Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Choline Dehydrogenase: An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.Atriplex: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Jasminum: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides and this is the source of oil of jasmine.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Isobutyrates: Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Megasphaera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.Dysbiosis: Changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of MICROBIOTA. The changes may lead to altered host microbial interaction or homeostatic imbalance that can contribute to a disease state often with inflammation.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (1/30)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Genes for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043, USA. (2/30)

The genes involved in the oxidative pathway of choline to glycine betaine in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 were isolated by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli strain defective in glycine betaine synthesis. The cloned region was able to mediate the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine in E. coli, but not the transport of choline, indicating that the gene(s) involved in choline transport are not clustered with the glycine betaine synthesis genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 4.6 kb segment from the cloned DNA revealed the occurrence of three ORFs (betIBA) apparently arranged in an operon. The deduced betI gene product exhibited features typical for DNA-binding regulatory proteins. The deduced BetB and BetA proteins showed significant similarity to soluble glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases and membrane-bound choline dehydrogenases, respectively, from a variety of organisms. Evidence is presented that BetA is able to oxidize both choline and glycine betaine aldehyde and therefore can mediate both steps in the synthesis of glycine betaine.  (+info)

Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the NADP+- and NAD+-dependent reactions catalysed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (3/30)

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyses the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine with the concomitant reduction of NAD(P)(+) to NADP(H). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this reaction is a compulsory step in the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen when bacteria are growing in choline or choline precursors. The kinetic mechanisms of the NAD(+)- and NADP(+)-dependent reactions were examined by steady-state kinetic methods and by dinucleotide binding experiments. The double-reciprocal patterns obtained for initial velocity with NAD(P)(+) and for product and dead-end inhibition establish that both mechanisms are steady-state random. However, quantitative analysis of the inhibitions, and comparison with binding data, suggest a preferred route of addition of substrates and release of products in which NAD(P)(+) binds first and NAD(P)H leaves last, particularly in the NADP(+)-dependent reaction. Abortive binding of the dinucleotides, or their analogue ADP, in the betaine aldehyde site was inferred from total substrate inhibition by the dinucleotides, and parabolic inhibition by NADH and ADP. A weak partial uncompetitive substrate inhibition by the aldehyde was observed only in the NADP(+)-dependent reaction. The kinetics of P. aeruginosa BADH is very similar to that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that both enzymes fulfil a similar amphibolic metabolic role when the bacteria grow in choline and when they grow in glucose.  (+info)

Overproduction of spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. Structural and functional properties of wild-type, mutants and E. coli enzymes. (4/30)

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the last step in the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline. Although betaine aldehyde has been thought to be a specific substrate for BADH, recent studies have shown that human and sugar beet BADHs also catalyze the oxidation of omega-aminoaldehydes. To characterize the kinetic and stability properties of spinach BADH, five kinds of expression vectors encoding full length, mature, E103Q, E103K, and chimera BADHs were constructed. These enzymes together with Escherichia coli BADH were expressed in E. coli and purified. The affinities for betaine aldehyde were similar in the spinach and E. coli BADHs, whereas those for omega-aminoaldehydes were higher in spinach BADH than in E. coli BADH. A chimera BADH in which part of the Rossmann type fold in the spinach BADH was replaced with that of E. coli BADH, showed properties which resembled spinach BADH more than E. coli BADH. The spinach E103K mutant was almost inactive, whereas the E103Q mutant showed a similar activity for the oxidation of betaine aldehyde to that of wild type BADH, but a lower affinity for omega-aminoaldehydes. All spinach BADHs were dimers whereas E. coli BADH was a tetramer. E. coli BADH was more stable at high temperature than spinach BADHs. The E103Q mutant was most labile to high temperature. These properties are discussed in relation to the structure of spinach BADH.  (+info)

Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions. (5/30)

Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline-->betaine aldehyde-->glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. and Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42 degrees C), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4 degrees C), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.  (+info)

Modulation of the reactivity of the essential cysteine residue of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (6/30)

Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyses the irreversible NAD(P)(+)-dependent oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. In the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa this reaction is an obligatory step in the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen when bacteria are growing in choline or choline precursors. As with every aldehyde dehydrogenase studied so far, BADH possesses an essential cysteine residue involved in the formation of the intermediate thiohemiacetal with the aldehyde substrate. We report here that the chemical modification of this residue is conveniently measured by the loss in enzyme activity, which allowed us to explore its reactivity in a pH range around neutrality. The pH dependence of the observed second-order rate constant of BADH inactivation by methyl methanethiosulphonate (MMTS) suggests that at low pH values the essential cysteine residue exists as thiolate by the formation of an ion pair with a positively charged residue. The estimated macroscopic pK values are 8.6 and 4.0 for the free and ion-pair-forming thiolate respectively. The reactivity towards MMTS of both thiolate forms is notably lower than that of model compounds of similar pK, suggesting a considerable steric inhibition by the structure of the protein. Binding of the dinucleotides rapidly induced a significant and transitory increment of thiolate reactivity, followed by a relatively slow change to an almost unreactive form. Thus it seems that to gain protection against oxidation without compromising catalytic efficiency, BADH from P. aeruginosa has evolved a complex and previously undescribed mechanism, involving several conformational rearrangements of the active site, to suit the reactivity of the essential thiol to the availability of coenzyme and substrate.  (+info)

Isolating the promoter of a stress-induced gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from the halophyte Atriplex centralasiatica Iljin. (7/30)

The betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (AcBADH) gene of the halophyte Atriplex centralasiatica Iljin is induced by drought, salinity, cold stress and abscisic acid, in parallel with an increase in betaine level. In order to study the molecular basis of its expression and to obtain an effective stress-induced promoter, the 5' flanking region of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (about 1.2 kb) was isolated from the halophyte A. centralasiatica Iljin by screening the genomic library. The transcription start site, which localized at 84 bases upstream of the start ATG, was determined by primer extension and 5'-RACE method. To investigate the molecular mechanism of the stress-induced gene regulation, the AcBADH promoter-beta-glucuronidase chimeric gene constructs containing six deletions were introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The AcBADH 5'-flanking region, a promoter strongly induced by salt stress, contains two salt-responsive enhancer regions localized between -1115 and -890, -462 and -230 and one silencer region between -890 and -641.  (+info)

The Sinorhizobium meliloti glycine betaine biosynthetic genes (betlCBA) are induced by choline and highly expressed in bacteroids. (8/30)

The symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti has the capacity to synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline-O-sulfate and choline. This pathway is encoded by the betICBA locus, which comprises a regulatory gene, betI, and three structural genes, betC (choline sulfatase), betB (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase), and betA (choline dehydrogenase). Here, we report that betICBA genes constitute a single operon, despite the existence of intergenic regions containing mosaic elements between betI and betC, and betB and betA. The regulation of the bet operon was investigated by using transcriptional lacZ (beta-galactosidase) fusions and has revealed a strong induction by choline at concentrations as low as 25 microM and to a lesser extent by choline-O-sulfate and acetylcholine but not by osmotic stress or oxygen. BetI is a repressor of the bet transcription in the absence of choline, and a nucleotide sequence of dyad symmetry upstream of betI was identified as a putative betI box. Measurements of intracellular pools of