Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC 2.1.1.43.tRNA Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.DNA-Cytosine Methylases: Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Betalains: Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.IllinoisSports Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES during EXERCISE and ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE as well as specific NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS of ATHLETES and the relationship between NUTRITIONAL STATUS and NUTRITION DISORDERS in athletes.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of dimethylglycine to SARCOSINE and FORMALDEHYDE.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Drug Repositioning: The deliberate and methodical practice of finding new applications for existing drugs.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.ParisFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.PortugalPierre Robin Syndrome: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Methionine Adenosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the demethylation of L-homocysteine to L-METHIONINE.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Yucca: A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Czechoslovakia: Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Bupleurum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Awards and PrizesLymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to yield 5'-deoxy-(5'-),3-aminopropyl-(1), methylsulfonium salt. It is one of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of spermidine from putrescine. EC 4.1.1.50.PolysaccharidesIntestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme found primarily in the LIVER that catalyzes the N-methylation of NICOTINAMIDE and other structurally related compounds.Guanidinoacetate N-Methyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.Histamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 2.1.1.8.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)

Interaction between dietary methionine and methyl donor intake on rat liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase gene expression and organization of the human gene. (1/91)

We previously showed that rat liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mRNA content and activity increased 4-fold when rats were fed a methionine-deficient diet containing adequate choline, compared with rats fed the same diet with control levels of methionine (Park, E. I., Renduchintala, M. S., and Garrow, T. A. (1997) J. Nutr. Biochem. 8, 541-545). A further 2-fold increase was observed in rats fed the methionine-deficient diet with supplemental betaine. The nutrition studies reported here were designed to determine whether other methyl donors would induce rat liver BHMT gene expression when added to a methionine-deficient diet and to define the relationship between the degree of methionine restriction and level of methyl donor intake on BHMT expression. Therefore, rats were fed amino acid-defined diets varying in methionine and methyl donor composition. The effect of diet on BHMT expression was evaluated using Northern, Western, and enzyme activity analyses. Similar to when betaine was added to a methionine-deficient diet, choline or sulfonium analogs of betaine induced BHMT expression. The diet-induced induction of hepatic BHMT activity was mediated by increases in the steady-state level of its mRNA and immunodetectable protein. Using methyl donor-free diets, we found that methionine restriction was required but alone not sufficient for the high induction of BHMT expression. Concomitant with methionine restriction, dietary methyl groups were required for high levels of BHMT induction, and a dose-dependent relationship was observed between methyl donor intake and BHMT induction. Furthermore, the severity of methionine restriction influenced the magnitude of BHMT induction. To study the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of BHMT, we have cloned the human BHMT gene. This gene spans about 20 kilobases of DNA and contains 8 exons and 7 introns. Using RNA isolated from human liver and hepatoma cells, a major transcriptional start site has been mapped using the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique, and this start site is 26 nucleotides downstream from a putative TATA box.  (+info)

Autolysosomal membrane-associated betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Limited degradation fragment of a sequestered cytosolic enzyme monitoring autophagy. (2/91)

We compared the membrane proteins of autolysosomes isolated from leupeptin-administered rat liver with those of lysosomes. In addition to many polypeptides common to the two membranes, the autolysosomal membranes were found to be more enriched in endoplasmic reticulum lumenal proteins (protein-disulfide isomerase, calreticulin, ER60, BiP) and endosome/Golgi markers (cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, transferrin receptor, Golgi 58-kDa protein) than lysosomal membranes. The autolysosomal membrane proteins include three polypeptides (44, 35, and 32 kDa) whose amino-terminal sequences have not yet been reported. Combining immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses, we identified the 44-kDa peptide as the intact subunit of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase and the 35- and 32-kDa peptides as two proteolytic fragments. Pronase digestion of autolysosomes revealed that the 44-kDa and 32-kDa peptides are present in the lumen, whereas the 35-kDa peptide is not. In primary hepatocyte cultures, the starvation-induced accumulation of the 32-kDa peptide occurs in the presence of E64d, showing that the 32-kDa peptide is formed from the sequestered 44-kDa peptide during autophagy. The accumulation is induced by rapamycin but completely inhibited by wortmannin, 3-methyladenine, and bafilomycin. Thus, detection of the 32-kDa peptide by immunoblotting can be used as a streamlined assay for monitoring autophagy.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein B mRNA and lipoprotein secretion are increased in McArdle RH-7777 cells by expression of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. (3/91)

The cDNA encoding rat betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) was isolated through production of monoclonal antibodies against protein fractions enriched with apolipoprotein B (apo B)-mRNA-editing complexes. BHMT mRNA was expressed predominantly in liver, and also in kidney, but not in small intestine. In stable McArdle RH-7777 (McA) cell lines expressing differing levels of BHMT, the editing efficiency of apo B mRNA was unchanged. Evaluation of apo B-mRNA expression revealed that steady-state levels were increased significantly and in parallel with BHMT protein expression. The highest levels of BHMT mRNA and BHMT enzyme activity expressed in stably transfected McA cells were comparable with those found in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to the changes in apo B-mRNA abundance, levels of other apolipoprotein-encoding mRNAs and several liver-specific and ubiquitously expressed mRNAs were unchanged by BHMT expression. In the cell line expressing the highest level of BHMT, apo B-containing lipoprotein secretion was increased, indicating utilization of increased endogenous message. Results suggest that apo B-mRNA abundance in McA cells is related to the expression of BHMT, an enzyme important in homocysteine metabolism.  (+info)

