An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides and this is the source of oil of jasmine.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.
The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.
Changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of MICROBIOTA. The changes may lead to altered host microbial interaction or homeostatic imbalance that can contribute to a disease state often with inflammation.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (1/30)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Genes for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043, USA. (2/30)

The genes involved in the oxidative pathway of choline to glycine betaine in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 were isolated by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli strain defective in glycine betaine synthesis. The cloned region was able to mediate the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine in E. coli, but not the transport of choline, indicating that the gene(s) involved in choline transport are not clustered with the glycine betaine synthesis genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 4.6 kb segment from the cloned DNA revealed the occurrence of three ORFs (betIBA) apparently arranged in an operon. The deduced betI gene product exhibited features typical for DNA-binding regulatory proteins. The deduced BetB and BetA proteins showed significant similarity to soluble glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases and membrane-bound choline dehydrogenases, respectively, from a variety of organisms. Evidence is presented that BetA is able to oxidize both choline and glycine betaine aldehyde and therefore can mediate both steps in the synthesis of glycine betaine.  (+info)

Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the NADP+- and NAD+-dependent reactions catalysed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (3/30)

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyses the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine with the concomitant reduction of NAD(P)(+) to NADP(H). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this reaction is a compulsory step in the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen when bacteria are growing in choline or choline precursors. The kinetic mechanisms of the NAD(+)- and NADP(+)-dependent reactions were examined by steady-state kinetic methods and by dinucleotide binding experiments. The double-reciprocal patterns obtained for initial velocity with NAD(P)(+) and for product and dead-end inhibition establish that both mechanisms are steady-state random. However, quantitative analysis of the inhibitions, and comparison with binding data, suggest a preferred route of addition of substrates and release of products in which NAD(P)(+) binds first and NAD(P)H leaves last, particularly in the NADP(+)-dependent reaction. Abortive binding of the dinucleotides, or their analogue ADP, in the betaine aldehyde site was inferred from total substrate inhibition by the dinucleotides, and parabolic inhibition by NADH and ADP. A weak partial uncompetitive substrate inhibition by the aldehyde was observed only in the NADP(+)-dependent reaction. The kinetics of P. aeruginosa BADH is very similar to that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that both enzymes fulfil a similar amphibolic metabolic role when the bacteria grow in choline and when they grow in glucose.  (+info)

Overproduction of spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. Structural and functional properties of wild-type, mutants and E. coli enzymes. (4/30)

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the last step in the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline. Although betaine aldehyde has been thought to be a specific substrate for BADH, recent studies have shown that human and sugar beet BADHs also catalyze the oxidation of omega-aminoaldehydes. To characterize the kinetic and stability properties of spinach BADH, five kinds of expression vectors encoding full length, mature, E103Q, E103K, and chimera BADHs were constructed. These enzymes together with Escherichia coli BADH were expressed in E. coli and purified. The affinities for betaine aldehyde were similar in the spinach and E. coli BADHs, whereas those for omega-aminoaldehydes were higher in spinach BADH than in E. coli BADH. A chimera BADH in which part of the Rossmann type fold in the spinach BADH was replaced with that of E. coli BADH, showed properties which resembled spinach BADH more than E. coli BADH. The spinach E103K mutant was almost inactive, whereas the E103Q mutant showed a similar activity for the oxidation of betaine aldehyde to that of wild type BADH, but a lower affinity for omega-aminoaldehydes. All spinach BADHs were dimers whereas E. coli BADH was a tetramer. E. coli BADH was more stable at high temperature than spinach BADHs. The E103Q mutant was most labile to high temperature. These properties are discussed in relation to the structure of spinach BADH.  (+info)

Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions. (5/30)

Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline-->betaine aldehyde-->glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. and Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42 degrees C), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4 degrees C), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.  (+info)

Modulation of the reactivity of the essential cysteine residue of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (6/30)

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyses the irreversible NAD(P)(+)-dependent oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. In the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa this reaction is an obligatory step in the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen when bacteria are growing in choline or choline precursors. As with every aldehyde dehydrogenase studied so far, BADH possesses an essential cysteine residue involved in the formation of the intermediate thiohemiacetal with the aldehyde substrate. We report here that the chemical modification of this residue is conveniently measured by the loss in enzyme activity, which allowed us to explore its reactivity in a pH range around neutrality. The pH dependence of the observed second-order rate constant of BADH inactivation by methyl methanethiosulphonate (MMTS) suggests that at low pH values the essential cysteine residue exists as thiolate by the formation of an ion pair with a positively charged residue. The estimated macroscopic pK values are 8.6 and 4.0 for the free and ion-pair-forming thiolate respectively. The reactivity towards MMTS of both thiolate forms is notably lower than that of model compounds of similar pK, suggesting a considerable steric inhibition by the structure of the protein. Binding of the dinucleotides rapidly induced a significant and transitory increment of thiolate reactivity, followed by a relatively slow change to an almost unreactive form. Thus it seems that to gain protection against oxidation without compromising catalytic efficiency, BADH from P. aeruginosa has evolved a complex and previously undescribed mechanism, involving several conformational rearrangements of the active site, to suit the reactivity of the essential thiol to the availability of coenzyme and substrate.  (+info)

