A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.
Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.
Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.

Interaction between dietary methionine and methyl donor intake on rat liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase gene expression and organization of the human gene. (1/91)

We previously showed that rat liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mRNA content and activity increased 4-fold when rats were fed a methionine-deficient diet containing adequate choline, compared with rats fed the same diet with control levels of methionine (Park, E. I., Renduchintala, M. S., and Garrow, T. A. (1997) J. Nutr. Biochem. 8, 541-545). A further 2-fold increase was observed in rats fed the methionine-deficient diet with supplemental betaine. The nutrition studies reported here were designed to determine whether other methyl donors would induce rat liver BHMT gene expression when added to a methionine-deficient diet and to define the relationship between the degree of methionine restriction and level of methyl donor intake on BHMT expression. Therefore, rats were fed amino acid-defined diets varying in methionine and methyl donor composition. The effect of diet on BHMT expression was evaluated using Northern, Western, and enzyme activity analyses. Similar to when betaine was added to a methionine-deficient diet, choline or sulfonium analogs of betaine induced BHMT expression. The diet-induced induction of hepatic BHMT activity was mediated by increases in the steady-state level of its mRNA and immunodetectable protein. Using methyl donor-free diets, we found that methionine restriction was required but alone not sufficient for the high induction of BHMT expression. Concomitant with methionine restriction, dietary methyl groups were required for high levels of BHMT induction, and a dose-dependent relationship was observed between methyl donor intake and BHMT induction. Furthermore, the severity of methionine restriction influenced the magnitude of BHMT induction. To study the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of BHMT, we have cloned the human BHMT gene. This gene spans about 20 kilobases of DNA and contains 8 exons and 7 introns. Using RNA isolated from human liver and hepatoma cells, a major transcriptional start site has been mapped using the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique, and this start site is 26 nucleotides downstream from a putative TATA box.  (+info)

Autolysosomal membrane-associated betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Limited degradation fragment of a sequestered cytosolic enzyme monitoring autophagy. (2/91)

We compared the membrane proteins of autolysosomes isolated from leupeptin-administered rat liver with those of lysosomes. In addition to many polypeptides common to the two membranes, the autolysosomal membranes were found to be more enriched in endoplasmic reticulum lumenal proteins (protein-disulfide isomerase, calreticulin, ER60, BiP) and endosome/Golgi markers (cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, transferrin receptor, Golgi 58-kDa protein) than lysosomal membranes. The autolysosomal membrane proteins include three polypeptides (44, 35, and 32 kDa) whose amino-terminal sequences have not yet been reported. Combining immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses, we identified the 44-kDa peptide as the intact subunit of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase and the 35- and 32-kDa peptides as two proteolytic fragments. Pronase digestion of autolysosomes revealed that the 44-kDa and 32-kDa peptides are present in the lumen, whereas the 35-kDa peptide is not. In primary hepatocyte cultures, the starvation-induced accumulation of the 32-kDa peptide occurs in the presence of E64d, showing that the 32-kDa peptide is formed from the sequestered 44-kDa peptide during autophagy. The accumulation is induced by rapamycin but completely inhibited by wortmannin, 3-methyladenine, and bafilomycin. Thus, detection of the 32-kDa peptide by immunoblotting can be used as a streamlined assay for monitoring autophagy.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein B mRNA and lipoprotein secretion are increased in McArdle RH-7777 cells by expression of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. (3/91)

The cDNA encoding rat betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) was isolated through production of monoclonal antibodies against protein fractions enriched with apolipoprotein B (apo B)-mRNA-editing complexes. BHMT mRNA was expressed predominantly in liver, and also in kidney, but not in small intestine. In stable McArdle RH-7777 (McA) cell lines expressing differing levels of BHMT, the editing efficiency of apo B mRNA was unchanged. Evaluation of apo B-mRNA expression revealed that steady-state levels were increased significantly and in parallel with BHMT protein expression. The highest levels of BHMT mRNA and BHMT enzyme activity expressed in stably transfected McA cells were comparable with those found in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to the changes in apo B-mRNA abundance, levels of other apolipoprotein-encoding mRNAs and several liver-specific and ubiquitously expressed mRNAs were unchanged by BHMT expression. In the cell line expressing the highest level of BHMT, apo B-containing lipoprotein secretion was increased, indicating utilization of increased endogenous message. Results suggest that apo B-mRNA abundance in McA cells is related to the expression of BHMT, an enzyme important in homocysteine metabolism.  (+info)

Leupeptin-induced appearance of partial fragment of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase during autophagic maturation in rat hepatocytes. (4/91)

A cytosolic enzyme, betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and its partial fragments were discovered as autolysosomal membrane proteins from rat liver in the presence of leupeptin [Ueno et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15222-15229]. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the transport and processing of BHMT from cytosol to autolysosome and to test if the fragment can be used as an in vitro probe for the maturation step of macroautophagy. Upon subcellular fractionation, BHMT (p44) was found in all fractions, while its 32-kDa fragment (p32) was found only in the mitochondrial-lysosomal (ML) fraction. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with leupeptin induced time-dependent accumulation of p32 in the ML fraction from 30 to 90 min after the start of incubation. However, chloroquine completely inhibited the appearance of p32, indicating that the processing from p44 to p32 is lysosomal. Incubation with Bafilomycin A(1), a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, together with leupeptin, led to linear accumulation of p44, but not of p32. The p44 accumulation rate was calculated to be 4.9%/h, which was comparable to autophagic sequestration rate. The distribution of p44 within the ML fraction turned out to be dual, i.e., the membrane-surface attached and luminal/sedimentable forms. Amino acids and 3-methyladenine, both of which specifically suppress macroautophagy, inhibited the accumulation of p32 as well as of p44. Finally, energy-dependent appearance of p32 was demonstrated during incubation of postnucler supernatant fractions, making it possible to establish an in vitro assay system. All the results strongly support the idea that BHMT is taken up and degraded to p32 through the macroautophagic pathway, and that p32 could be a novel probe for the maturation of macroautophagy.  (+info)

Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. (5/91)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. METHODS: Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. RESULTS: Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. CONCLUSIONS: DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.  (+info)