Leupeptin-induced appearance of partial fragment of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase during autophagic maturation in rat hepatocytes. (4/91)

A cytosolic enzyme, betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and its partial fragments were discovered as autolysosomal membrane proteins from rat liver in the presence of leupeptin [Ueno et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15222-15229]. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the transport and processing of BHMT from cytosol to autolysosome and to test if the fragment can be used as an in vitro probe for the maturation step of macroautophagy. Upon subcellular fractionation, BHMT (p44) was found in all fractions, while its 32-kDa fragment (p32) was found only in the mitochondrial-lysosomal (ML) fraction. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with leupeptin induced time-dependent accumulation of p32 in the ML fraction from 30 to 90 min after the start of incubation. However, chloroquine completely inhibited the appearance of p32, indicating that the processing from p44 to p32 is lysosomal. Incubation with Bafilomycin A(1), a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, together with leupeptin, led to linear accumulation of p44, but not of p32. The p44 accumulation rate was calculated to be 4.9%/h, which was comparable to autophagic sequestration rate. The distribution of p44 within the ML fraction turned out to be dual, i.e., the membrane-surface attached and luminal/sedimentable forms. Amino acids and 3-methyladenine, both of which specifically suppress macroautophagy, inhibited the accumulation of p32 as well as of p44. Finally, energy-dependent appearance of p32 was demonstrated during incubation of postnucler supernatant fractions, making it possible to establish an in vitro assay system. All the results strongly support the idea that BHMT is taken up and degraded to p32 through the macroautophagic pathway, and that p32 could be a novel probe for the maturation of macroautophagy.  (+info)

Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. (5/91)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. METHODS: Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. RESULTS: Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. CONCLUSIONS: DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.  (+info)

Selenium deficiency in Fisher-344 rats decreases plasma and tissue homocysteine concentrations and alters plasma homocysteine and cysteine redox status. (6/91)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of graded amounts of dietary selenium on plasma and tissue parameters of methionine metabolism including homocysteine. Male weanling Fisher-344 rats (n = 7-8/group) were fed a selenium-deficient, torula yeast-based diet, supplemented with 0 (selenium deficient), 0.02, 0.05 or 0.1 microg (adequate) selenium (as selenite)/g diet. After 61 d, plasma total homocysteine and cysteine were decreased (P < 0.0001) and glutathione increased (P < 0.0001) by selenium deficiency. The concentrations of homocysteine in kidney and heart were decreased (P = 0.02) by selenium deficiency. The activities of liver betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, methionine synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase, cystathionine synthase and cystathionase were determined; selenium deficiency affected only betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, which was decreased (P < 0.0001). The ratios of plasma free reduced homocysteine (or cysteine) to free oxidized homocysteine (or cysteine) or to total homocysteine (or cysteine) were increased by selenium deficiency, suggesting that selenium status affects the normally tightly controlled redox status of these thiols. Most differences due to dietary selenium were between rats fed 0 or 0.02 microg selenium/g diet and those fed 0.05 or 0.1 microg selenium/g diet. The metabolic consequences of a marked decrease in plasma homocysteine and smaller but significant decreases in tissue homocysteine are not known.  (+info)

Methionine supply to growing steers affects hepatic activities of methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, but not cystathionine synthase. (7/91)

The effects of supplemental methionine (Met), supplied abomasally, on the activities of methionine synthase (MS), cystathionine synthase (CS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) were studied in growing steers. Six Holstein steers (205 kg) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment. Steers were fed 2.6 kg dry matter daily of a diet containing 83% soybean hulls and 8% wheat straw. Ruminal infusions of 180 g/d acetate, 180 g/d propionate, 45 g/d butyrate, and abomasal infusion of 300 g/d dextrose provided additional energy. An amino acid mixture (299 g/d) limiting in Met was infused into the abomasum to ensure that nonsulfur amino acids did not limit growth. Treatments were infused abomasally and included 0, 5 or 10 g/d L-Met. Retained N (20.5, 26.9 and 31.6 g/d for 0, 5 and 10 g/d L-Met, respectively) increased (P < 0.01) linearly with increased supplemental Met. Hepatic Met, vitamin B-12, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic folates tended (P = 0.07) to decrease linearly with Met supplementation. All three enzymes were detected in hepatic tissue of our steers. Hepatic CS activity was not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic MS decreased (P < 0.01) linearly with increasing Met supply, and hepatic BHMT activity responded quadratically (P = 0.04), with 0 and 10 g/d Met being higher than the intermediate level. Data from this experiment indicate that sulfur amino acid metabolism may be regulated differently in cattle than in other tested species.  (+info)

Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: zinc in a distorted barrel. (8/91)

Betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT) catalyzes the synthesis of methionine from betaine and homocysteine (Hcy), utilizing a zinc ion to activate Hcy. BHMT is a key liver enzyme that is important for homocysteine homeostasis. X-ray structures of human BHMT in its oxidized (Zn-free) and reduced (Zn-replete) forms, the latter in complex with the bisubstrate analog, S(delta-carboxybutyl)-L-homocysteine, were determined at resolutions of 2.15 A and 2.05 A. BHMT is a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel that is distorted to construct the substrate and metal binding sites. The zinc binding sequences G-V/L-N-C and G-G-C-C are at the C termini of strands beta6 and beta8. Oxidation to the Cys217-Cys299 disulfide and expulsion of Zn are accompanied by local rearrangements. The structures identify Hcy binding fingerprints and provide a prototype for the homocysteine S-methyltransferase family.  (+info)

*Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (14): ... Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D (December 2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine ... Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 ...