choline, well correlated with beta-galactosidase activities, strongly suggested that BetI senses the endogenous choline pool that modulates the intensity of BetI repression. In contrast to Escherichia coli, BetI did not repress choline transport. During symbiosis with Medicago sativa, S. meliloti bet gene expression was observed within the infection threads, in young and in mature nodules. The existence of free choline in nodule cytosol, peribacteroid space, and bacteroids was demonstrated, and the data suggest that bet regulation in planta is mediated by BetI repression, as in free-living cells. Neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were significantly impaired in a betI::omega mutant, indicating that glycine betaine biosynthesis from choline is not crucial for nodulation and nitrogen fixation.  (+info)

Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. A cDNA clone for BADH (1812 base pairs) was selected from a lambda gt10 cDNA library derived from leaves of salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to amino acid sequences of two peptides prepared from purified BADH. The authenticity of the clone was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis; this analysis demonstrated the presence of a 1491-base-pair open reading frame that contained sequences encoding 12 peptide fragments of BADH. The clone hybridized to a 1.9-kilobase mRNA from spinach leaves; this mRNA was more abundant in salt-stressed plants, consistent with the known salt induction of BADH activity. The amino acid ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2wme: Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Despite not accumulating glycine betaine, rice (Oryza sativa) possesses two genes encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8) (BADH1 and BADH2). A BADH2 allele which codes for a truncated BADH2 enzyme is responsible for the elevated level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) which gives Jasmine and Basmati style fragrant rices their distinct aroma. In this study the transcript levels of the genes which encode BADH1 and BADH2 were studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRTPCR) in multiple fragrant and non-fragrant rice varieties. In non-fragrant rices, BADH2 transcript levels were significantly higher than those of BADH1 in leaf and mature seed, whilst in developing seed BADH1 and BADH2 transcript levels were similar. This indicates that the loss of BADH2 activity due to the deletion in the gene in fragrant rice is likely to result in a significant reduction in total functional BADH. BADH2 transcript levels in non-fragrant rice varieties were significantly higher than the levels in
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is important enzyme which plays a dual role in cereals. It acts as an osmoprotectant and has an important role during abiotic stress. In addition it also influences the fragrance in rice. Therefore, this gene has both agronomical and breeding values. An 8pb deletion in exon 7 cause a premature termination codon in BADH2 resulting a mutate badh2 allele; which ultimately elevates the level of 2AP leading fragrance in fragrant rice (Bradbury et al., 2008). Unlike rice wheat is a hexaploid and has two BADH homologs i.e. BADH1 and BADH2. Our genomic data shows that there are three alleles for BADH homologs. One allele is present in the progenitors and these indicates that, these allele is inheritate from each of the progenitors during polyploidy in hexaploid wheat. Our data show that a total of 4 and 14 SNPs are present among the genomes in BADH2 and BADH1respectivly. Investigation on two different tissues (i.e. leaves and seeds), at two different time point (i.e. 14 DPA
The positive charge of the quaternary nitrogen of the trimethylammonium group of BAL suggests that negatively charged active-site residues should be involved in conferring substrate specificity to plant BADHs, by analogy with other enzymes that bind this group (Quaye et al., 2008). In a first study with SoBADH, Glu-103, which is strictly conserved in the known plant ALDH10 enzymes, was thought to be this residue; when mutated to Gln, however, there were no changes in the kinetics with BAL as substrate and only a small negative effect on those with APAL and ABAL (Incharoensakdi et al., 2000). The crystal structure of the spinach enzyme reported here explains these results: the side chain carboxylic group of Glu-103 is far from the aldehyde tunnel (Supplemental Fig. S3). ALDH10 enzymes also have two conserved Asp residues (Asp-107 and Asp-110; SoBADH numbering) whose carboxyl groups are exposed, or partially exposed in the case of Asp-107, to the solvent filling the aldehyde tunnel. The ...
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine ...
This MassBank Record with Accession PB001483 contains the MS2 mass spectrum of trimethyl-(2-oxoethyl)azanium with the compound class Natural Product. The mass spectrum was acquired on a LC-ESI-QQ with POSITIVE ionisation with the collision energy 20 eV at a resolution of null and has the SPLASH splash10-0pb9-9400000000-f6a6158eae2887c8c1b6.