Selenium deficiency in Fisher-344 rats decreases plasma and tissue homocysteine concentrations and alters plasma homocysteine and cysteine redox status. (6/91)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of graded amounts of dietary selenium on plasma and tissue parameters of methionine metabolism including homocysteine. Male weanling Fisher-344 rats (n = 7-8/group) were fed a selenium-deficient, torula yeast-based diet, supplemented with 0 (selenium deficient), 0.02, 0.05 or 0.1 microg (adequate) selenium (as selenite)/g diet. After 61 d, plasma total homocysteine and cysteine were decreased (P < 0.0001) and glutathione increased (P < 0.0001) by selenium deficiency. The concentrations of homocysteine in kidney and heart were decreased (P = 0.02) by selenium deficiency. The activities of liver betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, methionine synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase, cystathionine synthase and cystathionase were determined; selenium deficiency affected only betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, which was decreased (P < 0.0001). The ratios of plasma free reduced homocysteine (or cysteine) to free oxidized homocysteine (or cysteine) or to total homocysteine (or cysteine) were increased by selenium deficiency, suggesting that selenium status affects the normally tightly controlled redox status of these thiols. Most differences due to dietary selenium were between rats fed 0 or 0.02 microg selenium/g diet and those fed 0.05 or 0.1 microg selenium/g diet. The metabolic consequences of a marked decrease in plasma homocysteine and smaller but significant decreases in tissue homocysteine are not known.  (+info)

Methionine supply to growing steers affects hepatic activities of methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, but not cystathionine synthase. (7/91)

The effects of supplemental methionine (Met), supplied abomasally, on the activities of methionine synthase (MS), cystathionine synthase (CS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) were studied in growing steers. Six Holstein steers (205 kg) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment. Steers were fed 2.6 kg dry matter daily of a diet containing 83% soybean hulls and 8% wheat straw. Ruminal infusions of 180 g/d acetate, 180 g/d propionate, 45 g/d butyrate, and abomasal infusion of 300 g/d dextrose provided additional energy. An amino acid mixture (299 g/d) limiting in Met was infused into the abomasum to ensure that nonsulfur amino acids did not limit growth. Treatments were infused abomasally and included 0, 5 or 10 g/d L-Met. Retained N (20.5, 26.9 and 31.6 g/d for 0, 5 and 10 g/d L-Met, respectively) increased (P < 0.01) linearly with increased supplemental Met. Hepatic Met, vitamin B-12, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic folates tended (P = 0.07) to decrease linearly with Met supplementation. All three enzymes were detected in hepatic tissue of our steers. Hepatic CS activity was not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic MS decreased (P < 0.01) linearly with increasing Met supply, and hepatic BHMT activity responded quadratically (P = 0.04), with 0 and 10 g/d Met being higher than the intermediate level. Data from this experiment indicate that sulfur amino acid metabolism may be regulated differently in cattle than in other tested species.  (+info)

Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: zinc in a distorted barrel. (8/91)

Betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT) catalyzes the synthesis of methionine from betaine and homocysteine (Hcy), utilizing a zinc ion to activate Hcy. BHMT is a key liver enzyme that is important for homocysteine homeostasis. X-ray structures of human BHMT in its oxidized (Zn-free) and reduced (Zn-replete) forms, the latter in complex with the bisubstrate analog, S(delta-carboxybutyl)-L-homocysteine, were determined at resolutions of 2.15 A and 2.05 A. BHMT is a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel that is distorted to construct the substrate and metal binding sites. The zinc binding sequences G-V/L-N-C and G-G-C-C are at the C termini of strands beta6 and beta8. Oxidation to the Cys217-Cys299 disulfide and expulsion of Zn are accompanied by local rearrangements. The structures identify Hcy binding fingerprints and provide a prototype for the homocysteine S-methyltransferase family.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are altered by choline supply during negative energy balance in Holstein cows. AU - Coleman, Danielle N.. AU - Vailati-Riboni, M.. AU - Elolimy, Ahmed A.. AU - Cardoso, Felipe C.. AU - Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.. AU - Miura, Makoto. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Loor, Juan J.. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Although choline requirements are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and increase flux through the methionine cycle, helping cows during a negative energy balance (NEB). The objective was to investigate effects of postruminal choline supply during NEB on hepatic activity of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine adenosyltransferase, transcription of enzymes, and metabolite concentrations in the methionine cycle. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± ...
We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks and Sparks (1999) Biochem. J. 341, 639-645]. To examine whether a similar relationship occurs in vivo, hepatic BHMT expression was induced by feeding rats a Met (L-methionine)-restricted betaine-containing diet, and parameters of ApoB metabolism were evaluated. There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L-homocysteine levels. Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Betaine plus Met restriction induced hepatic BHMT 4-fold and ApoB mRNA 3-fold compared with Met restriction alone. No changes in percentage of edited ApoB mRNA were observed on the test diets. An increase ...
References. 1. Obeid R. The Metabolic Burden of Methyl Donor Deficiency with Focus on the Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Pathway. Nutrients 2013; 5: 3481-3495.. 2. Rogers J.D., Sanchez-Saffon A., Frol A.B., Diaz-Arrastia R. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients treated with levodopa: Association with vascular disease. Arch. Neurol. 2003;60:59-64.. 3. Wallace J.M., McCormack J.M., McNulty H., Walsh P.M., Robson P.J., Bonham M.P., Duffy M.E., Ward M., Molloy A.M., Scott J.M., et al. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: A randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr. 2012;108:1264-1271.. 4. Holm P.I., Ueland P.M., Vollset S.E., Midttun O., Blom H.J., Keijzer M.B., den Heijer M. Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2005;25:379-385.. 5. Kim Y.I., Miller J.W., da Costa K.A., Nadeau M., Smith D., Selhub J., Zeisel S.H., Mason J.B. Severe folate ...
Proteomic effect screening in zebrafish liver was performed to generate hypotheses following exposure (21 days) to a structurally diverse mixture of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Fish were exposed to two doses (10 and 100 nmol/g feed). Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, image analysis and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry revealed 13 and 19 significant responses in males and females, respectively. Effects on proteins related to cellular maintenance and stress were observed in both genders. Regulated proteins were gender-specific, but functionally indicated common protective responses (peroxiredoxin 6 and Zgc:92891 in males and transketolase in females) suggesting oxidative stress. Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was induced in both genders. In addition a female-specific downregulation of ironhomeostatic proteins (iron-regulatory protein 1 and transferrin) were observed. Our proteomic approach revealed novel responses that suggest important gender-specific sensitivity to BFRs that ...
In this study, the cDNA of homocysteine S-methyltransferase was isolated from Aegilops tauschii Coss., with the gene accordingly designated as AetHMT1. Similar to other methyltransferases, AetHMT1 contains a GGCCR consensus sequence for a possible zinc-binding motif near the C-terminal and a conserved cysteine residue upstream of the zinc-binding motif. Analysis of AetHMT1 uncovered no obvious chloroplast or mitochondrial targeting sequences. We functionally expressed AetHMT1 in Escherichia coli and confirmed its biological activity, as evidenced by a positive HMT enzyme activity of 164.516 ± 17.378 nmol min−1 mg−1 protein when catalyzing the transformation of L-homocysteine. Compared with the bacterium containing the empty vector, E. coli harboring the recombinant AetHMT1 plasmid showed much higher tolerance to selenate and selenite. AetHMT1 transcript amounts in different organs were increased by Na2SeO4 treatment, with roots accumulating higher amounts than stems, old leaves and new ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Halina Jurkowska, Julie Niewiadomski, Lawrence L Hirschberger, Heather B Roman, Kevin M Mazor, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Eunkyue Park, Martha H Stipanuk].