Isolating the promoter of a stress-induced gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from the halophyte Atriplex centralasiatica Iljin. (7/30)

The betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (AcBADH) gene of the halophyte Atriplex centralasiatica Iljin is induced by drought, salinity, cold stress and abscisic acid, in parallel with an increase in betaine level. In order to study the molecular basis of its expression and to obtain an effective stress-induced promoter, the 5' flanking region of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (about 1.2 kb) was isolated from the halophyte A. centralasiatica Iljin by screening the genomic library. The transcription start site, which localized at 84 bases upstream of the start ATG, was determined by primer extension and 5'-RACE method. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the stress-induced gene regulation, the AcBADH promoter-beta-glucuronidase chimeric gene constructs containing six deletions were introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The AcBADH 5'-flanking region, a promoter strongly induced by salt stress, contains two salt-responsive enhancer regions localized between -1115 and -890, -462 and -230 and one silencer region between -890 and -641.  (+info)

The Sinorhizobium meliloti glycine betaine biosynthetic genes (betlCBA) are induced by choline and highly expressed in bacteroids. (8/30)

The symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti has the capacity to synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline-O-sulfate and choline. This pathway is encoded by the betICBA locus, which comprises a regulatory gene, betI, and three structural genes, betC (choline sulfatase), betB (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase), and betA (choline dehydrogenase). Here, we report that betICBA genes constitute a single operon, despite the existence of intergenic regions containing mosaic elements between betI and betC, and betB and betA. The regulation of the bet operon was investigated by using transcriptional lacZ (beta-galactosidase) fusions and has revealed a strong induction by choline at concentrations as low as 25 microM and to a lesser extent by choline-O-sulfate and acetylcholine but not by osmotic stress or oxygen. BetI is a repressor of the bet transcription in the absence of choline, and a nucleotide sequence of dyad symmetry upstream of betI was identified as a putative betI box. Measurements of intracellular pools of choline, well correlated with beta-galactosidase activities, strongly suggested that BetI senses the endogenous choline pool that modulates the intensity of BetI repression. In contrast to Escherichia coli, BetI did not repress choline transport. During symbiosis with Medicago sativa, S. meliloti bet gene expression was observed within the infection threads, in young and in mature nodules. The existence of free choline in nodule cytosol, peribacteroid space, and bacteroids was demonstrated, and the data suggest that bet regulation in planta is mediated by BetI repression, as in free-living cells. Neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were significantly impaired in a betI::omega mutant, indicating that glycine betaine biosynthesis from choline is not crucial for nodulation and nitrogen fixation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants. AU - Fitzgerald, T. L.. AU - Waters, D. L E. AU - Henry, R. J.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the target of substantial research, especially during the last 20 years. Initial characterisation of BADH as an enzyme involved in the production of glycine betaine (GB) has led to detailed studies of the role of BADH in the response of plants to abiotic stress in vivo, and the potential for transgenic expression of BADH to improve abiotic stress tolerance. These studies have, in turn, yielded significant information regarding BADH and GB function. Recent research has identified the potential for BADH as an antibiotic-free marker for selection of transgenic plants, and a major role for BADH in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-based fragrance associated with jasmine and basmati style aromatic rice varieties.. AB - Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the target of substantial ...
Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. A cDNA clone for BADH (1812 base pairs) was selected from a lambda gt10 cDNA library derived from leaves of salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to amino acid sequences of two peptides prepared from purified BADH. The authenticity of the clone was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis; this analysis demonstrated the presence of a 1491-base-pair open reading frame that contained sequences encoding 12 peptide fragments of BADH. The clone hybridized to a 1.9-kilobase mRNA from spinach leaves; this mRNA was more abundant in salt-stressed plants, consistent with the known salt induction of BADH activity. The amino acid ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2wme: Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Despite not accumulating glycine betaine, rice (Oryza sativa) possesses two genes encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8) (BADH1 and BADH2). A BADH2 allele which codes for a truncated BADH2 enzyme is responsible for the elevated level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) which gives Jasmine and Basmati style fragrant rices their distinct aroma. In this study the transcript levels of the genes which encode BADH1 and BADH2 were studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRTPCR) in multiple fragrant and non-fragrant rice varieties. In non-fragrant rices, BADH2 transcript levels were significantly higher than those of BADH1 in leaf and mature seed, whilst in developing seed BADH1 and BADH2 transcript levels were similar. This indicates that the loss of BADH2 activity due to the deletion in the gene in fragrant rice is likely to result in a significant reduction in total functional BADH. BADH2 transcript levels in non-fragrant rice varieties were significantly higher than the levels in
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is important enzyme which plays a dual role in cereals. It acts as an osmoprotectant and has an important role during abiotic stress. In addition it also influences the fragrance in rice. Therefore, this gene has both agronomical and breeding values. An 8pb deletion in exon 7 cause a premature termination codon in BADH2 resulting a mutate badh2 allele; which ultimately elevates the level of 2AP leading fragrance in fragrant rice (Bradbury et al., 2008). Unlike rice wheat is a hexaploid and has two BADH homologs i.e. BADH1 and BADH2. Our genomic data shows that there are three alleles for BADH homologs. One allele is present in the progenitors and these indicates that, these allele is inheritate from each of the progenitors during polyploidy in hexaploid wheat. Our data show that a total of 4 and 14 SNPs are present among the genomes in BADH2 and BADH1respectivly. Investigation on two different tissues (i.e. leaves and seeds), at two different time point (i.e. 14 DPA
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Betamore Fragrant Rice is an award-wining world class premium quality product which has won the National Best Rice for Fragrant Rice category. It is ISO 22000:2005 , HACCP, HALAL certified and the best-tasting low sugar fragrant rice in the market.
