Betalains: Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.Betacyanins: Conjugates of betalamic acid with cyclo-dopa, both of which derive from TYROSINE. They appear similar to INDOLES but are biosynthesized by a different path and contain N+. Members are red or violet COLORING AGENTS found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.Betaxanthins: Conjugates of betalamic acid with AMINO ACIDS. Some of them are yellow COLORING AGENTS in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS. This should not be confused with xanthin which is a term used for CAROTENES nor with XANTHINES.Cactaceae: The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Portulaca: A plant genus of the family PORTULACACEAE.Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Ipomoea batatas: A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. Some cultivars are sweet and edible whereas bitter varieties are a source of SAPONINS. This sweet potato is sometimes referred to as a yam (DIOSCOREA).Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Secondary Metabolism: A physiochemical process which occurs in a wide range of organisms which unlike BASAL METABOLISM is not required for or essential to short-term survivability but to long-term general well-being of the organism.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Bland White Garland Syndrome: A congenital coronary vessel anomaly in which the left main CORONARY ARTERY originates from the PULMONARY ARTERY instead of from AORTA. The congenital heart defect typically results in coronary artery FISTULA; LEFT-SIDED HEART FAILURE and MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY during the first months of life.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Oliguria: Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.Gnathostomiasis: Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Kinesis: Locomotor behavior not involving a steering reaction, but in which there may be a turning random in direction. It includes orthokinesis, the rate of movement and klinokinesis, the amount of turning, which are related to the intensity of stimulation.Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.PhilippinesTarsiidae: The single family of PRIMATES in the infraorder TARSII, suborder HAPLORHINI. It is comprised of one genus, Tarsius, that inhabits southern Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and the Philippines.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Dilleniaceae: A plant family of the order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Isocarboxazid: An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Geranylgeranyl-Diphosphate Geranylgeranyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Liriodendron: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. Members include hardwood trees of eastern North America with distinct large tuliplike flowers.Drimys: A plant genus of the family WINTERACEAE. They have leathery, elliptic-shaped leaves; red-tinged shoots; and jasmine-scented, cream-colored, 8- to 12-petaled, 2.5-centimeter (1-inch) flowers in clusters.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Nymphaeaceae: The sour gum plant family of the order Nymphaeales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. All have horizontal or hanging branches and broad alternate leaves, and they are dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants).Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Commelinaceae: A plant family of the order Commelinales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that are often somewhat succulent. The leaves are alternate, simple, parallel-veined, and usually with a closed sheathing base. The flowers are often in cymes and have 3 petals and 3 sepals.Tulipa: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion: A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Opuntia: A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.ItalySolar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Resedaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is a small family of herbs and shrubs. Some produce GLUCOSINOLATES.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Placentation: The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Chlorophyllides: Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Adenosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)TexasChenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Foeniculum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.

Effect of zinc deficiency on betacyanin production in a cell suspension culture of table beet (Beta vulgaris L.). (1/9)

The effect of microelements in the Linsmaier-Skoog (LS) medium on betacyanin production was investigated in suspension cultures of table beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Removing zinc from the medium resulted in a high betacyanin content of the cells, the betacyanin content of the cells decreasing with increasing zinc concentration in the medium. The betacyanin content of cells cultured in the medium without zinc was twice as high as that in the medium containing 0.03 mM of zinc. In the revised LS medium without zinc, the maximum betacyanin yield was obtained of 590 mg/l from a 21-day culture.  (+info)

Characterization and functional identification of a novel plant 4,5-extradiol dioxygenase involved in betalain pigment biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora. (2/9)

Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism.  (+info)

Absorption, excretion, and distribution of dietary antioxidant betalains in LDLs: potential health effects of betalains in humans. (3/9)

BACKGROUND: Betalains were recently identified as natural antioxidants. However, little is known about their bioavailability from dietary sources. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the bioavailability of betalains from dietary sources. DESIGN: The plasma kinetics and urinary excretion of betalains were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 8) after a single ingestion of 500 g cactus pear fruit pulp, which provided 28 and 16 mg indicaxanthin and betanin, respectively. The incorporation of betalains in LDL and the resistance of the particles to ex vivo-induced oxidation was also researched. RESULTS: Betanin and indicaxanthin reached their maximum plasma concentrations 3 h after the fruit meal and declined according to first-order kinetics. The half-life of betanin (0.94 +/- 0.07 h) was shorter than that of indicaxanthin (2.36 +/- 0.17 h). Both compounds had disappeared from plasma by 12 h after intake. The urinary excretion of indicaxanthin and betanin over 12 h represented 76 +/- 3.0% and 3.7 +/- 0.2%, respectively, of the ingested compounds. LDL isolated 3 and 5 h after the fruit meal incorporated betalains at concentrations of 100.5 +/- 11 and 50 +/- 7.2 pmol/mg LDL protein, respectively. In addition, the particles appeared more resistant to ex vivo-induced oxidative injury than did the samples isolated before fruit ingestion (P < 0.05)-the higher the amount of betalains incorporated, the higher the resistance. The concentrations of vitamin E and beta-carotene in LDL did not change significantly after fruit ingestion. CONCLUSION: Our results show that cactus pear fruit is a source of bioavailable betalains and suggest that indicaxanthin and betanin may be involved in the observed protection of LDL against ex vivo-induced oxidative modifications.  (+info)

Betaxanthins as substrates for tyrosinase. An approach to the role of tyrosinase in the biosynthetic pathway of betalains. (4/9)

Tyrosinase or polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and in the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. The role of tyrosinase in the secondary metabolism of plants still remains unclear, but its implication in betalain biosynthesis has been proposed. Betalains are an important class of water-soluble pigments, characteristic of plants belonging to the order Caryophyllales. In this article, the betaxanthins, tyrosine-betaxanthin (portulacaxanthin II) and dopaxanthin, are reported to be physiological substrates for tyrosinase. The direct activity of tyrosinase on selected betaxanthins is characterized in depth, and conversion of tyrosine-betaxanthin to dopaxanthin and its further oxidation to a series of compounds are described. Identity of the reaction products was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Masses determined for the reaction products were the same in all cases, 389 m/z ([M + H]+) and equal to that determined for betanidin. Data indicate that dopaxanthin-quinone is obtained and evolves to more stable species by intramolecular cyclization. Kinetic parameters for tyrosinase acting on dopaxanthin were evaluated, showing a high affinity for this substrate (K(m) = 84.3 microM). The biosynthetic scheme of betalains is reviewed and a branch is proposed based on the description of physiological substrates for tyrosinase. Lampranthus productus, Glottiphylum oligocarpum, and Glottiphylum pigmaeum are described as sources of stereopure (2S/S)-dopaxanthin.  (+info)

HPLC characterization of betalains from plants in the amaranthaceae. (5/9)

HPLC characterization of reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been widely used in separation and identification of plant pigments. An effective RP-HPLC-based method is established to systematically isolate, identify, and quantitate the betalain pigments in the plants of 37 species of eight genera in the Amaranthaceae. A total of 16 betacyanins and three betaxanthins are characterized mainly using the RP-HPLC method and also with the aid of mass spectroscopy. The identified betacyanins include eight amaranthine-types, six gomphrenin-types, and two betanin-types. They are also divided into six simple (nonacylated) betacyanins and 10 acylated betacyanins. Acylated betacyanins are identified as betanidin 5-O-beta-glucuronosylglucoside or betanidin 6-O-beta-glucoside acylated with ferulic, p-coumaric, or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acids. Three betaxanthins were separated from Celosia species in the Amaranthaceae and identified to be immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine, and (S)-tryptophan; the latter two are found to be new betaxanthins from plants.  (+info)

Physiological properties of beetroot crisps applied in standard and dyslipidaemic diets of rats. (6/9)

 (+info)

Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA. (7/9)

 (+info)

A nature-inspired betalainic probe for live-cell imaging of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. (8/9)

 (+info)

*Betalain

The name "betalain" comes from the Latin name of the common beet (Beta vulgaris), from which betalains were first extracted. ... Both betalains and anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments found in the vacuoles of plant cells. However, betalains are ... For example, betalains contain nitrogen whereas anthocyanins do not. It is now known that betalains are aromatic indole ... Furthermore, betalains have been found in fluorescent flowers. It was once thought that betalains were related to anthocyanins ...

*Hygrocybe appalachianensis

Specific betalains found in H. appalachianensis include muscaflavin, and a group of compounds called hygroaurins, which are ... Steglich W, Strack D (1991). "Chapter 1 Betalains". In Brossi A. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology. San Diego; London: ... The colors of Hygrocybe mushrooms originate from betalains, a class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments. ...

*Biological pigment

Betalains are responsible for the deep red color of beets. A particularly noticeable manifestation of pigmentation in plants is ... Betalains are red or yellow pigments. Like anthocyanins they are water-soluble, but unlike anthocyanins they are synthesized ... anthocyanins and betalains. All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. ...

*Gomphrena globosa

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Ohmiya, Akemi (2008-05-01). "Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains and ...

*Anthocyanin

... they are replaced by betalains. Anthocyanins and betalains have never been found in the same plant. Sometimes bred purposely ... ISBN 1-891127-00-4. Stafford, Helen A. (1994). "Anthocyanins and betalains: evolution of the mutually exclusive pathways". ...

*Klaus Kubitzki

Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-662-07255-4. ...

*Septotheca

Kubitzki, Klaus; Bayer, Clemens (2013). Flowering Plants · Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. ...

*Glossostemon

Klaus Kubitzki, Clemens Bayer (2003). Flowering Plants · Dicotyledons: Capparales, Malvales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. ...