Homocysteine S -methyltransferases (HMTs, EC 2.1.1.0) catalyze the conversion of homocysteine to methionine using S -methylmethionine or S -adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. HMTs play an important role in methionine biosynthesis and are widely distributed among microorganisms, plants, and animals. Additionally, HMTs play a role in metabolite repair of S -adenosylmethionine by removing an inactive diastereomer from the pool. The mmuM gene product from Escherichia coli is an archetypal HMT family protein and contains a predicted Zn-binding motif in the enzyme active site. Here we present X-ray structures for MmuM in oxidized, apo, and metallated forms, representing the first such structures for any member of the HMT family. The structures reveal a metal/substrate binding pocket distinct from those in related enzymes. The presented structure analysis and modelling of co-substrate interactions provide valuable insight into the function of MmuM in both methionine biosynthesis and cofactor ...
Yasko Methylation The product the BHMT gene is central to the short cut through the methylation cycle, again helping to convert homocysteine to methionine. The activity of this gene product can be affected by stress, by cortisol levels and may play a role in ADD/ADHD by affecting norepinephrine levels. Yasko believes that believes BHMT-02 and BHMT-04 play a role in the gut environment. Yasko also believes that BHMT-08 is related to the impact that psychological stress has on a patients attention levels. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
BHMT antibody [10B3] (betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase) for FACS, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-BHMT mAb (GTX84827) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Monoklonale und polyklonale BHMT Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für BHMT Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab96415 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P…BHMT抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Your shown homocysteine pathway is way too simple. Especially the production of the neuromodulator H2S from excess sulfur amino acids is not shown. In the last years many more enzymes and reactions have been discovered. I have summarized human sulfur amino acid metabolism in reactome.org, so please use this link to discover all the details and new papers. Ill also append some of the relevant papers below.. Brosnan, JT, Brosnan, ME The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview 2006 J Nutr PMID 16702333. Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can also happen using betaine as a methyl donor. This reaction is also part of choline catabolism.. Li, F, Feng, Q, Lee, C, Wang, S, Pelleymounter, LL, Moon, I, Eckloff, BW, Wieben, ED, Schaid, DJ, Yee, V, Weinshilboum, RM Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional characterization 2008 Mol Genet Metab PMID 18457970. Bearden, SE, Beard RS, Jr, Pfau, JC Extracellular transsulfuration ...
K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K01669 phrB; deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase [EC:4.1.99.3] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03652 MPG; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.21] K03575 mutY; A/G-specific adenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.31] K10773 NTH; endonuclease III [EC:4.2.99.18] K10747 LIG1; DNA ligase 1 [EC:6.5.1.1 6.5.1.6 6.5.1.7] K10843 ERCC3; DNA excision repair protein ERCC-3 [EC:3.6.4.12] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K01520 dut; dUTP pyrophosphatase ...
At Magnolia Personalized Medicine we do DNA testing. The benefits of testing reveal links and underlying causes for insulin sensitivity, cancer risk, neurotransmitter balance, weight gain, cardiovascular health, mental health, bone health and even vitamin D absorption. Then we can work to optimize your genetic expression through diet, nutrition, detox because some genes can be turned off and on.. The DNA Methylation Pathway Profile includes a variety of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism):. VDR: (the vitamin D receptor) is a nuclear receptor protein that binds 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D to activate a signaling molecule that is believed to have important roles in a 3rd of the human genome. Some functions that are known are xenobiotic detoxification.. BHMT: (betaine-homocysteine methylatransferase) is a transferase enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteine, which produces methionine. Other enzymatic roles for BHMT is the choline oxidation processes. This ...
We need follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and estradiol levels (E2) on either Day 2 or 3 of your cycle.
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into Glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N, N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Dimethylglycine in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes ...
Hyperhomocysteinemia is not uncommon in diabetic patients and it can aggravate cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism of this increased hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence is vague but it is suggested that, insulin plays a role in the regulation of plasma homocysteine and, insulin resistance causes hyperhomocysteinemia (18). Besides, the mechanisms that cause peripheral and/or autonomic neuropathy are complex and are not yet fully understood. Hypothetically, homocysteine can also contribute to the neuropathy development through neurovascular disruption or through direct toxic effect (8). In some studies in this field, it has been shown that there could be a link between hyperhomocysteinemia and autonomic or peripheral neuropathy (8,24). According to recent data, hyperhomocysteinemia can be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the diabetic population (18,25). The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetics is 1.6 times ...
Involved in the removal of alkylated bases from DNA in Escherichia coli (cf. EC 2.1.1.63 methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase).
Discover important micronutrients from the Dr. Rath Cellular Nutrient Program, which support the metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine.
Background and Aims: It has been demonstrated that homozygote and heterozygote mutant allele carriers for thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) are at high risk of developing myelosuppression after receiving standard doses of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of TPMT deficient alleles in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Jordan and to compare it with other ethnic groups. Methods: We included 52 ALL childhood cases from King Hussein Cancer Research Center in Jordan. Genotyping of the rs1800460, rs1800462, and rs1142345 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. Comparisons were made with historical data for controls and for both volunteers and cases from other middle-eastern countries. Results: Mutant TPMT alleles were present in 3.8% (2/52) of patients. Allelic frequencies were 1.0% for both TPMT*B and TPMT*C. None of the patients were heterozygous or homozygous for TPMT*3A or TPMT *2. We did not find
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of aromatic and heterocyclic sulfhydryl compounds including thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine and azathioprine. TPMT activity exhibits genetic variation and show
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Canine red blood cell thiopurine S-methyltransferase. T2 - Companion animal pharmacogenetics. AU - Salavaggione, Oreste E.. AU - Kidd, Linda. AU - Prondzinski, Janel L.. AU - Szumlanski, Carol L.. AU - Pankratz, V. Shane. AU - Wang, Liewei. AU - Trepanier, Lauren. AU - Weinshilboum, Richard M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002/12. Y1 - 2002/12. N2 - Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) plays an important role in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs. In humans, a common genetic polymorphism for TPMT is a major factor responsible for individual variation in the toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are also treated with thiopurine drugs and, similar to humans, they display large individual variations in thiopurine toxicity and efficacy. We set out to determine whether dogs might also display genetically determined variation in TPMT activity. As a first step, we observed that canine red blood cell (RBC) ...
