Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Amino Acids, DiaminoDictionaries, ChemicalAgrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Cordyceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Phleomycins: Water-soluble, copper-containing low molecular weight polypeptides obtained from the culture medium of Streptomyces verticillus. They are specific inhibitors of DNA synthesis in bacteria and have been found to act as antitumor agents. They have also been used against rust fungi of plants.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Libraries, MedicalBeta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.ThiadiazolesCinnamatesAuthorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)N-substituted Glycines: AMINO ACIDS composed of GLYCINE substituted at the nitrogen rather than the usual carbon position, resulting in the loss of HYDROGEN BONDING donors. Polymers of these compounds are called PEPTOIDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Zellweger Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.Refsum Disease, Infantile: An early onset form of phytanic acid storage disease with clinical and biochemical signs different from those of REFSUM DISEASE. Features include MENTAL RETARDATION; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; OSTEOPOROSIS; and severe liver damage. It can be caused by mutation in a number of genes encoding proteins involving in the biogenesis or assembly of PEROXISOMES.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Shellfish Poisoning: Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Nitrohydroxyiodophenylacetate: Also called 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetate. A haptenic determinant that can be radiolabeled and used as salts and derivatives for investigations of immunogenic specificity studies.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Serving Size: A reference measure of food used to identify the calorie and nutrient content in a particular amount of that food. It is defined by an authoritative source, such as the Food Guide Pyramid devised by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. It is different from PORTION SIZE, which is the amount of food one chooses to eat at a single meal.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.BrazilPseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Adenosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)NorwayPensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (1/739)

BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.  (+info)

Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov., a novel halophilic fermentative bacterium that reduces glycine-betaine to trimethylamine with hydrogen or serine as electron donors; emendation of the genus Haloanaerobacter. (2/739)

A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.  (+info)

Glycine betaine: reserve form of choline in Penicillium fellutanum in low-sulfate medium. (3/739)

In spite of choline's importance in fungal metabolism, its sources in cytoplasm have not been fully established. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of mycelial extracts from day-5 Penicillium fellutanum cultures showed that, as well as choline-O-sulfate, intracellular glycine betaine is another reserve form of choline, depending on the availability of sulfate in the culture medium. These observations are discussed relative to the multiple roles of choline and its precursors in P. fellutanum.  (+info)

Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (4/739)

Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality.  (+info)

LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (5/739)

During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes.  (+info)

The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis. (6/739)

The response of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 to salt stress has been characterized previously in complex media. In this report, it has been demonstrated that this bacterium actively accumulates the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) from salt-enriched complex medium BHI. To further understand the specific effects of GB and other osmoprotective compounds in salt adaptation and salt-induced cross-tolerance to lethal challenges, a chemically defined medium lacking putative osmoprotectants was used. In this medium, bacterial growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. At 0.75 M NaCl, 90% inhibition of the growth rate was observed; GB and its structural analogues restored growth to the non-salt-stressed level. In contrast, proline, pipecolate and ectoine did not allow growth recovery of stressed cells. Kinetic studies showed that the uptake of betaines shows strong structural specificity and occurs through a salt-stress-inducible high-affinity porter [Km = 3.3 microM; Vmax = 130 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1); the uptake activity increased 400-fold in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl]. Moreover, GB and its analogues were accumulated as non-metabolizable cytosolic osmolytes and reached intracellular levels ranging from 1-3 to 1.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1). In contrast to the beneficial effect of GB on the growth of salt-stressed cultures of E. faecalis, its accumulation inhibits the salt-induced cross-tolerance to a heterologous lethal challenge. Indeed, pretreatment of bacterial cells with 0.5 M NaCl induced resistance to 0.3% bile salts (survival of adapted cells increased by a factor of 6800). The presence of GB in the adaptation medium reduced the acquisition of bile salts resistance 680-fold. The synthesis of 11 of the 13 proteins induced during salt adaptation was significantly reduced in the presence of GB. These results raise questions about the actual beneficial effect of GB in natural environments where bacteria are often subjected to various stresses.  (+info)

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (7/739)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Disaccharides as a new class of nonaccumulated osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti. (8/739)