*Lachnocapsa

Flowering Plants, Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales, and Non-Betalain Caryophyllales. The families and genera of vascular ...

*Beetroot

"Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans". Pharmacological Research. 52 ...

*Opuntia ficus-indica

The red color of the juice is due to betalains, (betanin and indicaxanthin). The plant also contains flavonoids, such as ... fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 6895-901. doi: ...

*Amaranthaceae

Widespread in the Amaranthaceae is the occurrence of betalain pigments. The former Chenopodiaceae often contain isoflavonoids. ...

*Anastatica

5: Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer. pp. 75-174. ISBN 3-540-42873 ...

*Betanin

Betalain Dean D. Metcalfe, Hugh A. Sampson, Ronald A. Simon: Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives. 4th ... Betanin is a betalain pigment, together with isobetanin, probetanin, and neobetanin. Other pigments contained in beet are ... Other dietary sources of betanin and other betalains include the Opuntia cactus, Swiss chard, and the leaves of some strains of ...

*Mammillaria

... the reddish hues are due to betalain pigments as usual for Caryophyllales. The fruit is berry-like, club-shaped or elongated, ...

*Opuntia

The Sicilian prickly pear contains betalain, betanin, and indicaxanthin, with highest levels in their fruits. In Mexican folk ... Opuntia contains a range of phytochemicals in variable quantities, such as polyphenols, dietary minerals and betalains. ... fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin". J Agric Food Chem. 50 (23): 6895-901. doi: ... fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ...

*Plant morphology

... anthocyanins and betalains. All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. ...

*Beeturia

Betalains are oxidation-sensitive redox indicators that are decolorized by hydrochloric acid, ferric ions, and colonic bacteria ... The red color seen in beeturia is caused by the presence of unmetabolized betalain pigments such as betanin in beetroot passed ... The color is caused by the excretion of betalain (betacyanin) pigments such as betanin. The coloring is highly variable between ...

*Plant physiology

Betalains are responsible for the deep red color of beets, and are used commercially as food-coloring agents. Plant ... in order to maximize the use of available light Betalains are red or yellow pigments. Like anthocyanins they are water-soluble ... physiologists are uncertain of the function that betalains have in plants which possess them, but there is some preliminary ...

*Malvales

5, Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales. Alverson, W. S., K. G. Karol, D. A. Baum, M. W. Chase, S. M. Swensen, ... 5, Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales. du Mortier, B. C. J. (1829). Analyse des Familles de Plantes, avec ...

*Malvoideae

5, Malvales, Capparales and non-betalain Caryophyllales. Baum, D. A., S. D. Smith, A. Yen, W. S. Alverson, R. Nyffeler, B. A. ...

*Opuntia matudae

It has many green seeds in the central pit which is covered in red pigment from its antioxidant betalains. The fruits are sold ...

*Amaranth

Also a synthetic dye was named "amaranth" for its similarity in color to the natural amaranth pigments known as betalains. This ...

*Indicaxanthin

Fruit Extracts and Reducing Properties of Its Betalains: Betanin and Indicaxanthin". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ...