*Trimethylglycine

The minor pathway involves betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and requires TMG as a cofactor. Betaine is thus involved in ... Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC ... February 2005). "Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans". Arterioscler. Thromb ... November 2002). "Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body ...

*Beetroot

"Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism?". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. ... Beets contain betaines which may function to reduce the concentration of homocysteine, a homolog of the naturally occurring ... 2002). Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center. Potter, K.; Hankey, G. J.; Green, D. J.; Eikelboom, J. W.; Arnolda, L. F ... This hypothesis is controversial as it has not yet been established whether homocysteine itself is harmful or is just an ...

*Methionine

... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) Although mammals cannot ... Homocysteine can also be remethylated using glycine betaine (NNN-trimethyl glycine, TMG) to methionine via the enzyme betaine- ... Homocysteine can be converted to cysteine. (5) Cystathionine-β-synthase (a PLP-dependent enzyme) combines homocysteine and ... homocysteine methyltransferase (E.C.2.1.1.5, BHMT). BHMT makes up to 1.5% of all the soluble protein of the liver, and recent ...

*Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

... that homocysteine can also be converted to methionine by the folate-independent enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... 677TT (but not 677CC/CT) individuals with lower plasma folate levels are at risk for elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In ... It does not result in thermolabile MTHFR and does not appear to affect homocysteine levels. It does, however, affect the ... 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate is used to convert homocysteine (a potentially toxic amino acid) to methionine by the enzyme ...

*Autophagy

The degradation of betaine homo-cysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), a metabolic enzyme, could be used to assess autophagy flux ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 2)

... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.6: catechol O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.7: nicotinate N-methyltransferase EC ... EC 2.1.1.1: nicotinamide N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.2: guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.3: thetin-homocysteine S ... 2.1.1.8: histamine N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.9: thiol S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.10: homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC ... 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.15: fatty-acid O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.16 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.250 --- catechol O-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555. ... homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.645 --- 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine s-methyltransferase ... histone-lysine n-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.650 --- o-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase MeSH D08.811. ... protein o-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.800.700 --- protein d-aspartate-l-isoaspartate methyltransferase MeSH ...

*Methionine synthase

Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116984 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... In humans it is encoded by the MTR gene (5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase). Methionine synthase forms ... "MTR 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (Homo sapiens)". Entrez. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009. Li YN ... EC 2.1.1.13 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*Dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine This enzyme is purified from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8102. Lu, W.D.; ... WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis". Arch. Microbiol. 186 (6): 495-506 ... N-dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (betaine-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.161, BsmB, DMT) is an enzyme with systematic name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N, ...

*Sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine This enzyme participates in biosynthesis of betaine from glycine in cyanobacterium ... Sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.157, ApDMT, sarcosine-dimethylglycine methyltransferase, SDMT, ... N-methyltransferase (N,N-dimethylglycine(or betaine)-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 2 S- ... "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a ...

*Glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine This enzyme participates in biosynthesis of betaine from glycine in ... Glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.156, ApGSMT, glycine-sarcosine methyltransferase, GSMT, GMT, glycine sarcosine ... "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a ... "Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase". Appl. Environ. ...

*Diet and cancer

SAM is the substrate for methylation reactions catalyzed by DNA, RNA and protein methyltransferases. The products of these ... choline and betaine found in beef, eggs and some vegetables). Assimilated methionine is transformed in S-adenosyl methionine ( ... and homocysteine: Correlations with diet". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 10 (6): 649-55. PMID 11401915. Prinz- ... SAH has a negative feedback on its own production as an inhibitor of methyltransferase enzymes. Therefore, SAM:SAH ratio ...

*Glycine/sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine This enzyme from the halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis can ... N-methyltransferase (sarcosine(or N,N-dimethylglycine or betaine)-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical ... "Effects of substrate and potassium on the betaine-synthesizing enzyme glycine sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase ... Glycine/sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...

