A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.
An early onset form of phytanic acid storage disease with clinical and biochemical signs different from those of REFSUM DISEASE. Features include MENTAL RETARDATION; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; OSTEOPOROSIS; and severe liver damage. It can be caused by mutation in a number of genes encoding proteins involving in the biogenesis or assembly of PEROXISOMES.
An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and CARDIOMYOPATHIES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8) This condition can be caused by mutation in the genes encoding peroxisomal phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase or proteins associated peroxisomal membrane, leading to impaired catabolism of PHYTANIC ACID in PEROXISOMES.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (1/739)

BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.  (+info)

Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov., a novel halophilic fermentative bacterium that reduces glycine-betaine to trimethylamine with hydrogen or serine as electron donors; emendation of the genus Haloanaerobacter. (2/739)

A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.  (+info)

Glycine betaine: reserve form of choline in Penicillium fellutanum in low-sulfate medium. (3/739)

In spite of choline's importance in fungal metabolism, its sources in cytoplasm have not been fully established. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of mycelial extracts from day-5 Penicillium fellutanum cultures showed that, as well as choline-O-sulfate, intracellular glycine betaine is another reserve form of choline, depending on the availability of sulfate in the culture medium. These observations are discussed relative to the multiple roles of choline and its precursors in P. fellutanum.  (+info)

Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (4/739)

Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality.  (+info)

LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (5/739)

During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes.  (+info)

The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis. (6/739)

The response of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 to salt stress has been characterized previously in complex media. In this report, it has been demonstrated that this bacterium actively accumulates the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) from salt-enriched complex medium BHI. To further understand the specific effects of GB and other osmoprotective compounds in salt adaptation and salt-induced cross-tolerance to lethal challenges, a chemically defined medium lacking putative osmoprotectants was used. In this medium, bacterial growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. At 0.75 M NaCl, 90% inhibition of the growth rate was observed; GB and its structural analogues restored growth to the non-salt-stressed level. In contrast, proline, pipecolate and ectoine did not allow growth recovery of stressed cells. Kinetic studies showed that the uptake of betaines shows strong structural specificity and occurs through a salt-stress-inducible high-affinity porter [Km = 3.3 microM; Vmax = 130 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1); the uptake activity increased 400-fold in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl]. Moreover, GB and its analogues were accumulated as non-metabolizable cytosolic osmolytes and reached intracellular levels ranging from 1-3 to 1.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1). In contrast to the beneficial effect of GB on the growth of salt-stressed cultures of E. faecalis, its accumulation inhibits the salt-induced cross-tolerance to a heterologous lethal challenge. Indeed, pretreatment of bacterial cells with 0.5 M NaCl induced resistance to 0.3% bile salts (survival of adapted cells increased by a factor of 6800). The presence of GB in the adaptation medium reduced the acquisition of bile salts resistance 680-fold. The synthesis of 11 of the 13 proteins induced during salt adaptation was significantly reduced in the presence of GB. These results raise questions about the actual beneficial effect of GB in natural environments where bacteria are often subjected to various stresses.  (+info)

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (7/739)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Disaccharides as a new class of nonaccumulated osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti. (8/739)

Sucrose and ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidine carboxylic acid) are very unusual osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti because these compounds, unlike other bacterial osmoprotectants, do not accumulate as cytosolic osmolytes in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells. Here, we show that, in fact, sucrose and ectoine belong to a new family of nonaccumulated sinorhizobial osmoprotectants which also comprises the following six disaccharides: trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, turanose, and palatinose. Also, several of these disaccharides were very effective exogenous osmoprotectants for strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars phaseoli and trifolii. Sucrose and trehalose are synthesized as endogenous osmolytes in various bacteria, but the other five disaccharides had never been implicated before in osmoregulation in any organism. All of the disaccharides that acted as powerful osmoprotectants in S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum also acted as very effective competitors of [14C]sucrose uptake in salt-stressed cultures of these bacteria. Conversely, disaccharides that were not osmoprotective for S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum did not inhibit sucrose uptake in these bacteria. Hence, disaccharide osmoprotectants apparently shared the same uptake routes in these bacteria. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantification of cytosolic solutes demonstrated that the novel disaccharide osmoprotectants were not accumulated to osmotically significant levels in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells; rather, these compounds, like sucrose and ectoine, were catabolized during early exponential growth, and contributed indirectly to enhance the cytosolic levels of two endogenously synthesized osmolytes, glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide. The ecological implication of the use of these disaccharides as osmoprotectants is discussed.  (+info)

The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
In this study, we reported the expression of the S. meliloti betS gene in B. japonicum USDA110 and addressed the question of possible accumulation and role of glycine betaine in transformed cells submitted to salt stress. B. japonicum is one of the most salt-sensitive rhizobia and possesses neither high-affinity uptake systems for betaines or choline nor the choline-glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway (3). These deficiencies were the rationale to install the betaine transport activity. Analysis of the B. japonicum transformed cells revealed strong glycine betaine and proline betaine uptake activities in an osmotically stimulated manner. It is also noteworthy that the stimulated BetS-mediated glycine betaine transport in B. japonicum leads to a large accumulation of this compatible solute, up to 240 mM, which is not used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, in contrast to many other members of the family Rhizobiaceae. Genetic engineering has also proved fruitful in the freshwater cyanobacterium ...
