based, Mg2+-containing RT assay. The results show that the sensitivity of detection is <3.2 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50s) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and <1 TCID50 for simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a rhesus macaque (SIVmac). Analysis of recombinant HIV-1 RT enzyme indicated that 10(-5) U, which is equivalent to 4.25 x 10(4) virions, could be detected. Additionally, genetically distinct type D retroviruses such as simian AIDS retrovirus and squirrel monkey retrovirus were also detected in the assay with similar sensitivities. Thus, the improved RT assay can be used to detect genetically divergent Mg2+-dependent retroviruses of human and simian origin that can infect human cells and that therefore pose a potential health risk to humans.  (+info)

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus is necessary and sufficient to induce a contagious lung cancer in sheep. (5/68)

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA) is a contagious and experimentally transmissible lung cancer of sheep resembling human bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. A type D retrovirus, known as jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), has been associated with the etiology of SPA, but its exact role in the induction of the tumor has not been clear due to the lack of (i) a tissue culture system for the propagation of JSRV and (ii) an infectious JSRV molecular clone. To investigate the role of JSRV in the etiology of SPA, we isolated a full-length JSRV proviral clone, pJSRV21, from a tumor genomic DNA library derived from a natural case of SPA. pJSRV21 was completely sequenced and showed open reading frames in agreement with those deduced for the original South African strain of JSRV. In vivo transfection of three newborn lambs by intratracheal inoculation with pJSRV21 DNA complexed with cationic lipids showed that pJSRV21 is an infectious molecular clone. Viral DNA was detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the transfected animals by a highly sensitive JSRV-U3 heminested PCR at various time points ranging from 2 weeks to 6 months posttransfection. In addition, proviral DNA was detected in the PBMCs, lungs, and mediastinal lymph nodes of two lambs sacrificed 9 months posttransfection, but no macroscopic or histological SPA lesion was induced. We prepared JSRV particles by transient transfection of 293T cells with a JSRV construct (pCMV2JS21) in which the upstream U3 was replaced with the cytomegalovirus early promoter. Four newborn lambs were inoculated with JSRV21 particles produced in this manner, and two of them showed the classical signs of SPA 4 months postinfection. The resulting tumors were positive for JSRV DNA and protein. Thus, JSRV21 is an infectious and pathogenic molecular clone and is necessary and sufficient to induce sheep pulmonary adenomatosis.  (+info)

Identification of novel import and export signals of human TAP, the protein that binds to the constitutive transport element of the type D retrovirus mRNAs. (6/68)

The nuclear export of the unspliced type D retrovirus mRNA depends on the cis-acting constitutive transport RNA element (CTE) that has been shown to interact with the human TAP (hTAP) protein promoting the export of the CTE-containing mRNAs. We report here that hTAP is a 619-amino-acid protein extending the previously identified protein by another 60 residues at the N terminus and that hTAP shares high homology with the predicted rat and mouse TAP proteins. We found that hTAP is a nuclear protein that accumulates in the nuclear rim and the nucleoplasm. We further demonstrated that hTAP is able to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Identification of the signals responsible for nuclear import (NLS) and export (NES) revealed that they are distinct but partially overlapping. NLS and NES of hTAP are active transferable signals that do not share similarities with known elements. The C-terminal portion contributes further to hTAP's nuclear retention and contains a signal(s) for nuclear rim association. Taken together, our data show that hTAP is a dynamic protein capable of bidirectional trafficking across the nuclear envelope. These data further support hTAP's role as an export factor of the CTE-containing mRNAs.  (+info)

In vitro infection of ovine cell lines by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. (7/68)