*Fumana

5: Flowering Plants, Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales, and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer. ISBN 3-540-42873-9. CS1 ...
The aim of study was investigation the impact of boiling and spontaneous fermentation on profile and content of betalains and antioxidant capacity of red beetroot. Betalains were analyzed by micro-HPLC-TOF-MS/MS method, while antioxidant capacity by three in vitro assays. Red beet products were abounded in betalains, with betanin, isobetanin, betanidin and vulgaxanthin I predominating among twenty two pigments identified. Boiling and fermentation of red beet reduced the content of betalains by 51-61% and 61-88%, respectively, however, this decline was limited when the peel was present. Microbial activity and softening of the matrix induced by the fermentation process led to the release of betalains responsible for strong antioxidant capacity of the juice formed. Generally, the treatment applied maintained and/or lowered antioxidant capacity of red beet materials obtained. Our findings indicate that red beet-derived products are valuable source of betalains, with their profile, content and ...
Betalains represent a natural and safe alternative to colour synthetic additives that are used currently in food industry. In addition to the colouring property, betalains are of particular interest because of their importance in health: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, radio-protective, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying effect. This study compares different classics methods of betalains extraction, using water and weak acid solutions from fresh, dried and lyophilized beetroot. The highest content of betanin (20 mg /g) has been obtained from lyophilized beet using 0.5% citric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid as solvents. In this study temperature, pH, liquid/solid ratio were considered the main factors which influence the performance of extraction process and stability of betanin. The extraction is better at high temperatures (70 C), regardless of the other two parameters. At low temperature it is necessary to increase the liquid/solid ratio and decrease the pH for getting a good ...
Dear Friends. As we learned in last fridays Forward Thinking, epidemiological studies have suggested that reduction in cardiovascular disease, cancer risk and a range of other chronic disease conditions is linked to consumption of anthocyanins, betalains, chlorophylls and carotenoids (Mary Ann Lila 2004)-the primary pigments of colorful fruits and vegetables. Quite simply we need to eat 5-13 servings of vegetables and fruits a day (Harvard School of Public Health, see Green Facts below).. Last week we looked at betalains derived from red beetroot and cactus pears and their multitude of benefits. This week well look at anthocyanins and the protection they provide for a diverse array of diseases.. Heart Disease. Pure anthocyanins are up to seven times more effective as antioxidants inhibiting lipid peroxidation than alpha tocopherol. Anthocyanins in red wines and grape juice contributed to the ability of these dietary sources to inhibit heart attacks, by virtue of their antithrombotic potential, ...
The potent antioxidant activity of pigments from beet and cactus pears may be the key to their potential, suggests a new review from Brazil.
The red beet, more specifically the beetroot juice made from it, shows promise for increasing performance and reducing blood pressure. The juice specifically has been used in many studies to determine its health and performance benefits. (3) Beetroot juice has been studied for potential benefits in improved performance by lowering the muscles oxygen demand and increasing muscle efficiency, specifically in endurance exercise. Also, beets are naturally high in nitrates, and increased nitrates in the body have been shown to reduce blood pressure. This has many potential benefits for overall heart health.. Beets are high in fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals such as folate and potassium. The rich coloring of beets comes from betalains, pigments with powerful antioxidant potential.. There are some potential safety concerns regarding the amount of nitrates consumed, however. Nitrates may combine with other dietary nutrients to form nitrosamines that may be carcinogenic. More research is needed ...
Like red plant foods, yellow plants get their color from the whole gamut of molecules: carotenoids, anthocyanins & betalains. But the backbone of most yellow...
Vegetables and fruits with diverse natural colors contain abundant functional phytochemicals such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and betalains. Additionally, these phytochemicals also contain vitamins, essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, food enzymes and other plant components. This book describes the relationship of evidence-based functions and mechanisms of the phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits, and foods including cereal crops, nuts, beans, seafood and others. Research has been found that a higher intake of fruits and vegetables has been epidemiologically associated with an improvement of and lower risk and treatment for many diseases such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis and others. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical ). ...
Red beet contains many ingredients like the high calories, potassium, sodium, vitamins, mineral, folate and other nutrients and fiber. Raw beet (or juice) can preserve the content like the betalains and the vitamins. This is stated to be good for purification of blood, removal of kidney and bladder stones, normalization of blood pressure and elimination of toxic elements from the internal organs.. ...
Everybody wants to live longer - and look younger while they do it. Fortunately, beets are a solid contribution to the pursuit of both of these parts of a healthy life.. The detoxification and anti-inflammatory properties of beets weve already mentioned contribute greatly to keeping you younger. The betalains in beets have been shown to exhibit antiviral and antimicrobial effects that can lessen tumor cell growth and protect against age-related diseases.. Oxidative damage and inflammation can do a lot of wear and tear to the body and skin, which contribute heavily to a more aged appearance. So, consuming beets regularly can help provide you with a natural defense against looking older than you actually are.. Beets are also a great source of fiber, which allows the digestive system to function more properly and supports weight loss. And when youre thinner and more regular, youll suffer from far fewer negative health issues associated with weight and digestion.. Beets help to naturally balance ...
Phytochemicals, Capsaicin, Resources, Polyphenolics, Terpenoids (isoprenoids), Betalains, Glucosinolates, Protein Inhibitors, Other Organic Acids, Piperine, Pectin, Chlorophyll, Anthraquinones, Thiosulfonates, Phytosterols
This brand new Annual Plant Reviews volume is the second edition of the highly successful and well-received Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 2. This exciting new volume provides an up-to-date survey of the biochemistry and physiology of plant secondary metabolism. The volume commences with an overview of the biochemistry, physiology and function of secondary metabolism, followed by detailed reviews of the major groups of secondary metabolites: alkaloids and betalains, cyanogenic glucosides, glucosinolates and nonprotein amino acids, phenyl propanoids and related phenolics, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. A final chapter discusses the evolution of secondary metabolism.. This carefully compiled new edition brings together chapters from some of the worlds leading experts in plant secondary metabolism. Completely revised and brought right up to date with much new information, this volume is an essential purchase for advanced students, researchers and professionals in biochemistry, ...
Fall is right around the corner and many superfoods will hit their peak season. The autumn harvest brings a wide variety of healthy and delicious produce, from winter squash and sweet potatoes to pears and apples. We also often tend to crave different foods as the seasons turn. Here are some fall favorites to boost your health and your taste buds. Apples Apples are high in fiber and antioxidants while being low in calories. We have lots of varieties to choose from, from sweet to tart. Be sure to eat the skin which contains hearty-healthy flavonoids. As the weather cools off, I recommend a baked apple for dessert. Add ...
Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., Mering, S. von, Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler R., Ocampo G., Ochoterena, H., Oxelman, B., Rabeler, R. K., Sanchez, A., Schlumpberger, B. O. & Uotila, P. 2015. A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Willdenowia 45(3): 281-383. doi: 10.3372/wi.45.45301 Full text PDF Reference page. ...
Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., Mering, S. von, Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler R., Ocampo G., Ochoterena, H., Oxelman, B., Rabeler, R. K., Sanchez, A., Schlumpberger, B. O. & Uotila, P. 2015. A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Willdenowia 45(3): 281-383. doi: 10.3372/wi.45.45301 Full text PDF Reference page. ...
Red pitayas were collected from MARDI Kundang Station with different ripening index. Total RNA of red pitaya fruits with 35 days after anthesis (DAA) were extracted and purified to get high quality total RNA. The purified total RNA was then subjected to Solexa sequencing using paired-end mRNA-seq method. The mRNA-seq sequencing results showed that total number of red pitaya paired-end reads obtained was 18,530,028 sequences and total number nucleotides obtained was 1,389,752,100nt. Sequence assembly using Velvet software revealed a total of 106,867 nodes. After the sequence filtering process (set value as ,80bp/node), we obtained 62,333 nodes. The homology search on the filtered sequences against non-redundant nucleic acid database (NR) showed that 31,423 nodes with significant E-value≤10-5. It was found that there were at least 97 nodes mapped to secondary metabolic pathways via Blast2Go analysis, particularly the biosynthesis pathways of phenylproparoid, betalain, flavonoid, carotenoid and ...
In this work we have investigated the intercalation of electron-donors between NbS2 slabs in Nb-based layer sulfides.. Two series of Sr substituted Nb-based misfit sulfides belonging to the 1.5Q/1H and 1Q/1H series of misfit layer compounds have been synthesised. For large lanthanides (Ln=La, Ce), only the 1Q/1H compounds formed whereas for smaller lanthanides and yttrium, both types of phases can be obtained. The crystal structure of misfit sulfide (Pr0.55Sr0.45S)1.15NbS2 has been refined using the composite approach. In the Q-slab, Pr-atoms are partly replaced by Sr with a random distribution over one cation position. The crystal structure of misfit sulfide [(Sm1/3Sr2/3S)1.5]1.15NbS2 belonging to the 1.5Q/1H series have also been determined. The obtained results suggest a preferred occupancy of the cation positions in the slab where Sr atoms mainly occupy positions on the exterior of the slab while Sm atoms are in the center of the slab. The (La1-xSrxS)1.15NbS2 solid solution (0.1,x,0.9) has ...
Within core Caryophyllales, Physena (Physenaceae) is sister to Asteropeia, and this pair is sister to all other core Caryophyllales. Asteropeia and Physena, with five and two species, respectively, all of which are restricted to Madagascar, have been difficult to place taxonomically. Within the remaining core Caryophyllales, three major clades are well supported. The first comprises Caryophyllaceae (86 genera, 2,200 species; mostly with a temperate distribution), Achatocarpaceae (3 genera, 7 species; western North America to South America), and Amaranthaceae (including Chenopodiaceae; 174 genera, 2,050 species; warm temperate and subtropical regions) form a clade, with the last two as sisters. A second clade within core Caryophyllales consists of Basellaceae (4 genera, 20 species; pantropical), Didiereaceae (4 genera, 11 species; Madagascar), Portulacaceae (32 genera, 385 species; cosmopolitan), Cactaceae (100 genera, 1,500 species, mostly New World deserts), and Halophytaceae (monospecific; ...
Tyrosine hydroxylase was separated from polyphenol oxidase activity and was highly purified from betacyanin producing callus cultures of Portulaca grandiflora. The purified enzyme catalyzed the formation of DOPA (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) from tyrosine and required the pterin compounds (6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin; 6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin) as coenzyme. The Km values for tyrosine and 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin were 0.5 mM and 0.15 mM, respectively. This enzyme was activated by Fe2+ and Mn2+, and inhibited by metal chelating agents.. ...
Betanin, a natural pigment that presents ubiquitously in plants, has been reported to show biological effects. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of betanin in regulating fat accumulation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory effect of betanin on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism action. The results show betanin significantly inhibited oil red O-stained material (OROSM) and triglyceride levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, indicating betanin inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression was significantly inhibited in the betanin-treated adipocytes, implying that betanin suppressed the cellular PPARγexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the suppression of lipid accumulation by betanin occurred by decreasing the gene expression of PPARγ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Taken together, these
Application Note - Fractionation of Betanin Food Dyes on RENSA® PY ». Food colorants are important ingredients in food and beverage, and also pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The trend within these industries is strongly moving away from artificial towards natural dyes originating preferably from plants, beetroot being one important source. The most important and most studied color compound in beetroot is betanin, also called beetroot red (E number E162).. This proof-of-concept investigation demonstrates that the resin RENSA® PY can separate betanin in an aqueous beetroot juice, and fractionate the dye compounds with the potential to retrieve a targeted fraction of a certain dye type. The process conditions are mild and neither salt gradients nor organic solvents are required for the dye separation.. Other resin types used for betanin retention such as reversed phase resins or ion exchangers typically do not display sufficient retention of the highly polar betanin, and require organic ...
Artichoke. Silymarin, a bioflavonoid found in artichoke acts as an antioxidant as well as helps protect the liver against free radical attacks. It also contains cyarin that helps stimulate the production of bile.. Arugula. Arugula (known as rocket vegetable in Asia), a cruciferous vegetable, provides antioxidants as well as a broad spectrum of minerals and vitamins, all of which are vital for detox.. Asparagus. Asparagus makes a great detox vegetable because the chromium it contains serve to help balance blood sugar levels while youre on a detox.. Beets. Beets are a rich source of betalains, bioflavonoids that make beets appear red, a powerful antioxidant that helps the liver in removing impurities from your blood.. Bell Peppers. If you dont have a sensitivity to nightshade vegetables, you can always include bell peppers in your detox. Besides containing antioxidants, they contain a good number of different vitamins and a god source of fiber as well.. Bok Choy. Bok Choy, a cruciferous ...
This plant originates in Brazil but is commonly known as Japanese rose. I found this plant wedged in the crevice of a granite boulder by the sea. The flower is small and I imagine that if it could grow more profusely and carpet the boulder entirely, it would be a very pretty sight ...
Others. - Flowers and leaves placed on childs bed to drive evil spirits away. (9). Scientific studies about portulaca rose / vietnam rose. • Chronic Toxicity Study:. Study evaluated the toxic effects of Portulaca grandiflora aqueous extract in male and female Wistar rats for 6 months. The water extract at given doses of 10, 100, and 1000 mg/k per day did not induce any detrimental effect in rats.. • Phytoremediation Potential :. Study showed wild and tissue cultured plants of P. grandiflora were able to decolorize sulfonated diazo dye Navy Blue HE2R up to 98% in 40 h. The significant induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and DCIP reductase was observed in roots during dye decolorization. Phytotoxicity study showed reduction in toxicity due to metabolites formed after dye degradation.. • Safety Study / Phase 1 Trial / Healthy Human Volunteers:. A phase 1 clinical trial in 16 healthy volunteers investigated the safety of P. grandiflora, as well as preliminarily assess ...
Portulaca grandiflora is commonly known as moss rose. Portulaca is a succulent plant with thick stems and leaves. The trailing stems reach 6 inches tall and spread 12 inches wide. The bright green leaves are cylindrical and 1 inch long with pointed tips. Moss rose blossoms bloom all summer with jewel-toned colors. ...