Glycinebetaine is an important non-toxic osmoprotectant, which is accumulated in higher plants under various stresses. The biosynthesis of glycinebetaine achieved via is a two-step oxidation from choline and betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), respectively. Up-regulated gene expression of BADH and CMO induced by stress is clearly observed, but the signal transduction is poorly understood. Here, glycinebetaine accumulation in response to osmotic stress and growth recovery induced by exogenous glycinebetaine were observed in a watermelon cell line. When tracing back to the genome sequence of watermelon, it shows that there exists only one member of ClCMO or ClBADH corresponding to glycinebetaine biosynthesis. Both genes harbor a CGTCA-motif in their promoter region which is involved in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-responsiveness. Amongst MeJA, Ethephon, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA), MeJA was most effective in gene inducing the
Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine and the results were compared to isocaloric dextrose-fed controls. Livers were subjected to microarray analysis, and functional pathways and individual gene expression changes were analyzed. Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a large number of genes indicating that the changes were global. The bio-informatic analysis showed that all the KEGG functional pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed rats. The most profound effect of betaine was on the metabolic
Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, Sylvestre PB, Lindor KD. Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(9):2711-2717.. Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, Saarela J, Aro A. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(4):665-669.. Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):577-585.. Angulo P, Lindor KD. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver: present and emerging therapies. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):81-88.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badkhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21(6):1100-1102.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. ...
Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, Sylvestre PB, Lindor KD. Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(9):2711-2717.. Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, Saarela J, Aro A. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(4):665-669.. Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):577-585.. Angulo P, Lindor KD. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver: present and emerging therapies. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):81-88.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badkhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21(6):1100-1102.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. ...
Betaine HCl Supports healthy stomach acidity, gastric function, and protein digestion. Why is betaine important? Betaine has other benefits for the body beyond digestion support: Betaine is linked to healthy homocysteine levels, a variable in healthy bone metabolism. Betaine works with B vitamins to synthesize amino acids, precursor to SAM-e (S-adenosyl-L-Methionine). Why use Betaine HCl? It works with the body to support healthy, natural digestion: Betaine mirrors the action of healthy stomach acid levels, supporting comfortable digestion. The addition of pepsin ensures additional support for protein digestion. Combined in an easy-to-swallow UltraCap to support stomach acidity, gastric function, and protein digestion. Recommendations: Take 1 or 2 UltraCaps at the beginning of each meal, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Do not chew. Not recommended for use if peptic ulcer, gastritis or heartburn is present. Supplement Facts: Serving Size: 2 UltraCaps
DIETARY SUPPLEMENT Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 100 CAPSULES More Info: Betaine HCl [ with Pepsin ] Betaine HCl increases stomach acidity and may reduce food sensitivities through improved digestion. Our formula complexes 648mg Betaine HCl with 200mg Pepsin - an enzyme that aids in the digestion of protein. Supplemental Facts: Each preservative-free vegetarian capsule contains only the active ingredients listed on the label. Excipient-free. Ingredients: Serving Size: 1 capsule Amount Per Capsule Betaine Hydrochloride ...648mg* Pepsin (1:3,000) ...200mg* * Daily Value not established for this ingredient Contains: vegetarian capsule, L-leucine Dosage: DIRECTIONS: One (1) capsule daily with a meal as a dietary supplement, or as directed by a Doctor. WARNINGS: STORAGE: Keep tightly closed in a dry place; do not expose to excessive heat. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
According to the market research report Betaine Market :By Type (Synthetic, Natural); By Form (Betaine Anhydrous, Cocamidopropyl Betaine); By End-users (Food & Beverages, Animal Feed) & Geography - Forecast (2016-2021), published by IndustryARC, estimates tremendous expansion for new entrants.. Browse Report @ http://industryarc.com/Report/15179/betaine-market.html. Betaine is a by-product of sugar beet processing. This works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid causes harm to blood vessels and contributes to heart disease, stroke and circulation problems.. After the discovery of betaine supplement, this was originally used to turn homocysteine into L-methionine. Homocysteine is a toxic samino acid that can lead to various health problems when elevated in the body including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and multiple cardiovascular issues. Betaine supplementation is extremely important for individuals with homocystinuria, a rare genetic condition that ...
Roughly 140 million people worldwide are chronically exposed to As-contaminated drinking water at concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 10 µg/L. Arsenic is a class I carcinogen known to cause several types of cancer and ischemic heart disease. Metabolism of inorganic As (InAs), which facilitates urinary As excretion, relies on one-carbon metabolism and involves two methylation steps; both utilize S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. SAM biosynthesis relies on B vitamins including folate and B12 for the recruitment and transfer of methyl groups, but other nutrients, including choline and betaine, also contribute to the methyl pool. Our recent findings from a cross-sectional study of Bangladeshi adults exposed to a wide range of As concentrations in drinking water show that plasma choline and betaine concentrations are positively associated with As methylation. These findings suggest that choline and/or betaine may play an important role in As ...
Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK activation
Highlights: • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. • Betaines anti-tumorigenic effect might be due to a reversal of the Warburg effect. - Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. It reduces cardiovascular disease risk and protects liver cells from alcoholic liver damage and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Its pretreatment can rescue cells exposed to toxins such as rotenone, chloroform, and LiCl. Furthermore, it has been suggested that betaine can suppress cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is essential to produce cellular energy, ATP. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and energy status have been found in many human pathological conditions including aging, cancer, and ...
1. Wilcken DEL, Dudman NPB, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency-the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism. 1985;34:1115-1121. 2. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. 3. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:552-555. 4. Murakami T, Nagamura Y, Hirano K. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 1998;44:249-255. 5. Gray ME, Titlow LW. The effect of pangamic acid on maximal treadmill performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14:424-427. 6. Mangoni AA, Jackson SH. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects. Am J Med. 2002;112:556-565. 7. Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and ...