*S-Methylmethionine

McNeil SD (1999). "Betaines and related osmoprotectants. Targets for metabolic engineering of stress resistance". Plant ... "S-methylmethionine plays a major role in phloem sulfur transport and is synthesized by a novel type of methyltransferase". The ... The coproduct is S-adenosyl homocysteine. The biological roles of S-methylmethionine are not well understood. Speculated roles ... involving replacement of the adenosyl group by a methyl group is catalyzed by the enzyme methionine S-methyltransferase. S- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are altered by choline supply during negative energy balance in Holstein cows. AU - Coleman, Danielle N.. AU - Vailati-Riboni, M.. AU - Elolimy, Ahmed A.. AU - Cardoso, Felipe C.. AU - Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.. AU - Miura, Makoto. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Loor, Juan J.. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Although choline requirements are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and increase flux through the methionine cycle, helping cows during a negative energy balance (NEB). The objective was to investigate effects of postruminal choline supply during NEB on hepatic activity of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine adenosyltransferase, transcription of enzymes, and metabolite concentrations in the methionine cycle. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± ...
We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks and Sparks (1999) Biochem. J. 341, 639-645]. To examine whether a similar relationship occurs in vivo, hepatic BHMT expression was induced by feeding rats a Met (L-methionine)-restricted betaine-containing diet, and parameters of ApoB metabolism were evaluated. There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L-homocysteine levels. Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Betaine plus Met restriction induced hepatic BHMT 4-fold and ApoB mRNA 3-fold compared with Met restriction alone. No changes in percentage of edited ApoB mRNA were observed on the test diets. An increase ...
Proteomic effect screening in zebrafish liver was performed to generate hypotheses following exposure (21 days) to a structurally diverse mixture of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Fish were exposed to two doses (10 and 100 nmol/g feed). Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, image analysis and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry revealed 13 and 19 significant responses in males and females, respectively. Effects on proteins related to cellular maintenance and stress were observed in both genders. Regulated proteins were gender-specific, but functionally indicated common protective responses (peroxiredoxin 6 and Zgc:92891 in males and transketolase in females) suggesting oxidative stress. Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was induced in both genders. In addition a female-specific downregulation of ironhomeostatic proteins (iron-regulatory protein 1 and transferrin) were observed. Our proteomic approach revealed novel responses that suggest important gender-specific sensitivity to BFRs that ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Halina Jurkowska, Julie Niewiadomski, Lawrence L Hirschberger, Heather B Roman, Kevin M Mazor, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Eunkyue Park, Martha H Stipanuk].
Homocysteine S -methyltransferases (HMTs, EC 2.1.1.0) catalyze the conversion of homocysteine to methionine using S -methylmethionine or S -adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. HMTs play an important role in methionine biosynthesis and are widely distributed among microorganisms, plants, and animals. Additionally, HMTs play a role in metabolite repair of S -adenosylmethionine by removing an inactive diastereomer from the pool. The mmuM gene product from Escherichia coli is an archetypal HMT family protein and contains a predicted Zn-binding motif in the enzyme active site. Here we present X-ray structures for MmuM in oxidized, apo, and metallated forms, representing the first such structures for any member of the HMT family. The structures reveal a metal/substrate binding pocket distinct from those in related enzymes. The presented structure analysis and modelling of co-substrate interactions provide valuable insight into the function of MmuM in both methionine biosynthesis and cofactor ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
BHMT antibody [10B3] (betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase) for FACS, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-BHMT mAb (GTX84827) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Monoklonale und polyklonale BHMT Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für BHMT Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Your shown homocysteine pathway is way too simple. Especially the production of the neuromodulator H2S from excess sulfur amino acids is not shown. In the last years many more enzymes and reactions have been discovered. I have summarized human sulfur amino acid metabolism in reactome.org, so please use this link to discover all the details and new papers. Ill also append some of the relevant papers below.. Brosnan, JT, Brosnan, ME The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview 2006 J Nutr PMID 16702333. Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can also happen using betaine as a methyl donor. This reaction is also part of choline catabolism.. Li, F, Feng, Q, Lee, C, Wang, S, Pelleymounter, LL, Moon, I, Eckloff, BW, Wieben, ED, Schaid, DJ, Yee, V, Weinshilboum, RM Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional characterization 2008 Mol Genet Metab PMID 18457970. Bearden, SE, Beard RS, Jr, Pfau, JC Extracellular transsulfuration ...
We need follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and estradiol levels (E2) on either Day 2 or 3 of your cycle.
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into Glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N, N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Dimethylglycine in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes ...
Hyperhomocysteinemia is not uncommon in diabetic patients and it can aggravate cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism of this increased hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence is vague but it is suggested that, insulin plays a role in the regulation of plasma homocysteine and, insulin resistance causes hyperhomocysteinemia (18). Besides, the mechanisms that cause peripheral and/or autonomic neuropathy are complex and are not yet fully understood. Hypothetically, homocysteine can also contribute to the neuropathy development through neurovascular disruption or through direct toxic effect (8). In some studies in this field, it has been shown that there could be a link between hyperhomocysteinemia and autonomic or peripheral neuropathy (8,24). According to recent data, hyperhomocysteinemia can be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the diabetic population (18,25). The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetics is 1.6 times ...
Involved in the removal of alkylated bases from DNA in Escherichia coli (cf. EC 2.1.1.63 methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase).
Background and Aims: It has been demonstrated that homozygote and heterozygote mutant allele carriers for thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) are at high risk of developing myelosuppression after receiving standard doses of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of TPMT deficient alleles in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Jordan and to compare it with other ethnic groups. Methods: We included 52 ALL childhood cases from King Hussein Cancer Research Center in Jordan. Genotyping of the rs1800460, rs1800462, and rs1142345 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. Comparisons were made with historical data for controls and for both volunteers and cases from other middle-eastern countries. Results: Mutant TPMT alleles were present in 3.8% (2/52) of patients. Allelic frequencies were 1.0% for both TPMT*B and TPMT*C. None of the patients were heterozygous or homozygous for TPMT*3A or TPMT *2. We did not find