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA), also known as jaagsiekte or ovine pulmonary carcinoma, is a contagious lung cancer of sheep, originating from type II pneumocytes and Clara cells. Previous studies have implicated a type D retrovirus (jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus [JSRV]) as the causative agent of SPA. We recently isolated a proviral clone of JSRV from an animal with a spontaneous case of SPA (JSRV(21)) and showed that it harbors an infectious and oncogenic virus. This demonstrated that JSRV is necessary and sufficient to induce SPA. A major impediment in research on JSRV has been the lack of an in vitro tissue culture system for the virus. The experiments reported here show the first successful in vitro infection with this virus, using the JSRV(21) clone. JSRV(21) virus was obtained by transiently transfecting human 293T cells with a plasmid containing the JSRV(21) provirus driven by the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter. Virus produced in this manner exhibited reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that banded at 1.15 g/ml in sucrose density gradients. Infection of concentrated JSRV(21) into ovine choroid plexus (CP), testes (OAT-T3), turbinate (FLT), and intestinal carcinoma (ST6) cell lines resulted in establishment of infection as measured by PCR amplification. Evidence that this reflected genuine infection included the fact that heat inactivation of the virus eliminated it, the levels of viral DNA increased with passage of the infected cells, and the infected cells released active RT as measured by the sensitive product enhancement RT assay. The RT activity released from the infected cells banded at 1.15 g/ml, and JSRV(21) provirus was transmitted from infected cells to uninfected ones by cocultivation. However, the amount of virus released from infected cells was low. These results suggest that the JSRV receptor is present on many ovine cell types and that the observed restriction of JSRV expression in vivo to tumor cells might be controlled by factors other than the viral receptor. Finally we tagged the U3 of pJSRV(21) with the bacterial supF gene, an amber suppressor tRNA gene. The resulting clone, termed pJSRV(supF), is infectious in vitro. It may be a useful tool for future studies on viral DNA integration, since the normal sheep genome contains 15 to 20 copies of highly JSRV-related endogenous sequences that cross-react with many JSRV hybridization probes.  (+info)

Porcine endogenous retroviral mRNAs in pancreas and a panel of tissues from specific pathogen-free pigs. (8/68)

Pigs are potential providers of donor tissues for xenotransplantation (e.g. of pancreatic islets) in Type 1 diabetes. In this context, our group has studied the use of islets from specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs as a means of reducing the risks of "conventional zoonosis". Although this approach does not prevent the transmission of pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV) to humans, we attempted to determine the presence of C-type PERV mRNAs for gag, pol, and env subtypes as a first descriptive step in the retroviral characterisation of SPF pig tissues (especially pancreas). Using semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase polymer chain reaction with 18S rRNA and beta-actin as internal controls, PERV mRNA levels were compared in a large panel of tissues from SPF and conventional pigs. PERV mRNAs for gag, pol, env-A and env-B were present in all tissues studied from the nine SPF pigs tested. Signals for env-C mRNAs were of much lower intensity than those for env-A and B, and most often undetectable in pancreas. The mRNA levels for gag, pol, env-A, env-B and env-C mRNAs were lower in pancreas (p < 0.01) than in all other tissues. Among other porcine tissues likely to be grafted in man, the highest retroviral mRNA levels were detected in kidney (p < 0.01), followed by liver, lung and heart. Amplified PERV mRNA signals were about 17 times less frequent in pig pancreas than in the retroviral-producing porcine cell line G2, while kidney contained about 6 times more PERV mRNAs than pancreas. The levels of gag, pol, env-A, env-B, and env-C mRNAs also varied between tissues of conventional pigs: PERV mRNA levels were lowest in pancreas, and env-C mRNAs were most often undetectable. For all SPF tissues tested, pol, gag, env-A, env-B, and env-C mRNA levels were in the same range or slightly higher than in corresponding tissues of conventional pigs. In summary, this study of C-type PERV mRNAs in a large panel of tissues from SPF pigs, in the context of our strategy of quality assurance and sanitary control, indicated that PERV mRNA levels were in the same range in SPF and corresponding conventional pig tissues, confirming that the use of SPF pigs would not prevent the risk of PERV transmission to human recipients of xenografts. PERV-A and PERV-B may be mainly represented, and PERV-C much less, in these pig tissues (particularly pancreas). The fact that pancreas expressed the lowest PERV mRNA levels and kidney the highest, among porcine tissues likely to be grafted, could be of interest from a clinical point of view. Pig tissues may differ in their loads of PERV sequences, which could be a factor in the risk of PERV transmission during xenotransplantation.  (+info)

A betaretrovirus is a type of retrovirus, which is a group of viruses that are characterized by their ability to integrate their genetic material into the DNA of the host cell. Betaretroviruses are further classified based on their specific genetic and biological properties. They are enveloped viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.