What is Betaine Anhydrous?. Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaines two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.. ...
Betaine HCL Pespin - 250 vCapsules Betaine HCI Pepsin provides a professional strength of 520 mg betaine HCl per capsule with additional pepsin. Betaine HCl is an acidic form of betaine, and pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme.
Cocamidopropyl betaine, Cocamidopropyl betaine supplier, Cocamidopropyl betaine distributor, CAS 61789-40-0 70851-07-9 83138-08-3 , Cocamidopropyl betaine manufacturer, Cocamidopropyl betaine wholesale
To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. Sixteen recreationally active subjects (7 females and 9 males) completed three sprint tests, each consisting of four 12 sec efforts against a resistance equal to 5.5% of body weight; efforts were separated by 2.5 min of cycling at zero resistance. Test one established baseline; test two and three were preceded by seven days of daily consumption of 591 ml of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage as a placebo or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage containing 0.42% betaine (approximately 2.5 grams of betaine a day); half the beverage was consumed in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. We used a double blind random order cross-over design; there was a 3 wk washout between trials two and three. Average and maximum peak and mean power were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA and, where indicated, a Student Newman-Keuls. Compared to baseline, betaine ingestion increased average peak power (6.4%; p | 0.001),
• Features an acidic form of betaine to aid digestion • Includes the digestive enzyme pepsin Betaine HCl and pepsin are naturally occurring gastric-juice components that render nutrients available for absorption and biological activity. Betaine HCl is an acidic form of betaine, which promotes optimal gastric lumen acid
Betaine supplementation has numerous positive effects on animal performance. Recent studies with betaine from sugar beet molasses looked if this naturally derived betaine can substitute a certain amount of added methionine in broiler diets.
Microorganisms are known to counteract salt stress through salt influx or by the accumulation of osmoprotectants (also called compatible solutes). Understanding the pathways that synthesize and/or breakdown these osmoprotectants is of interest to studies of crops halotolerance and to biotechnology applications that use microbes as cell factories for production of biomass or commercial chemicals. To facilitate the exploration of osmoprotectants, we have developed the first online resource, Dragon Explorer of Osmoprotection associated Pathways (DEOP) that gathers and presents curated information about osmoprotectants, complemented by information about reactions and pathways that use or affect them. A combined total of 141 compounds were confirmed osmoprotectants, which were matched to 1883 reactions and 834 pathways. DEOP can also be used to map genes or microbial genomes to potential osmoprotection-associated pathways, and thus link genes and genomes to other associated osmoprotection ...
Betaine is the top-ranking plasma metabolite correlated with insulin sensitivity (SI) in humans with normal glucose tolerance, as revealed by unbiased metabolomics analysis. Moreover, increasing betaine levels via long-term dietary supplementation improve systemic metabolism in mice, with prevention of impaired glucose homeostasis and liver fat accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity, increased energy expenditure, and increased oxidative capacity of iWAT, even in mice made obese and insulin resistant with continued high-fat feeding. Thus, plasma betaine concentrations can serve as a biomarker of insulin resistance and a target for prevention and treatment.. More broadly, our data provide support for the emerging concept that one-carbon metabolic pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic disease. Prior cross-sectional analysis of data from Framingham Heart Study participants demonstrated inverse correlations between plasma betaine ...
Betaine is a byproduct of sugar beet processing. Betaine works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid can harm blood vessels and contribute to heart disease, stroke, or circulation problems. Betaine is used to reduce homocysteine levels in people with a genetic condition called...
Aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines and certain water-soluble inorganic or organic salts provide compositions of remarkably high viscosities. The inorganic salts suitable for this purpose are the sulfates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB, and IIIA of the period table; sulfates of non-metallic ions; and alkali metal carbonates. Organic salts suitable in the present compositions include the citrates, tartrates, succinates, and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB and IIIA of the period table and the citrates, tartrates, succinates and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of ammonium ions. These salts have a synergistic viscosity-building effect on aqueous compositions containing alkylamido betaines in combination with micelle-forming anionic surfactants. Other salts increase the viscosity of aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines only in the presence of anionic surfactants. Suitable inorganic salts in this category include sulfates of metals from Group IB of the
Aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines and certain water-soluble inorganic or organic salts provide compositions of remarkably high viscosities. The inorganic salts suitable for this purpose are the sulfates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB, and IIIA of the period table; sulfates of non-metallic ions; and alkali metal carbonates. Organic salts suitable in the present compositions include the citrates, tartrates, succinates, and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB and IIIA of the period table and the citrates, tartrates, succinates and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of ammonium ions. These salts have a synergistic viscosity-building effect on aqueous compositions containing alkylamido betaines in combination with micelle-forming anionic surfactants. Other salts increase the viscosity of aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines only in the presence of anionic surfactants. Suitable inorganic salts in this category include sulfates of metals from Group IB of the
Betaine HCl provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients.** This product is not recommended for anyone diagnosed with any type of ulcer or gastritis, or those with an overproduction of acid.. This product is in capsule form in order to ensure the delivery of betaine HCl and pepsin to the stomach where they are needed to initiate digestion. It has recently been reformulated to utilize a higher potency Pepsin (1:15,000) to maintain efficacy while reducing input and improving manufacturability.. Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement, take one capsule per day before a meal, or as directed by your health care practitioner.. ...