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of aromatic and heterocyclic sulfhydryl compounds including thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine and azathioprine. TPMT activity exhibits genetic variation and show
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
2.1.1.1 Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.2 Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.3 Thetin--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.4 Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.5 Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.6 Catechol O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.7 Nicotinate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.8 Histamine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.9 Thiol S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.10 Homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.11 Magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase 2.1.1.12 Methionine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.13 Methionine synthase 2.1.1.14 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.15 Fatty-acid O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.16 Methylene-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase 2.1.1.17 Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.18 Polysaccharide O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.19 Trimethylsulfonium--tetrahydrofolate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.20 Glycine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.21 Methylamine--glutamate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.22 Carnosine N-methyltransferase ...
B12 is needed for the formation of red blood cells, normal homocysteine metabolism, energy production, the nervous system and the immune system
Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it.
Disease and Homocysteine Concentration. Dogs in the heart disease, neoplastic disease, kidney disease, and skin disease groups had significantly higher plasma Hcy concentrations than control dogs. However,multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and spay/neuter status revealed that Hcy concentration was only associated with skin disease when these other variables were included in the model. The odds ratio per 1 μmol/l increase in Hcy was 1.077, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001-1.158, p,0.05. In the control group (n=187), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 13.5 ± 0.4 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 9.6-12.8-16.0, and min-max 4.3-50.1 μmol/l). In the skin disease group (n=16), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 20.3 ± 2.3 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 13.8-19.3-23.3, and min-max 9.7-49.8 μmol/l). The skin disease group included five Shih Tzus and 11 other dogs of nine different breeds. However, our finding that Hcy ...
To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. Sixteen recreationally active subjects (7 females and 9 males) completed three sprint tests, each consisting of four 12 sec efforts against a resistance equal to 5.5% of body weight; efforts were separated by 2.5 min of cycling at zero resistance. Test one established baseline; test two and three were preceded by seven days of daily consumption of 591 ml of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage as a placebo or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage containing 0.42% betaine (approximately 2.5 grams of betaine a day); half the beverage was consumed in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. We used a double blind random order cross-over design; there was a 3 wk washout between trials two and three. Average and maximum peak and mean power were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA and, where indicated, a Student Newman-Keuls. Compared to baseline, betaine ingestion increased average peak power (6.4%; p | 0.001),
According to the market research report "Betaine Market :By Type (Synthetic, Natural); By Form (Betaine Anhydrous, Cocamidopropyl Betaine); By End-users (Food & Beverages, Animal Feed) & Geography - Forecast (2016-2021)", published by IndustryARC, estimates tremendous expansion for new entrants.. Browse Report @ http://industryarc.com/Report/15179/betaine-market.html. Betaine is a by-product of sugar beet processing. This works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid causes harm to blood vessels and contributes to heart disease, stroke and circulation problems.. After the discovery of betaine supplement, this was originally used to turn homocysteine into L-methionine. Homocysteine is a toxic samino acid that can lead to various health problems when elevated in the body including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and multiple cardiovascular issues. Betaine supplementation is extremely important for individuals with homocystinuria, a rare genetic condition that ...
Betaine supplementation has numerous positive effects on animal performance. Recent studies with betaine from sugar beet molasses looked if this naturally derived betaine can substitute a certain amount of added methionine in broiler diets.
What is Betaine Anhydrous?. Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaines two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.. ...
Cocamidopropyl betaine, Cocamidopropyl betaine supplier, Cocamidopropyl betaine distributor, CAS 61789-40-0 70851-07-9 83138-08-3 , Cocamidopropyl betaine manufacturer, Cocamidopropyl betaine wholesale
I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. Best part is the relief has lasted more than the usual 1-2 weeks. I once tried a betaine HCL product in the past but I took it the same time as taking a probiotic (I have found I always rash up from probiotics, without exception.) It may be worth a try, Im having a lot of success using it everyday and cycling my other supplements. In
Product Page for Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 600 mg 250 Tabs made by country-life offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Roughly 140 million people worldwide are chronically exposed to As-contaminated drinking water at concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 10 µg/L. Arsenic is a class I carcinogen known to cause several types of cancer and ischemic heart disease. Metabolism of inorganic As (InAs), which facilitates urinary As excretion, relies on one-carbon metabolism and involves two methylation steps; both utilize S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. SAM biosynthesis relies on B vitamins including folate and B12 for the recruitment and transfer of methyl groups, but other nutrients, including choline and betaine, also contribute to the methyl pool. Our recent findings from a cross-sectional study of Bangladeshi adults exposed to a wide range of As concentrations in drinking water show that plasma choline and betaine concentrations are positively associated with As methylation. These findings suggest that choline and/or betaine may play an important role in As ...
Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine and the results were compared to isocaloric dextrose-fed controls. Livers were subjected to microarray analysis, and functional pathways and individual gene expression changes were analyzed. Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a large number of genes indicating that the changes were global. The bio-informatic analysis showed that all the KEGG functional pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed rats. The most profound effect of betaine was on the metabolic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal Structures of Cystathionine β-Synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. T2 - One Enzymatic Step at a Time. AU - Tu, Yupeng. AU - Kreinbring, Cheryl A.. AU - Hill, Megan. AU - Liu, Cynthia. AU - Petsko, Gregory A.. AU - McCune, Christopher D.. AU - Berkowitz, David B. AU - Liu, Dali. AU - Ringe, Dagmar. PY - 2018/6/5. Y1 - 2018/6/5. N2 - Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a key regulator of sulfur amino acid metabolism, taking homocysteine from the methionine cycle to the biosynthesis of cysteine via the trans-sulfuration pathway. CBS is also a predominant source of H2S biogenesis. Roles for CBS have been reported for neuronal death pursuant to cerebral ischemia, promoting ovarian tumor growth, and maintaining drug-resistant phenotype by controlling redox behavior and regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics. The trans-sulfuration pathway is well-conserved in eukaryotes, but the analogous enzymes have different enzymatic behavior in different organisms. CBSs from the higher ...
Objective Vascular disease is associated with increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine, and both are increased in renal failure. In cystathionine β-synthase deficiency (CBS
Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) overexpression is related to the proliferation and migration of human colon cancers. Targeted therapy that inhibits CBS has achieved promising effects in colon cancer treatments, but no selective inhibitor of CBS is available. In our previous study, a natural biflavonoid compound, sik
Homocysteine metabolism in children and adolescents with epidermolysis bullosa. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Accepted name: DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase II. Reaction: Hydrolysis of alkylated DNA, releasing 3-methyladenine, 3-methylguanine, 7-methylguanine and 7-methyladenine. Other name(s): deoxyribonucleate 3-methyladenine glycosidase II; 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosidase II; AlkA. Systematic name: alkylated-DNA glycohydrolase (releasing methyladenine and methylguanine). Comments: Involved in the removal of alkylated bases from DNA in Escherichia coli (cf. EC 2.1.1.63 methylated-DNA [protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase).. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 89287-38-7. References:. 1. Evensen, G. and Seeberg, E. Adaptation to alkylation resistance involves the induction of a DNA glycosylase. Nature 296 (1982) 773-775. [PMID: 7040984]. 2. Karran, P., Hjelmgren, T. and Lindahl, T. Induction of a DNA glycosylase for N-methylated purines is part of the adaptive response to alkylating agents. Nature 296 (1982) 770-773. ...
Dimethylglycine estas derivaĵo de la aminoacido glicino kun la struktura formulo ( CH3) 2 NCH2COOH. Ĝi povas esti trovita en faboj kaj hepato. Ĝi povas esti formita de trimetilglicino sur la perdo de unu el siaj metilgrupoj. Ĝi ankaŭ estas kromprodukto de la metabolo de kolino.. Kiam DMG unue estis malkovrita, ĝi estis referita kiel Vitamino B16, sed, male al veraj vitaminoj B, manko de DMG en la dieto ne kondukas al iuj mis-efikoj kaj ĝi estas sintezita de la homa korpo en la citracido (aŭ Krebs) ciklo signifante ke ĝi ne renkontas la difinon de vitamino.. ...
As part of my PhD (in exercise physiology) I am researching the effects of betaine supplementation on strength, power, and body composition in highly
Betaine HCl Caps contain the highest potency betaine hydrochloride formula available providing powdered Betaine HCl with pepsin in gelatin capsules for quick acting and enhanced effectiveness.
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
Betaine is named because of its initial discovery as a component of beets. However its also found in spinach, shellfish and whole grains like quinoa.
A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk for cardiovascular disease. Plasma homocysteine concentrations can be lowered through betaine supplementation. However, effects of choline supplementation, the precursor for betaine, on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans are unknown. If supplementation with choline or phosphatidylcholine, the form in which choline occurs in foods, lowers homocysteine concentrations, then extra intake of these compounds may lower cardiovascular disease risk in humans.. Comparison: We compared the effects of supplementation with phosphatidylcholine to the effects of a placebo on fasting and post-methionine concentrations of plasma homocysteine in healthy men. ...
The present review focuses on the B-vitamins, i.e. folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin, that are involved in homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine is a S-containing amino acid and its plasma concentrations can be raised by various constitutive, genetic and lifestyle factors, by inadequate nutrient status and as a result of systemic disease and various drugs. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a modest independent predictor of CVD and stroke, but causality and the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) of homocysteine action remain unproven. The predominant nutritional cause of raised plasma homocysteine in most healthy populations is folate insufficiency. Vitamin B12 and, to a lesser extent, vitamin B6 are also effective at lowering plasma homocysteine, especially after homocysteine lowering by folic acid in those individuals presenting with raised plasma homocysteine. However, riboflavin supplementation appears to be effective at lowering plasma homocysteine only in those individuals homozygous for
Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid formed as an intermediary during the conversion of methionine to cystathionine. Genetic or nutrition-related disturbances (eg, deficiency of vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid) may impair the transsulfuration or remethylation pathways of homocysteine metabolism and cause hyperhomocysteinemia. The enzyme MTHFR catalyzes reduction of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate, the major form of folate in plasma; 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate serves as a methyl donor for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Patients with severe MTHFR deficiency (enzymatic activity 0%-20% of normal) develop homocysteinuria, a severe disorder with a wide range of associated clinical manifestations, including developmental delay, mental retardation, and premature vascular ...
article{74c6c5e2-5f8f-4bce-afbd-04daa1c85807, abstract = {Background/Objectives: In previous studies we observed a high incidence of elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in psychogeriatric patients. Plasma tHcy is increased in folate deficiency. Folates are sensitive to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, caused by inflammatory processes, could represent an endogenous reason for folate deficiency, even when the dietary intake of the vitamin is within the recommended range. It has been suggested that oxidative stress rather than insufficient folate intake causes hyperhomocysteinemia in different forms of psychogeriatric diseases. In the present study we investigated the association between plasma tHcy and C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker for inflammation, in psychogeriatric patients. Methods: Plasma tHcy, its main determinants, and CRP were measured in plasma and serum of 132 psychogeriatric patients (53 males and 79 females, mean age 75 12 years). Results. In the ...
Betaine hydrochloride (betaine HCl) increases the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach relative to how much is taken before meals. This enables the stomach to much more completely dissolve and process foods right down to base nutrients, as we

