A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the demethylation of L-homocysteine to L-METHIONINE.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.
An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.
An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Compounds derived from TYROSINE via betalamic acid, including BETAXANTHINS and BETACYANINS. They are found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Interaction between dietary methionine and methyl donor intake on rat liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase gene expression and organization of the human gene. (1/91)

We previously showed that rat liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) mRNA content and activity increased 4-fold when rats were fed a methionine-deficient diet containing adequate choline, compared with rats fed the same diet with control levels of methionine (Park, E. I., Renduchintala, M. S., and Garrow, T. A. (1997) J. Nutr. Biochem. 8, 541-545). A further 2-fold increase was observed in rats fed the methionine-deficient diet with supplemental betaine. The nutrition studies reported here were designed to determine whether other methyl donors would induce rat liver BHMT gene expression when added to a methionine-deficient diet and to define the relationship between the degree of methionine restriction and level of methyl donor intake on BHMT expression. Therefore, rats were fed amino acid-defined diets varying in methionine and methyl donor composition. The effect of diet on BHMT expression was evaluated using Northern, Western, and enzyme activity analyses. Similar to when betaine was added to a methionine-deficient diet, choline or sulfonium analogs of betaine induced BHMT expression. The diet-induced induction of hepatic BHMT activity was mediated by increases in the steady-state level of its mRNA and immunodetectable protein. Using methyl donor-free diets, we found that methionine restriction was required but alone not sufficient for the high induction of BHMT expression. Concomitant with methionine restriction, dietary methyl groups were required for high levels of BHMT induction, and a dose-dependent relationship was observed between methyl donor intake and BHMT induction. Furthermore, the severity of methionine restriction influenced the magnitude of BHMT induction. To study the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of BHMT, we have cloned the human BHMT gene. This gene spans about 20 kilobases of DNA and contains 8 exons and 7 introns. Using RNA isolated from human liver and hepatoma cells, a major transcriptional start site has been mapped using the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique, and this start site is 26 nucleotides downstream from a putative TATA box.  (+info)

Autolysosomal membrane-associated betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Limited degradation fragment of a sequestered cytosolic enzyme monitoring autophagy. (2/91)

We compared the membrane proteins of autolysosomes isolated from leupeptin-administered rat liver with those of lysosomes. In addition to many polypeptides common to the two membranes, the autolysosomal membranes were found to be more enriched in endoplasmic reticulum lumenal proteins (protein-disulfide isomerase, calreticulin, ER60, BiP) and endosome/Golgi markers (cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, transferrin receptor, Golgi 58-kDa protein) than lysosomal membranes. The autolysosomal membrane proteins include three polypeptides (44, 35, and 32 kDa) whose amino-terminal sequences have not yet been reported. Combining immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses, we identified the 44-kDa peptide as the intact subunit of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase and the 35- and 32-kDa peptides as two proteolytic fragments. Pronase digestion of autolysosomes revealed that the 44-kDa and 32-kDa peptides are present in the lumen, whereas the 35-kDa peptide is not. In primary hepatocyte cultures, the starvation-induced accumulation of the 32-kDa peptide occurs in the presence of E64d, showing that the 32-kDa peptide is formed from the sequestered 44-kDa peptide during autophagy. The accumulation is induced by rapamycin but completely inhibited by wortmannin, 3-methyladenine, and bafilomycin. Thus, detection of the 32-kDa peptide by immunoblotting can be used as a streamlined assay for monitoring autophagy.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein B mRNA and lipoprotein secretion are increased in McArdle RH-7777 cells by expression of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. (3/91)

The cDNA encoding rat betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) was isolated through production of monoclonal antibodies against protein fractions enriched with apolipoprotein B (apo B)-mRNA-editing complexes. BHMT mRNA was expressed predominantly in liver, and also in kidney, but not in small intestine. In stable McArdle RH-7777 (McA) cell lines expressing differing levels of BHMT, the editing efficiency of apo B mRNA was unchanged. Evaluation of apo B-mRNA expression revealed that steady-state levels were increased significantly and in parallel with BHMT protein expression. The highest levels of BHMT mRNA and BHMT enzyme activity expressed in stably transfected McA cells were comparable with those found in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to the changes in apo B-mRNA abundance, levels of other apolipoprotein-encoding mRNAs and several liver-specific and ubiquitously expressed mRNAs were unchanged by BHMT expression. In the cell line expressing the highest level of BHMT, apo B-containing lipoprotein secretion was increased, indicating utilization of increased endogenous message. Results suggest that apo B-mRNA abundance in McA cells is related to the expression of BHMT, an enzyme important in homocysteine metabolism.  (+info)

Leupeptin-induced appearance of partial fragment of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase during autophagic maturation in rat hepatocytes. (4/91)

A cytosolic enzyme, betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and its partial fragments were discovered as autolysosomal membrane proteins from rat liver in the presence of leupeptin [Ueno et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15222-15229]. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the transport and processing of BHMT from cytosol to autolysosome and to test if the fragment can be used as an in vitro probe for the maturation step of macroautophagy. Upon subcellular fractionation, BHMT (p44) was found in all fractions, while its 32-kDa fragment (p32) was found only in the mitochondrial-lysosomal (ML) fraction. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with leupeptin induced time-dependent accumulation of p32 in the ML fraction from 30 to 90 min after the start of incubation. However, chloroquine completely inhibited the appearance of p32, indicating that the processing from p44 to p32 is lysosomal. Incubation with Bafilomycin A(1), a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, together with leupeptin, led to linear accumulation of p44, but not of p32. The p44 accumulation rate was calculated to be 4.9%/h, which was comparable to autophagic sequestration rate. The distribution of p44 within the ML fraction turned out to be dual, i.e., the membrane-surface attached and luminal/sedimentable forms. Amino acids and 3-methyladenine, both of which specifically suppress macroautophagy, inhibited the accumulation of p32 as well as of p44. Finally, energy-dependent appearance of p32 was demonstrated during incubation of postnucler supernatant fractions, making it possible to establish an in vitro assay system. All the results strongly support the idea that BHMT is taken up and degraded to p32 through the macroautophagic pathway, and that p32 could be a novel probe for the maturation of macroautophagy.  (+info)

Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. (5/91)

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. METHODS: Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. RESULTS: Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. CONCLUSIONS: DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.  (+info)

Selenium deficiency in Fisher-344 rats decreases plasma and tissue homocysteine concentrations and alters plasma homocysteine and cysteine redox status. (6/91)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of graded amounts of dietary selenium on plasma and tissue parameters of methionine metabolism including homocysteine. Male weanling Fisher-344 rats (n = 7-8/group) were fed a selenium-deficient, torula yeast-based diet, supplemented with 0 (selenium deficient), 0.02, 0.05 or 0.1 microg (adequate) selenium (as selenite)/g diet. After 61 d, plasma total homocysteine and cysteine were decreased (P < 0.0001) and glutathione increased (P < 0.0001) by selenium deficiency. The concentrations of homocysteine in kidney and heart were decreased (P = 0.02) by selenium deficiency. The activities of liver betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, methionine synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthase, cystathionine synthase and cystathionase were determined; selenium deficiency affected only betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, which was decreased (P < 0.0001). The ratios of plasma free reduced homocysteine (or cysteine) to free oxidized homocysteine (or cysteine) or to total homocysteine (or cysteine) were increased by selenium deficiency, suggesting that selenium status affects the normally tightly controlled redox status of these thiols. Most differences due to dietary selenium were between rats fed 0 or 0.02 microg selenium/g diet and those fed 0.05 or 0.1 microg selenium/g diet. The metabolic consequences of a marked decrease in plasma homocysteine and smaller but significant decreases in tissue homocysteine are not known.  (+info)

Methionine supply to growing steers affects hepatic activities of methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, but not cystathionine synthase. (7/91)

The effects of supplemental methionine (Met), supplied abomasally, on the activities of methionine synthase (MS), cystathionine synthase (CS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) were studied in growing steers. Six Holstein steers (205 kg) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment. Steers were fed 2.6 kg dry matter daily of a diet containing 83% soybean hulls and 8% wheat straw. Ruminal infusions of 180 g/d acetate, 180 g/d propionate, 45 g/d butyrate, and abomasal infusion of 300 g/d dextrose provided additional energy. An amino acid mixture (299 g/d) limiting in Met was infused into the abomasum to ensure that nonsulfur amino acids did not limit growth. Treatments were infused abomasally and included 0, 5 or 10 g/d L-Met. Retained N (20.5, 26.9 and 31.6 g/d for 0, 5 and 10 g/d L-Met, respectively) increased (P < 0.01) linearly with increased supplemental Met. Hepatic Met, vitamin B-12, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic folates tended (P = 0.07) to decrease linearly with Met supplementation. All three enzymes were detected in hepatic tissue of our steers. Hepatic CS activity was not affected by Met supplementation. Hepatic MS decreased (P < 0.01) linearly with increasing Met supply, and hepatic BHMT activity responded quadratically (P = 0.04), with 0 and 10 g/d Met being higher than the intermediate level. Data from this experiment indicate that sulfur amino acid metabolism may be regulated differently in cattle than in other tested species.  (+info)

Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: zinc in a distorted barrel. (8/91)

Betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT) catalyzes the synthesis of methionine from betaine and homocysteine (Hcy), utilizing a zinc ion to activate Hcy. BHMT is a key liver enzyme that is important for homocysteine homeostasis. X-ray structures of human BHMT in its oxidized (Zn-free) and reduced (Zn-replete) forms, the latter in complex with the bisubstrate analog, S(delta-carboxybutyl)-L-homocysteine, were determined at resolutions of 2.15 A and 2.05 A. BHMT is a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel that is distorted to construct the substrate and metal binding sites. The zinc binding sequences G-V/L-N-C and G-G-C-C are at the C termini of strands beta6 and beta8. Oxidation to the Cys217-Cys299 disulfide and expulsion of Zn are accompanied by local rearrangements. The structures identify Hcy binding fingerprints and provide a prototype for the homocysteine S-methyltransferase family.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are altered by choline supply during negative energy balance in Holstein cows. AU - Coleman, Danielle N.. AU - Vailati-Riboni, M.. AU - Elolimy, Ahmed A.. AU - Cardoso, Felipe C.. AU - Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.. AU - Miura, Makoto. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Loor, Juan J.. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Although choline requirements are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and increase flux through the methionine cycle, helping cows during a negative energy balance (NEB). The objective was to investigate effects of postruminal choline supply during NEB on hepatic activity of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine adenosyltransferase, transcription of enzymes, and metabolite concentrations in the methionine cycle. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± ...