China Animal Feed Additive Betaine Hcl manufacturers - Select 2020 high quality Animal Feed Additive Betaine Hcl products in best price from certified Chinese Food Additive Chemical manufacturers, China Additive suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 100 Tablets About Supplements.co.nz Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride provides a safe and effective dose of Hydrochloric acid (stomach acid) with pepsin to aid protein digestion when taken with meals. Many people, especially the elderly and th
In the July Q&A on my Patreon feed, Doris asked: I fell down this particular rabbit hole because I wanted to duplicate a simple shampoo that I love. (Its this shampoo - Dirty Girl Farm, Bamboo Shampoo.) I think the order of the ingredients is off, but according to the label they are: water, glycerin, cocamidopropyl betaine, sodium chloride, bamboo extract. fragrance, citric acid, neem infusion. The cocamidopropyl betaine seems to be the only surfactant, which strikes me as odd, but I went with it. I put together a basic recipe, but cant get it to thicken with either salt or Crothix. My bamboo extract is 40% water, 40% glycerin, and 20% bamboo. I used it at 10% and didnt add any additional glycerin, since my hair is very prone to frizz. I couldnt find neem infusion anywhere, but I did include liquid Germall Plus (using a preservative is just one of the many important things Ive learned from you). Finally, my questions. Can cocamidopropyl betaine be used as the only surfactant in a shampoo? ...
Betaine HCl provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients. This product is not recommended for anyone diagnosed with any type of ulcer or gastritis, or those with an overproduction of acid. This product was previously in a tablet form, however we have upgraded to a capsule. This ensures delivery of betaine HCl and pepsin to the stomach where they are needed to initiate digestion.. Made with non-GMO ingredients. ...
Betaine HCl provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients.. This product is not recommended for anyone diagnosed with any type of ulcer or gastritis, or those with an overproduction of acid.. This product was previously in a tablet form, however we have upgraded to a capsule. This ensures delivery of betaine HCl and pepsin to the stomach where they are needed to initiate digestion.. Made with non-GMO ingredients.. ...
Maybe youve heard about how betaine derived from beet root can help increase the performance of long-distance cyclists and other endurance athletes. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research recently tested betaines effect on strength training. Scientists supplemented a hydrating beverage with 2.5 grams of betaine and had half of the study subjects drink that…
Platinum 100% Betaine. Ultra-pure Betaine to enhance performance. Stimulant free. Gain muscle and reduce recovery. Free shipping on Platinum 100% Betaine!
Betaine HCl Caps contain the highest potency betaine hydrochloride formula available providing powdered Betaine HCl with pepsin in gelatin capsules for quick acting and enhanced effectiveness.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants are chilling sensitive, and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), a metabolite that functions as a stress protectant. We reported previously that exogenous GB application enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato. To understand its protective role better, we have further evaluated various parameters associated with improved tolerance. Although its effect was most pronounced in younger plants, this benefit was diminished 1 week after GB application. When administered by foliar spray, GB was readily taken up and translocated to various organs, with the highest levels being measured in meristematic tissues, including the shoot apices and flower buds. In leaves, the majority of endogenous GB was found in the cytosol; only 0.6-22.0% of the total leaf GB was localized in chloroplasts. Immediately after GB application, levels of H2O2, catalase activity and expression of the catalase gene (CAT1) were all higher in GB-treated than in ...
Twinlab Betaine HCI with Pepsin Digestive Aid Dietary Supplement Capsules at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Twinlab Betaine HCI with Pepsin Digestive Aid Dietary Supplement Capsules
When you eat a meal‚ it is crucial that proper digestion and absorption of food takes place in order for you to maximize its benefits. In most cases‚ a balanced diet contains an assortment of the nutrients required for your body to function properly. However‚ sometimes all the nutrients in the foods that you eat are not completely absorbed; this lack of absorption can occur for a variety of different reasons: such as inadequate breakdown of food‚ a shortage of required chemical aids in the stomach‚ or certain types of anemia. Its known that betaine HCL facilitates the proper absorption of protein‚ calcium‚ vitamin B-12‚ and iron. These nutrients help your body with a variety of functions‚ such as bone and blood formation. Meanwhile‚ pepsin is used in the digestion of proteins that are used for the growth and repair of body tissues. For the best results‚ a supplement like Pure Encapsulations Betaine HCL Pepsin should be taken with each meal to assist with proper digestion ...
Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 100 Tablets contain the gastric acidifier Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins. Digestion and absorption of nutrients are important functions of the body to remain healthy and to support general well-being. In order to receive all the benefits from the foods consumed, the digestive system needs to breakdown carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into molecules so they can enter the bodys circulation. The digestive tract may be the most important component in the body as it singly is responsible for making sure we receive the full effect of the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients from our food. Maintaining healthy digestion is therefore of utmost importance. Natural botanicals and digestive enzymes are excellent aids in the digestive system. A number of digestive support supplements are available.
Purica Pure Betaine Details Pure vegan betaine powder for liver and digestive support. Also assists protein synthesis, helping athletes boost muscle strength, power, and mass.
Betaine HCl from Designs For Health provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients.** Thi
Betaine hydrochloride (betaine HCl) increases the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach relative to how much is taken before meals. This enables the stomach to much more completely dissolve and process foods right down to base nutrients, as we
I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. Best part is the relief has lasted more than the usual 1-2 weeks. I once tried a betaine HCL product in the past but I took it the same time as taking a probiotic (I have found I always rash up from probiotics, without exception.) It may be worth a try, Im having a lot of success using it everyday and cycling my other supplements. In
Betaine HCL aids digestion, breaks down carbs and protein, and helps ensure a healthy gastrointestinal pH balance. Order your bottle of Betaine HCL today.