K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K01669 phrB; deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase [EC:4.1.99.3] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03652 MPG; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.21] K03575 mutY; A/G-specific adenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.31] K10773 NTH; endonuclease III [EC:4.2.99.18] K10747 LIG1; DNA ligase 1 [EC:6.5.1.1 6.5.1.6 6.5.1.7] K10843 ERCC3; DNA excision repair protein ERCC-3 [EC:3.6.4.12] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K01520 dut; dUTP pyrophosphatase [EC:3.6.1.23] K03919 alkB; DNA oxidative demethylase [EC:1.14.11.33] K03649 mug; double-stranded uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.28] ...
K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K01669 phrB; deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase [EC:4.1.99.3] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03652 MPG; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.21] K03575 mutY; A/G-specific adenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.31] K10773 NTH; endonuclease III [EC:4.2.99.18] K10747 LIG1; DNA ligase 1 [EC:6.5.1.1 6.5.1.6 6.5.1.7] K10843 ERCC3; DNA excision repair protein ERCC-3 [EC:3.6.4.12] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K01520 dut; dUTP pyrophosphatase [EC:3.6.1.23] K03919 alkB; DNA oxidative demethylase [EC:1.14.11.33] K03649 mug; double-stranded uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.28] ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Recurrent early pregnancy loss and genetic-related disturbances in folate and homocysteine metabolism. by Willianne L D M Nelen et al.
Detection of genetic polymorphisms in the Thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene for the prevention of dose-related toxicity during treatment with thiopurine drugs; including (if performed) any service described in item 65075. 1 or more tests Fee: $51.95 Benefit: 75% = $39.00 85% = $44.20 ...
FTSJ2屬於大腸桿菌RNA核醣體次單元甲基轉移酶RrmJ直同源蛋白家族之一,其功能推測為將硫-腺苷酸甲硫胺酸(S-adenosylmethionine, SAM) 去甲基化轉化為硫-腺苷酸同胱胺酸(S-adenosylhomocysteine, SAH)並對RNA行甲基化修飾。生物體內SAM的來源則仰賴於甲硫胺酸代謝循環的供應,當甲硫胺酸代謝失調時,會造成細胞內SAM與SAH比率改變,進而調控相關基因表現並影響細胞的生長產生影響。本研究將豬FTSJ2基因轉殖於人類神經髓母細胞瘤細胞株te671(te671-FTSJ2)與肝癌細胞株HepG2(HepG2-FTSJ2),觀察FTSJ2大量表現對於甲硫胺酸代謝循環相關基因:甲硫胺酸腺苷酸轉移酶1A/2A(MAT1A/2A)、SAH水解酶(SAHH)、甲硫胺酸生成酶(MS)以及甜菜鹼-同胱胺酸甲基轉移酶(BHMT)的調控來評估對細胞內SAM /SAH比率是否具有影響以確認其甲基轉移酶的生物功能。結果發現HepG2轉殖FTSJ2提高了MAT1A的mRNA表現(p
You may or may not have heard have heard of betaine before, but its been around for a very long time. Thats because betaine is derived from beets
2.1.1.1 Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.2 Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.3 Thetin--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.4 Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.5 Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.6 Catechol O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.7 Nicotinate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.8 Histamine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.9 Thiol S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.10 Homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.11 Magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase 2.1.1.12 Methionine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.13 Methionine synthase 2.1.1.14 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.15 Fatty-acid O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.16 Methylene-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase 2.1.1.17 Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.18 Polysaccharide O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.19 Trimethylsulfonium--tetrahydrofolate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.20 Glycine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.21 Methylamine--glutamate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.22 Carnosine N-methyltransferase ...
I wrote about the first day of the conference here.. The second day of the conference also had an infectious diseases focus, where we learned how the MinION was used to identify the two major Ebola lineages in West Africa. The MinION has environmental applications, too, as Brook Milligan showed that the MinION was used to trace illegally traded timber, which accounts for $100 billion annually in lost revenue, he said.. Non-infectious clinical applications were less frequent at London Calling. However, the MinIONs long reads have an advantage that was reflected in Ron Ammars pharmacogenomics talk.. Ron showed that Haplotyping the Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase (TPMT) gene at two SNPs (rs1142345 and rs1800460) influenced the immunosuppressive Thiopurine drug dosage more precisely than having the SNPs information separately.. After the two pleasantly exhaustive days, I returned to Kuwait with a personalized Fahd Al-Mulla MinION that dazzled staff at my University and Genatak. I am planning to use ...
Perinatal exposure to hyperhomocysteinemia might disturb neurogenesis during brain development and growth. Also, high levels of homocysteine trigger neurodegeneration in several experimental models. However, the putative mechanisms of homocysteine-induced toxicity in the developing nervous system have poorly been elucidated. This study was aimed to investigate homocysteine effects in undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells, Neuro2a. A 4 h exposure to homocysteine in a concentration range of 10-100 μM did not affect cell viability and ROS production in Neuro2a cell cultures. Instead, ROS levels were increased by two-three folds in cells treated with 250 μM and 500 μM homocysteine, respectively, in comparison with control cells. Also, the highest homocysteine dose significantly reduced the viable cell number by 40%. Notably, the treatment with homocysteine (250 μM-500 μM) in the presence of antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine and IRFI 016, a synthetic α-tocopherol analogue, recovered cell viability
Betaine HCL Pespin - 250 vCapsules Betaine HCI Pepsin provides a professional strength of 520 mg betaine HCl per capsule with additional pepsin. Betaine HCl is an acidic form of betaine, and pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme.
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Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it.
Disease and Homocysteine Concentration. Dogs in the heart disease, neoplastic disease, kidney disease, and skin disease groups had significantly higher plasma Hcy concentrations than control dogs. However,multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and spay/neuter status revealed that Hcy concentration was only associated with skin disease when these other variables were included in the model. The odds ratio per 1 μmol/l increase in Hcy was 1.077, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001-1.158, p,0.05. In the control group (n=187), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 13.5 ± 0.4 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 9.6-12.8-16.0, and min-max 4.3-50.1 μmol/l). In the skin disease group (n=16), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 20.3 ± 2.3 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 13.8-19.3-23.3, and min-max 9.7-49.8 μmol/l). The skin disease group included five Shih Tzus and 11 other dogs of nine different breeds. However, our finding that Hcy ...