betaine homocysteine methyltransferasebetaine homocysteine methyltransferase

... Summary. Gene Symbol: betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Description: betaine-- ... b>Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the synthesis of methionine using betaine and homocysteine (Hcy), ... betaine homocysteine s methyltransferase*betaine*phosphatidylethanolamine n methyltransferase*choline dehydrogenase* ... homocysteine S-methyltransferase. Alias: BHMT1, HEL-S-61p, betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, epididymis secretory ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/gene/human/betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase-635.html

BHMT elisa kit | Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ELISA Kit-NP 001704.2BHMT elisa kit | Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ELISA Kit-NP 001704.2

Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ELISA Kit-NP_001704.2 (MBS904226) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Human Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT) ELISA kit; betaine homocysteine methyltransferase; betaine- ... Molecular Function: betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity; homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity; zinc ion ... betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1; epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 61p ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/bhmt-human-elisa-kits/betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase/904226

Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase - WikipediaBetaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase - Wikipedia

In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (14): ... Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D (December 2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine ... Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betaine%E2%80%94homocysteine_S-methyltransferase

Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by...Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by...

Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by ... Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is ... A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1 ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26481005

DI-fusion Betaine homocysteine methyl transferase 1, a novel...DI-fusion Betaine homocysteine methyl transferase 1, a novel...

Betaine homocysteine methyl transferase 1, a novel auto-antigen associated with anti-Golgi immune reactivity. ... Betaine homocysteine methyl transferase 1, a novel auto-antigen associated with anti-Golgi immune reactivity ...
more infohttp://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/169392/Details

BHMT - Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - BHMT gene & proteinBHMT - Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - BHMT gene & protein

Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. This reaction is also required for the ... Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT), Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2, isoform CRA_c (BHMT2) ... Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT), S-methylmethionine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase BHMT2 (BHMT2), cDNA, ... Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, isoform CRA_a (HEL-S-61p), cDNA FLJ54604, highly similar to Betaine--homocysteine S- ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q93088

Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina bifida.  - PubMed - NCBICommon variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina bifida. - PubMed - NCBI

Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina bifida.. Morin I1, Platt R, Weisberg I, ... we investigated a common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), 742G--,A (R239Q), as a genetic modifier of ... although women with the QQ genotype did have lower homocysteine; in children, the mean homocysteine level was higher in the QQ ... This inconsistency could be explained by the fact that age is a strong determinant of homocysteine in children and the QQ group ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=7581

Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are...Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are...

Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are ... Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are ... Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are ... T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle ...
more infohttps://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/hepatic-betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase-and-methionine-syn

Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 742G|A polymorphism and risk of down syndrome offspring in a Brazilian population.  -...Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 742G|A polymorphism and risk of down syndrome offspring in a Brazilian population. -...

Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 742G,A polymorphism and risk of down syndrome offspring in a Brazilian population.. ... Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is a key enzyme of folate pathway, and catalyzes the remethylation of ... homocysteine into methionine. Recent studies suggest that the polymorphism BHMT 742G,A may be associated with a decreased risk ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=83458

Hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine...Hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine...

We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase; CMV, cytomegalovirus; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; DRB, 5,6- ... and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. Janet D. ... and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/395/2/363

Frontiers | The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated...Frontiers | The genetics of folate metabolism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome and associated...

... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; CBS, cystathionine β-synthase; DHFR, dihydrofolate reductase; MTs, Methyltransferases; ... Betaine-homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT). BHMT is a zinc-dependent protein that catalyzes the synthesis of methionine from ... 2013). Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 742G,A polymorphism and risk of down syndrome offspring in a Brazilian population ... 2008). Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2015.00223/full

Choline and betaine in health and disease | SpringerLinkCholine and betaine in health and disease | SpringerLink

Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ... Zhu HP, Curry S, Wen S et al (2005) Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for ... Morin I, Platt R, Weisberg I et al (2003) Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina ... Schafer C, Hoffmann L, Heldt K et al (2007) Osmotic regulation of betaine homocysteine-S-methyltransferase expression in H4IIE ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10545-010-9088-4

Crystal structure of the homocysteine methyltransferase MmuM from Escherichia coli | Biochemical Journal | Portland PressCrystal structure of the homocysteine methyltransferase MmuM from Escherichia coli | Biochemical Journal | Portland Press

Specific potassium ion interactions facilitate homocysteine binding to betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase ... betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5), which uses betaine as the methyl donor [20] and methionine synthase ... Dissecting the catalytic mechanism of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase by use of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and ... Homocysteine S-methyltransferases (HMTs, EC 2.1.1.0) catalyse the conversion of homocysteine to methionine using S- ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/biochemj/article/473/3/277/49325/Crystal-structure-of-the-homocysteine

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. NM_016668. Gene Info. Bhmt. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. AK149457. Gene Info ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase. NM_001081128. Gene Info. N6amt1. N-6 adenine-specific DNA ... Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3. NM_133740. Gene Info. Prmt5. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5. NM_013768. Gene ... Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 6. NM_178891. Gene Info. Prmt7. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 7. NM_145404. Gene ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Mm&GOID=0043414

ER Stress Signaling in Hepatic Injury | SpringerLinkER Stress Signaling in Hepatic Injury | SpringerLink