Betaretroviruses include several veterinary pathogens, such as mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) and jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). These viruses are associated with various types of cancer in their respective host species. For example, MMTV is associated with mammary tumors in mice, while JSRV is associated with a type of lung cancer in sheep.

It's important to note that betaretroviruses are not known to infect humans and there are no human diseases associated with this group of viruses.

The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a betaretrovirus, that naturally infects certain species of primates. It was first discovered in 1966 and has been studied extensively due to its ability to cause immunodeficiency in its host, similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

MPMV is not a significant threat to humans as it does not infect human cells efficiently. However, it has been used as a model system for studying retroviral replication and pathogenesis, which has contributed significantly to our understanding of HIV and other related viruses.

It's worth noting that MPMV should not be confused with SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus), another primate virus that is more closely related to HIV and can infect humans under certain circumstances, causing a disease known as AIDS.

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus (JSRV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily affects the respiratory system of sheep and goats. The term "jaagsiekte" comes from the Afrikaans language, meaning "chasing disease," which refers to the labored breathing and increased respiratory rate observed in infected animals.

JSRV is responsible for causing a contagious and fatal lung disease known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), also known as jaagsiekte. The virus infects the cells of the lungs, leading to the formation of tumors, which can ultimately result in respiratory failure and death.

JSRV is unique among retroviruses because it encodes an oncogene called env, which plays a crucial role in transforming infected lung cells into cancerous ones. This virally encoded oncogene interacts with host cell receptors, leading to the activation of signaling pathways that promote uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.

The virus is primarily transmitted through the respiratory route, either through direct contact with infected animals or by inhaling contaminated aerosols. In addition to its oncogenic properties, JSRV has also been implicated in other respiratory disorders, such as chronic interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia.

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus is an important model for understanding the mechanisms of retroviral-induced oncogenesis and holds potential implications for the development of novel cancer therapies.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are DNA sequences that have integrated into the genome of germ cells and are therefore passed down from parent to offspring through generations. These sequences are the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, where the retrovirus has become a permanent part of the host's genetic material.

Retroviruses are RNA viruses that replicate by reverse transcribing their RNA genome into DNA and integrating it into the host cell's genome. When this integration occurs in the germ cells, the retroviral DNA becomes a permanent part of the host organism's genome and is passed down to future generations.

Over time, many ERVs have accumulated mutations that render them unable to produce infectious viral particles. However, some ERVs remain capable of producing functional viral proteins and RNA, and may even be able to produce infectious viral particles under certain conditions. These active ERVs can play a role in various biological processes, both beneficial and detrimental, such as regulating gene expression, contributing to genome instability, and potentially causing disease.

It is estimated that up to 8% of the human genome consists of endogenous retroviral sequences, making them an important component of our genetic makeup.

Retroviridae infections refer to diseases caused by retroviruses, which are a type of virus that integrates its genetic material into the DNA of the host cell. This allows the virus to co-opt the cell's own machinery to produce new viral particles and infect other cells.

Some well-known retroviruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), which can cause certain types of cancer and neurological disorders.

Retroviral infections can have a range of clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response. HIV infection, for example, is characterized by progressive immunodeficiency that makes the infected individual susceptible to a wide range of opportunistic infections and cancers. HTLV infection, on the other hand, can cause adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma or tropical spastic paraparesis, a neurological disorder.

Prevention and treatment strategies for retroviral infections depend on the specific virus but may include antiretroviral therapy (ART), vaccination, and behavioral modifications to reduce transmission risk.

'Bromelia' is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Bromeliaceae, which includes over 3000 species. These plants are native to the Americas and are known for their rosette-shaped leaves that often form a water reservoir at the center of the plant. Some species of Bromelia are grown as ornamental plants, while others have commercial uses such as in the production of fiber or food (in the form of pineapple, which is the most well-known species of Bromelia).

It's worth noting that 'Bromelia' is not a medical term and does not have a specific definition within the field of medicine. However, certain compounds derived from Bromeliad plants have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effects.

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