To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. Sixteen recreationally active subjects (7 females and 9 males) completed three sprint tests, each consisting of four 12 sec efforts against a resistance equal to 5.5% of body weight; efforts were separated by 2.5 min of cycling at zero resistance. Test one established baseline; test two and three were preceded by seven days of daily consumption of 591 ml of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage as a placebo or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage containing 0.42% betaine (approximately 2.5 grams of betaine a day); half the beverage was consumed in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. We used a double blind random order cross-over design; there was a 3 wk washout between trials two and three. Average and maximum peak and mean power were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA and, where indicated, a Student Newman-Keuls. Compared to baseline, betaine ingestion increased average peak power (6.4%; p | 0.001),
According to the market research report Betaine Market :By Type (Synthetic, Natural); By Form (Betaine Anhydrous, Cocamidopropyl Betaine); By End-users (Food & Beverages, Animal Feed) & Geography - Forecast (2016-2021), published by IndustryARC, estimates tremendous expansion for new entrants.. Browse Report @ http://industryarc.com/Report/15179/betaine-market.html. Betaine is a by-product of sugar beet processing. This works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid causes harm to blood vessels and contributes to heart disease, stroke and circulation problems.. After the discovery of betaine supplement, this was originally used to turn homocysteine into L-methionine. Homocysteine is a toxic samino acid that can lead to various health problems when elevated in the body including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and multiple cardiovascular issues. Betaine supplementation is extremely important for individuals with homocystinuria, a rare genetic condition that ...
Betaine supplementation has numerous positive effects on animal performance. Recent studies with betaine from sugar beet molasses looked if this naturally derived betaine can substitute a certain amount of added methionine in broiler diets.
What is Betaine Anhydrous?. Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaines two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.. ...
Methyl Defense is a comprehensive formula designed to support optimal methylation and help maintain healthy homocysteine levels already within normal range. It features five key nutrients that are involved in homocysteine metabolism.
Cocamidopropyl betaine, Cocamidopropyl betaine supplier, Cocamidopropyl betaine distributor, CAS 61789-40-0 70851-07-9 83138-08-3 , Cocamidopropyl betaine manufacturer, Cocamidopropyl betaine wholesale
I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. Best part is the relief has lasted more than the usual 1-2 weeks. I once tried a betaine HCL product in the past but I took it the same time as taking a probiotic (I have found I always rash up from probiotics, without exception.) It may be worth a try, Im having a lot of success using it everyday and cycling my other supplements. In
Betaine HCL/Pepsin 250s-Promotes a healthy digestive tract *Betaine HCl and pepsin are gastric-juice components essential to the digestion of food an
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The degradation of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), a metabolic enzyme, could be used to assess autophagy flux in ...
... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) Although mammals cannot ... Homocysteine can also be remethylated using glycine betaine (NNN-trimethyl glycine, TMG) to methionine via the enzyme betaine- ... homocysteine methyltransferase (E.C.2.1.1.5, BHMT). BHMT makes up to 1.5% of all the soluble protein of the liver, and recent ... Homocysteine can be converted to cysteine. (5) Cystathionine-β-synthase (an enzyme which requires the active form of vitamin B6 ...
... that homocysteine can also be converted to methionine by the folate-independent enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... 677TT (but not 677CC/CT) individuals with lower plasma folate levels are at risk for elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In ... It does not result in thermolabile MTHFR and does not appear to affect homocysteine levels. It does, however, affect the ... 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate is used to convert homocysteine (a potentially toxic amino acid) to methionine by the enzyme ...
... and 2-BHMT2 encodes for betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, which catalyzes the methylation of homocysteine. ATR ...
... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.6: catechol O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.7: nicotinate N-methyltransferase EC ... EC 2.1.1.1: nicotinamide N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.2: guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.3: thetin-homocysteine S ... 2.1.1.8: histamine N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.9: thiol S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.10: homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC ... NNS virus cap methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.376: glycine betaine-corrinoid protein Co-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.377: [methyl-Co( ...
... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.250 - catechol O-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555. ... homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.645 - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine s-methyltransferase MeSH ... histone-lysine n-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.650 - o-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase MeSH D08.811. ... protein o-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.800.700 - protein d-aspartate-l-isoaspartate methyltransferase MeSH ...
... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) Methionine biosynthesis ... Homocysteine is a coactivator of glyA and must act in concert with MetR. On the other hand, PurR, a protein which plays a role ... Plamann MD, Stauffer GV (1989). "Regulation of the Escherichia coli glyA gene by the metR gene product and homocysteine". J. ... The methionine gene product MetR and the methionine intermediate homocysteine are known to positively regulate glyA. ...
Methyltransferase Arakawa's syndrome II Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116984 - ... "MTR 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (Homo sapiens)". Entrez. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009. Li YN ... In humans it is encoded by the MTR gene (5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase). Methionine synthase forms ... EC 2.1.1.13 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine+S-Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (14): ... Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D (December 2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine ... Betaine+Homocysteine+Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 Portal ...
The second pathway (restricted to liver and kidney in most mammals) involves betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and ... Trimethylglycine is also used as the hydrochloride salt (marketed as betaine hydrochloride or betaine HCl). Betaine ... Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC ... When insufficient betaine is available, elevated homocysteine levels and decreased SAM levels in blood occur. Supplementation ...
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine This enzyme is purified from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8102. Lu WD, Chi ... WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis". Archives of Microbiology. 186 (6 ... N-dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (betaine-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.161, BsmB, DMT) is an enzyme with systematic name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N, ...
SAM is the substrate for methylation reactions catalyzed by DNA, RNA and protein methyltransferases. The products of these ... choline and betaine found in beef, eggs and some vegetables). Assimilated methionine is transformed in S-adenosyl methionine ( ... and homocysteine: correlations with diet". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 10 (6): 649-655. PMID 11401915. Prinz- ... SAH has a negative feedback on its own production as an inhibitor of methyltransferase enzymes. Therefore, SAM:SAH ratio ...
McNeil SD (1999). "Betaines and related osmoprotectants. Targets for metabolic engineering of stress resistance". Plant ... "S-methylmethionine plays a major role in phloem sulfur transport and is synthesized by a novel type of methyltransferase". The ... The coproduct is S-adenosyl homocysteine. The biological roles of S-methylmethionine are not well understood. Speculated roles ... involving replacement of the adenosyl group by a methyl group is catalyzed by the enzyme methionine S-methyltransferase. S- ...
The simultaneous intake of methyl providing substances such as betaine appears advisable because of the risk of homocysteine ... glycocyamine is methylated to creatine with S-adenosyl methionine by the enzyme guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT). ... Betaine can provide a methyl group to glycocyamine, via methionine, for the formation of creatine. In overall, such treatment ... This causes homocysteine levels to rise, which has been shown to produce cardiovascular and skeletal problems.[citation needed ...