Sucrose and ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidine carboxylic acid) are very unusual osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti because these compounds, unlike other bacterial osmoprotectants, do not accumulate as cytosolic osmolytes in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells. Here, we show that, in fact, sucrose and ectoine belong to a new family of nonaccumulated sinorhizobial osmoprotectants which also comprises the following six disaccharides: trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, turanose, and palatinose. Also, several of these disaccharides were very effective exogenous osmoprotectants for strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars phaseoli and trifolii. Sucrose and trehalose are synthesized as endogenous osmolytes in various bacteria, but the other five disaccharides had never been implicated before in osmoregulation in any organism. All of the disaccharides that acted as powerful osmoprotectants in S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum also acted as very effective competitors of [14C]sucrose uptake in salt-stressed cultures of these bacteria. Conversely, disaccharides that were not osmoprotective for S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum did not inhibit sucrose uptake in these bacteria. Hence, disaccharide osmoprotectants apparently shared the same uptake routes in these bacteria. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantification of cytosolic solutes demonstrated that the novel disaccharide osmoprotectants were not accumulated to osmotically significant levels in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells; rather, these compounds, like sucrose and ectoine, were catabolized during early exponential growth, and contributed indirectly to enhance the cytosolic levels of two endogenously synthesized osmolytes, glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide. The ecological implication of the use of these disaccharides as osmoprotectants is discussed.  (+info)

*Betaine

Phosphonium betaines are intermediates in the Wittig reaction. The addition of betaine to polymerase chain reactions improves ... In the 21st century, this substance is called glycine betaine to distinguish it from other betaines that are widely distributed ... Cocamidopropyl betaine Mesoionic Mesomeric betaine Osmoprotectants Ylide Alex Nickon and Ernest F. Silversmith (1987). Organic ... The original betaine, N,N,N-trimethylglycine, was named after its discovery in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) in ...

*Cocamidopropyl betaine

... to a significant degree has replaced cocamide DEA. Despite the name cocamidopropyl betaine is not ... Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. It is a medium strength surfactant also used in bath products ... Fowler, J. F.; Fowler, L. M.; Hunter, J. E. (1997). "Allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine may be due to amidoamine: A patch test ... Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a mixture of closely related organic compounds derived from coconut oil and ...

*Mesomeric betaine

Mesomeric betaines are dipolar heterocyclic compounds in which both the negative and the positive charges are delocalized. ... Ollis, W.David; Stanforth, Stepher P.; Ramsden, Christopher A. (1985). "Heterocyclic mesomeric betaines". Tetrahedron. 41 (12 ...

*Betaine transporter

Betaine Carnitine Choline Transporter Classification Database Saier, MH Jr. "2.A.15 The Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter ( ... Proteins of the Betaine/Carnitine/Choline Transporter (BCCT) family (TC# 2.A.15) are found in Gram-negative and Gram-positive ... Glycine betaine transporters have been found to contain a conserved region with four tryptophans in their central region. Most ... Zhou Y, Holmseth S, Hua R, Lehre AC, Olofsson AM, Poblete-Naredo I, Kempson SA, Danbolt NC (2012). "The betaine-GABA ...

*Chloral betaine

... (USAN, BAN) (brand names Beta-Chlor, Somilan), also known as cloral betaine (INN), is a sedative-hypnotic drug ... It is a betaine complex with chloral hydrate, which acts as an extended-acting formulation of chloral hydrate which is then ...

*Betaine reductase

... (EC 1.21.4.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl phosphate + trimethylamine + ...

*Glycine betaine aldehyde

The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine ... Glycine betaine aldehyde, often simply called betaine aldehyde, is an intermediate in the metabolism of glycine, serine and ... Glycine betaine aldehyde is a component of glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. It also serves as an osmolyte. It can be ... Betaine aldehyde, Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank Yilmaz JL, Bülow L. (December 2002). "Enhanced stress tolerance in ...

*Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase

... betaine + NADH + 2 H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are betaine aldehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are betaine, ... In enzymology, a betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction betaine aldehyde ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is betaine-aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include betaine ... ROTHSCHILD HA, BARRON ES (1954). "The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 209 (2 ...

*Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

In the field of enzymology, a betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase also known as betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ( ... Betaine PDB: 1UMY​; González B, Pajares MA, Martínez-Ripoll M, Blundell TL, Sanz-Aparicio J (May 2004). "Crystal structure of ... Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 2.1.1.5 ... Szegedi SS, Castro CC, Koutmos M, Garrow TA (April 2008). "Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase-2 is an S-methylmethionine- ...

*Beetroot

2002). Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center. Potter, K.; Hankey, G. J.; Green, D. J.; Eikelboom, J. W.; Arnolda, L. F ... Beets contain betaines which may function to reduce the concentration of homocysteine, a homolog of the naturally occurring ... "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism?". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. ...