Introduction. How Temperature Affects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes Aim: To use beetroot to examine the effect of temperature on cell membranes and relate the effects observed to membrane structure. Hypothesis: An increase in temperature will damage and denature the membrane and cause the substances contained within it to leak out. Overview: The experiment below displays the effects of temperature on the pigment in uncooked beetroot cells. The pigment in beetroot cells lies within the cell vacuole and is called betalain, each vacuole is surrounded by a tonoplast membrane and outside it, the cytoplasm is surrounded by the plasma membrane, therefore the foundation of this experiment lies with the temperature at which the membranes will rupture and therefore leak the pigment. To do this a series of uncooked beetroot cylinders will be exposed to different temperatures and then to distilled water at room temperature (20�C). The colour of the distilled water is the variable here. ...
Moss roses, also known as portulaca (Portulaca grandiflora), are drought-tolerant, succulent annuals that grow in all U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones. Moss rose is a low-growing ...
If this recipe for Antioxidant Shooters has caught your eye, I have a feeling you are aware that pomegranate juice, strawberries and blueberries are filled with antioxidants. With the addition of beets, this recipe is SUPER high in antioxidants. If you dont have time to cook beets, you can often find them on the salad bar at a high end or gourmet grocery store. What is interesting about beets is not the fact that they are rich in antioxidants, but the unusual mix of antioxidants that they contain. Beets have unique antioxidants since they get their red color primarily from betalain antioxidant pigments (and not primarily from anthocyanins). This combined with being a very good source of the antioxidant manganese and vitamin C, provides antioxidant support in a different way than other antioxidant-rich vegetables.. Have you heard the term but wonder why antioxidants are important? Antioxidants offer a number of health benefits and can help possibly prevent diseases, ranging from cancer to ...
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Photo Source. Whats beetroot got to do with cell biology? Well, today we did a practical experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the plasma membrane of beetroot tissue. Why beetroot? Because it is relatively easy to identify the amount of damage to cell membranes by observing the pigment leakage from the tissue. We used four 5mm x 15mm cylinders of beetroot and four different treatments - room temperature (control), freezing overnight, 50 degrees Celcius and 70 degrees Celcius for 2 minutes each. Then each sample was placed in a test tube with 5 ml of water. What did our results show?. One of the questions in this practical asks why some people put hessian bags over their garden plants in winter and how some plants can survive freezing temperatures. Hessian bags can help to insulate plants against the effects of freezing - some wineries use large fans to keep air circulating over their crops for the same reason. Some plants are genetically more tolerant of frost. This article, ...
Is beetroot just a part of your salad or something more? Are there any health benefits of beetroot? Yes, there are numerous health benefits of beetroot.
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a green and leafy wild vegetable. It is found mainly throughout Asia and has been used for centuries for its properties. As it is used today, Purslane is meant mainly to promote general good health and well-being.. ...
You might see beetroot on the menu at your local juice shop. Juicing beetroot has a number of health benefits. Here are 12 of them.
Buy Solgar Beetroot Extract online. Antioxidant health supplement with folic acid, vitamin B6, fibre, manganese, potassium, vitamin C & iron. Anti-inflammatory
mmmm...I like pickled beetroot though it has been quite a while since I had it..but now may be I should start eating them regularly, at least during my training period (into my 3rd day of walking/jogging)..hehehe ...
Iwanted to know which you would choose to use ? Beetroots are something I regularly eat do I need the powdered stuff for anything then ?
Beetroot is best between June and October, because then it is the freshest, but you can buy it all year. Always choose those of medium size, for ease of cooking and preparation. It is also important for it to be hard and round, on the same note. Cut them always on a plastic board, and watch out for possible stains, because it is quite difficult to remove ...
Todays job: To reproduce Baxters Redcurrant and Beetroot Relish (or Chutney, I misremember which), which I became quite fond of in the 90s, briefly, before it vanished. Occasional checks of Baxters website since then have failed to turn it up. A quick check today, however, while still coming up blank in chutneys and relishes, gave…
LOCKYER Farmers United president Colin Dorber is confident a new beetroot cannery could be up-and-running in the region within the next two years.
Roast beetroot is a versatile vegan recipe that tastes divine. Eat it straight as a snack, toss wedges in a salad or serve as a side dish to your main meal.
This trailing plant has succulent looking foliage, produces small bright colored blooms, heat tolerant, blooms spring and summer.
This vivid risotto is simply baked in the oven, so theres no need to spend lots of time at the stove stirring, from BBC Good Food Magazine.
Theres been a lot of hype online about beetrot benefits for obstacle race training, so we decided to look for some scientific evidence.
Usha Mukundan and Martin Hjortso. Thiophene production by hairy root cultures of Tagetes species. March 4 - 6, 1990, Meeting of the Southern section of ASPP, Biloxi, Mississipi, USA.. Usha Mukundan and Martin Hjortso. Thiophene production by hairy root cultures of Tagetes patula: Elicitation of thiophene production. VII International Congress on Plant Tissue Culture, Amsterdam, June 24-29, 1990.. Usha Mukundan. Large scale production betalains by hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris. Invited paper at the brain storming session of Department of Biotechnology at CFTRI, Mysore, May 7, 1993.. Usha Mukundan, Himanshu G Dawda, Seema Ratnaparkhi and Sanchita Bhattacharya. Hairy root culture - Prospects with reference to India flora. Int. Symp. On recent trends in Life Science, Hyderabad, Nov. 19-22, 1993.. Seema Ratnaparkhi, Usha Mukundan and S M Karmarkar. Studies on hairy root cultures of Eclipta alba Hassk. Int. Symp. On recent trends in Life Sciences. Hyderabad, Nov. 19-22, 1993.. Himanshu Dawda ...
Cacti belong to a large family of plants, the Cactaceae. Relatively little is known about the medicinal effects of cacti, but at least some are known to be medicinally active. For example, prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) are known to possess antioxidant compounds called betalains. A recent Italian study (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15277160&query_hl=1) showed that supplementation with prickly pear has a strong effect on free radicals (the harmful compounds) in the body and that this antioxidant effect is different from the effect of vitamin C, a well-known antioxidant. Another recent study (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15226168&query_hl=1) showed that a prickly pear extract can reduce the risk of a severe hangover from alcohol consumption by a half. Yet another study ...
Beetroot For Skin Tone. Beetroot is one of the best juices to apply on your face to improve skin tone. Apply as a face mask mixed with one portion of milk. Leave in the juice for half an hour before rinsing.. Beetroot For Skin Whitening. To become fair overnight, try this tip. Mix one tbsp of beetroot juice along with 1 tsp of lemon juice. The mixture is then applied on your face and left in for 15 minutes. Wash with cold water before going to bed.. Beetroot For Acne. Acne can be treated with the help of beetroot juice. Mix 2 tbsp of beet juice along with a tbsp of curd. This mixture helps to dry the acne in no time, leaving behind no scars.. Beetroot For Black Heads. Black heads can be removed from your face with the help of a beetroot scrub. Into 1 tbsp of juice add sugar to make a scrub. Use the scrub to remove the black heads.. Beetroot For Dark Circles. Dark circles can be lightened with beetroot juice. The properties present in the juice will soothe your puffy eyes.. Beetroot For Pink ...
The circumscription of Molluginaceae has changed radically in recent years, with Corbichonia being moved to Lophiocarpaceae, Limeum to Limeaceae, Macarthuria to Macarthuriaceae and all species of Hypertelis, except the type, to Kewa in Kewaceae. In a broad analysis of core Caryophyllales using plastid trnK-matK and rbcL, sequences, the position of Molluginaceae in a strict sense as sister to the Portulacineae Glade is corroborated, as are the positions of Corbichonia, Limeum and Kewa outside the family. The phylogeny of Molluginaceae is reconstructed based on trnK-matK and nuclear ITS sequences of about half of the currently recognized species in the family and with representatives from all recognized genera. Mollugo is found to be polyphyletic and a new taxonomy for the family with 11 genera is proposed. Mollugo in its new restricted sense is a mainly American genus of about 15 species, including M. ulei comb. nov., previously placed in the monotypic Glischrothamnus. The Australian and Asian ...
Introduction. Beetroot plasma membrane investigation 14/2/2011 The main objective of this investigation is to focus on the effect of ethanol (C2H5OH) on the plasma membrane of a beetroot. The colour of Beetroots is due to the presence of a red pigment in the cell sap. The purpose of this experiment is to use different concentrations of ethanol in order to find out what is its effect on the plasma membrane of the beetroot. Aim - To examine the effect of ethanol on the plasma membrane of beetroots by light transmission percentage. Hypothesis - Ethanol is an excellent solvent for substances as it is quite polar. Membranes are made of phospholipid bilayers. Ethanol dissolves these phospholipids in the membranes of the beetroot cells. This creates gaps in the phospholipid-bilayer of a beetroot cell. The plasma membrane becomes damaged and more fluid can move more easily. The red pigment, responsible for the beetroots colour, then leaks out.1 I believe a higher concentration of ethanol will cause ...
JIMENEZ ISLAS, Donaji et al. Fermentable sugar production throug acid hydrolysis of Beta vulgaris L.. Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient [online]. 2012, vol.28, n.2, pp.151-158. ISSN 0188-4999.. With the purpose of increasing the amount of sugars that benefit the yield of ethanol in fermentation, it was performed hydrolysis of Beta vulgaris L. with H2SO4. The following parameters were used to evaluate the degree of hydrolysis of substrate: stirring, acid concentration, mass, and temperature. The mass was tested in the range of 5 to 40 g and stirring from 100 to 250 rpm. The temperature and reaction time were evaluated in the range of 30 to 90 °C and 2 to 6 h, respectively. The tested particle size was 0.5 mm and a reaction volume of 50 mL was used for all cases. The rate of 150 rpm had a better effect over hydrolysis. By comparison of means it was determined that concentrations higher than 0.5 N of H2SO4 showed no significant effect (p,0.05) on the release of total sugars. The highest yield of ...
You cant beat the beet…for vitamins. Beetroots are a rich source of potent antioxidants and nutrients, including magnesium, sodium, potassium and vitamin C, and betaine which is important for cardiovascular health. The beet can be eaten hot or cold, raw or cooked, grated, boiled or roasted, in salads, on sandwiches, in soup. And despite the culinary diversity it is one of those vegetables that people can take or leave. You either like beetroot or you dont. I personally love beetroot, but since at this point I am the only one in our family that does, I only buy it occasionally. Last week at the farmers market I could not resist this bunch of baby beets. I cooked them as follows and have been enjoying them in a salad (beetroot, feta, arugula, pecans, shallot, olive oil and salt). They are tasty, easy and healthy, so go ahead and buy some beets!. ...
4 Treats Constipation. Ingesting beetroot juice will improve functioning of your digestive system, thus treats constipation issue.. #5 Can Prevent Cancer. Studies state that anti-tumor ability residing in beetroot can prevent cancer causing tumor and help in cell regeneration.. #6 Detoxify Liver. Betaine residing in this vegetable helps to remove toxins from liver and improve its overall functioning.. #7 Can Treat Menstrual Disorder. High amount of iron in beetroot helps in regeneration of red blood cells. It can treat menstrual disorder and menopause symptoms.. #8 Can Treat Iron Deficiency. As mentioned above, rich concentration of iron help to treat anemia and other health related issues.. #9 Improves Healthy Functioning of Your Skin. Anti-aging abilities exhibited by beetroot helps to reduce wrinkles and make the skin flawless.. #10 Avoid Birth Defects. Folate and folic acid housed in this vegetable helps to prevent birth defects. Pregnant woman must consume it in moderate amount.. #11 ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Ordo: Caryophyllales • Familia: Amaranthaceae • Subfamilia: Betoideae • Genus: Beta • Species: Beta vulgaris • Subspecies: Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ...
Beetroot is loaded with soluble fibre and functions as an excellent laxative. Bowel problems which are an anxious stomach problem can be handled by adding beetroot into your meals. Beet is a fantastic cleaner for the colon and regularizes bowels.. We all know that beetroot is a dark red vegetable which has had a lot of coverage in the news. Beetroot is very much beneficial to improve stamina, boost blood flood and lower blood pressure.. So lets us see the truth behind Beetroot? Beetroot facts. Beetroot vegetable is a popular in Roman times and this was used in order to treat fever constipation, wounds, and skin problems and many more. You all know the taste of beetroot sweet, earthy, and tender. Beetroot includes these natural nutrients potassium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, carbohydrates, protein, antioxidants and soluble fibre. Thus it is a healthy for your health. 8 Healthy Reasons to Eat Beets:. 1. Weight Loss. Beets taste sweet but then also it holds only 60 calories ...
Botanical Name: Atriplex canescens Family: Amaranthaceae Genus: Atriplex Species: A. canescens Kingdom: Plantae Order: Caryophyllales Common Names :Saltbush,
The betalanins in Red Beetroot may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties by reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress on cells.1,2 Betalanins may also promote phase 2 enzymes (detoxifying enzymes in the liver) and thus protect the liver from damage.3,4 Red beetroot also contains high amounts of nitrate, which may aid in reducing blood pressure, improving endothelial function, and increasing aerobic exercise capacity.1,5-16 Red beetroot can also be used for a natural red food coloring.. ...
Beetroot has a positive effect on metabolism and blood, due to its inherent therapeutic and dietary action.It is used in case of anemia, chronic runny nose, fever, anemia, diseases of the lymphatic vessels and the digestive organs, for the treatment of malignant and putrid ulcers.By the properties of beets are owning a diuretic, wound healing, analgesic, mild laxative and anti-inflammatory actions.Beetroot has the ability to lower blood pressure.. Beet improve blood: beet juice is very valuable in order to form red blood cells and to improve the overall blood.The best natural blood-forming drug is a combination of beet and carrot juice.Especially useful for the juice to replenish red blood cells.They stimulate the formation of red blood cells, improving memory, especially in the case of atherosclerosis, dilate blood vessels.Beet juice is an indispensable tool in the case of hypertension, anemia, insomnia and neurosis.It is recommended to leave the juice in the refrigerator for a few hours, then ...
Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny reconstruction and subsequent analyses of molecular evolution, using a new set of bait sequences designed for the "portullugo" (Caryophyllales), a moderately sized lineage of flowering plants (∼2200 species) that includes the cacti and harbors many evolutionary transitions to C4 and CAM photosynthesis ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Ordo: Caryophyllales • Familia: Talinaceae Doweld (2001) ...
See all results for Deep Salad Summer Beetroots Recipes. Find more recipes at Foodily.com - the largest recipe search site - and see the ones your friends like.
Diseases start from heart, from mind, from the conception of the world and from mental imbalance. A suppression of feelings, emotions and inner feelings lead in time to the accumulation of stress, frustration, negative and pessimistic thoughts, all this leads to physical and mental illness.
guys thanks you all individually for your appreciation. now i m blushing beetroot red like gopi.i will try to update tonight. | Page: 13 | 1799969 | Saath Nibhaana Saathiya Forum
You know this free Kashi GOLEAN Crisp cereal is extreme because it YELLS AT YOU! The offer is through VocalPoint and not available everywhere. The best you
Beetroot Juice - Know more about organic beetroot juice, beetroot juice ingredients, benefits of beetroot juice, beetroot juice suppliers, exporters and manufacturers from India.