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Grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. We have identified several (a)biotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in Amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called Ah24 gene. Ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. Interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region showed a predominance of regulatory boxes involved in development, but not in defense. The Ah24 cDNA encodes a predicted cytosolic protein of 164 amino acids, the localization of which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Additional in silico analysis identified several other Ah24 homologs, present almost exclusively in plants belonging to the Caryophyllales. The possible function of this gene in planta was examined in transgenic Ah24 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Transformed
bacteria OpuC protein: mediates the uptake of choline for biosynthesis of osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis; amino sequence in first source
Fragrant rice has a potent flavor compound, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). A better understanding of the 2AP biosynthetic pathway is gained by proteomic analysis of two isogenic lines of Thai jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. Khao Dawk Mali 105, which differ only in the aromatic gene Os2AP. The protein profiles of two lines, from six growth stages, seedling to grain filling, had 41 identifiable prote ...
This study presents an in-depth survey of the genetic diversity of the BADH2 gene in a large panel of genetically and geographically diverse rice germplasm from across Asia. Fragrant accessions carrying the badh2.1 allele exhibited a dramatic reduction in nucleotide diversity (97%) and elevated linkage disequilibrium around the gene compared to nonfragrant accessions, consistent with strong positive selection for the badh2.1 allele. The intensity of selection on the badh2.1 allele was similar to reports from other rice genes controlling grain morphology traits (i.e., wx, rc, gs3) (26-28).. Haplotype analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the badh2.1 allele arose in the genetic background of the Japonica varietal group. Extended haplotype analysis revealed a clear introgression of a Japonica genomic region encompassing the badh2.1 allele in all fragrant indica accessions, including Jasmine varieties. All fragrant indica also possessed three polymorphisms flanking the badh2.1 allele that were ...
In America un cetatean a gasit un soarece intr-o cutie de pepsi Mountain Dew . Reclamand asta el a primit urmatorul raspuns : Oficialii Pepsi Co. au contraataca
This section describes the Planning and Evaluation Core. The overall goal ofthe Planning and Evaluation Core is to monitor the progress ofthe collaboration in m...
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a group of enzymes that detoxify aldehydes by facilitating their oxidation to carboxylic acids, and have been shown to play roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. However, the comprehensive analysis of ALDH superfamily in soybean (Glycine max) has been limited. In present study, a total of 53 GmALDHs were identified in soybean, and grouped into 10 ALDH families according to the ALDH Gene Nomenclature Committee and phylogenetic analysis. These groupings were supported by their gene structures and conserved motifs. Soybean ALDH superfamily expanded mainly by whole genome duplication/segmental duplications. Gene network analysis identified 1146 putative co-functional genes of 51 GmALDHs. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested the co-functional genes of these 51 GmALDHs were enriched (FDR < 1e-3) in the process of lipid metabolism, photosynthesis, proline catabolism, and small molecule catabolism. In addition, 22 co-functional genes of GmALDHs are
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Buy and download royalty-free image ID 4934116: Amaranthus seedlings in pods to plant out by grahamspics from Crestock Stock Photos
Aquariumen izan ginen lehenik eta ondoren, Igartubeitia baserrian. Umeekin familia planak egiteko bi aukera hauek itzelak izan dira gure kasuan. Hurrengoan Urola garaia aldera, gogoa pizten baitizute BERRIAko beherapen hauek, herritik eta betiko planetatik irteteko akuilu paregabeak. Beti ikasten da zerbait, milesker ...
Aquariumen izan ginen lehenik eta ondoren, Igartubeitia baserrian. Umeekin familia planak egiteko bi aukera hauek itzelak izan dira gure kasuan. Hurrengoan Urola garaia aldera, gogoa pizten baitizute BERRIAko beherapen hauek, herritik eta betiko planetatik irteteko akuilu paregabeak. Beti ikasten da zerbait, milesker ...
Chandigarh: Governments ambitious Beti Bachao Beti Padhao campaign to save and empower girl child will be launched on Thursday by Prime Minister Narendra Modi from Panipat in Haryana, the state with the lowest sex ratio.
The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
Put TMG in your beverages. When they refine sugar from sugar beets, one of the things they remove from the sugar is TMG, which can be purchased as a food supplement and easily mixed into juice or milk. If the TMG is used properly in small amounts, no one can taste it ...