Fragrant Rice And Black-Eyed Pea Saute -Ww recipe: Try this Fragrant Rice And Black-Eyed Pea Saute -Ww recipe, or contribute your own.
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base pair deletion in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et al. (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD2) enzyme it encodes, resulting in the accumulation of the fragrant compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). We developed an easily assayed single functional polymorphism (SFP) marker to test for the presence of this deletion in rice germplasm and its association with grain fragrance. The SFP marker was assayed on all rice accessions in the USDA-ARS GRIN collection listed as being aromatic, as well as on all Basmati rice accessions, the entire USDA-ARS rice core collection, and elite US rice breeding materials being tested in the Uniform Regional Rice Nursery. The SFP marker, using one labeled forward and an unlabeled reverse primer spanning the ...
The positive charge of the quaternary nitrogen of the trimethylammonium group of BAL suggests that negatively charged active-site residues should be involved in conferring substrate specificity to plant BADHs, by analogy with other enzymes that bind this group (Quaye et al., 2008). In a first study with SoBADH, Glu-103, which is strictly conserved in the known plant ALDH10 enzymes, was thought to be this residue; when mutated to Gln, however, there were no changes in the kinetics with BAL as substrate and only a small negative effect on those with APAL and ABAL (Incharoensakdi et al., 2000). The crystal structure of the spinach enzyme reported here explains these results: the side chain carboxylic group of Glu-103 is far from the aldehyde tunnel (Supplemental Fig. S3). ALDH10 enzymes also have two conserved Asp residues (Asp-107 and Asp-110; SoBADH numbering) whose carboxyl groups are exposed, or partially exposed in the case of Asp-107, to the solvent filling the aldehyde tunnel. The ...
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine ...
This MassBank Record with Accession PB001483 contains the MS2 mass spectrum of trimethyl-(2-oxoethyl)azanium with the compound class Natural Product. The mass spectrum was acquired on a LC-ESI-QQ with POSITIVE ionisation with the collision energy 20 eV at a resolution of null and has the SPLASH splash10-0pb9-9400000000-f6a6158eae2887c8c1b6.
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Glycinebetaine is an important non-toxic osmoprotectant, which is accumulated in higher plants under various stresses. The biosynthesis of glycinebetaine achieved via is a two-step oxidation from choline and betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), respectively. Up-regulated gene expression of BADH and CMO induced by stress is clearly observed, but the signal transduction is poorly understood. Here, glycinebetaine accumulation in response to osmotic stress and growth recovery induced by exogenous glycinebetaine were observed in a watermelon cell line. When tracing back to the genome sequence of watermelon, it shows that there exists only one member of ClCMO or ClBADH corresponding to glycinebetaine biosynthesis. Both genes harbor a CGTCA-motif in their promoter region which is involved in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-responsiveness. Amongst MeJA, Ethephon, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA), MeJA was most effective in gene inducing the
Grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. We have identified several (a)biotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in Amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called Ah24 gene. Ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. Interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region showed a predominance of regulatory boxes involved in development, but not in defense. The Ah24 cDNA encodes a predicted cytosolic protein of 164 amino acids, the localization of which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Additional in silico analysis identified several other Ah24 homologs, present almost exclusively in plants belonging to the Caryophyllales. The possible function of this gene in planta was examined in transgenic Ah24 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Transformed
bacteria OpuC protein: mediates the uptake of choline for biosynthesis of osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis; amino sequence in first source
Fragrant rice has a potent flavor compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). A better understanding of the 2AP biosynthetic pathway is gained by proteomic analysis of two isogenic lines of Thai jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. Khao Dawk Mali 105, which differ only in the aromatic gene Os2AP. The protein profiles of two lines, from six growth stages, seedling to grain filling, had 41 identifiable prote ...