We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks and Sparks (1999) Biochem. J. 341, 639-645]. To examine whether a similar relationship occurs in vivo, hepatic BHMT expression was induced by feeding rats a Met (L-methionine)-restricted betaine-containing diet, and parameters of ApoB metabolism were evaluated. There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L-homocysteine levels. Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Betaine plus Met restriction induced hepatic BHMT 4-fold and ApoB mRNA 3-fold compared with Met restriction alone. No changes in percentage of edited ApoB mRNA were observed on the test diets. An increase ...
References. 1. Obeid R. The Metabolic Burden of Methyl Donor Deficiency with Focus on the Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Pathway. Nutrients 2013; 5: 3481-3495.. 2. Rogers J.D., Sanchez-Saffon A., Frol A.B., Diaz-Arrastia R. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients treated with levodopa: Association with vascular disease. Arch. Neurol. 2003;60:59-64.. 3. Wallace J.M., McCormack J.M., McNulty H., Walsh P.M., Robson P.J., Bonham M.P., Duffy M.E., Ward M., Molloy A.M., Scott J.M., et al. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: A randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr. 2012;108:1264-1271.. 4. Holm P.I., Ueland P.M., Vollset S.E., Midttun O., Blom H.J., Keijzer M.B., den Heijer M. Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2005;25:379-385.. 5. Kim Y.I., Miller J.W., da Costa K.A., Nadeau M., Smith D., Selhub J., Zeisel S.H., Mason J.B. Severe folate ...
Proteomic effect screening in zebrafish liver was performed to generate hypotheses following exposure (21 days) to a structurally diverse mixture of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Fish were exposed to two doses (10 and 100 nmol/g feed). Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, image analysis and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry revealed 13 and 19 significant responses in males and females, respectively. Effects on proteins related to cellular maintenance and stress were observed in both genders. Regulated proteins were gender-specific, but functionally indicated common protective responses (peroxiredoxin 6 and Zgc:92891 in males and transketolase in females) suggesting oxidative stress. Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was induced in both genders. In addition a female-specific downregulation of ironhomeostatic proteins (iron-regulatory protein 1 and transferrin) were observed. Our proteomic approach revealed novel responses that suggest important gender-specific sensitivity to BFRs that ...
In this study, the cDNA of homocysteine S-methyltransferase was isolated from Aegilops tauschii Coss., with the gene accordingly designated as AetHMT1. Similar to other methyltransferases, AetHMT1 contains a GGCCR consensus sequence for a possible zinc-binding motif near the C-terminal and a conserved cysteine residue upstream of the zinc-binding motif. Analysis of AetHMT1 uncovered no obvious chloroplast or mitochondrial targeting sequences. We functionally expressed AetHMT1 in Escherichia coli and confirmed its biological activity, as evidenced by a positive HMT enzyme activity of 164.516 ± 17.378 nmol min−1 mg−1 protein when catalyzing the transformation of L-homocysteine. Compared with the bacterium containing the empty vector, E. coli harboring the recombinant AetHMT1 plasmid showed much higher tolerance to selenate and selenite. AetHMT1 transcript amounts in different organs were increased by Na2SeO4 treatment, with roots accumulating higher amounts than stems, old leaves and new ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Halina Jurkowska, Julie Niewiadomski, Lawrence L Hirschberger, Heather B Roman, Kevin M Mazor, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Eunkyue Park, Martha H Stipanuk].
Homocysteine S -methyltransferases (HMTs, EC 2.1.1.0) catalyze the conversion of homocysteine to methionine using S -methylmethionine or S -adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. HMTs play an important role in methionine biosynthesis and are widely distributed among microorganisms, plants, and animals. Additionally, HMTs play a role in metabolite repair of S -adenosylmethionine by removing an inactive diastereomer from the pool. The mmuM gene product from Escherichia coli is an archetypal HMT family protein and contains a predicted Zn-binding motif in the enzyme active site. Here we present X-ray structures for MmuM in oxidized, apo, and metallated forms, representing the first such structures for any member of the HMT family. The structures reveal a metal/substrate binding pocket distinct from those in related enzymes. The presented structure analysis and modelling of co-substrate interactions provide valuable insight into the function of MmuM in both methionine biosynthesis and cofactor ...
Yasko Methylation The product the BHMT gene is central to the short cut through the methylation cycle, again helping to convert homocysteine to methionine. The activity of this gene product can be affected by stress, by cortisol levels and may play a role in ADD/ADHD by affecting norepinephrine levels. Yasko believes that believes BHMT-02 and BHMT-04 play a role in the gut environment. Yasko also believes that BHMT-08 is related to the impact that psychological stress has on a patients attention levels. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
BHMT antibody [10B3] (betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase) for FACS, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-BHMT mAb (GTX84827) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Monoklonale und polyklonale BHMT Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für BHMT Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab96415 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P…BHMT抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Your shown homocysteine pathway is way too simple. Especially the production of the neuromodulator H2S from excess sulfur amino acids is not shown. In the last years many more enzymes and reactions have been discovered. I have summarized human sulfur amino acid metabolism in reactome.org, so please use this link to discover all the details and new papers. Ill also append some of the relevant papers below.. Brosnan, JT, Brosnan, ME The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview 2006 J Nutr PMID 16702333. Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can also happen using betaine as a methyl donor. This reaction is also part of choline catabolism.. Li, F, Feng, Q, Lee, C, Wang, S, Pelleymounter, LL, Moon, I, Eckloff, BW, Wieben, ED, Schaid, DJ, Yee, V, Weinshilboum, RM Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional characterization 2008 Mol Genet Metab PMID 18457970. Bearden, SE, Beard RS, Jr, Pfau, JC Extracellular transsulfuration ...