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A. blitum is a monoecious annual weed with a near global distribution. It grows between 10 and 80 cm tall, sometimes reaching 90 cm. It was listed...
31. Amaranthus polygonoides Linnaeus, Pl. Jamaic. Pug. 27. 1759. Smartweed amaranth, tropical amaranth Amaranthus berlandieri (Moquin-Tandon) Uline & W. L. Bray. Plants annual, glabrescent proximally, pubescent distally, becoming glabrous at maturity. Stems erect-ascending to pro-strate, branched mostly at base and in proximal 1/2, 0.1-0.5 m. Leaves: petiole ± equaling blade; blade ovate, obovate-rhombic to narrowly ovate, sometimes lanceolate, 1.5-3(-4) × 0.5-1.5(-2) cm, base cuneate, margins entire to undulate-erose, apex rounded, obtuse, or emarginate, mucronate. Inflorescences axillary, congested clusters. Bracts of pistillate flowers lanceolate or linear, 1-1.5 mm, 1/2 as long as tepals. Pistillate flowers: tepals 5, connate in proximal 1/3 (entirely distinct in all other species), with 3 prominent veins abaxially, spatulate or somewhat clawed, equal or subequal, 2-3 mm, apex rounded or retuse, mucronate; style branches somewhat spreading; stigmas 3. Staminate flowers intermixed with ...
Or ALDH, this breaks down various aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids. Its most notable substrate is, of course ethanal the breakdown prod...
Looking for online definition of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 in the Medical Dictionary? Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 explanation free. What is Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1? Meaning of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 medical term. What does Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 mean?
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH1B gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. This encoded protein, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. The human gene is located on chromosome 4 in 4q22. Previously ADH1B was called ADH2. There are more genes in the family of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. These genes are now referred to as ADH1A, ADH1C, and ADH4, ADH5, ADH6 and ADH7. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ADH1B is rs1229984, that changes arginine to histidine at residue 47. The ...
NCT 501 (CAS: 1802088-50-1)is a potent and selective theophylline-based inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), inhibits hALDH1A1 with IC50 of 40 nM, typically shows better selectivity over other ALDH isozymes and other dehydrogenases (hALDH1B1
There are 2 kinds of spinach: the common, most familiar kind which is a hardy annual, and the lesser known New Zealand spinach, which is a tender annual (and
A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline in
Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC ... In humans betaine aldehyde activity is performed by a nonspecific cystosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme (EC 1.2.1.3) TMG is ... "BRENDA - Information on EC 1.2.1.8 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase". Brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2016-07-07. Chern, M. K.; ... In most organisms, glycine betaine is biosynthesized by oxidation of choline in two steps. The intermediate, betaine aldehyde, ...
... rice domesticate that suffered a deletion in exon 7 and as a result sequence coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH2) ...
In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde ... Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and BetB. This enzyme ... ROTHSCHILD HA, BARRON ES (1954). "The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 209 (2 ... Eklund H; El-Ahmad, M; Ramaswamy, S; Hjelmqvist, L; Jörnvall, H; Eklund, H (1998). "Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine ... aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde and ... Glycine betaine aldehyde, often simply called betaine aldehyde, is an intermediate in the metabolism of glycine, serine and ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ...
... betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline and acceptor, whereas its two products ... are betaine aldehyde and reduced acceptor. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on ... In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ...
... benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.515 --- betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.562 ... aldehyde dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.249.750 --- omega-crystallins MeSH D08.811.682.657.163.311 --- aldehyde oxidase ... sugar alcohol dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.075 --- aldehyde reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.237 --- d- ... acyl-coa dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.100 --- acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 --- acyl-coa ...
Brocker C, Cantore M, Failli P, Vasiliou V (May 2011). "Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1 (ALDH7A1) attenuates reactive aldehyde and ... In particular, antiquitin localizes to the mitochondria in kidney and liver to contribute to the synthesis of betaine, a ... Aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family, member A1, also known as ALDH7A1 or antiquitin, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of subfamily 7 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. These enzymes are ...
... aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) EC 1.2.1.6: deleted EC 1.2.1.7: benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.2.1.8: betaine- ... formate dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.3: aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) EC 1.2.1.4: aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.2.1.5: ... benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) EC 1.2.1.29: aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.30: aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC ... vanillin dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.68: coniferyl-aldehyde dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.69: fluoroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.70 ...
PheA uses a simple dehydrogenase to convert prephenate to phenylpyruvate, while TyrA uses a NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to make ... His4 catalyzes the oxidation of L-histidinol to form L-histidinal, an amino aldehyde. In the last step, L-histidinal is ... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) ... Relevant enzymes include aspartokinase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, homoserine dehydrogenase, homoserine O- ...
Alcohol dehydrogenase. *Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase. *Aldehyde oxidase. *Aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/ ... Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. *Bile acid:sodium symporter. *Biliverdin reductase. *Biotin attachment domain ...
Young, W.; Hartung, W.; Crossley, F. (1936). "Reduction of Aldehydes with Aluminum Isopropoxide". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58: 100-2. ... Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver,[31] and has a biological half-life in ... Furthermore, there is no indication for the use of fomepizole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, unless co-ingestion with ...
In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear- ... Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought. E A ... Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought ... Molecular cloning of a plant betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme implicated in adaptation to salinity and drought ...
Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa ... The binding sites of Potassium atom in the structure of Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From ... Potassium in the structure of Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (pdb ...
In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde ... Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and BetB. This enzyme ... ROTHSCHILD HA, BARRON ES (1954). "The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 209 (2 ... Eklund H; El-Ahmad, M; Ramaswamy, S; Hjelmqvist, L; Jörnvall, H; Eklund, H (1998). "Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ...
GO:0008802 betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016620 oxidoreductase activity, ... GO:0019285 glycine betaine biosynthetic process from choline GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process ... acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor GO:0046872 metal ion binding ...
Catalyzes the reversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to the corresponding acid. ... Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betB). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST. 490. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ...
Catalyzes the reversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to the corresponding acid. ... Involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betB). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via ... NAD/NADP-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenaseAdd BLAST. 487. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ...
1.65 Angstrom resolution crystal structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betB) from Staphylococcus aureus with BME- ... Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. A, B, C, D. 520. Staphylococcus aureus (strain COL). Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: betB. EC: 1.2. ... employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative ... betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary ...
What is betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase? Meaning of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase medical term. What does betaine-aldehyde ... Looking for online definition of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase in the Medical Dictionary? betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase ... medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/betaine-aldehyde+dehydrogenase,betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase,/a,. *Facebook ... Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase , definition of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is an important enzyme which has dual roles in cereals influencing abiotic stress ... Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is an important enzyme which has dual roles in cereals influencing abiotic stress ... Shrestha, K 2011, Analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase encoding genes in wheat, MSc thesis, Southern Cross University, ...
The biosynthesis of GB in the plant involved betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) as a key enzyme, which also increased as the ... Accumulation of Glycinebetaine and Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Clone T5 Under in vitro ... inproceedings{Sithtisarn2010AccumulationOG, title={Accumulation of Glycinebetaine and Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity ...
You searched for: Subject betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Remove constraint Subject: betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Subject ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; aldehyde dehydrogenase; aluminum; betaine; cortex; dose response; enzyme activity; gene ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; Pandanus amaryllifolius; catalytic activity; genes; leaves; models; odors; rice; roots; ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; adulterated products; genes; genetic markers; polymerase chain reaction; rapid methods; ...
You searched for: Subject betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Remove constraint Subject: betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Subject ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; aldehyde dehydrogenase; aluminum; betaine; cortex; dose response; enzyme activity; gene ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; Oryza sativa; betaine; diamine oxidase; enzyme activity; gamma-aminobutyric acid; ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, etc ; Oryza sativa; RNA interference; betaine; biosynthesis; cold stress; drought; enzyme ...
Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase. BBDOX. γ-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. ETC. Electron transport chain. HDL. High-density ... Zatta P, Lain E, Cagnolini C. Effects of aluminum on activity of Krebs cycle enzymes and glutamate dehydrogenase in rat brain ... Aluminum triggers decreased aconitase activity via Fe-S cluster disruption and the overexpression of isocitrate dehydrogenase ...
P6c dehydrogenase. alpha-AASA dehydrogenase. antiquitin-1. betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. delta1-piperideine-6-carboxylate ... ALDH7A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1 [Homo sapiens] ALDH7A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1 [Homo ... aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:877 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000164904 ... ALDH7A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family member A1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 501, updated on 13-Jan-2020 ...
... aureus COL has betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and is structurally similar to aldehyde dehydrogenases. ... PDB references: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, 4mpb; complex with NAD+, 4mpy; complex with NAD+ with BME-free Cys289, 4nea; ... Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde de-hydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus. A. S. Halavaty, R. L. Rich, C ... The purified putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early methicillin-resistant S. ...
... regulatory region of Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isoenzymes of selected monocot and dicot ... Li, G., Wu, H., Sun, Y. and Zhang, S. "Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (BADH) Expression and Betaine Production in Sugarbeet ... In-silico identification of cis- acting regulatory elements in 5 regulatory region of Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ... Biotic and abiotic stress, Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), Cis-acting regulatory elements, Cellular development, ...
BetB is betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. BetI is the transcriptional repressor of the betABI locus. GbcA and GbcB are the ... Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the NADP+- and NAD+-dependent reactions catalysed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from ... Rapid purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 181:1292-1300. ... Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855. ...
An isozyme of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in barley.. Nakamura T, Nomura M, Mori H, Jagendorf AT, Ueda A, Takabe T. ...
ALDH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; BALDH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GGSALDH, ... and exaC have been characterized as betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases, methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and ... Steady-state kinetic mechanism of the NADP+- and NAD+-dependent reactions catalysed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from ... Kinetics and specificity of human liver aldehyde dehydrogenases toward aliphatic, aromatic, and fused polycyclic aldehydes. ...
The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine ... aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde and ... Glycine betaine aldehyde, often simply called betaine aldehyde, is an intermediate in the metabolism of glycine, serine and ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ...
... glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis ... glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis ... to betaine aldehyde, and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase converts this product to betaine. ... Fitzgerald, T. L., Waters, D. L. E., and Henry, R. J. (2009). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants. Plant Biol. 11, 119-130 ...
Wood, A. J., Saneoka, H., Rhodes, D., Joly, R. J., & Goldsbrough, P. B. (1996). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in sorghum. ... Petřivalský, M., Brauner, F., Luhová, L., Gagneul, D., & Šebela, M. (2007). Aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase activity during wound ...
... betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine ... 2001) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two kinds of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase in betaine-accumulating ... 1992) Salt-inducible betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from sugar beet: cDNA cloning and expression. Plant Mol Biol 18: 1-11. ... 2011) Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis with different sub-cellular localization affect stress responses. ...
Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ... Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ... Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ... Compound: betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Species: Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus [TaxId:93062]. Gene: betB, SACOL2628. ...
  • Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. (pnas.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of subfamily 7 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. (nih.gov)
  • Gene cloning indicated that the HDH is part of the group X aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, which is distributed among bacteria, although the physiological roles of the ALDH family remain unknown. (asm.org)
  • Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition to the genes encoding a presumed regulatory protein ( betI ), the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ( betB ), and the choline dehydrogenase ( betA ) enzymes also found in Escherichia coli , a new gene ( betC ) was identified as encoding a choline sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of choline- O -sulfate and, at a lower rate, phosphorylcholine, into choline. (pnas.org)
  • In order to identify genes that are critical for the ABA-dependent stress response in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum , a gene was isolated with homology to class 3 variable substrate aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • It has previously been determined that a non-functional betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD2) encoding gene homologue is responsible for fragrance in rice. (edu.au)
  • NL15-2K as a biocatalyst for vanillin production, it is necessary to characterize the vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH) that degrades the produced vanillin to vanillic acid, as well as the gene encoding this enzyme. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, an energy metabolism-associated gene Ndufb9 (NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex 9) in HFD group had hypermethylated CpG sites at the 2.6-kb downstream region of its TSS, and its mRNA level was lower compared with that in CRCD group. (bvsalud.org)
  • 110. Liu Y, Song Y, Zeng S, Patra P, Yuan L, Wang Y *. Isolation and characterization of salt stress-responsive gene Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (cas.cn)
  • Here we found that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produced NAD + - or NADP + -dependent hydrazone dehydrogenase (HDH), which converts hydrazones to the corresponding hydrazides and acids rather than to the simple hydrolytic product aldehydes. (asm.org)
  • Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (asm.org)
  • A number of microbes, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa , can utilize glycine betaine (GB) as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source ( 17 , 35 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • For example, the demethylation of GB to form DMG has been hypothesized to occur via a betaine homocysteine methyltransferase in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas denitrificans based on measurements of enzyme activity in cell extracts ( 35 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, choline- O -sulfate and phosphorylcholine, which are found in higher plants and fungi, appear to be substrates for glycine betaine biosynthesis in S. meliloti . (pnas.org)
  • The potential importance of this molecule for stress resistance among agronomically important organisms has led to investigations of betaine biosynthesis and transport in Sinorhizobium meliloti . (pnas.org)
  • Supplementation of betaine and homocysteine also stimulated PC biosynthesis and enhanced hepatic VLDL secretion. (ubc.ca)
  • Aldehydes, which are highly reactive molecules, are toxic at high concentrations. (biochemj.org)
  • On the other hand, aldehydes are highly reactive compounds, which can form adducts with proteins, DNA, and lipids, affecting the function of these biomolecules and leading to cell toxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • These proteins showed similarity each to inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, carboxylesterase, oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase, periplasmic-binding protein proteinases and hypothetical proteins. (parasitol.kr)
  • Unlike enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli , S. meliloti also catabolizes glycine betaine and uses it both as a carbon and a nitrogen source for growth ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, ALDH2 is important for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes such as 4-HNE and acrolein [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ALDH2 may be one of the essential mechanisms for the removal of these reactive aldehydes and protecting cells and organs from these toxic aldehydes. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the detoxification of harmful aldehydes generated endogenously or ingested from environment and foods is an important role of ALDHs. (hindawi.com)
  • As shown in Figure 14.4, choline catabolism involves two oxidation reactions to form betaine (trimethylglycine), followed by three successive deme-thylations. (doctorabel.us)
  • The last step of The CNN Effect: The of News, Foreign by Piers polyamine catabolism involves the of Neonatal oxidation of 3-aminopropanal or 4-aminobutanal via aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase. (cloudns.cx)
  • Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. (hmdb.ca)
  • 4-HNE is an α , β -unsaturated aldehyde formed during lipid peroxidation in vivo [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Among these compatible solutes, glycine betaine ( N , N , N -trimethylglycine) has been shown to be a very efficient osmolyte found in a wide range of bacterial and plant species, where it is accumulated at high cytoplasmic concentrations in response to osmotic stress. (pnas.org)
  • The quaternary ammonium compounds, choline and betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) reside along a metabolic pathway linked to the synthesis of neurotransmitters and membrane phospholipids and to homocysteine remethylation and, therefore, folate status. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The quaternary ammonium compounds, choline and betaine, and N,N -dimethylglycine (DMG), 1 have a variety of biological effects and are closely connected metabolically. (aaccjnls.org)
  • Therefore, ALDHs play a crucial role in detoxifying aldehydes produced by various metabolic pathways. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzyme activities of ALDHs mediate the formation of molecules with important biophysiological functions such as retinoic acid, betaine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid [ 10 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)