特种稻是一类具有特殊遗传性状和用途的水稻品种,目前已成为杂交水稻育种的一个重要方向,选择和利用不同来源特种稻种质资源并对其特殊性状基因型进行鉴定和遗传特性分析,对进一步促进特种稻的遗传改良及新品种的选育具有重要意义。本研究利用特异性分子标记InDel-E2、FMbadh2-E7、CAPSRa和CAPS-Ra以及自主开发设计的特异性功能标记FMbadh2-E2、FMbadh2-E7A、FMbadh2-E7B、Ra-CAPS1和Ra-CAPS2并结合基因克隆和测序技术对来自不同地区的32份优质香型水稻亲本材料的香味基因和8份黑米水稻品种的黑色种皮基因进行了基因型鉴定和分析。研究发现,在32份香型水稻材料中,有28份香味性状来源于水稻第8号染色体上编码甜菜碱脱氢酶基因Badh2的功能缺失突变,且为常见的badh2-E7等位突变类型,其在Badh2基因第7外显子处发生8-bp缺失和3个单核苷酸(SNPs)位点多态性突变;2份
Ceaiul de podbal este un excelent tratament naturist pentru tuse (fie ea seaca sau nu) si, totodata, pentru mai toate bolile pulmonare. Iata cum trebuie sa il beti pentru a avea parte de efecte maxime
This study presents an in-depth survey of the genetic diversity of the BADH2 gene in a large panel of genetically and geographically diverse rice germplasm from across Asia. Fragrant accessions carrying the badh2.1 allele exhibited a dramatic reduction in nucleotide diversity (97%) and elevated linkage disequilibrium around the gene compared to nonfragrant accessions, consistent with strong positive selection for the badh2.1 allele. The intensity of selection on the badh2.1 allele was similar to reports from other rice genes controlling grain morphology traits (i.e., wx, rc, gs3) (26-28).. Haplotype analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the badh2.1 allele arose in the genetic background of the Japonica varietal group. Extended haplotype analysis revealed a clear introgression of a Japonica genomic region encompassing the badh2.1 allele in all fragrant indica accessions, including Jasmine varieties. All fragrant indica also possessed three polymorphisms flanking the badh2.1 allele that were ...
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Hassler, M. 2019. Amaranthus graecizans. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug. 19. Reference page ...
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This section describes the Planning and Evaluation Core. The overall goal ofthe Planning and Evaluation Core is to monitor the progress ofthe collaboration in m...
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a group of enzymes that detoxify aldehydes by facilitating their oxidation to carboxylic acids, and have been shown to play roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. However, the comprehensive analysis of ALDH superfamily in soybean (Glycine max) has been limited. In present study, a total of 53 GmALDHs were identified in soybean, and grouped into 10 ALDH families according to the ALDH Gene Nomenclature Committee and phylogenetic analysis. These groupings were supported by their gene structures and conserved motifs. Soybean ALDH superfamily expanded mainly by whole genome duplication/segmental duplications. Gene network analysis identified 1146 putative co-functional genes of 51 GmALDHs. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested the co-functional genes of these 51 GmALDHs were enriched (FDR < 1e-3) in the process of lipid metabolism, photosynthesis, proline catabolism, and small molecule catabolism. In addition, 22 co-functional genes of GmALDHs are
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms influence susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics. AU - Yokoyama, Akira. AU - Muramatsu, Taro. AU - Omori, Tai. AU - Matsushita, Sachio. AU - Yoshimizu, Haruko. AU - Higuchi, Susumu. AU - Yokoyama, Tetsuji. AU - Maruyama, Katsuya. AU - Ishii, Hiromasa. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - Background: Studies have consistently demonstrated that inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by ALDH2*1/2*2, is closely associated with alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Recently, the contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) polymorphism to alcoholism, esophageal cancer, and the flushing response have also been described. Methods: To determine the effects of ALDH2 and ADH2 genotypes in genetically based cancer susceptibility, lymphocyte DNA samples from 668 Japanese alcoholic men more than 40 years of age (91 with and 577 without esophageal cancer) were genotyped and the results were expressed as odds ratios ...
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The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
Put TMG in your beverages. When they refine sugar from sugar beets, one of the things they remove from the sugar is TMG, which can be purchased as a food supplement and easily mixed into juice or milk. If the TMG is used properly in small amounts, no one can taste it ...
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31. Amaranthus polygonoides Linnaeus, Pl. Jamaic. Pug. 27. 1759. Smartweed amaranth, tropical amaranth Amaranthus berlandieri (Moquin-Tandon) Uline & W. L. Bray. Plants annual, glabrescent proximally, pubescent distally, becoming glabrous at maturity. Stems erect-ascending to pro-strate, branched mostly at base and in proximal 1/2, 0.1-0.5 m. Leaves: petiole ± equaling blade; blade ovate, obovate-rhombic to narrowly ovate, sometimes lanceolate, 1.5-3(-4) × 0.5-1.5(-2) cm, base cuneate, margins entire to undulate-erose, apex rounded, obtuse, or emarginate, mucronate. Inflorescences axillary, congested clusters. Bracts of pistillate flowers lanceolate or linear, 1-1.5 mm, 1/2 as long as tepals. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, connate in proximal 1/3 (entirely distinct in all other species), with 3 prominent veins abaxially, spatulate or somewhat clawed, equal or subequal, 2-3 mm, apex rounded or retuse, mucronate; style branches somewhat spreading; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers intermixed with ...