A compound found in beetroot that gives the vegetable its distinctive red colour could help prevent Alzheimers, finds a study that could lead to the development of drugs for treating the disease.. The findings showed that the compound betanin in beetroot extract could eventually help slow the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain, a process that is associated with Alzheimers disease.. "Our data suggest that betanin shows some promise as an inhibitor of certain chemical reactions in the brain that are involved in the progression of Alzheimers disease," said Li-June Ming, from the University of South Florida.. Beta-amyloid is a sticky protein fragment, or peptide, that accumulates in the brain, disrupting communication between brain cells called neurons.. Much of the damage occurs, when beta-amyloid attaches itself to metals such as iron or copper.. These metals can cause beta-amyloid peptides to misfold and bind together in clumps that can promote inflammation and oxidation - a ...
Read "Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
AMARANTHACEAE (Amaranth Family). Plants annual or perennial herbs (sometimes woody elsewhere), often monoecious or dioecious, not or only slightly succulent, often with a taproot, glabrous or hairy, often tinged with pink to purple pigmentation. Stems spreading to erect. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, the margins entire or sometimes somewhat wavy (occasionally minutely sharply toothed in Iresine). Stipules absent (paired stipulelike axillary spines present in Amaranthus spinosus). Inflorescences axillary and/or terminal; dense spikes, spikelike racemes, or panicles, sometimes reduced to small, axillary clusters (globose heads or solitary flowers elsewhere), the main axis occasionally broadened and flattened (fasciated) with flowers across the surface. Flowers sessile or very short-stalked, with 1-3 small, papery to scalelike or hardened (sometimes appearing spine-tipped) bracts (1 bract and usually 2 additional bracteoles), imperfect or perfect, hypogynous. Calyx absent or more commonly ...
The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP) and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ) or a placebo juice (PL). Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM). Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL) not consumed on the first visit. Overall, there
You simply need to put all the components in a blender and blend them all well. Thats it, you prepare to start your treatment.. Simply keep in mind not to exaggerate it with the consumption of the juice, beverage as much as your body needs.. Beetroot is plentiful in anti-oxidants, C, B1, B2, B6 vitamins, folic and pantothenic acid, and the minerals- potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, zinc, beetroot is thought about to be one of the most health useful veggies. The red color in beets comes from magenta pigments referred to as betacyanins.. A variety of research studies have actually confirmed beetroot is incredibly beneficial in treatment against leukemia and cancer.. First of all, beets are abundant in betaine, which is an amino acid with effective anticancer properties. Plus, its a strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and detoxing representative. Research studies verify that betaine damages cells in the growth tissue.. Beetroot can be used for the treatment of lots of ...
You simply need to put all the components in a blender and blend them all well. Thats it, you prepare to start your treatment.. Simply keep in mind not to exaggerate it with the consumption of the juice, beverage as much as your body needs.. Beetroot is plentiful in anti-oxidants, C, B1, B2, B6 vitamins, folic and pantothenic acid, and the minerals- potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, zinc, beetroot is thought about to be one of the most health useful veggies. The red color in beets comes from magenta pigments referred to as betacyanins.. A variety of research studies have actually confirmed beetroot is incredibly beneficial in treatment against leukemia and cancer.. First of all, beets are abundant in betaine, which is an amino acid with effective anticancer properties. Plus, its a strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and detoxing representative. Research studies verify that betaine damages cells in the growth tissue.. Beetroot can be used for the treatment of lots of ...
APG IV Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • (unranked): Archaeplastida • Regnum: Plantae • Cladus: angiosperms • Cladus: eudicots • Cladus: core eudicots • Cladus: superasterids • Ordo: Caryophyllales • Familia: Amaranthaceae • Subfamilia: Chenopodioideae • Genus: Chenopodiastrum • Species: Chenopodiastrum murale (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch, 2012 ...
Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.[9]. The green, leafy portion of the beet is also edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the adult leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach. Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration. The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.[10]. Beetroot can be boiled ...
Beetroot has a Glycemic Index of 64 which is medium. Glycemic Index are for foods you eat, ranks carbohydrate-containing foods by how quickly they digest and raise your blood sugar or glucose levels. Foods rank from 0 to 50 are low GI, 51 to 69 are medium and 70 to 100 are high. Foods that are high in GI are not suitable for weight loss and diabetics. Foods like Beetroot have a medium GI but their Glycemic Load is only 5. Hence Beets will not raise blood sugar by a lot because the total carbs in it are low. So safe for Diabetics to use. ...
Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.[9]. The green, leafy portion of the beet is also edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the adult leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach. Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration. The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.[10]. Beetroot can be boiled ...
The excitement around beetroot juice as the newest sports supplement comes from its particularly high content of nitrate and ability to be turned into juice. Beetroot juice can be made at home with a juicer but specially produced concentrated "shots" of juice (e.g. Beet ItTM shots) are often a more convenient and palatable option owing to the significantly lower volume required for the same amount of nitrate than DIY juices (70ml vs. ~500ml DIY beetroot juice).. ...
Dementia (mental illness): According to researchers at Wake Forest University, beetroot can improve oxygenation to the brain, slowing the progression of dementia in older adults. Blood flow to certain areas of the brain decrease with age and leads to a decline in cognition and possible dementia. Beetroot with high nitrate diet can improve the blood flow and oxygenation to these areas and improve the condition ...
Beetroot, or simply known as beet, is high in fiber so eating it regularly can improve bowel health by regulating bowel movements. Drinking beetroot juice daily can relieve chronic constipation,...
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1.. Roughly chop your beetroot and clementines (leave the peel on - it makes the juice really creamy and zesty). Feed through your juicer. Swirl in the cumin and cayenne powder. ...
Enriching bread with nitrate-rich beetroot could help to lower our risk of heart disease by reducing blood pressure and improving blood vessel functioning, according to new research.
I have a friend whos a vegan and health nut who turned me on to the benefits of beetroot juice. Hes an avid runner, and he told me once he started
تأثیر عناصر غذایی نیتروژن و فسفر از منابع آلی و شیمیایی بر تغییرات غلظت، جذب و کارآیی آنها در گیاه خرفه طی آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهرکرد در سال 1393 بررسی گردید. تیمارهای مختلف کودی شامل 13 تن در هکتار کود مرغی (T1)، 4/14 تن در هکتار کود مرغی (T2)، 39 تن در هکتار کود گاوی (T3)، 8/16 تن در هکتار کود گاوی+ 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره (T4)، چهار سطح کود شیمیایی معادل تیمارهای آلی، 260 + 86 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‎ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (T5)، 287 +100 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‎ترتیب اوره و سوپرفسفات تریپل (T6)، 260 + 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‎ترتیب اوره و
Mangold Beta vulgaris or Swiss chard, silverbeet, spinach beet, bright lights. Hand drawn botanical vector illustration. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution JPEG versions. ID #13965964.
Beets Plus 60 Count with Amla Fruit Extract and Beetroot Extract Amla Fruit Extract (Indian gooseberry) and Beetroot (Beta Vulgaris) thats used to increase nitric oxide in the body and also help lower levels of triglycerides (a type of fat) in the blood. ...
Die Mediheal Teatree Healing Mask ist eine Sheet Maske aus Teebaumöl, Pinienkernen und Portulaca Oleracea Extrakten. Diese Maske hilft bei der Kont...
Free Online Library: Bioactivity of crude extracts and some constituents of Blutaparon portulacoides (Amaranthaceae). by Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology; Health, general Biological sciences Science and technology, general
Photos/images of kulturplanter, Family Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus paniculatus (Cultiv), Annual Seablite (Suaeda maritima), Atriplex calotheca, Atriplex sp., etc.
... - Plant information. Healthy Home Gardening, Pictures, Video and Information about Desert Succulent - Sedum, Portulaca?.
Since making beetroot juice with your juice extractor is a messy affair, we decided to offer an easier option by taking raw beetroot juice, freeze drying it (so no active compound is harmed or damaged) and thereby make taking a glass of beetroot juice easy. All you need to do is to add a teaspoon of the freeze-dried powder to water and to drink it.. It does not really have a very strong taste and is pleasant to drink - it has a sweet and earthy taste. Our director Duane Milne takes a glass of beetroot juice daily and also adds a teaspoon of barley grass to the juice to create an invigorating easy-to-make raw vegetable drink ...
Die Futterr be (Dickr be), die Zuckerr be und sogar Rote Beete sind Kulturformen derselben Art Beta vulgaris var. vulgaris, die aus der Wilden R be Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima gez chtet wurde. Fodder Beet, Sugar Beet, and even Beetroot are culture types of the same species Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, which has been bred from the Sea Beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. ...
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer worldwide. Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide (POL-P3b) has been found to have enhancing immune and anti-cervical cancer activity by oral administration. Dendritic cells (DC) play a key roles in regulating intestinal immune homeostasis. In this study, we analyzed the inhibition apoptosis effects of POL-P3b on intestinal DC and relevant mechanisms. Intestinal DC was isolated from U14-bearing mice treated with POL-P3b (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively). The effects of POL-P3b on proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis in intestinal DC were evaluated by MTT assay, Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Mitochondrial Ca2+ was analyzed using flow cytometry instrument. The potential mechanisms underlying POL-P3b-induced protection of intestinal DC from cervical cancer-induced apoptosis were detected with Western blotting evaluation of expression levels of TLR4 and relevant proteins for apoptotic signaling pathway. We found that a large
A perfect summer recipe: salad of beetroot with tangy goats curd, pickled shallots and rich honey. Salt-baking gives bright beetroot a wonderful tenderness.
Fermented Salsa is probiotic-rich and imple to make and you can make the recipe your own, based on how you like your salsa and maybe what you have growing in your own garden.. Apr 5, 2014. Food & Recipes · Feature Stories. Most lists of super foods dont include beetroot juice, but maybe they should. Beet juice may boost stamina to help you exercise longer, improve blood flow, and. Test your knowledge.. Charlotte, Charlotte Russe & Charley Roosh According to the food historians, charlottes were *invented* in England the last part of the 18th century.. Roman recipes for beetroot were mainly for curative broth, to treat fevers and other. This study showed that all the tested forms of Beta vulgaris produced large. Betanin is degraded to a certain extent in the stomach, by the acids present.. I am NOT a fan of beets but I found myself actually starting to enjoy this juice after. and organic but this is always the problem with clinical trials and tests. Add the baby greens slowly to grated raw ...
Source: Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. [web application]. 2012. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database [a non-profit organization]. Available: http://www.calflora.org/ (Accessed: 23 06, 2012). (Link ...
You know that the SuppVersity is all about self-education (hence "-versity" as in University), so what would be better than using the publication of the latest paper on the purported ergogonic effects of nitrates as an incentive to "inform" you about the current state of the research? Sounds good? I would think so. Lets take a look, then. Whats this nitrate business all about? Contrary to the argument many supplement vendors have been bringing forward to make muscleheads buy their products, the idea is not to use the vasodilating effects for cosmetic pumps that will make you feel - as Arnold said it - better than you felt last night with your significant other (or whom ever else you may have picked up). Its rather their purported effect on the VO2max, which is the maximal oxygen consumption during a workout and the downstream performance effects that puts scientists on -- scientists like Lee J. Wylie and colleagues from the department of Sport and Health Sciences at the University of Exeter, ...
Waitrose Food roasted beetroot and carrot with warm goats cheese cakes recipe on Waitrose.com. Visit the Waitrose website for more recipes and ideas.
Waitrose Food roasted beetroot and carrot with warm goats cheese cakes recipe on Waitrose.com. Visit the Waitrose website for more recipes and ideas.
Beetroot juice might be the answer for patients with heart failure, suggests a new study whose findings have been published in the journal Circulation: Heart
Search and use 100s of outline food plant roots beet beetroot clip arts and images all free! Royalty free, no fees, and download now in the size you need.
How probabilities can affect even the smallest business decisions.. So youve just sat down to a seafood lunch in order to impress a time-savvy client.. You hate seafood, but there are three dishes that you could really dig into: A large aioli and chicken soup (meal A); a beetroot and sausage risotto (meal B), and the crab (meal C). If only youd been able to choose that Thai place around the corner.. The waiter approaches: your client is, quite naturally, having fish. Youre just about to order when a (quite junior-looking) waiter, tells you "Im terribly sorry, but only one of those is good today, but we.. um.. are not sure which one". Only one? Ridiculous! The client flashes you some "hurry up and just make a choice" eyes. Okay, itll be the soup, you say, hedging your bets. Just then, an even more junior-looking waiter interjects, "Chef says the crab is one of the bad ones".. But then doubt comes over your mind: what if you chose the wrong one of the remaining two? Should you switch ...
Sparaxis grandiflora subsp. grandiflora is a winter-growing, summer-dormant species. For this reason, plant the seeds or corms in autumn between late March and early June. S. grandiflora subsp. grandiflora is recommended for cultivation in both gardens and containers.. In gardens: Place corms approximately 7 cm apart at a depth of about three times their height. Use a slightly acid soil mix that is light and drains easily. Improve drainage if necessary by mixing in large amounts of fine compost and medium grain river or industrial sand. One successful grower used broken peach pips (without the kernel) to improve texture. Choose a site with a slight slope to enhance drainage; a rockery is ideal. They prefer a position in full sun to flower well but can cope well in semi-shade as long as they receive at least a few hours of direct sunlight a day.. Water well after planting, then cease watering until the leaf shoot appears. After the shoot has emerged, add some bonemeal and a small amount of ...
Pink fish - Cured salmon in beetroot with pickled daikon in beetroot, kura, dill, chives & veronica persica. Dish uploaded by @tadashi_takayama
The consumption of beetroot juice on a low nitrate diet may lower blood pressure (BP) and therefore reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is unknown if its inclusion as part of a normal diet has a similar effect on BP. The aim of the study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial with free-living adults to investigate if consuming beetroot juice in addition to a normal diet produces a measureable reduction in BP. Fifteen women and fifteen men participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Volunteers were randomized to receive 500 g of beetroot and apple juice (BJ) or a placebo juice (PL). Volunteers had BP measured at baseline and at least hourly for 24-h following juice consumption using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM). Volunteers remained at the clinic for 1-h before resuming normal non-strenuous daily activities. The identical procedure was repeated 2-wk later with the drink (BJ or PL) not consumed on the first visit. Overall, there
Meridian Botanicals Spikenard grandiflora essential oil, green (Nepal) - 100% pure essential oil steam distilled from the roots of spikenard grandiflora (Nardostachys grandiflora). Suitable for all aromatherapy applications. Heavy, intoxicating, musky-sweet, spicy, and woody. The grandiflora variety is complex, starting out rich and musky, and ending with a sweet fruity note. Spikenard is known for its soothing, calming, and sleep invoking