*Allergen of the Year

2005 - Corticosteroids 2004 - Cocamidopropyl betaine 2003 - Bacitracin 2002 - Thimerosal 2001 - Gold 2000 - Disperse Blue Dyes ... 2006). Focus on the Non-T.R.U.E. Test Allergen - Cocamidopropyl Betaine. The Dermatologist. http://www.the-dermatologist.com/ ... article/6127 Jacob, S. E.; Amini, S (2008). "Cocamidopropyl betaine". Dermatitis. 19 (3): 157-60. doi:10.2310/6620.2008.06043 ( ...

*Coconut

Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a surfactant manufactured from coconut oil that is increasingly used as an ingredient in ... Schnuch A, Lessmann H, Geier J, Uter W (2011). "Is cocamidopropyl betaine a contact allergen? Analysis of network data and ... Jacob SE, Amini S (2008). "Cocamidopropyl betaine". Dermatitis (Review). 19 (3): 157-160. doi:10.2310/6620.2008.06043. PMID ...

*Lipotropic

Betaine hydrochloride is a powerful lipotropic and increases gastric acid. Betaine itself (in a non-hydrochloric form, also ... Barak, 1973) "Betaine Hydrochloride Information on Healthline". Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2008-04-24 ... Schwahn, BC; Wang, XL; Mikael, LG; Wu, Q; Cohn, J; Jiang, H; Maclean, KN; Rozen, R (Dec 2007). "Betaine supplementation ... Craig, SA (September 2004). "Betaine in human nutrition". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80 (3): 539-49. PMID 15321791. ...

*Dichloralphenazone

Chloral betaine Hindmarch I; Parrott AC. (1980). "The effects of combined sedative and anxiolytic preparations on subjective ...

*Glycocyamine

Betaine can provide a methyl group to glycocyamine, via methionine, for the formation of creatine. In overall, such treatment ... A series of studies showed that a combination of betaine and glycocyamine improves the symptoms of patients with chronic ... The biochemical basis of betaine-glycocyamine therapy. Ann West Med Surg 1951;5:825-9. Borsook ME, Borsook H. Treatment of ... Stuart AS Craig (September 2004). "Betaine in human nutrition". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80 (3): 539-549. PMID ...

*GABA transporter

GAT2 also transports taurine, while BGT1 transports betaine. These two transporters are predominantly expressed in the liver, ... Betaine transporter (BGT1; SLC6A12) Vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) GAT1 and GAT3 are the major GABA transporters in the ...

*Cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine

Cocamidopropyl betaine Guin JD (2000). "Reaction to cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, an amphoteric surfactant and conditioner". ...

*Mesoionic

Mesomeric betaine Bhosale, Sachin K.; Deshpande, Shreenivas R.; Wagh, Rajendra D. (2012). "Mesoionic sydnone derivatives: An ... Mesoionic compounds are a subclass of betaines. Examples are sydnones and sydnone imines (e.g. the stimulant mesocarb), ... "Heterocyclic mesomeric betaines". Tetrahedron. 41 (12): 2239-2329. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)96625-6. "SYDNONES" (PDF). [page ...

*Trimethylglycine

Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC ... Trimethylglycine was the first betaine discovered; originally it was simply called betaine because, in the 19th century, it was ... Since then, many other betaines have been discovered, and the more specific name glycine betaine distinguishes this one. ... In most organisms, glycine betaine is biosynthesized by oxidation of choline in two steps. The intermediate, betaine aldehyde, ...

*Isochrysis

Kato, Misako; Sakai, Miho; Adachi, Kyoko; Ikemoto, Hisato; Sano, Hiroshi (1996). "Distribution of betaine lipids in marine ...

*Molasses

It contains betaine and the trisaccharide raffinose. These are a result of concentration from the original plant material or ...

*GABA transporter type 2

"Deletion of the betaine-GABA transporter (BGT1; slc6a12) gene does not affect seizure thresholds of adult mice". Epilepsy Res. ...

*S-Methylmethionine

McNeil SD (1999). "Betaines and related osmoprotectants. Targets for metabolic engineering of stress resistance". Plant ...

*1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition

Caramella, Pierluigi; Houk, K.N. (1976). "Geometries of nitrilium betaines. The clarification of apparently anomalous reactions ...