Ji C, Shinohara M, Kuhlenkamp J, et al Mechanisms of protection by the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase/betaine system in ... et al Effect of transgenic extrahepatic expression of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase on alcohol or homocysteine-induced ... Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13(4):395-398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Homocysteine: a history in progress. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(7):193-204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-00150-5_19

anti-Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT) Antikörper</span>anti-Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT) Antikörper</span>

betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase , betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 , betaine--homocysteine S- ... anti-Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase Antikörper (BHMT). Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 5 Betaine- ... Mouse (Murine) Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT) Interaktionspartner * BHMT expression is robustly regulated by ... Cow (Bovine) Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT) Interaktionspartner * These findings indicate that greater synthesis ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/methionine-biosynthetic-process-pathway-116/bhmt-antibody-13279/

Homocysteine and Leptin in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis - Evidences, Conflicts and Expectations | IntechOpenHomocysteine and Leptin in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis - Evidences, Conflicts and Expectations | IntechOpen

Homocysteine and Leptin in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis - Evidences, Conflicts and Expectations , IntechOpen, Published on ... BHMT: betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase DMG: dimethylglycine vitamin B6: pyridoxyl phosphate CBS: cystathionine beta- ... The Hordal and Homocysteine Study: a community-based study of homocysteine, its determinants and associations with disease. J ... Plasma total homocysteine level and bone mineral density. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Arch Int Med 2006; 166: 88-94. ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-osteoporosis/homocysteine-and-leptin-in-the-pathogenesis-of-osteoporosis-evidences-conflicts-and-expectations/

DsbA 中国教育装备采购网DsbA 中国教育装备采购网

Recombinant Human Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase. CAIII. CY50461. Recombinant Human Carbonic Anhydrase III. ...
more infohttps://www.caigou.com.cn/product/201412122680.shtml

Transferase | ProSpecTransferase | ProSpec

Betaine Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase Human Recombinant. * 10µg ($50). 50µg ($130). 1mg ($1800). ... Julius Axelrod found that the mechanism behind the breakdown of catecholamine was mediated by catechol-O-methyltransferase - ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/transferase

Frontiers | Fundamental Role of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677 C → T Genotype and Flavin Compounds in Biochemical...Frontiers | Fundamental Role of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677 C → T Genotype and Flavin Compounds in Biochemical...

Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D. Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism? Cell Mol Life ... In this alternative pathway, betaine degradation is initiated via betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) (Figure 1); ... Enzymes: BHMT, betaine homocysteine methyltrasferase; COMT, catechol-o-methyl-transferase; CBS, cystathione beta synthase, MAT ... Methionine metabolism in mammals: kinetic study of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Arch Biochem Biophys (1972) 153(1): ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00172/full

Influence of Oral S-Adenosylmethionine on Plasma 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, S-Adenosylhomocysteine, Homocysteine and Methionine...Influence of Oral S-Adenosylmethionine on Plasma 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, S-Adenosylhomocysteine, Homocysteine and Methionine...

... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (EC2.1.1.5); (7) methyleneTHF reductase (EC1.1.1.68); (8) AdoMet synthetase (EC2.5.1.6). ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (methionine synthase). CO. base-line concentration. Cmax. peak or ... 1995) Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J. Intern. Med. 237:381- ... MeTHF-homocysteine methyltransferase (methionine synthase) (EC2.1.1.13); Cbl, cobalamin; CH3-Cbl, methylcobalamin; PLP, ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/282/2/845

BHMT2 antibody | acris-antibodies.comBHMT2 antibody | acris-antibodies.com

Rabbit Polyclonal antibody to BHMT2 (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2). Rabbit. IgG. Aff - Purified. Hu, Ms. P, WB. 0.1 ... Recombinant protein of human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2). Human. > 80 % Preparation: Recombint protein was ... Lenti ORF particles, Bhmt2 (Myc-DDK-tagged) - Mouse betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (Bhmt2), 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/mL. Not ... Lenti ORF particles, Bhmt2 (GFP-tagged) - Mouse betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (Bhmt2), 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/mL. Not ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/bhmt2-antibody.htm

Gender-specific proteomic responses in zebrafish liver following exposure to a selected mixture of brominated flame retardantsGender-specific proteomic responses in zebrafish liver following exposure to a selected mixture of brominated flame retardants

Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was induced in both genders. In addition a female-specific downregulation of ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:201133
  • Since dietary betaine increased ApoB mRNA, VLDL ApoB and triacylglycerol production and decreased hepatic triacylglycerol, results suggest that induction of apob transcription may provide a potential mechanism for mobilizing hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing ApoB available for VLDL assembly and secretion. (biochemj.org)
  • Genotypes, nutrient levels, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) were assessed in 54 patients with spina bifida, 57 mothers of patients, 93 control children, and 86 mothers of controls. (cdc.gov)
  • This case report reflects on how the interplay of genetic mutation and vitamin deficiency can cause a pathological level of homocysteine with resultant branch retinal artery occlusion in a young patient. (springer.com)
  • There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L -homocysteine levels. (biochemj.org)
  • Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. (biochemj.org)
  • and as an allosteric inhibitor of methyleneTHF reductase that is crucial for MeTHF synthesis and therefore for homocysteine remethylation ( Jencks and Matthews, 1987 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Barak AJ, Tuma DJ (1983) Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? (springer.com)
  • Homocysteine is known to double the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and is found in elevated levels in patients with AD. (news-medical.net)
  • Anas MK, Lee MB, Zhou C et al (2008) SIT1 is a betaine/proline transporter that is activated in mouse eggs after fertilization and functions until the 2-cell stage. (springer.com)
  • Studies have revealed that a high level of circulating homocysteine poses a risk for retinal vaso-occlusive events across a wide age range. (springer.com)