Betaine Hydrochloride 350mg 120 Capsules. Ingredients: Betaine hydrochloride 350 mg, organic rice flour, gelatin capsule. Suggested Use: Adults and children 12 or more years of age: 1-2 capsules daily with a meal or as directed. For further information, please view the product label by clicking the blue
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In general as far as I know customers who bought TWINLAB, Betaine HCL w/Pepsin 10/2 grains - 100 caps ( Multi-Pack) or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on TWINLAB, Betaine HCL w/Pepsin 10/2 grains - 100 caps ( Multi-Pack), best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
Betaine HCL/Pepsin 250s-Promotes a healthy digestive tract *Betaine HCl and pepsin are gastric-juice components essential to the digestion of food an
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
Betaine Hydrochloride (Betaine HCL) Tablets with Pepsin to increase acidity in the stomach & encourage effective digestion. Small, taste free tablets.
Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin contains the gastric acidifier Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin, an enzyme which breaks down proteins. ✓Authorised Solgar Stockist ✓Free Delivery on orders over £15
... ishikariensis produces betaine lipids. Low amounts of sclerotinial proteins do occur in the vegetative hyphae - whether ...
Mesomeric betaine IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006 ... Mesoionic compounds are a subclass of betaines. Examples are sydnones and sydnone imines (e.g. the stimulant mesocarb), ... "Heterocyclic mesomeric betaines". Tetrahedron. 41 (12): 2239-2329. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)96625-6. "SYDNONES" (PDF).[page ...
Caramella, Pierluigi; Houk, K.N. (1976). "Geometries of nitrilium betaines. The clarification of apparently anomalous reactions ...
Glycine betaine, found in osmolytes, stabilizes osmotic pressure in cells. Choline is a precursor for the neurotransmitter ... these are commonly referred to as betaine-esters or ester-quats and are susceptible to degradation, e.g., by hydrolysis. ...
Betaines such as cocamidopropyl betaine have a carboxylate with the ammonium. The most common biological zwitterionic ...
Lee JE, Giovannucci E, Fuchs CS, Willett WC, Zeisel SH, Cho E (March 2010). "Choline and betaine intake and the risk of ... November 2009). "High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study". The FASEB ... "Repeatability and measurement error in the assessment of choline and betaine dietary intake: the Atherosclerosis Risk in ...
"Discrimination of Lycium chinense and Lycium barbarum by taste pattern and betaine analysis". International Journal of Clinical ...
Gage DA, Hanson AD (1998). "Glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase is limited by the ... betaine aldehyde hydrate + H2O + 2 oxidized ferredoxin The 4 substrates of this enzyme are choline, O2, reduced ferredoxin, and ... an unusual iron-sulfur enzyme catalyzing the first step of glycine betaine synthesis in plants: prosthetic group ... "The endogenous choline supply limits glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase". Plant J ...
Ongagna-Yhombi SY, McDonald ND, Boyd EF (January 2015). Pettinari MJ (ed.). "Deciphering the role of multiple betaine-carnitine ... The most common compatible solutes are neutral or zwitterionic, and include amino acids, sugars, polyols, betaines, and ...
... is an aliphatic quaternary ammonium betaine that is part of the carnitine family. The major species of 3- ... The formed 3-Dehydrocarnitine may also be broken down to form glycine betaine which is then metabolized through step ...
"Structural and molecular aspects of betaine-GABA transporter 1 (BGT1) and its relation to brain function". Neuropharmacology. ...
Hormann K, Andreesen JR (1989). "Reductive cleavage of sarcosine and betaine by Eubacterium acidaminophilum via enzyme systems ...
Note that homocysteine can also be converted to methionine by the folate-independent enzyme betaine-homocysteine ...
The most common examples of these coatings are based on highly hydrated zwitterions, such as glycine betaine and sulfobetaine. ...
... betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline and acceptor, whereas its two products ... "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a ... are betaine aldehyde and reduced acceptor. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on ...
... betaine aldehyde + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline and O2, whereas its two products are betaine ... "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a ...
... betaine, glycerophosphorylcholine, myo-inositol, taurine, glycine, and others. Remarkably, TMAO has the capacity to restore ...
... may refer to: Cocamidopropyl betaine EPH receptor B2, a receptor tyrosine kinases This disambiguation page lists articles ...
Arsenous acid (As(OH)3) has an LD50 of 34.5 mg/kg (mice) whereas for the betaine (CH3)3As+CH2CO2− the LD50 exceeds 10 g/kg. ... The organic compound arsenobetaine, a betaine, is found in some marine foods such as fish and algae, and also in mushrooms in ...
... purification of the glycine betaine binding protein and characterization of a functional lipidless mutant". J. Bacteriol. 179 ( ...
... choline and betaine found in beef, eggs and some vegetables). Assimilated methionine is transformed in S-adenosyl methionine ( ...
... stimulates the transcription of genes for aldose reductase (AR), the sodium chloride-betaine cotransporter (SLC6A12) the ...
Betaine transporter (SLC6A12) InterPro: IPR002983 Creatine transporter (SLC6A8) InterPro: IPR002984 Dopamine neurotransmitter ... betaine, taurine and other small molecules. NSS carriers are structurally distinct from the second more-restricted family of ...
The study found that to some degree, salicylic acid, potassium phosphite, neem oil, Bio-Arec, and Bio-Zaid betaine all protect ...
Symbiosis between S. meliloti and its legume hosts begins when the plant secretes an array of betaines and flavonoids into the ...
... (EC 1.21.4.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl phosphate + trimethylamine + ...
... betaine + NADH + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are betaine aldehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are betaine, ... In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is betaine-aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include betaine ... ROTHSCHILD HA, BARRON ES (1954). "The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 209 (2 ...