... synthesis of choline and glycine betaine in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase ... The source of the methyl group is S-adenosyl-L-methionine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine is generated as a side product. In ... Choline and folate, interacting with vitamin B12, act as methyl donors to homocysteine to form methionine, which can then go on ... It also works as a substrate for the BHMT-enzyme, which methylates homocysteine to methionine. This is a S-adenosylmethionine ( ...
... synthesis of choline and glycine betaine in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase" ... It also works as a substrate for the BHMT-enzyme, which methylates homocysteine to methionine. This is a S-adenosylmethionine ( ... Choline and folate, interacting with vitamin B12, act as methyl donors to homocysteine to form methionine, which can then go on ... In humans, choline is oxidized irreversibly in liver mitochondria to glycine betaine aldehyde by choline oxidases. This is ...
Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for spina bifida and orofacial clefts? ... Evidence of interaction between genes in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway in controlling risk of non-syndromic oral ...
The use of betaine in the treatment of elevated homocysteine. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jul. 88(3):201-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Glycine N -methyltransferase deficiency: a new patient with a novel mutation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003. 26(8):745-59. [QxMD ... Betaine anhydrous is an antihomocystinuric that acts as a methyl-group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine ... Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid ...
The use of betaine in the treatment of elevated homocysteine. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jul. 88(3):201-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and L-homocysteine S-methyltransferase are mapped to chromosome 1, and cystathionase is mapped to ... The accumulation of homocysteine leads to damage of the collagen and elastic fibers. The binding of homocysteine to lysine ... Homocysteine is readily oxidized in plasma to form homocystine- and homocysteine-mixed disulfides. This oxidation has been ...
The use of betaine in the treatment of elevated homocysteine. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jul. 88(3):201-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Glycine N -methyltransferase deficiency: a new patient with a novel mutation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003. 26(8):745-59. [QxMD ... Levels of homocysteine excreted in the urine are more than 200 mg, and the fraction of mixed bisulfite homocysteine and ... Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid ...
Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for spina bifida and orofacial clefts? ... Evidence of interaction between genes in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway in controlling risk of non-syndromic oral ...
Association of Maternal Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2 Genes Polymorphisms with Congenital Heart ...
Investigations of a common genetic variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) in coronary artery disease. ...
Association of Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyl Transferase (rs3797546 and rs3733890) polymorphisms with non-syndromic cleft lip/ ...
The use of betaine in the treatment of elevated homocysteine. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jul. 88(3):201-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Glycine N -methyltransferase deficiency: a new patient with a novel mutation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003. 26(8):745-59. [QxMD ... Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid ... are important cofactors in the metabolism of homocysteine. Shaker and El-Tahlawi found out that an elevated homocysteine level ...
Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for spina bifida and orofacial clefts? ... Evidence of interaction between genes in the folate/homocysteine metabolic pathway in controlling risk of non-syndromic oral ...
Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 742G,A polymorphism and risk of down syndrome offspring in a Brazilian population. ...
The use of betaine in the treatment of elevated homocysteine. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jul. 88(3):201-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Glycine N -methyltransferase deficiency: a new patient with a novel mutation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003. 26(8):745-59. [QxMD ... Betaine anhydrous is an antihomocystinuric that acts as a methyl-group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine ... Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid ...
Arylamine N-methyltransferase (substance) {46566007 , SNOMED-CT } Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (substance) {52442007 ... Site-specific methyltransferase (cytosine-specific) (substance) {1978009 , SNOMED-CT } Thetin-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... Histone-lysine methyltransferase (substance) {71437001 , SNOMED-CT } Homocysteine methyltransferase (substance) {8473001 , ... methyltransferase (substance) {59231001 , SNOMED-CT } 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (substance) { ...
The use of betaine in the treatment of elevated homocysteine. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 Jul. 88(3):201-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Glycine N -methyltransferase deficiency: a new patient with a novel mutation. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003. 26(8):745-59. [QxMD ... Homocysteine, cysteine, and body composition in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study: does cysteine link amino acid and lipid ... Homocysteine reduces cholinesterase activity in rat and human serum. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2007 Jun. 25(4):201-5. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (14): ... Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D (December 2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine ... Betaine+Homocysteine+Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 Portal ...
Inhibition of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase causes hyperhomocysteinemia in mice. Michaela Collinsova, Jana Strakova ... Dive into the research topics of Inhibition of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase causes hyperhomocysteinemia in mice. ...
Effects of diabetes and insulin on betaine-homocysteineS-methyltransferase expression in rat liver Academic Article ...
Name: betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, pseudogene 1. Type: Gene. Species: Mus musculus (mouse) ...
betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) −4.2 0.0001 0.1 AA454572 minichromosome maintenance deficient (Saccharomyces ... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) −4.2 0.0001 0.1 AA454572 minichromosome maintenance deficient (Saccharomyces ...
The Metabolic Burden of Methyl Donor Deficiency with Focus on the Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Pathway ... Homocysteine is a toxic metabolite; therefore humans neutralize it normally as soon as possible. On the one hand, homocysteine ... Obviously folate/FA is a key factor in homocysteine metabolism, but vitamin B12, B2 and B6 have also a role in the " ... The lower activity of MTHFR enzyme reduces the production of 5-MTHF and increases the plasma homocysteine level which causes a ...
Objective-Betaine is a substrate in the betaine- homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, converting homocysteine to methionine ... Betaine as a determinant of postmethionine load total plasma homocysteine before and after B-Vitamin supplementation  Holm, ... There are only sparse data on plasma betaine as a determinant of the plasma total homocysteine ... ...
Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ... Substance with methyltransferase mechanism of action (substance) {130055001 , SNOMED-CT } Substance with transferase mechanism ...
Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for spina bifida and orofacial clefts? ... Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina bifida. American journal of medical genetics ...
Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase 100% * Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma 56% * Genetic Variation 55% ...
... homocysteine methyltransferase; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; betaine, homocysteine methyltransferase; choline dehydro- ...
betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. 0.011. Fetub. fetuin beta. 0.011. Cst3. cystatin C. 0.011. ...
Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 V9HWA4 [Target identity:100%; Query identity:100%]. Betaine-homocysteine ... GO:0047150 [betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity]. GO:0050666 [regulation of homocysteine metabolic process]. GO: ... GO:0006579 [amino-acid betaine catabolic process]. GO:0008270 [zinc ion binding]. GO:0008898 [S-adenosylmethionine-homocysteine ... This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and ...
thetin-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. *: acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase. *: betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. ... nicotinate N-methyltransferase. *: histamine N-methyltransferase. *: thiol S-methyltransferase. *: homocysteine S- ... 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. *: fatty-acid O-methyltransferase. *: methylene-fatty- ... myricetin O-methyltransferase. *: isoflavone 7-O-methyltransferase. *: cobalt-factor II C20-methyltransferase. *: precorrin-6A ...