K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K01669 phrB; deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase [EC:4.1.99.3] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03652 MPG; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.21] K03575 mutY; A/G-specific adenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.31] K10773 NTH; endonuclease III [EC:4.2.99.18] K10747 LIG1; DNA ligase 1 [EC:6.5.1.1 6.5.1.6 6.5.1.7] K10843 ERCC3; DNA excision repair protein ERCC-3 [EC:3.6.4.12] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K01520 dut; dUTP pyrophosphatase ...
At Magnolia Personalized Medicine we do DNA testing. The benefits of testing reveal links and underlying causes for insulin sensitivity, cancer risk, neurotransmitter balance, weight gain, cardiovascular health, mental health, bone health and even vitamin D absorption. Then we can work to optimize your genetic expression through diet, nutrition, detox because some genes can be turned off and on.. The DNA Methylation Pathway Profile includes a variety of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism):. VDR: (the vitamin D receptor) is a nuclear receptor protein that binds 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D to activate a signaling molecule that is believed to have important roles in a 3rd of the human genome. Some functions that are known are xenobiotic detoxification.. BHMT: (betaine-homocysteine methylatransferase) is a transferase enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to homocysteine, which produces methionine. Other enzymatic roles for BHMT is the choline oxidation processes. This ...
We need follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and estradiol levels (E2) on either Day 2 or 3 of your cycle.
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into Glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N, N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Dimethylglycine in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes ...
Hyperhomocysteinemia is not uncommon in diabetic patients and it can aggravate cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism of this increased hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence is vague but it is suggested that, insulin plays a role in the regulation of plasma homocysteine and, insulin resistance causes hyperhomocysteinemia (18). Besides, the mechanisms that cause peripheral and/or autonomic neuropathy are complex and are not yet fully understood. Hypothetically, homocysteine can also contribute to the neuropathy development through neurovascular disruption or through direct toxic effect (8). In some studies in this field, it has been shown that there could be a link between hyperhomocysteinemia and autonomic or peripheral neuropathy (8,24). According to recent data, hyperhomocysteinemia can be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the diabetic population (18,25). The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetics is 1.6 times ...
Involved in the removal of alkylated bases from DNA in Escherichia coli (cf. EC 2.1.1.63 methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase).
Discover important micronutrients from the Dr. Rath Cellular Nutrient Program, which support the metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine.
Background and Aims: It has been demonstrated that homozygote and heterozygote mutant allele carriers for thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) are at high risk of developing myelosuppression after receiving standard doses of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of TPMT deficient alleles in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Jordan and to compare it with other ethnic groups. Methods: We included 52 ALL childhood cases from King Hussein Cancer Research Center in Jordan. Genotyping of the rs1800460, rs1800462, and rs1142345 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. Comparisons were made with historical data for controls and for both volunteers and cases from other middle-eastern countries. Results: Mutant TPMT alleles were present in 3.8% (2/52) of patients. Allelic frequencies were 1.0% for both TPMT*B and TPMT*C. None of the patients were heterozygous or homozygous for TPMT*3A or TPMT *2. We did not find
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyzes the S-methylation of aromatic and heterocyclic sulfhydryl compounds including thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine and azathioprine. TPMT activity exhibits genetic variation and show
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Canine red blood cell thiopurine S-methyltransferase. T2 - Companion animal pharmacogenetics. AU - Salavaggione, Oreste E.. AU - Kidd, Linda. AU - Prondzinski, Janel L.. AU - Szumlanski, Carol L.. AU - Pankratz, V. Shane. AU - Wang, Liewei. AU - Trepanier, Lauren. AU - Weinshilboum, Richard M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002/12. Y1 - 2002/12. N2 - Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) plays an important role in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs. In humans, a common genetic polymorphism for TPMT is a major factor responsible for individual variation in the toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are also treated with thiopurine drugs and, similar to humans, they display large individual variations in thiopurine toxicity and efficacy. We set out to determine whether dogs might also display genetically determined variation in TPMT activity. As a first step, we observed that canine red blood cell (RBC) ...
K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K01669 phrB; deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase [EC:4.1.99.3] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03652 MPG; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.21] K03575 mutY; A/G-specific adenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.31] K10773 NTH; endonuclease III [EC:4.2.99.18] K10747 LIG1; DNA ligase 1 [EC:6.5.1.1 6.5.1.6 6.5.1.7] K10843 ERCC3; DNA excision repair protein ERCC-3 [EC:3.6.4.12] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K01520 dut; dUTP pyrophosphatase [EC:3.6.1.23] K03919 alkB; DNA oxidative demethylase [EC:1.14.11.33] K03649 mug; double-stranded uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.28] ...
K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K00567 ogt; methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.63] K01669 phrB; deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase [EC:4.1.99.3] K03648 UNG; uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.27] K03652 MPG; DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.21] K03575 mutY; A/G-specific adenine glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.31] K10773 NTH; endonuclease III [EC:4.2.99.18] K10747 LIG1; DNA ligase 1 [EC:6.5.1.1 6.5.1.6 6.5.1.7] K10843 ERCC3; DNA excision repair protein ERCC-3 [EC:3.6.4.12] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K03574 mutT; 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.55] K01520 dut; dUTP pyrophosphatase [EC:3.6.1.23] K03919 alkB; DNA oxidative demethylase [EC:1.14.11.33] K03649 mug; double-stranded uracil-DNA glycosylase [EC:3.2.2.28] ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Recurrent early pregnancy loss and genetic-related disturbances in folate and homocysteine metabolism. by Willianne L D M Nelen et al.
Detection of genetic polymorphisms in the Thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene for the prevention of dose-related toxicity during treatment with thiopurine drugs; including (if performed) any service described in item 65075. 1 or more tests Fee: $51.95 Benefit: 75% = $39.00 85% = $44.20 ...
FTSJ2屬於大腸桿菌RNA核醣體次單元甲基轉移酶RrmJ直同源蛋白家族之一,其功能推測為將硫-腺苷酸甲硫胺酸(S-adenosylmethionine, SAM) 去甲基化轉化為硫-腺苷酸同胱胺酸(S-adenosylhomocysteine, SAH)並對RNA行甲基化修飾。生物體內SAM的來源則仰賴於甲硫胺酸代謝循環的供應,當甲硫胺酸代謝失調時,會造成細胞內SAM與SAH比率改變,進而調控相關基因表現並影響細胞的生長產生影響。本研究將豬FTSJ2基因轉殖於人類神經髓母細胞瘤細胞株te671(te671-FTSJ2)與肝癌細胞株HepG2(HepG2-FTSJ2),觀察FTSJ2大量表現對於甲硫胺酸代謝循環相關基因:甲硫胺酸腺苷酸轉移酶1A/2A(MAT1A/2A)、SAH水解酶(SAHH)、甲硫胺酸生成酶(MS)以及甜菜鹼-同胱胺酸甲基轉移酶(BHMT)的調控來評估對細胞內SAM /SAH比率是否具有影響以確認其甲基轉移酶的生物功能。結果發現HepG2轉殖FTSJ2提高了MAT1A的mRNA表現(p
You may or may not have heard have heard of betaine before, but its been around for a very long time. Thats because betaine is derived from beets
2.1.1.1 Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.2 Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.3 Thetin--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.4 Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.5 Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.6 Catechol O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.7 Nicotinate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.8 Histamine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.9 Thiol S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.10 Homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.11 Magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase 2.1.1.12 Methionine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.13 Methionine synthase 2.1.1.14 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2.1.1.15 Fatty-acid O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.16 Methylene-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase 2.1.1.17 Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.18 Polysaccharide O-methyltransferase 2.1.1.19 Trimethylsulfonium--tetrahydrofolate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.20 Glycine N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.21 Methylamine--glutamate N-methyltransferase 2.1.1.22 Carnosine N-methyltransferase ...
I wrote about the first day of the conference here.. The second day of the conference also had an infectious diseases focus, where we learned how the MinION was used to identify the two major Ebola lineages in West Africa. The MinION has environmental applications, too, as Brook Milligan showed that the MinION was used to trace illegally traded timber, which accounts for $100 billion annually in lost revenue, he said.. Non-infectious clinical applications were less frequent at London Calling. However, the MinIONs long reads have an advantage that was reflected in Ron Ammars pharmacogenomics talk.. Ron showed that Haplotyping the Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase (TPMT) gene at two SNPs (rs1142345 and rs1800460) influenced the immunosuppressive Thiopurine drug dosage more precisely than having the SNPs information separately.. After the two pleasantly exhaustive days, I returned to Kuwait with a personalized Fahd Al-Mulla MinION that dazzled staff at my University and Genatak. I am planning to use ...