*Dimethylsulfoniopropionate

McNeil, Scott D.; Nuccio, Michael L.; Hanson, Andrew D. (1999). "Betaines and Related Osmoprotectants. Targets for Metabolic ...
The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine and the results were compared to isocaloric dextrose-fed controls. Livers were subjected to microarray analysis, and functional pathways and individual gene expression changes were analyzed. Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a large number of genes indicating that the changes were global. The bio-informatic analysis showed that all the KEGG functional pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed rats. The most profound effect of betaine was on the metabolic
Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, Sylvestre PB, Lindor KD. Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(9):2711-2717.. Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, Saarela J, Aro A. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(4):665-669.. Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):577-585.. Angulo P, Lindor KD. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver: present and emerging therapies. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):81-88.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badkhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21(6):1100-1102.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. ...
Betaine HCl Supports healthy stomach acidity, gastric function, and protein digestion. Why is betaine important? Betaine has other benefits for the body beyond digestion support: Betaine is linked to healthy homocysteine levels, a variable in healthy bone metabolism. Betaine works with B vitamins to synthesize amino acids, precursor to SAM-e (S-adenosyl-L-Methionine). Why use Betaine HCl? It works with the body to support healthy, natural digestion: Betaine mirrors the action of healthy stomach acid levels, supporting comfortable digestion. The addition of pepsin ensures additional support for protein digestion. Combined in an easy-to-swallow UltraCap to support stomach acidity, gastric function, and protein digestion. Recommendations: Take 1 or 2 UltraCaps at the beginning of each meal, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Do not chew. Not recommended for use if peptic ulcer, gastritis or heartburn is present. Supplement Facts: Serving Size: 2 UltraCaps
DIETARY SUPPLEMENT Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 100 CAPSULES More Info: Betaine HCl [ with Pepsin ] Betaine HCl increases stomach acidity and may reduce food sensitivities through improved digestion. Our formula complexes 648mg Betaine HCl with 200mg Pepsin - an enzyme that aids in the digestion of protein. Supplemental Facts: Each preservative-free vegetarian capsule contains only the active ingredients listed on the label. Excipient-free. Ingredients: Serving Size: 1 capsule Amount Per Capsule Betaine Hydrochloride ...648mg* Pepsin (1:3,000) ...200mg* * Daily Value not established for this ingredient Contains: vegetarian capsule, L-leucine Dosage: DIRECTIONS: One (1) capsule daily with a meal as a dietary supplement, or as directed by a Doctor. WARNINGS: STORAGE: Keep tightly closed in a dry place; do not expose to excessive heat. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
According to the market research report "Betaine Market :By Type (Synthetic, Natural); By Form (Betaine Anhydrous, Cocamidopropyl Betaine); By End-users (Food & Beverages, Animal Feed) & Geography - Forecast (2016-2021)", published by IndustryARC, estimates tremendous expansion for new entrants.. Browse Report @ http://industryarc.com/Report/15179/betaine-market.html. Betaine is a by-product of sugar beet processing. This works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid causes harm to blood vessels and contributes to heart disease, stroke and circulation problems.. After the discovery of betaine supplement, this was originally used to turn homocysteine into L-methionine. Homocysteine is a toxic samino acid that can lead to various health problems when elevated in the body including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and multiple cardiovascular issues. Betaine supplementation is extremely important for individuals with homocystinuria, a rare genetic condition that ...
Roughly 140 million people worldwide are chronically exposed to As-contaminated drinking water at concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 10 µg/L. Arsenic is a class I carcinogen known to cause several types of cancer and ischemic heart disease. Metabolism of inorganic As (InAs), which facilitates urinary As excretion, relies on one-carbon metabolism and involves two methylation steps; both utilize S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. SAM biosynthesis relies on B vitamins including folate and B12 for the recruitment and transfer of methyl groups, but other nutrients, including choline and betaine, also contribute to the methyl pool. Our recent findings from a cross-sectional study of Bangladeshi adults exposed to a wide range of As concentrations in drinking water show that plasma choline and betaine concentrations are positively associated with As methylation. These findings suggest that choline and/or betaine may play an important role in As ...
Highlights: • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. • Betaines anti-tumorigenic effect might be due to a reversal of the Warburg effect. - Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. It reduces cardiovascular disease risk and protects liver cells from alcoholic liver damage and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Its pretreatment can rescue cells exposed to toxins such as rotenone, chloroform, and LiCl. Furthermore, it has been suggested that betaine can suppress cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is essential to produce cellular energy, ATP. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and energy status have been found in many human pathological conditions including aging, cancer, and ...