... homocysteine (any form), with thiol and disulfide forms indicated as HcySH, HcySSHcy, and HcySSR; homocyst(e)ine, Hcy or… ... N5-methyl-THF-homocysteine methyltransferase; (5) N5,10-methylene-THF reductase; (6) betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; (7 ... Methionine Metabolism to Homocysteine and Cysteine. Because Cys can be synthesized in the body from Met (Hcy) sulfur and serine ... In remethylation, Hcy acquires a methyl group from N5-methyltetrahydrofolate (N5-methyl-THF) or from betaine to form Met. In ...
... supply to growing steers affects hepatic activities of methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, but not ...
Maternal Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Gene Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Trisomy (10146 Views). ...
The metabolic burden of methyl donor deficiency with focus on the betaine homocysteine methyltransferase pathway. Nutrients; 5( ... such as B12 and prevent detoxification of homocysteine. Pernicious anemia is also a sign of B12 deficiency. People who have ... as a cofactor with two enzymes that convert homocysteine, an inflammatory byproduct of protein metabolism into methionine, an ...
Obeid R. The metabolic burden of methyl donor deficiency with focus on the betaine homocysteine methyltransferase pathway. ... Wilkinson, A.W., Diep, J., Dai, S. et al. SETD3 is an actin histidine methyltransferase that prevents primary dystocia. Nature ... Kwiatkowski S, Seliga AK, Veiga-da-Cunha M, et al., SETD3 protein is the actin-specific histidine N-methyltransferase. bioRxiv ... Seervai RNH, Jangid RK, Karki M, et al., The Huntingtin-interacting protein SETD2/HYPB is an actin lysine methyltransferase. ...
Dietary Egg Protein Prevents Hyperhomocysteinemia via Upregulation of Hepatic Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase Activity ... Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 μmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia ... Circadian rhythm of serum total homocysteine in men. Am J Cardiol. 2000 Nov 15; 86(10):1153-6, A9-10. ... Preanalytical sources of measurement error: the conundrum of the homocysteine hypothesis. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Oct; 194(2):520 ...
... or betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT). Typically methionine is rapidly used, however when it accumulates it blocks ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme which inactivates neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine in the ... The A allele of G472A is associated with an accumulation of homocysteine 10, potentially driven by inhibition of MTR and BHMT ... Along with MTR and BHMT there is an alternative pathway to clear homocysteine using cystathionine β synthase (CBS) and ...
Dissecting the catalytic mechanism of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase by use of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and ...
Leupeptin-induced appearance of partial fragment of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase during autophagic maturation in rat ... c in vivo marker for autophagic fragment of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase during vacuoles," European Journal of Cell ... c in vivo marker for autophagic fragment of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase during vacuoles," European Journal of Cell ... "Autophagy in Whether the plant orthologue betaine homocysteine methyl- development and stress responses of plants," Autophagy, ...
2014). Betaine:Homocysteine N-methyltransferase is associated with the lipid droplets and impacts lipid metabolism in McArdle- ... 3rd International Homocysteine Congress. Sorrento, Italy, July 1-5.. *Stead L, Au K, Jacobs R, Brosnan M, Brosnan J (2001) ... 3rd International Homocysteine Congress. Sorrento, Italy, July 1-5.. *Jacobs RL, Ratnam S, Stead LM, Brosnan ME, and Brosnan JT ... International Conference on Homocysteine Metabolism. Lisbon, Portugal, June 2011.. *Rodriguez Dimitrescu A., Jacobs RL, Proctor ...
... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, and methionine adenosyltransferase 1 A (MAT1A), as well as the glutathione metabolism- ... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, and methionine adenosyltransferase 1 A (MAT1A), as well as the glutathione metabolism- ... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, and methionine adenosyltransferase 1 A (MAT1A), as well as the glutathione metabolism- ... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, and methionine adenosyltransferase 1 A (MAT1A), as well as the glutathione metabolism- ...
Recombinant (E.Coli, his tag) Human Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase. > Recombinant (E.Coli, GST tag) Epstein-Barr Virus ...
Recombinant (E.Coli, his tag) Human Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase. > Recombinant (E.Coli, his tag) Human Mammaglobin-A ...
Betaine--. homocysteine S-. methyltransferase. 1. Glycine N-. methyltransferase. Glycerate. kinase. D-3-. phosphoglycerate. ... Homocysteine. L-Cystathionine. H. 2. O. 2-Ketobutyric. acid. NH. 3. ATP. Adenosine. monophosphate. PP. i. ATP. AMP. PP. i. FAD ... Homocysteine. L-Methionine. S-Adenosylhomocysteine. S-Adenosylmethionine. Glycine. Glyceric acid. ATP. ADP. NAD. ...
methyltransferase. 5-. aminolevulinate. synthase,. nonspecific,. mitochondrial. Betaine--. homocysteine S-. methyltransferase. ... Homocysteine. L-Cystathionine. H. 2. O. ATP. AMP. PP. i. ATP. AMP. PP. i. H. 2. O. 2-Ketobutyric acid. NH. 3. S- ... methyltransferase. L-Cysteine. 3-Phosphoglyceric acid. Pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid. L-Serine. Aminoacetone. O. 2. ... Homocysteine. L-Methionine. Glyceric acid. ATP. ADP. NAD. Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid. NADH. L-Glutamic acid. Phosphoserine. ...
OXIDIZED HOMO SAPIENS BETAINE-HOMOCYSTEINE S-METHYLTRANSFERASE IN COMPLEX WITH FOUR SM(III) IONS , TRANSFERASE, HOMOCYSTEINE ... REDUCED HOMO SAPIENS BETAINE-HOMOCYSTEINE S- METHYLTRANSFERASE IN COMPLEX WITH S-(DELTA-CARBOXYBUTYL)-L- HOMOCYSTEINE , ... HOMOCYSTEINE, ZINC, ZINC INVERSION, METHYLTRANSFERASE 3bof:B (GLU340) to (GLU556) COBALAMIN-DEPENDENT METHIONINE SYNTHASE (1- ... HOMOCYSTEINE, ZINC, ZINC INVERSION, METHYLTRANSFERASE 3bol:A (GLU340) to (GLU556) COBALAMIN-DEPENDENT METHIONINE SYNTHASE (1- ...