In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... Betaine PDB: 1UMY​; González B, Pajares MA, Martínez-Ripoll M, Blundell TL, Sanz-Aparicio J (May 2004). "Crystal structure of ... Betaine+Homocysteine+Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 Portal ... Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA (April 2008). "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine- ...
For glycine betaine, see trimethylglycine.. A betaine (/ˈbiːtə.iːn, bɪˈteɪ-, -ɪn/) in chemistry is any neutral chemical ... Phosphonium betaines are intermediates in the Wittig reaction. The addition of betaine to polymerase chain reactions improves ... In the 21st century, this substance is called glycine betaine to distinguish it from other betaines that are widely distributed ... The original betaine, N,N,N-trimethylglycine, was named after its discovery in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) in ...
Cocamidopropyl betaine to a significant degree has replaced cocamide DEA. Despite the name cocamidopropyl betaine, the molecule ... Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. It is a medium-strength surfactant also used in bath products ... Fowler, J. F.; Fowler, L. M.; Hunter, J. E. (1997). "Allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine may be due to amidoamine: A patch test ... Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a mixture of closely related organic compounds derived from coconut oil and ...
Betaine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Betaine comes as a powder to be mixed with food or drink and taken by mouth. It is usually taken twice a day. Take betaine at ... Betaine controls homocystinuria but does not cure it. Continue to take betaine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking ... Before taking betaine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to betaine or any other medications. ...
... has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role human ... betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) is a quaternary ammonium ... CHEBI:15710 - betaine aldehyde. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role Aspergillus metabolite (CHEBI:76956) ...
... is a amino-acid betaine (CHEBI:22860) glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750) is a glycine derivative ( ... N,N,N-trimethylglycyl-CoA (CHEBI:85888) has functional parent glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750). N,N,N-trimethylglycinium (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:17750 - glycine betaine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750) is conjugate base of N,N,N-trimethylglycinium (CHEBI:41139) ...
Betaine definition, a colorless, crystalline, water-soluble, sweet-tasting alkaloid, C 5 H 11 NO 2 , usually obtained from ... betaine in Medicine Expand. betaine be·ta·ine (bētə-ēn, -ĭn). n. A sweet crystalline alkaloid occurring in sugar beets and ... Betaine is used in the treatment of muscular weakness and degeneration. Chemical formula: C5H11NO2. ... It is a product of the decomposition of choline, betaine, and neuridine, when these substances are distilled with potash. ...
Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. Chloral ... Welldorm tablets (chloral betaine). Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the ... Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. Chloral ...
A Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel found that the lowest acute oral toxicity LD50 for cocamidopropyl betaine is 4,910 mg ... A review of industry studies finds alkyl betaines have acute oral toxicity (LD50) as low as 1190 mg/kg. ... A Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel found that cocoamidopropyl betaine is not a dermal sensitizer particularly at ... A Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel found that cocamidopropyl betaine did not cause genotoxicity in four studies. ...
... betaine hydrochloride provides extra hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which may aid in certain digestive processes. ... Thorne Research, B.P.P., (Betaine/Pepsin/Pancreatin), Digestive Enzymes, 180 Capsules. ...
... betaine hydrochloride provides extra hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which may aid in certain digestive processes. ... Natural Factors, Betaine HCL, with Fenugreek, 500 mg, 180 Veggie Caps. 56 ... Thorne Research, B.P.P., Betaine / Pepsin / Pancreatin, 180 Vegetarian Capsules. 21 ...
Understand more about Betaine Hydrochloride uses, health benefits, side effects, interactions, safety concerns, and ... Acide Chlorhydrique de Bétaïne, Betaine, Bétaïne, Betaine Chlorhydrate, Betaine HCl, Bétaïne HCl, Betaine Hydrochloric Acid, ... How does Betaine Hydrochloride work?. In the stomach, betaine hydrochloride separates into betaine and hydrochloric acid. The ... Dont confuse betaine hydrochloride with betaine anhydrous. Use only the FDA-approved betaine anhydrous product for the ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Side Effects & Safety. Betaine anhydrous is LIKELY SAFE for most children and adults when taken by mouth ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Uses & Effectiveness Effective for:. *High homocysteine levels in the urine (homocystinuria). Taking betaine ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Overview Information. Betaine anhydrous is a chemical that occurs naturally in the body, and can also be ...
... betaine powder, for solution), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products that ...
cystadane (betaine, anhydrous) powder, for solution. NDC Code(s): 68727-400-01 *Packager: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ... CYSTADANE (betaine) powder, for solution. NDC Code(s): 66621-4000-1 *Packager: Rare Disease Therapeutics, Inc. ... ATONO2 OXYGEN BABY (betaine) lotion. NDC Code(s): 70993-0005-1 *Packager: LAORGANIC Co., Ltd. ... CYSTADANE (betaine) powder, for solution. NDC Code(s): 52276-401-01 *Packager: Orphan Europe SARL ...
The preparation of betaine cations of methine dyes by three methods, viz., cyanine condensations of some quaternary salts and ... Nitrogen Organic Chemistry Nitrogen Atom Betaine Methine Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. 1, pp. 3- ...
Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. Choline or betaine ... Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ... Zeisel SH (2006a) Betaine supplementation and blood lipids: fact or artifact? Nutr Rev 64:77-79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Barak AJ, Tuma DJ (1983) Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? Life Sci 32:771-774PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
BETAINE (UNII: 3SCV180C9W) (BETAINE - UNII:3SCV180C9W) BETAINE. 1 g in 1 g. ... betaine 1000 MG Powder for Oral Solution [Cystadane]. SBD. 3. 404539. Cystadane 1000 MG (as betaine anhydrous) Powder for Oral ... CYSTADANE- betaine powder, for solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... Betaine occurs naturally in the body. It is a metabolite of choline and is present in small amounts in foods such as beets, ...
other: Multiple studies performed on humans studying the effect of betaine for improving skin and mu cous membrane health.. ...