Perinatal exposure to hyperhomocysteinemia might disturb neurogenesis during brain development and growth. Also, high levels of homocysteine trigger neurodegeneration in several experimental models. However, the putative mechanisms of homocysteine-induced toxicity in the developing nervous system have poorly been elucidated. This study was aimed to investigate homocysteine effects in undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells, Neuro2a. A 4 h exposure to homocysteine in a concentration range of 10-100 μM did not affect cell viability and ROS production in Neuro2a cell cultures. Instead, ROS levels were increased by two-three folds in cells treated with 250 μM and 500 μM homocysteine, respectively, in comparison with control cells. Also, the highest homocysteine dose significantly reduced the viable cell number by 40%. Notably, the treatment with homocysteine (250 μM-500 μM) in the presence of antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine and IRFI 016, a synthetic α-tocopherol analogue, recovered cell viability
Betaine HCL Pespin - 250 vCapsules Betaine HCI Pepsin provides a professional strength of 520 mg betaine HCl per capsule with additional pepsin. Betaine HCl is an acidic form of betaine, and pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme.
Methyl B-12 10,000 mcg 60 lozenges from NOW is designed to support nervous system health, proper homocysteine metabolism and DNA synthesis. Fast Free shipping on all orders. Easy online ordering with a price match guarantee!
B12 is needed for the formation of red blood cells, normal homocysteine metabolism, energy production, the nervous system and the immune system
Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it.
Disease and Homocysteine Concentration. Dogs in the heart disease, neoplastic disease, kidney disease, and skin disease groups had significantly higher plasma Hcy concentrations than control dogs. However,multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and spay/neuter status revealed that Hcy concentration was only associated with skin disease when these other variables were included in the model. The odds ratio per 1 μmol/l increase in Hcy was 1.077, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001-1.158, p,0.05. In the control group (n=187), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 13.5 ± 0.4 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 9.6-12.8-16.0, and min-max 4.3-50.1 μmol/l). In the skin disease group (n=16), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 20.3 ± 2.3 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 13.8-19.3-23.3, and min-max 9.7-49.8 μmol/l). The skin disease group included five Shih Tzus and 11 other dogs of nine different breeds. However, our finding that Hcy ...
To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. Sixteen recreationally active subjects (7 females and 9 males) completed three sprint tests, each consisting of four 12 sec efforts against a resistance equal to 5.5% of body weight; efforts were separated by 2.5 min of cycling at zero resistance. Test one established baseline; test two and three were preceded by seven days of daily consumption of 591 ml of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage as a placebo or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage containing 0.42% betaine (approximately 2.5 grams of betaine a day); half the beverage was consumed in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. We used a double blind random order cross-over design; there was a 3 wk washout between trials two and three. Average and maximum peak and mean power were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA and, where indicated, a Student Newman-Keuls. Compared to baseline, betaine ingestion increased average peak power (6.4%; p | 0.001),
According to the market research report Betaine Market :By Type (Synthetic, Natural); By Form (Betaine Anhydrous, Cocamidopropyl Betaine); By End-users (Food & Beverages, Animal Feed) & Geography - Forecast (2016-2021), published by IndustryARC, estimates tremendous expansion for new entrants.. Browse Report @ http://industryarc.com/Report/15179/betaine-market.html. Betaine is a by-product of sugar beet processing. This works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid causes harm to blood vessels and contributes to heart disease, stroke and circulation problems.. After the discovery of betaine supplement, this was originally used to turn homocysteine into L-methionine. Homocysteine is a toxic samino acid that can lead to various health problems when elevated in the body including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and multiple cardiovascular issues. Betaine supplementation is extremely important for individuals with homocystinuria, a rare genetic condition that ...
Betaine supplementation has numerous positive effects on animal performance. Recent studies with betaine from sugar beet molasses looked if this naturally derived betaine can substitute a certain amount of added methionine in broiler diets.
What is Betaine Anhydrous?. Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaines two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.. ...
Methyl Defense is a comprehensive formula designed to support optimal methylation and help maintain healthy homocysteine levels already within normal range. It features five key nutrients that are involved in homocysteine metabolism.
Cocamidopropyl betaine, Cocamidopropyl betaine supplier, Cocamidopropyl betaine distributor, CAS 61789-40-0 70851-07-9 83138-08-3 , Cocamidopropyl betaine manufacturer, Cocamidopropyl betaine wholesale
I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. Best part is the relief has lasted more than the usual 1-2 weeks. I once tried a betaine HCL product in the past but I took it the same time as taking a probiotic (I have found I always rash up from probiotics, without exception.) It may be worth a try, Im having a lot of success using it everyday and cycling my other supplements. In
Betaine HCL/Pepsin 250s-Promotes a healthy digestive tract *Betaine HCl and pepsin are gastric-juice components essential to the digestion of food an
Betaine HCL aids digestion, breaks down carbs and protein, and helps ensure a healthy gastrointestinal pH balance. Order your bottle of Betaine HCL today.
Product Page for Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 600 mg 250 Tabs made by country-life offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase; CBS: cystathionine beta synthase; CGL: cystathionine gamma-lyase; DHF: dihydrofolate ... S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine; SAME: S-adenosyl-L-methionine; THF: tetrahydrofolate. ...
Pajares, M. A.; Pérez-Sala, D (2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism ... Beets contain betaines which may function to reduce the concentration of homocysteine,[19] a homolog of the naturally occurring ... 2002). Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center.. *^ Potter, K.; Hankey, G. J.; Green, D. J.; Eikelboom, J. W.; Arnolda, ... High circulating levels of homocysteine may be harmful to blood vessels and thus contribute to the development of ...
The degradation of betaine homo-cysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), a metabolic enzyme, could be used to assess autophagy flux ...
... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) Although mammals cannot ... Homocysteine can also be remethylated using glycine betaine (NNN-trimethyl glycine, TMG) to methionine via the enzyme betaine- ... homocysteine methyltransferase (E.C.2.1.1.5, BHMT). BHMT makes up to 1.5% of all the soluble protein of the liver, and recent ... Homocysteine can be converted to cysteine. (5) Cystathionine-β-synthase (an enzyme which requires the active form of vitamin B6 ...
... and 2-BHMT2 encodes for betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, which catalyzes the methylation of homocysteine. ATR ...
... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.6: catechol O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.7: nicotinate N-methyltransferase EC ... EC 2.1.1.1: nicotinamide N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.2: guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.3: thetin-homocysteine S ... 2.1.1.8: histamine N-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.9: thiol S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.10: homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC ... 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.15: fatty-acid O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.16 ...
... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.250 - catechol O-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555. ... homocysteine S-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.645 - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine s-methyltransferase MeSH ... histone-lysine n-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.650 - o-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase MeSH D08.811. ... protein o-methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.800.800.700 - protein d-aspartate-l-isoaspartate methyltransferase MeSH ...
... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) Methionine biosynthesis ... Homocysteine is a coactivator of glyA and must act in concert with MetR. On the other hand, PurR, a protein which plays a role ... Plamann MD, Stauffer GV (1989). "Regulation of the Escherichia coli glyA gene by the metR gene product and homocysteine". J. ... The methionine gene product MetR and the methionine intermediate homocysteine are known to positively regulate glyA. ...
Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116984 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... "MTR 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (Homo sapiens)". Entrez. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2009. Li YN ... In humans it is encoded by the MTR gene (5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase). Methionine synthase forms ... EC 2.1.1.13 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine+S-Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
... that homocysteine can also be converted to methionine by the folate-independent enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... 677TT (but not 677CC/CT) individuals with lower plasma folate levels are at risk for elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In ... It does not result in thermolabile MTHFR and does not appear to affect homocysteine levels. It does, however, affect the ... 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate is used to convert homocysteine (a potentially toxic amino acid) to methionine by the enzyme ...
In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (14): ... Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D (December 2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine ... Betaine+Homocysteine+Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 ...