Bioactivities of Betalains | SpringerLinkBioactivities of Betalains | SpringerLink

Betalains, the group of chemicals responsible for color in red beet, are found to exhibit powerful antioxidant activity and ... Akbar Hussain E., Sadiq Z., Zia-Ul-Haq M. (2018) Bioactivities of Betalains. In: Betalains: Biomolecular Aspects. Springer, ... Betalains, the group of chemicals responsible for color in red beet, are found to exhibit powerful antioxidant activity and ... Kanner, J., Harel, S., & Granit, R. (2001). Betalains; a new class of dietary Cationized antioxidants. Journal of Agricultural ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-95624-4_6

Betalain NewsBetalain News

... This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/betalain/news/

Colour and health driving rise of betalainsColour and health driving rise of betalains

Hence, application of betalains instead of anthocyanins for colouring foods with high ascorbic acid contents may be interesting ... "Moreover, betalains can effectively be stabilised by ascorbic acid, which on the other hand, impairs anthocyanin stability. ... A growing area of interest has been the use of betalains, water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments that, depending on their ... presents a timely review of the potential for betalains, and highlights the health benefits of the antioxidant pigments. The ...
more infohttps://www.nutraingredients.com/Article/2008/07/11/Colour-and-health-driving-rise-of-betalains

Should You Eat Cactus Fruit for Betalain?Should You Eat Cactus Fruit for Betalain?