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Or ALDH, this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ethanal the breakdown prod...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: N315; locus tag: SA2234 (SA_RS12830); symbol: opuCD; product: glycine betaine/carnitine/choline ABC transporter opuCD
In this study, we reported the expression of the S. meliloti betS gene in B. japonicum USDA110 and addressed the question of possible accumulation and role of glycine betaine in transformed cells submitted to salt stress. B. japonicum is one of the most salt-sensitive rhizobia and possesses neither high-affinity uptake systems for betaines or choline nor the choline-glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway (3). These deficiencies were the rationale to install the betaine transport activity. Analysis of the B. japonicum transformed cells revealed strong glycine betaine and proline betaine uptake activities in an osmotically stimulated manner. It is also noteworthy that the stimulated BetS-mediated glycine betaine transport in B. japonicum leads to a large accumulation of this compatible solute, up to 240 mM, which is not used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, in contrast to many other members of the family Rhizobiaceae. Genetic engineering has also proved fruitful in the freshwater cyanobacterium ...
Looking for online definition of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 in the Medical Dictionary? Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 explanation free. What is Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1? Meaning of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 medical term. What does Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 mean?
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH1B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. This encoded protein, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. The human gene is located on chromosome 4 in 4q22. Previously ADH1B was called ADH2. There are more genes in the family of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. These genes are now referred to as ADH1A, ADH1C, and ADH4, ADH5, ADH6 and ADH7. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ADH1B is rs1229984, that changes arginine to histidine at residue 47. The ...
NCT 501 (CAS: 1802088-50-1)is a potent and selective theophylline-based inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), inhibits hALDH1A1 with IC50 of 40 nM, typically shows better selectivity over other ALDH isozymes and other dehydrogenases (hALDH1B1
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There are 2 kinds of spinach: the common, most familiar kind which is a hardy annual, and the lesser known New Zealand spinach, which is a tender annual (and
A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline in
This is oxidized by mitochondrial or cytosolic betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenases to trimethylglycine. Trimethylglycine is a ... In humans, choline is oxidized irreversibly in liver mitochondria to glycine betaine aldehyde by choline oxidases. ... April 2019). "Dietary choline and betaine intakes and risk of total and lethal prostate cancer in the Atherosclerosis Risk in ... Zeisel SH, Mar MH, Howe JC, Holden JM (May 2003). "Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods ...
... rice domesticate that suffered a deletion in exon 7 and as a result sequence coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH2) ...
Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC ... In humans betaine aldehyde activity is performed by a nonspecific cystosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme (EC 1.2.1.3) TMG is ... "BRENDA - Information on EC 1.2.1.8 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase". Brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2016-07-07. Chern, M. K.; ... In most organisms, glycine betaine is biosynthesized by oxidation of choline in two steps. The intermediate, betaine aldehyde, ...
In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde ... Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and BetB. This enzyme ... ROTHSCHILD HA, BARRON ES (1954). "The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 209 (2 ... Eklund H; El-Ahmad, M; Ramaswamy, S; Hjelmqvist, L; Jörnvall, H; Eklund, H (1998). "Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine ... aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde and ... Glycine betaine aldehyde, often simply called betaine aldehyde, is an intermediate in the metabolism of glycine, serine and ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ...
... betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline and acceptor, whereas its two products ... are betaine aldehyde and reduced acceptor. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on ... In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ...
aldehyde dehydrogenase NAD(P)+ Ja 1.2.1.8 betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Ja 1.2.1.12 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( ... oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) Ja 1.2.4.4 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl- ... L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.1.15 D-iditol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. D-sorbose + NADH + H+ D-iditol 2- ... Aldehyde of keton + NADH + H+ Alcoholdehydrogenase (NAD+) Ja 1.1.1.2 Alcohol + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. ...
... benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.515 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.562 ... aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.249.750 - omega-crystallins MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.311 - aldehyde oxidase ... malate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.748 - malate dehydrogenase (nadp+) MeSH D08.811.682.047.892 - xanthine dehydrogenase ... acetoin dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.070 - alcohol dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150 - carbohydrate dehydrogenases ...
PheA uses a simple dehydrogenase to convert prephenate to phenylpyruvate, while TyrA uses a NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to make ... His4 catalyzes the oxidation of L-histidinol to form L-histidinal, an amino aldehyde. In the last step, L-histidinal is ... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) Methionine biosynthesis ... Relevant enzymes include aspartokinase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, homoserine dehydrogenase, homoserine O- ...
Alcohol dehydrogenase. *Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase. *Aldehyde oxidase. *Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/ ... Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. *Bile acid:sodium symporter. *Biliverdin reductase. *Biotin attachment domain ...
Young, W.; Hartung, W.; Crossley, F. (1936). "Reduction of Aldehydes with Aluminum Isopropoxide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58: 100-2. ... Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver,[31] and has a biological half-life in ... Furthermore, there is no indication for the use of fomepizole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, unless co-ingestion with ...
In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde ... Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and BetB. This enzyme ... ROTHSCHILD HA, BARRON ES (1954). "The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 209 (2 ... Eklund H; El-Ahmad, M; Ramaswamy, S; Hjelmqvist, L; Jörnvall, H; Eklund, H (1998). "Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
GO:0008802 betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016620 oxidoreductase activity, ... GO:0019285 glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process ... acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor GO:0046872 metal ion binding ...