The second pathway (restricted to liver and kidney in most mammals) involves betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and ... TMG is also used as the hydrochloride salt (marketed as betaine hydrochloride or betaine HCl). Betaine hydrochloride was once ... Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC ... February 2005). "Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans". Arterioscler. Thromb ...
regeneration of methionine: Methionine synthase/Homocysteine methyltransferase. *Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. * ...
regeneration of methionine: Methionine synthase/Homocysteine methyltransferase. *Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. * ...
regeneration of methionine: Methionine synthase/Homocysteine methyltransferase. *Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. * ...
regeneration of methionine: Methionine synthase/Homocysteine methyltransferase. *Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. * ...
regeneration of methionine: Methionine synthase/Homocysteine methyltransferase. *Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. * ... L-DOPA can be directly metabolized by catechol-O-methyl transferase to 3-O-methyldopa, and then further to vanillactic acid. ...
regeneration of methionine: Methionine synthase/Homocysteine methyltransferase. *Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. * ...
Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. *Bile acid:sodium symporter. *Biliverdin reductase. *Biotin attachment domain ...
5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase/Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase. *Catechol-O-methyl transferase. Homocysteine. *Betaine ... Information about DNA methyltransferases and DNA methylation at epigeneticstation.com. *Data for a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT ... DNMT1 is the most abundant DNA methyltransferase in mammalian cells, and considered to be the key maintenance methyltransferase ... methyltransferases. Classification of all DNA methyltransferases". Gene. 157 (1-2): 3-11. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)00783-O. ...
5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase/Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase. *Catechol-O-methyl transferase. Homocysteine. *Betaine ... Thiopurine methyltransferase or thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TPMT gene. ... methyltransferase activity. • thiopurine S-methyltransferase activity. • S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding. Cellular component. • ... 2h11: Amino-terminal Truncated Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase Complexed with S-Adenosyl-L-Homocysteine ...
5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase/Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase. *Catechol-O-methyl transferase. Homocysteine. *Betaine ...
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine This enzyme is purified from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8102. Lu WD, Chi ... WH8102 and characterization of its N-methyltransferase genes involved in betaine synthesis". Archives of Microbiology. 186 (6 ... N-dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (betaine-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.161, BsmB, DMT) is an enzyme with systematic name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N, ...
SAM is the substrate for methylation reactions catalyzed by DNA, RNA and protein methyltransferases. The products of these ... choline and betaine found in beef, eggs and some vegetables). Assimilated methionine is transformed in S-adenosyl methionine ( ... and homocysteine: Correlations with diet". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 10 (6): 649-55. PMID 11401915. Prinz- ... SAH has a negative feedback on its own production as an inhibitor of methyltransferase enzymes. Therefore, SAM:SAH ratio ...
McNeil SD (1999). "Betaines and related osmoprotectants. Targets for metabolic engineering of stress resistance". Plant ... "S-methylmethionine plays a major role in phloem sulfur transport and is synthesized by a novel type of methyltransferase". The ... The coproduct is S-adenosyl homocysteine. The biological roles of S-methylmethionine are not well understood. Speculated roles ... involving replacement of the adenosyl group by a methyl group is catalyzed by the enzyme methionine S-methyltransferase. S- ...
The simultaneous intake of methyl providing substances such as betaine appears advisable because of the risk of homocysteine ... glycocyamine is methylated to creatine with S-adenosyl methionine by the enzyme guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT). ... Betaine can provide a methyl group to glycocyamine, via methionine, for the formation of creatine. In overall, such treatment ... This causes homocysteine levels to rise, which has been shown to produce cardiovascular and skeletal problems.[citation needed ...
This is hydrolysed to homocysteine and adenosine by S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase EC 3.3.1.1 and the homocysteine recycled ... DNA methyltransferase SAM-I riboswitch SAM-II riboswitch SAM-III riboswitch SAM-IV riboswitch SAM-V riboswitch SAM-VI ... Chemically, it is a sulfonium betaine which serves as a source of electrophilic methyl group or as a source of 5'-deoxyadenosyl ... that use SAM-e as a substrate produce S-adenosyl homocysteine as a product. S-Adenosyl homocysteine is a strong negative ...
... synthesis of choline and glycine betaine in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase ... The source of the methyl group is S-adenosyl-L-methionine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine is generated as a side product. In ... Choline and folate, interacting with vitamin B12, act as methyl donors to homocysteine to form methionine, which can then go on ... It also works as a substrate for the BHMT-enzyme, which methylates homocysteine to methionine. This is a S-adenosylmethionine ( ...
The degradation of betaine homo-cysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), a metabolic enzyme, could be used to assess autophagy flux ...
Gestational histone methyltransferases G9a (Kmt1C) and Suv39h1 (Kmt1a) and DNA methylation of their genes in rat fetal liver ... Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, Selvin S, Schaffer DM (2004). "Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and ... Interaction between dietary methionine and methyl donor intake on rat liver betain-homocysteine methyltranferase gene ... "Choline and betaine intake and risk of breast cancer among post-menopausal women". British Journal of Cancer 102 (3): 489-94. ...
N-acetylserotonin is methylated at the hydroxyl position by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) to produce S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH ... Donohue SJ, Roseboom PH, Illnerova H, Weller JL, Klein DC (October 1993). "Human hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase: presence of ... Hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase and S-adenosyl methionine convert N-acetylserotonin into melatonin through methylation of the ...
In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (14): ... Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D (December 2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine ... Betaine+Homocysteine+Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 ...
... Summary. Gene Symbol: betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Description: betaine-- ... b>Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the synthesis of methionine using betaine and homocysteine (Hcy), ... betaine homocysteine s methyltransferase*betaine*phosphatidylethanolamine n methyltransferase*choline dehydrogenase* ... homocysteine S-methyltransferase. Alias: BHMT1, HEL-S-61p, betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, epididymis secretory ...
Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. This reaction is also required for the ... Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT), Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2, isoform CRA_c (BHMT2) ... Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT), S-methylmethionine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase BHMT2 (BHMT2), cDNA, ... Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, isoform CRA_a (HEL-S-61p), cDNA FLJ54604, highly similar to Betaine--homocysteine S- ...
Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by ... Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is ... A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1 ...
We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase; CMV, cytomegalovirus; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; DRB, 5,6- ... and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. Janet D. ... and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase ...
Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ELISA Kit-NP_001704.2 (MBS904226) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Human Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT) ELISA kit; betaine homocysteine methyltransferase; betaine- ... Molecular Function: betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity; homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity; zinc ion ... betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1; epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 61p ...
Betaine homocysteine methyl transferase 1, a novel auto-antigen associated with anti-Golgi immune reactivity. ... Betaine homocysteine methyl transferase 1, a novel auto-antigen associated with anti-Golgi immune reactivity ...
... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; CBS, cystathionine β-synthase; DHFR, dihydrofolate reductase; MTs, Methyltransferases; ... Betaine-homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT). BHMT is a zinc-dependent protein that catalyzes the synthesis of methionine from ... 2013). Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 742G,A polymorphism and risk of down syndrome offspring in a Brazilian population ... 2008). Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional ...
Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are ... Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are ... Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are ... T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle ...
Since genetic deficiencies in folate-dependent homocysteine metabolism have been identified in NTD families, we investigated a ... Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism? Pajares MA, Pérez-Sala D. Pajares MA, et ... Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina bifida Isabelle Morin 1 , Robert Platt, Ilan ... Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina bifida Isabelle Morin et al. Am J Med Genet ...
Rat liver betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase equilibrium unfolding: insights into intermediate structure through ...
... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase; CBS: cystathionine beta synthase; CGL: cystathionine gamma-lyase; DHF: dihydrofolate ... S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine; SAME: S-adenosyl-L-methionine; THF: tetrahydrofolate. ...
... and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) are two enzymes that regulate homocysteine metabolism. Elevated ... Polymorphisms in methionine synthase reductase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase genes: risk of placental abruption. ... Total plasma homocysteine concentrations were evaluated in a subset of 136 cases and 136 controls. DNA was genotyped for the ... We further evaluated whether homocysteine levels differed between cases and controls for MTRR and BHMT genotypes. ...
BHMT, betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase; CDP-Cho, cytidinediphosphocholine; CMP, cytidinemonophosphate; CTP, ... Plasma concentrations of betaine, choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were measured via LC-MS ... Choline metabolism, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin synthesis, and the role of betaine and folate in one-carbon ... cytidinetriphosphate, DAG, diacylglycerol; DMG, dimethylglycine; HCY, homocysteine; MET, methionine; MTHFR, ...
Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ... Zhu HP, Curry S, Wen S et al (2005) Are the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) genes risk factors for ... Morin I, Platt R, Weisberg I et al (2003) Common variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and risk for spina ... Schafer C, Hoffmann L, Heldt K et al (2007) Osmotic regulation of betaine homocysteine-S-methyltransferase expression in H4IIE ...
... which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations ... using folate as a methyl donor and by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) using betaine as a methyl donor. Chronic ... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; MS: methionine synthase; Hcy, homocysteine; SAM: S-adenosylmethionine, SAH: S- ... "Mechanisms of protection by the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase/betaine system in HepG2 cells and primary mouse ...
betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 , Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 , betaine--homocysteine S- ... methyltransferase 2 , betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2-like , S-methylmethionine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase ... anti-Betaine--Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase 2 Antikörper (BHMT2). Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 32 ... Human Betaine--Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) Interaktionspartner * A three-way interaction among maternal and ...
Pajares, M. A.; Pérez-Sala, D (2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism ... Beets contain betaines which may function to reduce the concentration of homocysteine,[19] a homolog of the naturally occurring ... 2002). Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center.. *^ Potter, K.; Hankey, G. J.; Green, D. J.; Eikelboom, J. W.; Arnolda, ... High circulating levels of homocysteine may be harmful to blood vessels and thus contribute to the development of ...
... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; PP1G, protein phosphatase 1G; AKR1C1, aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1; CALR, ... The four proteins used were betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT; NCBI accession number gi,4502407), protein ...
Specific potassium ion interactions facilitate homocysteine binding to betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase ... betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5), which uses betaine as the methyl donor [20] and methionine synthase ... Dissecting the catalytic mechanism of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase by use of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and ... Homocysteine S-methyltransferases (HMTs, EC 2.1.1.0) catalyse the conversion of homocysteine to methionine using S- ...
... homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 , Betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 , betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2- ... homocysteine S-methyltransferase BHMT2 , SMM-hcy methyltransferase , betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 , betaine-- ... Target Betaine--Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) * Betaine--Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 (Bhmt2) antibody * S-methylmethionine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase BHMT2 ( ...
Homocysteine and Leptin in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis - Evidences, Conflicts and Expectations , IntechOpen, Published on ... BHMT: betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase DMG: dimethylglycine vitamin B6: pyridoxyl phosphate CBS: cystathionine beta- ... The Hordal and Homocysteine Study: a community-based study of homocysteine, its determinants and associations with disease. J ... Plasma total homocysteine level and bone mineral density. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Arch Int Med 2006; 166: 88-94. ...
... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; 17) adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; the PLP-dependent 18) cystathionine β-synthase, ... AdoHCy, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine; AdoMet, S-adenosyl-L-methionine; HCy, L-homocysteine; Met, L-methionine. ... an amino methyltransferase, and L protein, a dihydro lipoamide dehydrogenase); 5) methionine synthase; 6) ... together with decreased remethylation of homocysteine in methionine with serine-derived methyl groups, i.e., generated through ...
2015). Molecular characterization of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 1 from the liver, and effects of aestivation on its ... and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (Ong et al., 2015) in P. annectens during aestivation. ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, Ong et al., 2015). ... expressions and homocysteine concentrations in the liver, ...
BHMT; betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase [KO:K00544] [EC:2.1.1.5]. 23743 BHMT2; betaine--homocysteine S- ... methyltransferase 2 [KO:K00547] [EC:2.1.1.10]. 4548 MTR; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase [KO:K00548] [ ... DNMT1; DNA methyltransferase 1 [KO:K00558] [EC:2.1.1.37]. 1788 DNMT3A; DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha [KO:K17398] [EC:2.1.1.37] ... DNMT3B; DNA methyltransferase 3 beta [KO:K17399] [EC:2.1.1.37]. 23382 AHCYL2; adenosylhomocysteinase like 2 [KO:K01251] [EC:3.3 ...
Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. NM_016668. Gene Info. Bhmt. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. AK149457. Gene Info ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase. NM_001081128. Gene Info. N6amt1. N-6 adenine-specific DNA ... Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3. NM_133740. Gene Info. Prmt5. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5. NM_013768. Gene ... Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 6. NM_178891. Gene Info. Prmt7. Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 7. NM_145404. Gene ...
Ji C, Shinohara M, Kuhlenkamp J, et al Mechanisms of protection by the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase/betaine system in ... et al Effect of transgenic extrahepatic expression of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase on alcohol or homocysteine-induced ... Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13(4):395-398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Homocysteine: a history in progress. Nutr Rev. 2000;58(7):193-204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
2015). Molecular characterization of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 1 from the liver, and effects of aestivation on its ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, Ong et al., 2015; coagulation factor II and fibrinogen gamma chain, Hiong et al., ... expressions and homocysteine concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle, of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. ...
... betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (EC2.1.1.5); (7) methyleneTHF reductase (EC1.1.1.68); (8) AdoMet synthetase (EC2.5.1.6). ... 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (methionine synthase). CO. base-line concentration. Cmax. peak or ... 1995) Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J. Intern. Med. 237:381- ... MeTHF-homocysteine methyltransferase (methionine synthase) (EC2.1.1.13); Cbl, cobalamin; CH3-Cbl, methylcobalamin; PLP, ...
Molecular characterization and analysis of the porcine betaine homocysteine methyltransferase and betaine homocysteine ... Splicing variants of the porcine betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase gene: implications for mammalian metabolism. ...
  • In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) is a zinc metallo-enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from trimethylglycine and a hydrogen ion from homocysteine to produce dimethylglycine and methionine respectively: Trimethylglycine (methyl donor) + homocysteine (hydrogen donor) → dimethylglycine (hydrogen receiver) + methionine (methyl receiver) This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A splicing variant leads to complete loss of function of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) gene in hepatocellular carcinoma. (labome.org)
  • Investigations of a common genetic variant in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) in coronary artery disease. (labome.org)
  • Evolutionary Analyses and Natural Selection of Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2 Genes. (labome.org)
  • This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-methionine from L-homocysteine (BhmT route). (uniprot.org)
  • Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by taurine supplementation in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is robustly regulated by taurine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S -methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks and Sparks (1999) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • To examine whether a similar relationship occurs in vivo , hepatic BHMT expression was induced by feeding rats a Met ( L -methionine)-restricted betaine-containing diet, and parameters of ApoB metabolism were evaluated. (biochemj.org)
  • Betaine plus Met restriction induced hepatic BHMT 4-fold and ApoB mRNA 3-fold compared with Met restriction alone. (biochemj.org)
  • Nuclear run-off assays established that transcription of both bhmt and apob genes was also increased in Met-restricted plus betaine diets. (biochemj.org)
  • Hepatic ApoB and BHMT mRNA levels were also increased by 1.8- and 3-fold respectively by betaine supplementation of Met-replete diets. (biochemj.org)
  • MBS904226 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • The objective was to investigate effects of postruminal choline supply during NEB on hepatic activity of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine adenosyltransferase, transcription of enzymes, and metabolite concentrations in the methionine cycle. (illinois.edu)
  • Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) are two enzymes that regulate homocysteine metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • We further evaluated whether homocysteine levels differed between cases and controls for MTRR and BHMT genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 5 Betaine-Homocysteine Methyltransferase (BHMT) Antikörper von 4 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The BHMT /betaine system directly protects hepatocytes from homocysteine-induced injury but not tunicamycin-induced injury, including an endoplasmic reticulum stress response, lipid accumulation, and cell death. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was induced in both genders. (diva-portal.org)
  • RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to analyze the expressions of MAT1a, MAT2a, SAH hydroase (SAHH), Methionine synthase (MS) and Batine-Homocysetine methyltransferase (BHMT) genes. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • BHMT is the only enzyme known to metabolize betaine, leading to the hypothesis that BHMT is down-regulated under conditions requiring the accumulation of betaine, such as high salt intake. (illinois.edu)
  • Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS) and betaine-homocysteine S -methyltransferase (BHMT) diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL) relationships. (mdpi.com)
  • Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5) is a key enzyme in the methionine cycle and is highly expressed in the liver. (zfin.org)