... cactus fruit and dragon fruit have powerful compound called betalain, which has been found to have several powerful effects on ... Additional Studies on the Effects of Betalain. A U.C. Davis study16 found that a concentration of betalain extracts from beets ... In fact, 24 different kinds of betalains have been discovered in beets and cactus fruits, while other betalain-containing ... The term betalain is derived from the Latin name for beet, Beta vulgaris, which is where it was first found. Both beets and ...
more infohttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/08/21/amp/cactus-fruit-powerful-compound-betalain.aspx

betalains - The Detox Specialistbetalains - The Detox Specialist

Filed Under: Detox food Tagged With: avocado, beets, betalains, broccoli sprouts, chickpea, cruciferous, Detox, detoxification ... Filed Under: liver detox Tagged With: beetroot, beets, betaine, betalains, Detox, detox smoothie, detoxification, health ...
more infohttps://thedetoxspecialist.com/blog/tag/betalains/

Production of Betalains by Hairy Root Cultures of Beta Vulgaris L | SpringerLinkProduction of Betalains by Hairy Root Cultures of Beta Vulgaris L | SpringerLink

... produce betalains similar to roots in planta. These root cultures have shown stability in biomass and pigment production for ... Piatelli, M. Betalains: chemistry and biosynthesis and chemical taxonomy. In The Biochemistry of Plants. Vol. 7; Conn, E. E., ... The concentration of betalains in these root cultures is affected by various physical and chemical factors. Some of the factors ... Mukundan U., Bhide V., Dawda H. (1999) Production of Betalains by Hairy Root Cultures of Beta Vulgaris L. In: Fu TJ., Singh G ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4615-4753-2_11

Betalain - WikipediaBetalain - Wikipedia

The name "betalain" comes from the Latin name of the common beet (Beta vulgaris), from which betalains were first extracted. ... Both betalains and anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments found in the vacuoles of plant cells. However, betalains are ... For example, betalains contain nitrogen whereas anthocyanins do not. It is now known that betalains are aromatic indole ... Furthermore, betalains have been found in fluorescent flowers. It was once thought that betalains were related to anthocyanins ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betalain

betalain antioxidantsbetalain antioxidants

Posted in Health, Health, Homepage Featured, News, Photos , Tagged advil, arnica montana, Aspirin, betalain antioxidants, ...
more infohttps://www.snowshoemag.com/tag/betalain-antioxidants/

Effects of betalains on atherogenic risk factors in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Food & Function (RSC...Effects of betalains on atherogenic risk factors in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Food & Function (RSC...

During an acute phase, 48 male patients received about 50 mg betalain/betacyanin, and their blood and urine samples were ... This study evaluated the potential impacts of supplementation with betalain-rich extracts of foods on some atherosclerotic risk ... Effects of betalains on atherogenic risk factors in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease P. Rahimi, S. A. ... Effects of betalains on atherogenic risk factors in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/fo/c9fo02020a/unauth

Effects of Betalains and Betacyanins on Atherogenic Risk Factors in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease - Food...Effects of Betalains and Betacyanins on Atherogenic Risk Factors in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease - Food...

During an acute phase, 48 male patients received about 50 mg betalain/betacyanin, and their blood and urine samples collected ... This study evaluated the potential impacts of supplementation with betalain-rich extracts of foods on some atherosclerotic risk ... Effects of Betalains and Betacyanins on Atherogenic Risk Factors in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease ... Effects of Betalains and Betacyanins on Atherogenic Risk Factors in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease P. ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/fo/c9fo02020a

Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones. - Semantic ScholarColor, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones. - Semantic Scholar

This implies that the genes for betalain production were lacking in the lime green fruits but could be provided by a parent ... TEAC and ORAC values were very highly correlated with each other and also with values for total phenolics, betalain contents, ... The red and yellow betalains were absent in lime green colored cactus fruits. The ratio and concentration of these pigments ... Besides known pigments typical of Cactaceae, two unexpected betalains were identified. Whereas gomphrenin I was found for the ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Color%2C-betalain-pattern%2C-and-antioxidant-properties-Stintzing-Herbach/1bda62dfadcb0a9a4ed2a1a47ad69c48fc9c06a1

Wellness Guide: The Healing Power of BETALAINSWellness Guide: The Healing Power of BETALAINS

Sources of betalains are beets (up to 6 of the 24 known betalains), rainbow chard (up to 12 of the 24 known betalains) and some ... HOW BETALAINS PROMOTE HEALING IN THE BODY. When you take betalains into your system they begin to restore your vitality on a ... How betalains behave after ingestion. Distribution of betalain pigments in red blood cells after consumption of cactus pear ... BETALAIN RESEARCH. Scientific studies have shown many health benefits betalains provide. Research is ongoing into the benefits ...
more infohttp://wellnessguide4u.blogspot.fi/2011/05/healing-power-of-betalains.html

Download Flowering Plants  Dicotyledons Malvales Capparales And Non Betalain CaryophyllalesDownload Flowering Plants Dicotyledons Malvales Capparales And Non Betalain Caryophyllales

Download Flowering Plants Dicotyledons Malvales Capparales And Non Betalain Caryophyllales. Conservatives for Action. Menu. ... Trudy Scott, CN, does a download flowering plants dicotyledons malvales capparales and non betalain journal that involves on ... Our download flowering plants dicotyledons malvales capparales and non betalain caryophyllales files the data to wish the ... More than this, here, it operates a download flowering plants dicotyledons malvales capparales and non betalain caryophyllales ...
more infohttp://svarw.com/ebook/download-flowering-plants-%C2%B7-dicotyledons%3A-malvales%2C-capparales-and-non-betalain-caryophyllales

The effects of boiling and fermentation on betalain profiles and antioxidant capacities of red beetroot products - PubAgThe effects of boiling and fermentation on betalain profiles and antioxidant capacities of red beetroot products - PubAg

Betalains were analyzed by micro-HPLC-TOF-MS/MS method, while antioxidant capacity by three in vitro assays. Red beet products ... antioxidant activity, beets, betalains, boiling, fermentation, in vitro studies, juices, microbial activity. Abstract:. The aim ... The effects of boiling and fermentation on betalain profiles and antioxidant capacities of red beetroot products. Author:. ... Microbial activity and softening of the matrix induced by the fermentation process led to the release of betalains responsible ...
more infohttps://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/5931132

Principal component analysis of the factors involved in the extraction of beetroot betalains-Camelia Neagu, Vasilica BarbuPrincipal component analysis of the factors involved in the extraction of beetroot betalains-Camelia Neagu, Vasilica Barbu

Betalains represent a natural and safe alternative to colour synthetic additives that are used currently in food industry. In ... Conditions to ensure the stability of the betalains preservation are: low-temperature and humidity, lack of light and air. The ... This study compares different classics methods of betalains extraction, using water and weak acid solutions from fresh, dried ... 48 . Principal component analysis of the factors involved in the extraction of beetroot betalains. Back ...
more infohttp://journal-of-agroalimentary.ro/Journal-of-Agroalimentary-Processes-and-Technologies-Article_iHh11W.html

China Spec Powder, China Spec Powder Manufacturers and Suppliers on Alibaba.comChina Spec Powder, China Spec Powder Manufacturers and Suppliers on Alibaba.com

Tags: Beet Root Extract Powder , 100% Pure Natural Beet Root Extract Powder , Iso Certified Factory Supply Betalains/ Betanin ...
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Benefits of Beet JuiceBenefits of Beet Juice

The betalain in beet is a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and fungicidal substance. Research indicates it strongly ... Betalain. One of the major benefits of beet juice it that it contains a color pigment called betalain. This is a powerful ... Betalains may occur in any part of the plant, including the petals of flowers, fruits, leaves, stems, and roots. ... The powerful betalain reduces significantly when cooked and the oxalic acid may form calcium stones when heated. ...
more infohttp://www.thebestofrawfood.com/benefits-of-beet-juice.html

Maps - climate change impacts, from PLOS ONE an...Maps - climate change impacts, from PLOS ONE an...