BETAINE ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE. A, B, D, F, G, H. 490. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 1.2.1.8. ... BETAINE ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE. C, E. 490. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 1.2.1.8. ... Crystallographic structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2WME/pdb ... In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the NAD(P)(+)-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (PaBADH) may play the dual ...
In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear- ... Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought. E A ... Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought ... Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought ...
Catalyzes the reversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to the corresponding acid. ... Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betB). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST. 490. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ...
Catalyzes the reversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to the corresponding acid. ... Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betB). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST. 487. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ...
1.65 Angstrom resolution crystal structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betB) from Staphylococcus aureus with BME- ... Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. A, B, C, D. 520. Staphylococcus aureus (strain COL). Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: betB. EC: 1.2. ... employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative ... betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary ...
... betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O ightleftharpoons betaine + NADH + 2 H+The 3 substrates of this enzyme are betaine aldehyde, NAD+ ... a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC number,1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: ... Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase. In enzymology. , a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC number,1.2.1.8) is an enzyme. that ... Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and BetB. This enzyme ...
What is betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase? Meaning of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase medical term. What does betaine-aldehyde ... Looking for online definition of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase in the Medical Dictionary? betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase ... medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/betaine-aldehyde+dehydrogenase,betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase,/a,. *Facebook ... Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase , definition of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is an important enzyme which has dual roles in cereals influencing abiotic stress ... Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is an important enzyme which has dual roles in cereals influencing abiotic stress ... Shrestha, K 2011, Analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase encoding genes in wheat, MSc thesis, Southern Cross University, ...
The biosynthesis of GB in the plant involved betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) as a key enzyme, which also increased as the ... Accumulation of Glycinebetaine and Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Clone T5 Under in vitro ... inproceedings{Sithtisarn2010AccumulationOG, title={Accumulation of Glycinebetaine and Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity ...
title = "Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants",. abstract = "Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the ... Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase ... Fitzgerald, T. L., Waters, D. L. E., & Henry, R. J. (2009). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants. Plant Biology, 11(2), 119 ... Fitzgerald, T. L. ; Waters, D. L E ; Henry, R. J. / Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants. In: Plant Biology. 2009 ; Vol. 11 ...
You searched for: Subject betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Remove constraint Subject: betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Subject ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; aldehyde dehydrogenase; aluminum; betaine; cortex; dose response; enzyme activity; gene ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; Pandanus amaryllifolius; catalytic activity; genes; leaves; models; odors; rice; roots; ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; adulterated products; genes; genetic markers; polymerase chain reaction; rapid methods; ...
You searched for: Subject betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Remove constraint Subject: betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Subject ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; aldehyde dehydrogenase; aluminum; betaine; cortex; dose response; enzyme activity; gene ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; Oryza sativa; betaine; diamine oxidase; enzyme activity; gamma-aminobutyric acid; ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; Oryza sativa; RNA interference; betaine; biosynthesis; cold stress; drought; enzyme ...
Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa ... The binding sites of Potassium atom in the structure of Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From ... Potassium in the structure of Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (pdb ...
Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase. BBDOX. γ-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. ETC. Electron transport chain. HDL. High-density ... Zatta P, Lain E, Cagnolini C. Effects of aluminum on activity of Krebs cycle enzymes and glutamate dehydrogenase in rat brain ... Aluminum triggers decreased aconitase activity via Fe-S cluster disruption and the overexpression of isocitrate dehydrogenase ...
... betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase and 2-oxoaldehyde dehydrogenase. Academic Article * ... betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, also known as ALDH9, is able to catalyze the oxidation of MeG to pyruvate, although less ... efficiently than with its substrate betaine aldehyde; (4) the long-known but not widely studied 2-oxoaldehyde dehydrogenases (2 ... catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide range of aldehydes. MeG is the best of the known physiological aldehyde ...
... aureus COL has betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and is structurally similar to aldehyde dehydrogenases. ... PDB references: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, 4mpb; complex with NAD+, 4mpy; complex with NAD+ with BME-free Cys289, 4nea; ... Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde de-hydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus. A. S. Halavaty, R. L. Rich, C ... The purified putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early methicillin-resistant S. ...
... regulatory region of Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isoenzymes of selected monocot and dicot ... Li, G., Wu, H., Sun, Y. and Zhang, S. "Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (BADH) Expression and Betaine Production in Sugarbeet ... In-silico identification of cis- acting regulatory elements in 5 regulatory region of Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ... Biotic and abiotic stress, Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), Cis-acting regulatory elements, Cellular development, ...
An isozyme of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in barley.. Nakamura T, Nomura M, Mori H, Jagendorf AT, Ueda A, Takabe T. ...
BetB is betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. BetI is the transcriptional repressor of the betABI locus. GbcA and GbcB are the ... Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the NADP+- and NAD+-dependent reactions catalysed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from ... Rapid purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 181:1292-1300. ... Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855. ...
ALDH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; BALDH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GGSALDH, ... and exaC have been characterized as betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases, methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and ... Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the NADP+- and NAD+-dependent reactions catalysed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from ... Kinetics and specificity of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenases toward aliphatic, aromatic, and fused polycyclic aldehydes. ...
... glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis ... glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis ... to betaine aldehyde, and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase converts this product to betaine. ... Fitzgerald, T. L., Waters, D. L. E., and Henry, R. J. (2009). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants. Plant Biol. 11, 119-130 ...
Wood, A. J., Saneoka, H., Rhodes, D., Joly, R. J., & Goldsbrough, P. B. (1996). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum. ... Petřivalský, M., Brauner, F., Luhová, L., Gagneul, D., & Šebela, M. (2007). Aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase activity during wound ...
... betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine ... 2001) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two kinds of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase in betaine-accumulating ... 1992) Salt-inducible betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from sugar beet: cDNA cloning and expression. Plant Mol Biol 18: 1-11. ... 2011) Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis with different sub-cellular localization affect stress responses. ...
Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ... Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ... Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ... Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ...
Choline dehydrogenase. betB. 1.7 (2.1). 2.5 (3.5). 1.6 (2.7). 2.4 (2.8). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. ... Subunit of betaine transporter. *. ↵a Profile A, 1- and 3-hour-postinduction transcript profile for the inactive-pathway ... Proline/betaine MFS transporter. proV. −2.3 (−2.2). −1.7 (−2.6). ...
Choline dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.99.1); 24. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.8); 25. Betaine reductase (E.C. 1.21.4.4) ... using betaine reductase. P. mirabilis was the only taxon found to possess putative BSPs encoding ergothionase, which catalyzes ... Meyer, M., Granderath, K., and Andreesen, J. R. (1995). Purification and characterization of protein PB of betaine reductase ... betaine reductase, spermidine synthase, and spermine synthase (Table S1) were obtained from GenBank and used in a stand-alone ...
Publications] Nakamura, T.et al.: Expression of a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in rice,a glycinebetaing nonaccumulator, ... Publications] Trossat, C.B.et al.: Transgenically expressed betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase efficiently catalyzes oxidation of ... Publications] Vojtechova, E.et al.: Betaine akdehyde dehydrogenase from amaranth leaves efficiently catalyzes the NAD- ... Publications] NoIte, K.D.et al.: Proline accumulation and methylation of proline to proline betaine in Citrus : Implications ...
  • Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and BetB. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. (pnas.org)
  • The amino acid sequence deduced from the BADH cDNA sequence showed substantial similarities to those for nonspecific aldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 1.2.1.3 and EC 1.2.1.5) from several sources, including absolute conservation of a decapeptide in the probable active site. (pnas.org)
  • Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is an important enzyme which has dual roles in cereals influencing abiotic stress tolerance and rice fragrance. (edu.au)
  • Initial characterisation of BADH as an enzyme involved in the production of glycine betaine (GB) has led to detailed studies of the role of BADH in the response of plants to abiotic stress in vivo, and the potential for transgenic expression of BADH to improve abiotic stress tolerance. (edu.au)
  • Phylogenetically, the Cp- and Ath-ALDH3 and -ALDH4 proteins are closely related to aldehyde dehydrogenases from bacteria and mammalian species and are separated from known plant ALDHs and betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADH). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this study, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ( badh ) is used as both an abiotic stress marker gene and one of the abiotic stress tolerance candidate genes along with Flavodoxin ( fld ) in construction of chloroplast vector for rice. (ac.ir)
  • Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step is to oxidize choline with the enzyme choline dehydrogenase to produce betaine aldehyde. (xtend-life.com)
  • In plants, the reaction is catalysed by this enzyme whereas in animals and many bacteria it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC 1.1.99.1 (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC 1.1.3.17 (choline oxidase) [7]. (genome.jp)
  • a soluble choline oxidase can carry out both steps of choline oxidation ( 16 ), while in E. coli and other bacteria, a membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase is primarily responsible for oxidation to the aldehyde, which is further oxidized by a soluble betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ( 3 , 4 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Gene cloning indicated that the HDH is part of the group X aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, which is distributed among bacteria, although the physiological roles of the ALDH family remain unknown. (asm.org)
  • Fragrance in the grain is one of the most highly valued grain quality traits in rice, yet the origin and evolution of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ( BADH2 ) underlying this trait remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. (biochemj.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of subfamily 7 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. (thermofisher.com)
  • In order to identify genes that are critical for the ABA-dependent stress response in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum , a gene was isolated with homology to class 3 variable substrate aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The collection of expressed sequences involved ribosomal proteins, members of the oxylase/oxygenase gene family, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, Dc3 promoter-binding factor, a putative member of the nodulin family, glutathione-S-transferase and proteins with unknown functions. (cef-cfr.ca)
  • Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P) + -dependent enzymes that catalyse irreversible oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids. (biochemj.org)
  • These enzymes are thought to play a major role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. (thermofisher.com)
  • As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymes from central carbon metabolism such as putative acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, isocitrate lyase, and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase changed dramatically in the degree of phosphorylation during the stationary phase, suggesting metabolic rearrangement for the reutilization of substrates and the production of polyketide precursors. (mcponline.org)
  • Catalyzes the reversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to the corresponding acid. (uniprot.org)
  • In Arthrobacter globiformis , DMG demethylation to sarcosine is catalyzed by a DMG oxidase with similarity to eukaryotic DMG dehydrogenases ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Betaine aldehyde oxidase. (expasy.org)