  • Alleviation of hepatic fat accumulation by betaine involves reduction of homocysteine via up-regulation of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT). (semanticscholar.org)
  • In particular, Oceanobacillus iheyensis possibly uses a homologof the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase bhmT gene from vertebratesto substitute missing bacterial-type methionine synthases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Anomalies may influence the metabolism of homocysteine , which is implicated in disorders ranging from vascular disease, autism, and schizophrenia to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism? (wikipedia.org)
  • L-serine supplementation attenuates alcoholic fatty liver by enhancing homocysteine metabolism in mice and rats. (labome.org)
  • These results indicate that feeding betaine to hens modulates hypothalamic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and brain functions in F1 cockerels with modification of promoter DNA methylation. (labome.org)
  • Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. (uniprot.org)
  • Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, which links choline and betaine to the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The link to one-carbon metabolism and the recent availability of food composition data have motivated studies on choline and betaine as risk factors of chronic diseases previously studied in relation to folate and homocysteine status. (springer.com)
  • Allen RH, Stabler SP, Lindenbaum J (1993) Serum betaine, N, N-dimethylglycine and N-methylglycine levels in patients with cobalamin and folate deficiency and related inborn errors of metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Choline metabolism, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin synthesis, and the role of betaine and folate in one-carbon metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcoholic ER stress response are directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which includes toxic acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress, perturbations of calcium or iron homeostasis, alterations of S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio, and abnormal epigenetic modifications. (hindawi.com)
  • Anomalies in homocysteine metabolism have been implicated in disorders ranging from vascular disease to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The effect of oral S-adenosylmethionine on homocysteine metabolism in humans is unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rather they indicate a positive effect on 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a key cofactor in homocysteine metabolism, which should be considered in homocysteine lowering strategies for the prevention of vascular disease. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings, in patients without a known inborn error of methionine metabolism, have established increased plasma homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) as an independent risk factor for vascular events. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Additionally, an interruption of the coordinate regulatory function of AdoMet in homocysteine metabolism, has recently been proposed ( Selhub and Miller, 1992 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Further metabolism yields homocysteine that is either catabolized via transsulfuration or recycled via remethylation to methionine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP or "active" vitamin B6), and vitamin B12 are the main vitamin cofactors/substrates for homocysteine metabolism ( Figure 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • In conclusion, the porcine FTSJ2 protein exhibits the potential function as methyltransferase in eukaryotic cells, especially responsible for abnormal methionine metabolism in HCC and neuroblastoma cell lines. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Positive findings were of an elevated level of homocysteine as a result of vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency as well as a genetic mutation in the MTHFR gene (encoding MTHFR enzyme which is vital in normal homocysteine metabolism). (springer.com)
  • Impaired sulfur-amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress in nonalcoholic fatty liver are alleviated by betaine supplementation in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 32 Betaine--Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) Antikörper von 9 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (Bhmt2 ) was identified as a diet-dependent genetic factor that affected susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • 5 Betaine--Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) ELISA Kits from 2 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Dietary betaine supplementation to gestational sows enhances hippocampal IGF2 expression in newborn piglets with modified DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions. (labome.org)
  • Dietary betaine supplementation in hens modulates hypothalamic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in F1 cockerels through modification of DNA methylation. (labome.org)
  • Betaine supplementation effectively ameliorates biochemical abnormalities. (mdpi.com)
  • As such, should homocysteine-lowering by B vitamin supplementation in RTR reduce the rate of occurrence of CVD events, these findings would likely be generalizable to the much more sizable population of patients with renal insufficiency progressing to ESRD. (asnjournals.org)
  • In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There are several objectives of this project, including determining whether long-term dietary methyl supplementation or SAMe supplementation in rats will effect changes in longevity, in age-related pathology, and in such molecular parameters as dna methylation, SAMe, a reaction product of SAMe called S-adenosylhomocysteine (sah), and homocysteine, the most important biochemical risk factor for vascular disease (Frankel & Mitchell 1997). (lifeextension.com)
  • Dietary supplementation of betaine may decrease the requirement of methyl donors like methionine and choline. (wattagnet.com)
  • However, adequate concentration of cysteine is required to achieve the beneficial effects of betaine supplementation. (wattagnet.com)
  • Reduced gut pH and intestinal villi height with betaine (hydrochloride) supplementation in the stomach may improve the digestibility of methionine and other nutrients. (wattagnet.com)
  • Improved cell integrity and surface area of gastrointestinal lumen with betaine supplementation appeared to enhance the digestibility of dietary nutrients. (wattagnet.com)
  • Dietary supplementation of betaine increased the activities of several hormones in serum such as luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, triiodo-thyronine, thyroxine, oestradiol and progesterone in laying hens. (wattagnet.com)
  • Betaine supplementation has been shown to reduce homocysteine levels while resulting in modest increases of plasma serine and cysteine levels. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alleviation of acute ethanol-induced liver injury and impaired metabolomics of S-containing substances by betaine supplementation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. (springer.com)
  • Intake of choline and betaine shows no consistent relation to cancer or cardiovascular risk or risk factors, whereas an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile was associated with high choline and low betaine concentrations in plasma. (springer.com)
  • Thus, choline and betaine showed opposite relations with key components of metabolic syndrome, suggesting a disruption of mitochondrial choline oxidation to betaine as part of the mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Plasma concentrations of betaine, choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were measured via LC-MS/MS for Weeks 0, 7 and 14. (nih.gov)
  • First, choline reduces levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that can act as a potent neurotoxin, contributing to the hallmarks of AD: neurodegeneration and the formation of amyloid plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • Choline performs a chemical transformation, converting the harmful homocysteine into the helpful chemical methionine. (news-medical.net)
  • Choline functions as a precursor for acetylcholine, phospholipids, and the methyl donor betaine. (nap.edu)
  • Choline acts to reduce harmful levels of the amino acid homocysteine, converting it to the beneficial chemical methionine. (azbio.org)
  • Absorption of betaine is more rapid than choline or methionine. (wattagnet.com)
  • Choline and methionine are associated with plasma lipoprotein, whereas betaine remains in a free state in the plasma. (wattagnet.com)
  • Choline must be transported from the cytosol into the mitochondria where it is oxidised to betaine, which is transported to the cytosol. (wattagnet.com)
  • However, the efficiency of converting choline to betaine is reduced by polyether ionophore anticoccidials by interfering with mitochondrial membrane transport of the compound. (wattagnet.com)
  • In chicks, betaine donates a methyl group (CH 3 ) to homocysteine for the synthesis of methionine approximately three times more efficiently than choline. (wattagnet.com)
  • One of the well-known applications of betaine in animal feed is saving feed costs by replacing choline chloride and methionine as methyl donor in poultry diets. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • To generate methyl groups, choline can be oxidised to betaine within the mitochondria ( Figure 1 ). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • In general, animal studies show that betaine can replace choline chloride with higher efficacy and can replace part of total dietary methionine, resulting in a cheaper diet, whilst maintaining performance. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (asm.org)
  • Elevated homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and vascular disease. (cdc.gov)
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effects of excess methionine on growth performance, serum homocysteine levels, apoptotic rates, and Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels in geese and to study the role of betaine in relieving excess Met-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. (mdpi.com)
  • Homozygous genetic disorders ( i.e., the homocystinurias) result in marked hyperhomocysteinemia (total homocysteine [tHcy] levels of 100 to 500 μmol/L) and are clearly associated with precocious atherothrombotic events ( 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • High homocysteine levels (hyperhomocysteinemia) may also be caused by folate or vitamin B 6 deficiencies, and these should be excluded as causes of cobalamin deficiency before a diagnosis is made. (cmaj.ca)
  • Betaine decreases hyperhomocysteinemia, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and liver injury in alcohol-fed mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inhibition of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase causes hyperhomocysteinemia in mice. (uochb.cz)
  • Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. (genetex.com)
  • the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase catalyzes the reaction between betaine and homocysteine, yielding dimethylglycine and methionine ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SMM can serve as a methyl donor to Hcy in a reaction mediated by homocysteine S -methyltransferase (HMT, EC 2.1.1.10), an enzyme present in plants, bacteria, fungi and animals. (portlandpress.com)