Betaine EC Number:. 203-490-6. EC Name:. Betaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7 Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2 IUPAC Name:. 2-( ... BetaineBetaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7. Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2. IUPAC Name:. 2-( ... BetaineBetaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7. Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2. IUPAC Name:. 2-( ... BetaineBetaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7. Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2. IUPAC Name:. 2-( ...
Betaine. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] Trade names [6] IUPAC names [4] ...
Betaine Hydrochloride supports normal gastrointestinal pH.*. *Reformulated with non-dairy ingredients and can now support even ... Betaine hydrochloride, ammonium chloride, pepsin (1:10,000), calcium lactate, and magnesium citrate. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
This page features an image of a recrystallized mixture of betaine and urea. ... While some marine seaweed contains only betaine-glycine, other species feature a mixture of betaines. Betaine surfactants are ... Other betaines have been attributed similar functions in a variety of plants and it is believed that betaine-glycine plays a ... Betaine-Urea Mixture. Both betaine and urea are naturally occurring organic substances that are also often synthesized by ...
... IUPAC name {[3-(dodecanoylamino)propyl] (dimethyl)ammonio}acetate Identifiers CAS ... Cocamidopropyl betaine is a derivate of cocamide and betaine. See cocamide for the discussion of the length of carbon chain in ... Cocamidopropyl betaine to a significant degree has replaced cocamide DEA. Cocamidopropyl betaine is the active ingrediant in ... a b Mowad CM.Cocamidopropyl betaine allergy. Am J Contact Dermat. 2001 Dec;12(4):223-4. PMID 11753899 ...
Information and statements regarding dietary supplements/products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Information on this website is provided for informational purposes only and is a result of years of practice and experience by the author. This information is not intended as a substitute for the advice provided by your physician or other healthcare professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. Do not use the information on this website for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing medication or other treatment. Always speak with your physician or other healthcare professional before taking any medication or nutritional, herbal, or homeopathic supplement, or using any treatment for a health problem. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, contact your healthcare provider promptly. Do not disregard professional medical advice ...
Drug: Betaine Betaine will be given orally (mixed with food or dissolved in water, juice, milk, or formula) or through ... Experimental: Betaine Betaine will be given orally to all participants and dose will be adjusted to body weight. ... Drug Information available for: Betaine Betaine hydrochloride Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: X-linked ... Betaine is a medication already available as a powder for oral solution, for another rare disease. It is approved in many ...
Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous ... The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become ... Users inhalation exposure to betaine is expected to be minimal. Betaine anhydrous should be considered irritant to skin, eyes ... The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns ...
BHMT betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase [Homo sapiens] BHMT betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase [Homo sapiens]. ... betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1. Names. epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 61p. NP_001704.2. *EC 2.1.1.5 ... betaine--homocysteine S-methyltransferaseprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:1047 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000145692 ... enables betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
  • Betaine Hydrochloride is an important natural digestive aid, especially for older people. (healtha.ca)
  • Betaine HCl provides betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. (coachchris.com)
  • Application of Betaine Hydrochloride in broiler diet-Knowledge-Arshine Feed Biotech Co., Ltd. (arshinefeed.com)
  • However, special care have to be taken that the unfastened-flowing houses of betaine hydrochloride are constantly ensured, seeing that hygroscopicity may also limit software in feed factories. (arshinefeed.com)
  • With a sturdy awareness at the crystallisation procedure and correct software of a free flowing service, a non-hygroscopic betaine hydrochloride can be produced. (arshinefeed.com)
  • Nowadays, betaine is also to be had in several purified paperwork (anhydrous, monophosphate and hydrochloride betaine). (arshinefeed.com)
  • A few questions were raised if osmoregulatory homes of betaine hydrochloride had been just like the ones of betaine anhydrous. (arshinefeed.com)
  • As after gastric passage each molecules are same, no variations between betaine hydrochloride and betaine anhydrous as an effective feed additive ought to reasonably be anticipated. (arshinefeed.com)
  • HCL V-Plus is designed to provide digestive support via supplemental Betaine Hydrochloride, as optimum gastric pH is required for the complete digestion of proteins and absorption of vital nutrients in the diet. (traceelements.com)
  • We may temporarily add a supplement with Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin with high protein meals to support digestion and absorption of nutrients, while we're working on the underlying causes. (drshawnadarou.com)
  • A purified form of anhydrous betaine, BetaPower® Natural Betaine is 99% pure and derived from the molasses of sugar beets. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • Pre-Kaged Sport starts out with the Sports-Performance Matrix , which consists of L-citrulline, beta alanine, and betaine anhydrous . (priceplow.com)
  • Nutritional supplementation of betaine may lessen the requirement of other methyl donors together with methionine and choline. (arshinefeed.com)
  • Betaine is a derivative of choline that been documented across several clinical trials to enhance power, endurance, and muscle protein synthesis. (priceplow.com)
  • And all of our betaine ingredients are derived from sugar beet molasses. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • Micellar molecules, betaine and Pro vitamin B5 are ingredients known for their moisturizing and soothing properties. (smallable.com)
  • What's the point of saving money on products that don't deliver anything except a bunch of stimulants and no real ingredients that you need to grow bigger and get stronger in the gym like BCAAs, creatine, beta-alanine, and betaine (to name a few)? (jimstoppani.com)