  • An alternative metabolic route for choline is oxidation to betaine, catalyzed by the sequential action of choline oxidase (EC 1.1.3.17 ) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that is known for its important role in oxidation and detoxification of ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. (hindawi.com)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde, an intermediate of ethanol metabolism [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular analysis of two closely related mouse aldehyde dehydrogenase genes: identification of a role for Aldh1, but not Aldh-pb, in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. (uniprot.org)
  • Here we found that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produced NAD + - or NADP + -dependent hydrazone dehydrogenase (HDH), which converts hydrazones to the corresponding hydrazides and acids rather than to the simple hydrolytic product aldehydes. (asm.org)
  • Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as the cofactor. (rcsb.org)
  • In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } betaine + NADH + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are betaine aldehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are betaine, NADH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine aldehyde + NAD + + H 2 O = betaine + NADH. (uniprot.org)
  • The 3 substrates of this enzyme are betaine aldehyde , NAD + , and H 2 O , whereas its 3 products are betaine , NADH , and H + . (academic.ru)
  • Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (asm.org)
  • A number of microbes, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa , can utilize glycine betaine (GB) as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source ( 17 , 35 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • For example, the demethylation of GB to form DMG has been hypothesized to occur via a betaine homocysteine methyltransferase in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas denitrificans based on measurements of enzyme activity in cell extracts ( 35 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Methylglyoxal metabolism and diabetic complications: roles of aldose reductase, glyoxalase-I, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase and 2-oxoaldehyde dehydrogenase. (unm.edu)
  • At least four pathways contribute to detoxification of MeG: (1) aldose reductase, a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide range of aldehydes. (unm.edu)
  • MeG is the best of the known physiological aldehyde substrates of aldose reductase. (unm.edu)
  • Other dietary sources of glycine betaine include grains and spinach. (xtend-life.com)
  • An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pseudomonasaeruginosa uses choline as a source of carbon and nitrogen, and also for the synthesis of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant under stress conditions such as drought and salinity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.10) plays a key role in the acetaldehyde detoxification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity as the rate-limiting factor for acetaldehyde metabolism in rat liver. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. (rcsb.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. (biochemj.org)
  • Supplementation of betaine and homocysteine also stimulated PC biosynthesis and enhanced hepatic VLDL secretion. (ubc.ca)
  • ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, ALDH2 is important for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes such as 4-HNE and acrolein [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ALDH2 may be one of the essential mechanisms for the removal of these reactive aldehydes and protecting cells and organs from these toxic aldehydes. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycine betaine aldehyde, often simply called betaine aldehyde, is an intermediate in the metabolism of glycine, serine and threonine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycine betaine aldehyde is a component of glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The betaine-dependent homocysteine remethylation in this way connects betaine to the metabolism and function of folates, homocysteine, and methionine. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Metabolism of choline, betaine, and DMG. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Endogenous aldehydes are generated during the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and vitamins as well as the biotransformation of many drugs and environmental chemicals [ 10 , 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metabolism Draws on Glutaminolysis, and Stemness Is Specifically Regulated by Glutaminolysis via Aldehyde Dehydrogenase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the target of substantial research, especially during the last 20 years. (edu.au)
  • The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 1. Davison, D.C. Studies on plant formic dehydrogenase. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the detoxification of harmful aldehydes generated endogenously or ingested from environment and foods is an important role of ALDHs. (hindawi.com)
  • As shown in Figure 14.4, choline catabolism involves two oxidation reactions to form betaine (trimethylglycine), followed by three successive deme-thylations. (doctorabel.us)
  • glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. (hmdb.ca)
  • 4-HNE is an α , β -unsaturated aldehyde formed during lipid peroxidation in vivo [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Betaine, in turn, is the methyl donor and DMG a product of the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.5 ). (aaccjnls.org)
  • In many bacteria, plants and animals, betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. (genome.jp)
  • The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8 (betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase), appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. (genome.jp)
  • In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC 2.1.1.156 (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC 2.1.1.157 (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase). (genome.jp)
  • Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde and quaternary ammonium compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quaternary ammonium compounds, choline and betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) reside along a metabolic pathway linked to the synthesis of neurotransmitters and membrane phospholipids and to homocysteine remethylation and, therefore, folate status. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The quaternary ammonium compounds, choline and betaine, and N,N -dimethylglycine (DMG), 1 have a variety of biological effects and are closely connected metabolically. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The fasting plasma concentrations (median, 25th-75th percentiles) were 8.0 (7.0-9.3) μmol/L for choline, 31.7 (27.0-41.1) μmol/L for betaine, and 1.66 (1.30-2.02) μmol/L for DMG in 60 healthy blood donors. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Aldehydes, which are highly reactive molecules, are toxic at high concentrations. (biochemj.org)
  • On the other hand, aldehydes are highly reactive compounds, which can form adducts with proteins, DNA, and lipids, affecting the function of these biomolecules and leading to cell toxicity. (hindawi.com)