This review discusses betalain metabolism in light of recent advances in the field, with an up-to-date survey of characterized ... Betalains are a family of natural pigments found exclusively in the plant order Caryophyllales. All members of this chemical ... Betalain pigments, uniquely found in the plant order Caryophyllales, are synthesized from the aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine ( ... Our work establishes a platform for microbial production of betalains of various colors as a potential alternative to land- and ...
more infohttps://www.scoop.it/t/plant-cell-genetics/p/3995791131/2013/02/01/maps-climate-change-impacts-from-plos-one-and-noaa

Nutrients  | Free Full-Text | The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease | HTMLNutrients | Free Full-Text | The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease | HTML

Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive ... Betalains from beetroot delivered orally (0, 5, 20 and 80 mg∙kg∙bm∙day−1; ≈0-1.44 mg∙day−1). N/A. 30 days. Exposed to cobalt-60 ... The betalain pigments in particular, has been shown by several in vitro studies to protect cellular components from oxidative ... Betalains and beetroot extracts have emerged as potent anti-inflammatory agents. At least part of their anti-inflammatory ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/4/2801/htm

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and DiseaseNutrients | Free Full-Text | The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive ... Keywords: beetroot; betalains; nitrate; antioxidants; inflammation; oxidative stress beetroot; betalains; nitrate; antioxidants ... Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/4/2801

Bougainvillea Genus: A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and ToxicologyBougainvillea Genus: A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

Betalains. Betalains are vacuolar pigments containing a nitrogenous ring, a ring which is characteristic of the order ... and betalains. Various studies have confirmed that these extracts or active substances that were isolated from the genus ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/9070927/

Carotenoid - New World EncyclopediaCarotenoid - New World Encyclopedia

Carotenoids are a type of terpenoid (sometimes referred to as isoprenoids), which are hydrocarbons resulting from the combination of several five-carbon isoprene units. Specifically, they are tetraterpenoids, which means they are derived from 8 isoprene units-meaning they typically contain 40 carbon atoms. Structurally they are in the form of a polyene chain that is sometimes terminated by rings. Polyenes are poly-unsaturated organic compounds that contain one or more sequences of alternating double and single carbon-carbon bonds. These double carbon-carbon bonds interact in a process known as conjugation, which results in an overall lower energy state of the molecule. Carotenoids are mainly aliphatic and aliphatic-alicyclic polyenes, with a few aromatic polyenes (McGraw-Hill 2005). (Aromatic compounds contain benzene rings or similar rings of atoms, while aliphatic compounds, such as fat and oil, do not contain aromatic rings; alicyclic are organic compounds that are both aliphatic and cyclic.) ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Carotenoid

European Journal of Nutrition (v.56, #3) | www.chemweb.comEuropean Journal of Nutrition (v.56, #3) | www.chemweb.com

However, betanin, the major betalain in beetroot, showed poor bioavailability in plasma. ... and betalain content spectrophotometrically.TEAC was 11.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L for BTJ and 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol/g for BF. Both BTJ and BF ... and betalain content.Ten healthy males consumed either 250 ml of BTJ, 300 g of BF or a placebo drink, in a randomised, ...
more infohttps://www.chemweb.com/articles/SV394/0005600003?qt-chemweb_searchbox=3

Chemistry Inspired by the Colors of Fruits, Flowers and WineChemistry Inspired by the Colors of Fruits, Flowers and Wine

Although naturally-occurring betalains are only weakly or non-fluorescent, betalain analogs with much higher fluorescence ... THE CHEMISTRY AND PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF BETALAINS. Unlike anthocyanins, the color of betalains is insensitive to pH in the range ... Betalains also have been used as chromophores in dye-sensitized solar cells (Calogero et al. 2012, Hug et al. 2014, Jaafar et ... The betalains, on the other hand, are Schiff base adducts of betalamic acid (Tanaka et al. 2008), a fluorescent aldehyde ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0001-37652018000200681&lng=pt&nrm=iso

Investigating the effect of Temperature on the Cell Membrane of Beetroot Cells. - A-Level Science - Marked by Teachers.comInvestigating the effect of Temperature on the Cell Membrane of Beetroot Cells. - A-Level Science - Marked by Teachers.com

Betalain is found in the vacuole of beetroot cells and it gives the beetroot its characteristic dark purple colour. ...read ... As the beetroot was cut, some of the outer cells membranes had been ruptured meaning that some of the betalain dye leaked out ( ... Also, if the same volume of water was used to bathe the cylinders on each occasion (about 10ml), the amount of betalain ... Beetroot contains red pigments called betalains, located within the cell vacuole. Normally the pigments ... 4 star(s) ...
more infohttp://www.markedbyteachers.com/as-and-a-level/science/investigating-the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-cell-membrane-of-beetroot-cells.html
  • First of all, it may be possible to generate crops with improved characteristics, "such as beets with increased betalain levels and less or no earth-like flavour," ​ she said. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Beets, cactus fruit - aka prickly pear - and another cacti called red pitahaya, or dragon fruit, are foods that have attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to their high concentration of a powerful compound called betalain. (mercola.com)
  • Both beets and dark red or purple cactus fruit contain high amounts of betalain, used for years as a natural, commercial food dye . (mercola.com)
  • In fact, 24 different kinds of betalains have been discovered in beets and cactus fruits, while other betalain-containing plants provide only six to 12 kinds. (mercola.com)
  • Other betalains known to occur in beets are isobetanin, probetanin, and neobetanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sources of betalains are beets (up to 6 of the 24 known betalains), rainbow chard (up to 12 of the 24 known betalains) and some desert plants such as nopal opuntia cactus (contains a very high concentration of all 24 of the known naturally occurring betalains). (blogspot.fi)
  • The betalains range in color from yellow to red-purple, but are restricted to a single order of flowering plants, the Caryophyllales, which includes cacti, bougainvillea, carnations, some carnivorous plants and red and yellow beets. (scielo.br)
  • In more recent studies, betalain has been recognized for its powerful natural antioxidants, which many studies have shown may have anticancer and other disease-fighting potential. (mercola.com)
  • The interest of the food industry in betalains has grown since they were identified by in vitro methods as antioxidants, which may protect against oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betalains were analyzed by micro-HPLC-TOF-MS/MS method, while antioxidant capacity by three in vitro assays. (usda.gov)
  • Microbial activity and softening of the matrix induced by the fermentation process led to the release of betalains responsible for strong antioxidant capacity of the juice formed. (usda.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that red beet-derived products are valuable source of betalains, with their profile, content and antioxidant capacity being modulated by processes applied. (usda.gov)
  • The volume commences with an overview of the biochemistry, physiology and function of secondary metabolism, followed by detailed reviews of the major groups of secondary metabolites: alkaloids and betalains, cyanogenic glucosides, glucosinolates and nonprotein amino acids, phenyl propanoids and related phenolics, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and saponins. (wiley.com)
  • The limited distribution of betalains among plants is a synapomorphy for the Caryophyllales, though their production has been lost in two families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our download flowering plants dicotyledons malvales capparales and non betalain caryophyllales files the data to wish the control of circular matter phobias or easy owner scheme hand. (svarw.com)
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  • Betalains also reduce the enzymes responsible for causing inflammation. (mercola.com)
  • Betalain shows therapeutic potential that could be utilized in the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases ," one study 4 reported. (mercola.com)
  • By helping the body reduce the toxins surrounding your cells and enabling essential nutrients to reach each cell, the betalains reduce the inflammation in your body that leads to disease. (blogspot.fi)
  • This study evaluated the potential impacts of supplementation with betalain-rich extracts of foods on some atherosclerotic risk factors in coronary artery disease patients. (rsc.org)
  • The concentration of betalains in these root cultures is affected by various physical and chemical factors. (springer.com)
  • Plant physiologists are uncertain of the function that betalains serve in those plants which possess them, but there is some preliminary evidence that they may have fungicidal properties. (wikipedia.org)
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  • It seems that food sources of betalains can be considered as functional foods because they improve the lipid profile and levels of homocysteine, glucose, blood pressure, and quality of life to some extent. (rsc.org)
  • Betalains are incredably effective in helping the body maintain wellness and prevent chronic health problems. (blogspot.fi)
  • Biochemistry and physiology of alkaloids and betalains. (wiley.com)
  • Reduce bad cholesterol -betalains strongly reduce oxidized LDL cholesterol. (blogspot.fi)
  • Drink the juice raw because the most beneficial substances (like betalains) are lost when cooked. (thebestofrawfood.com)
  • Betalains, the group of chemicals responsible for color in red beet, are found to exhibit powerful antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties with potential health benefits in humans, such as boosting immune system and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer . (springer.com)
  • The highest antioxidant content and potential was found in purple (O. robusta cv Robusta) fruit products, attributed to the highest levels of betalains (1140.4 mg kg−1). (deepdyve.com)
  • Research is ongoing into the benefits available when betalains are consistently included in the diet. (blogspot.fi)
  • There is research that indicates that betalain may exhibit anti-cancer activity. (thebestofrawfood.com)
  • Boiling and fermentation of red beet reduced the content of betalains by 51-61% and 61-88%, respectively, however, this decline was limited when the peel was present. (usda.gov)
  • Scientific studies have shown many health benefits betalains provide. (blogspot.fi)
  • Additionally, betalains help balance minerals with a 2-to-1 ratio of minerals, such as potassium inside the cell, sodium outside the cell, magnesium inside the cell and calcium outside the cell in order to maintain the integrity of cells. (mercola.com)
  • Protect cells from toxins-betalains protect many types of cells, especially brain cells, from toxins known to trigger tumors . (blogspot.fi)
  • Betalains are a powerful tool in our quest for maintaining overall wellness. (blogspot.fi)
  • During an acute phase, 48 male patients received about 50 mg betalain/betacyanin, and their blood and urine samples were collected at 3, 8, and 24 hours after supplementations. (rsc.org)
  • Protect your liver-betalains provide significant protection from toxins that directly affect your liver. (blogspot.fi)