  • Pre JYM provides 300mg of caffeine for under $2, and of course the Starbuck's beverage doesn't include any BCAAs, creatine, betaine or other ingredients found in Pre JYM. (jimstoppani.com)
  • Contains Ingredients Betaine # A humectant that works to balance the skin's hydration levels. (inspa.com)
  • Cocamidopropyl Betaine is a surfactant described as amphoteric. (cytolnat.com)
  • In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } betaine + NADH + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are betaine aldehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are betaine, NADH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase, BADH, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, and BetB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The responses of five transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) lines containing the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene to salt stress were evaluated. (jipb.net)
  • As an osmolyte (dipolar zwitterion characteristics), betaine will increase intracellular water retention and therefore protects intracellular enzymes in opposition to osmotic brought on inactivation. (arshinefeed.com)
  • A connection to biologically relevant systems was made using betaine (osmolyte) and urea (protein denaturant), showing that these two compounds formed a DES, the molecular interactions of which were greatly enhanced in the presence of water. (ua.pt)
  • Betaine helps regulate your skin's water balance. (skinstore.com)
  • Researchers reporting in the Journal of Pineal Research gave 175 participants 20mg omeprazole (a GERD medication sold under brand names including PriLOSEC) and 176 participants a supplement cocktail containing melatonin, L-tryptophan, vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid, methionine, and betaine (4). (wholefoodsmagazine.com)
  • The transgenic tomatoes had enhanced BADH activity and betaine content, compared to the wild type under stress conditions. (jipb.net)
  • The predominant physiologic function of betaine is to behave as an osmolyte and as methyl donor (transmethylation). (arshinefeed.com)
  • As a methyl donor, betaine participates within the methionine cycle (mainly within the liver) and may be further used in transmethylation reactions for synthesis of essential materials like carnitine and creatine (determine 1). (arshinefeed.com)
  • 1979) showed that the dietary addition of betaine and methionine can update every different in broiler chicks. (arshinefeed.com)
  • 1997) confirmed that among 30 and eighty% of the supplemental methionine may be substituted through betaine without terrible effects on performance. (arshinefeed.com)
  • This simple test involves taking a supplement containing Betaine HCl with pepsin with a high protein meal, and seeing if you have an effect. (drshawnadarou.com)
  • Also known as trimethylglycine or TMG, betaine is found in many healthy foods, such as whole grains, spinach and beets. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • Naturally derived from beets, Prairie Naturals Betaine HCl also works to protect the gastrointestinal tract from dangerous bacteria and parasites! (healtha.ca)
  • However, sugar beets include pretty high ranges of betaine which collect in condensed soluble (≈ 116,000 mg/kg). (arshinefeed.com)
  • Betaine is a zwitterion metabolite additionally called trimethylglycine. (arshinefeed.com)
  • The need for a higher dose of Betaine HCl with a high-protein meal suggests that you are not making enough stomach acid. (drshawnadarou.com)
  • Betaine and bisabolol have a calming effect on the skin and protect the hydrolipidic barrier while a complex of minerals (Cu - Zn + Mg) helps maintain structural integrity of damaged, infected and inflamed skin (acne, dermatitis, irritations). (skintegra.com)
  • Wheat's betaine content prevents chronic inflammation, which is a key constituent in rheumatic pains and diseases. (weatherburyfarm.com)
  • Betaine is removed by means of metabolism, now not excretion, and catabolised via a series of enzyme reactions (transmethylation) that occur in the mitochondria of liver and kidney cells. (arshinefeed.com)
  • Nutritional supplementation of betaine may lessen the requirement of other methyl donors together with methionine and choline. (arshinefeed.com)
  • Betaine is a derivative of choline that been documented across several clinical trials to enhance power, endurance, and muscle protein synthesis. (priceplow.com)
  • Choline is also included as it contributes to normal homocysteine metabolism, being the precursor to betaine. (metabolics.com)
  • Betaine helps regulate your skin's water balance. (skinstore.com)
  • Betaine along with Vitamin B6 and B12 can act as methyl donors in the remethylation of homocysteine in the liver contributing to the breakdown of this dangerous chemical. (metabolics.com)
  • Research shows that BetaPower® Natural Betaine can significantly improve strength, endurance, and power in humans. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • BetaPower® Natural Betaine contributes to several important metabolic functions. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • BetaPower® Natural Betaine helps your fitness-oriented consumers get a natural boost in their performance while aiding several important metabolic functions. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • It's important to note that a number of published athletic performance and safety studies have included BetaPower® Natural Betaine. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • Incorporating BetaPower® Natural Betaine in your sports nutrition and nutraceutical products gives your consumers a convenient way to achieve a daily dose of this versatile ingredient. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • Betaine has been included in this male support formula as it has 3 chemically reactive methyl groups that can act as methyl donors. (metabolics.com)
  • Interestingly, the bacterium could not produce glycine betaine (a common compatible solute), but addition of 1 mM of glycine betaine to the medium induced salt tolerance. (agri.gov.il)
  • The responses of five transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) lines containing the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene to salt stress were evaluated. (jipb.net)
  • Betaine is an important daily requirement as homocysteine values rise as we age, levels of which are typically higher in men. (metabolics.com)
  • There are other synthetic and natural betaine products on the market, which may not have been subjected to these stringent tests-and this may not always be clear from the product labelling. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • We're the world's largest supplier of natural betaine used for food and a wide variety of other applications. (dupontnutritionandbiosciences.com)
  • It is a natural sulfur-containing compound (thio betaine) and is considered as the best feed lure. (feedstim.com)