  • Regeneration of methionine occurs by betaine donating one of its three methyl groups to homocysteine, via the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • For example, the demethylation of GB to form DMG has been hypothesized to occur via a betaine homocysteine methyltransferase in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas denitrificans based on measurements of enzyme activity in cell extracts ( 35 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Castro C, Millian N, Garrow T. Liver betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity undergoes a redox switch at the active site zinc. (labome.org)
  • Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: human liver genotype-phenotype correlation. (labome.org)
  • Increased secretion of VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) with Met restriction plus betaine was associated with a 45% reduction in liver triacylglycerol compared with control. (biochemj.org)
  • Abdelmalek MF, Sanderson SO, Angulo P et al (2009) Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, we highlight the general signaling pathways of UPR and ER stress response, summarize the role of ER stress in a number of experimental or naturally occurring models of liver disease, and discuss our recent advances in alcohol or homocysteine-induced ER stress response and hepatic injury. (springer.com)
  • Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21 −/− mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Betaine increases the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine and homocysteine in liver, which facilitates in-vivo methionine synthesis by utilising methyl groups from a single carbon pool. (wattagnet.com)
  • High-fat diet plus carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis is alleviated by betaine treatment in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Betaine improved adipose tissue function in mice fed a high-fat diet: a mechanism for hepatoprotective effect of betaine in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Since dietary betaine increased ApoB mRNA, VLDL ApoB and triacylglycerol production and decreased hepatic triacylglycerol, results suggest that induction of apob transcription may provide a potential mechanism for mobilizing hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing ApoB available for VLDL assembly and secretion. (biochemj.org)
  • Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increased water retention due to the osmolytic effect of betaine increases the volume of the cell, thereby increase the anabolic activity, integrity of cell membrane and overall performance of the bird. (wattagnet.com)
  • Several studies have related the effect of betaine to an ionophorous coccidiostat and the positive effect on broiler production. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Genotypes, nutrient levels, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) were assessed in 54 patients with spina bifida, 57 mothers of patients, 93 control children, and 86 mothers of controls. (cdc.gov)
  • There are only sparse data on plasma betaine as a determinant of the plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration. (uib.no)
  • We now report that insulin resistant humans have reduced plasma levels of N,N,N-trimethylglycine, or glycine betaine (hereafter referred to as betaine). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A number of microbes, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa , can utilize glycine betaine (GB) as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source ( 17 , 35 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Total plasma homocysteine concentrations were evaluated in a subset of 136 cases and 136 controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Methionine synthase is also essential for maintaining adequate intracellular folate pools and ensuring that homocysteine concentrations do not reach toxic levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inadequate dietary concentration of cysteine may affect the activity of betaine by reducing the concentrations of homocysteine for methionine formation. (wattagnet.com)
  • CONCLUSION: In addition to the DS-related excess of cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) activity, increases in the activities of MS and betaine homocysteine methyl transferase, and in methionine input were necessary to account for the changes in metabolite levels observed in DS. (duke.edu)
  • Homoserine converts to O -succinyl homoserine, which then reacts with cysteine to produce cystathionine, which is cleaved to yield homocysteine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys)(3)Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. (rcsb.org)
  • The postmethionine load (PML) increase in tHcy was inversely related to plasma betaine ( 0.29, P 0.02) and even more strongly to PML betaine ( 0.47, P 0.001). (uib.no)
  • After 3 months of intervention, the relation between the PML increase in tHcy and PML betaine was weakened ( 0.33, P 0.007). (uib.no)
  • Conclusions-Plasma betaine is a strong determinant of the PML increase in tHcy in subjects not supplemented with B-vitamins. (uib.no)
  • Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, Saarela J, Aro A (2004) The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. (springer.com)
  • Elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is an independent risk factor for vascular disease in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We investigated the effect of oral S-adenosylmethionine (400 mg) on plasma levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is the active form of folate in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, the demethylated product of S-adenosylmethionine, homocysteine and methionine over 24 hr in 14 healthy subjects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It was found that excess methionine reduces body weight induced by myocardial apoptosis, and betaine can be used to effectively lower plasma homocysteine levels. (mdpi.com)
  • We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 6 ) report that plasma betaine levels not only are associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study but also predict successful response to prevention strategies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both betaine intake and plasma levels are inversely correlated with several metabolic syndrome markers ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At baseline, median (interquartile range) plasma betaine was 36.9 mol/L (range: 30.3 to 46.8) and was increased by 15% after methionine loading. (uib.no)
  • This stimulation of betaine-dependent homocysteine re-methylation and the subsequent decrease in plasma homocysteine can be maintained as long as supplemental betaine is taken. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Plants have a unique additional reaction in which Met is S -methylated to yield S -methyl- L -methionine (SMM) by methionine S -methyltransferase (MMT, EC 2.1.1.12) [ 8 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Objective-Betaine is a substrate in the betaine- homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, converting homocysteine to methionine. (uib.no)
  • However, this reaction does not supply additional methionine to the cell, as the homocysteine is synthesised from methionine. (wattagnet.com)
  • Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a crucial role in methylation reactions. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Prominent among these unique renal-related risk factors are elevated levels of the putatively atherothrombotic sulfur amino acid homocysteine. (asnjournals.org)
  • Betaine is a modified amino acid found in many foods, with particularly high content in whole grains ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L -homocysteine levels. (biochemj.org)
  • Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. (biochemj.org)
  • Cobalamin deficiency is defined in terms of the serum values of cobalamin and of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, 2 components of the cobalamin metabolic pathway. (cmaj.ca)
  • Polymorphisms in methionine synthase reductase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase genes: risk of placental abruption. (cdc.gov)
  • FTSJ2 is a homologous protein of ribosomal RNA large subunit methyltransferase J (RrmJ) from bacteria. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • This inconsistency could be explained by the fact that age is a strong determinant of homocysteine in children and the QQ group was on average older than the other genotype groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine creates methionine, which donates the methyl group to methylate DNA, proteins, lipids, and other intracellular metabolites. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Owing to its dipolar zwitterion structure, betaine functions as a key intracellular osmolyte. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both cystathionine-γ-synthase and cystathionine-β-lyase require Pyridoxyl-5'-phosphate as a cofactor, whereas homocysteine methyltransferase requires Vitamin B 12 as a cofactor (Lehninger 2000). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The osmo-protective property of betaine may be due to the dipolar zwitterions and its high solubility in water. (wattagnet.com)
  • Betaine, being a dipolar zwitterion and highly soluble in water can function as an osmoregulator. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • The biosynthetic pathway proceeds from aspartate via homoserine and cystathionine to L -homocysteine (Hcy), whose thiol group is then methylated to give Met [ 7 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Betaine acts as a methyl donor and an osmolytes that assists in cellular water homeostasis. (wattagnet.com)
  • The cause of mild elevation of homocysteine in vascular disease has by no means been completely elucidated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, despite vitamin replacement being shown to normalize homocysteine levels, no evidence exists to date as to whether this will reduce the risk of further retinal vascular occlusion. (springer.com)
  • This case report supports existing literature in revealing how the interplay of genetic and nutritional defects can cause a pathological level of homocysteine with resultant vascular occlusion. (springer.com)
  • Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. (rcsb.org)
  • This case report reflects on how the interplay of genetic mutation and vitamin deficiency can cause a pathological level of homocysteine with resultant branch retinal artery occlusion in a young patient. (springer.com)
  • Barak AJ, Tuma DJ (1983) Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? (springer.com)
  • Betaine is well known for its ability to help cells tolerate osmotic stress and allows them to continue regular metabolic activities in conditions that would normally inactivate the cell. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • and as an allosteric inhibitor of methyleneTHF reductase that is crucial for MeTHF synthesis and therefore for homocysteine remethylation ( Jencks and Matthews, 1987 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Betaine contributes methyl groups for the synthesis of carnitine via S- adenosyl methionine. (wattagnet.com)
  • Betaine accumulation results in an increased water-binding capacity of the intestinal cells and it promotes changes in the structure of the gut epithelium that increase gut surface area. (wattagnet.com)
  • Betaine administration decreases homocysteine levels ( 11 ), a cardiovascular risk factor ( 12 ), and is used as treatment for homocysteinemia. (diabetesjournals.org)