  • In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is a zinc metallo-enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from trimethylglycine and a hydrogen ion from homocysteine to produce dimethylglycine and methionine respectively: Trimethylglycine (methyl donor) + homocysteine (hydrogen donor) → dimethylglycine (hydrogen receiver) + methionine (methyl receiver) This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for spina bifida and orofacial clefts? (cdc.gov)
  • Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina bifida. (cdc.gov)
  • Methionine is typically formed by the processing of homocysteine using either methionine synthase (MTR) or betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT). (mygenefood.com)
  • Typically methionine is rapidly used, however when it accumulates it blocks further MTR or BHMT activity leading to a homocysteine accumulation. (mygenefood.com)
  • Although it is thought that reducing homocysteine levels is cardioprotective, interventions that lower homocysteine levels don't seem to prevent cardiovascular events in people with cardiovascular disease. (examine.com)
  • Homocysteine Reduction Formula, a special nutritional supplement created by Brimhall, can also lower homocysteine levels. (medscape.com)
  • ii, iii It also works with folic acid (vitamin B9) as a cofactor with two enzymes that convert homocysteine, an inflammatory byproduct of protein metabolism into methionine, an important amino acid that is required to produce S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a universal methyl donor necessary for almost 100 metabolic actions involved in forming DNA, RNA, and other substances needed for the function and maintenance of a healthy body. (zhounutrition.com)
  • Betaine is most famous for being a major methyl donor in the body, as it ensures homocysteine's conversion to methionine. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Betaine anhydrous is an antihomocystinuric that acts as a methyl-group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, removing excess homocysteine from the body. (medscape.com)
  • Functionally choline in its oxidised form (the metabolite glycine betaine) contributes to S-adenosylmethionine synthesis - a chief methyl donor involved in DNA and histone methylation which play a central role in regulating gene expression and potentially modulating brain function. (bmj.com)
  • BETAINE A methyl derivative of the amino acid glycine, betaine (i.e., trimethylglycine) is a critical bioactive for lipid and energy metabolism, plus osmoregulation. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • and is the most popular molecule referred to as a betaine, the terms 'trimethylglycine' and 'betaine' are used interchangeably. (examine.com)
  • Anomalies may influence the metabolism of homocysteine , which is implicated in disorders ranging from vascular disease, autism, and schizophrenia to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine either directly donates a methyl group to reduce homocysteine into L-methionine or it increases bodily levels of S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) or active folate molecules, both of which can go on to donate methyl groups to other parts of the body. (examine.com)
  • [13] The source of the methyl group is S -adenosyl- L -methionine and S -adenosyl- L -homocysteine is generated as a side product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. (rush.edu)
  • Dietary Egg Protein Prevents Hyperhomocysteinemia via Upregulation of Hepatic Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase Activity in Folate-Restricted Rats. (rush.edu)
  • Most studies report that supplementation with betaine does not enhance maximal strength or power. (examine.com)
  • shares this mechanism of action, and the lone study to evaluate supplementation with betaine and creatine failed to find an additive effect of betaine on creatine's benefits. (examine.com)
  • However, even when patients' serum betaine concentrations are increased by supplementation, serum homocysteine concentrations are often not lowered to the reference range. (medscape.com)
  • Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism? (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, compared with NormBCS cows, HighBCS cows had lower hepatic protein abundance of the 1-carbon metabolism enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, and methionine adenosyltransferase 1 A (MAT1A), as well as the glutathione metabolism-related enzymes glutathione S-transferase α 4 and glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3). (unicatt.it)
  • B12 serves a complementary role with folate in the methionine cycle, as they are both essential cofactors for one-carbon metabolism, optimal homocysteine recycling to methionine, and methylation. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • In humans and most other animals, de novo synthesis of choline is via the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway, [6] but biosynthesis is not enough to meet human requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine (Cys) is a sulfur-containing amino acid, whereas taurine is a product of Cys oxidation, and homocysteine (Hcy) is a metabolite of methionine (Met), which also serves as a precursor of Cys sulfur. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • Vitamin B6 helps maintain healthy homocysteine levels via conversion to cysteine, which serves as a building block for collagen, keratin, and glutathione. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Following a low-methionine diet that keeps serum methionine within the reference range may be necessary when treating patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency when betaine is administered. (medscape.com)
  • Conventional treatment of cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency by diet and pyridoxine/betaine normalizes many, but not all, metabolic abnormalities associated with cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme which inactivates neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine in the brain, and is encoded for by the COMT gene 1 . (mygenefood.com)
  • Objective-Betaine is a substrate in the betaine- homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, converting homocysteine to methionine. (uib.no)
  • In its bioactive form, folic acid is clinically shown to support healthy homocysteine and SAM-e levels to drive optimal methylation in every cell. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Other possible treatments include the use of folic acid (in pharmacologic doses), betaine (3-methylglycine decreases serum concentrations of homocysteine), or cyanocobalamin, as well as symptomatic supportive measures. (medscape.com)
  • methylation support+ is an ultra-potency complex that delivers methylated folate as part of a family of fully activated B vitamins (B2, 6, 9, and 12) plus betaine. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • In fact, high-potency betaine has been clinically shown to support homocysteine reduction and methionine regeneration, ultimately driving methylation function and health. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Upon methylation SAM is transformed into homocysteine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Circadian rhythm of serum total homocysteine in men. (rush.edu)
  • High doses of betaine seem to be well tolerated by most people, but like any osmolyte, it can cause diarrhea at high doses. (examine.com)
  • High doses of betaine can also increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. (examine.com)
  • increased intracellular concentrations of betaine promote cell hydration and resilience to stressors. (examine.com)
  • NASH) observed an improvement in liver fat, inflammation, and fibrosis with a dosage of 10 g of betaine twice per day (20 g total), but there was no control group in either study. (examine.com)
  • in liver fat, inflammation, or fibrosis with a dosage of 10 g of betaine twice per day. (examine.com)
  • Glycine N -methyltransferase deficiency: a new patient with a novel mutation. (medscape.com)
  • Dissecting the catalytic mechanism of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase by use of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and site-directed mutagenesis. (wikipathways.org)
  • Betaine therapy can precipitate cerebral edema, although the exact mechanism is uncertain. (medscape.com)
  • Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events in several observational studies. (examine.com)
  • Betaine can directly methylate homocysteine, which is potentially cardioprotective. (examine.com)
  • Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 μmol/l). (rush.edu)
  • v Certain population groups have the MTHFR gene, a mutation that may interfere with the body's ability to absorb certain vitamins, such as B12 and prevent detoxification of homocysteine. (zhounutrition.com)
  • folinic acid (800 μg) & betaine (1000 mg) and additional month on same regimen plus vitamin B 12 (75 μg\kg) for the intervention study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • consider betaine as an adjunct, not an alternative, to dietary control. (medscape.com)
  • However, there is evidence to suggest that betaine enhances resistance exercise performance in protocols that challenge muscular endurance with high levels of metabolic stress. (examine.com)
  • For reducing homocysteine levels, a daily dose of 3-6 g is most commonly used in research. (examine.com)
  • In patients with hypothyroidism, treatment with L-thyroxine can normalize homocysteine levels. (medscape.com)