1. Wilcken DEL, Dudman NPB, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency-the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism. 1985;34:1115-1121. 2. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. 3. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:552-555. 4. Murakami T, Nagamura Y, Hirano K. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 1998;44:249-255. 5. Gray ME, Titlow LW. The effect of pangamic acid on maximal treadmill performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14:424-427. 6. Mangoni AA, Jackson SH. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects. Am J Med. 2002;112:556-565. 7. Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and ...
What is Betaine Anhydrous?. Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaines two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.. ...
Cocamidopropyl betaine, Cocamidopropyl betaine supplier, Cocamidopropyl betaine distributor, CAS 61789-40-0 70851-07-9 83138-08-3 , Cocamidopropyl betaine manufacturer, Cocamidopropyl betaine wholesale
To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. Sixteen recreationally active subjects (7 females and 9 males) completed three sprint tests, each consisting of four 12 sec efforts against a resistance equal to 5.5% of body weight; efforts were separated by 2.5 min of cycling at zero resistance. Test one established baseline; test two and three were preceded by seven days of daily consumption of 591 ml of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage as a placebo or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage containing 0.42% betaine (approximately 2.5 grams of betaine a day); half the beverage was consumed in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. We used a double blind random order cross-over design; there was a 3 wk washout between trials two and three. Average and maximum peak and mean power were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA and, where indicated, a Student Newman-Keuls. Compared to baseline, betaine ingestion increased average peak power (6.4%; p | 0.001),
Betaine supplementation has numerous positive effects on animal performance. Recent studies with betaine from sugar beet molasses looked if this naturally derived betaine can substitute a certain amount of added methionine in broiler diets.
Betaine is a byproduct of sugar beet processing. Betaine works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid can harm blood vessels and contribute to heart disease, stroke, or circulation problems. Betaine is used to reduce homocysteine levels in people with a genetic condition called...
Aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines and certain water-soluble inorganic or organic salts provide compositions of remarkably high viscosities. The inorganic salts suitable for this purpose are the sulfates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB, and IIIA of the period table; sulfates of non-metallic ions; and alkali metal carbonates. Organic salts suitable in the present compositions include the citrates, tartrates, succinates, and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB and IIIA of the period table and the citrates, tartrates, succinates and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of ammonium ions. These salts have a synergistic viscosity-building effect on aqueous compositions containing alkylamido betaines in combination with micelle-forming anionic surfactants. Other salts increase the viscosity of aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines only in the presence of anionic surfactants. Suitable inorganic salts in this category include sulfates of metals from Group IB of the
Aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines and certain water-soluble inorganic or organic salts provide compositions of remarkably high viscosities. The inorganic salts suitable for this purpose are the sulfates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB, and IIIA of the period table; sulfates of non-metallic ions; and alkali metal carbonates. Organic salts suitable in the present compositions include the citrates, tartrates, succinates, and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB and IIIA of the period table and the citrates, tartrates, succinates and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of ammonium ions. These salts have a synergistic viscosity-building effect on aqueous compositions containing alkylamido betaines in combination with micelle-forming anionic surfactants. Other salts increase the viscosity of aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines only in the presence of anionic surfactants. Suitable inorganic salts in this category include sulfates of metals from Group IB of the
China Animal Feed Additive Betaine Hcl manufacturers - Select 2020 high quality Animal Feed Additive Betaine Hcl products in best price from certified Chinese Food Additive Chemical manufacturers, China Additive suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
In the July Q&A on my Patreon feed, Doris asked: I fell down this particular rabbit hole because I wanted to duplicate a simple shampoo that I love. (Its this shampoo - Dirty Girl Farm, Bamboo Shampoo.) I think the order of the ingredients is off, but according to the label they are: water, glycerin, cocamidopropyl betaine, sodium chloride, bamboo extract. fragrance, citric acid, neem infusion. The cocamidopropyl betaine seems to be the only surfactant, which strikes me as odd, but I went with it. I put together a basic recipe, but cant get it to thicken with either salt or Crothix. My bamboo extract is 40% water, 40% glycerin, and 20% bamboo. I used it at 10% and didnt add any additional glycerin, since my hair is very prone to frizz. I couldnt find "neem infusion" anywhere, but I did include liquid Germall Plus (using a preservative is just one of the many important things Ive learned from you). Finally, my questions. Can cocamidopropyl betaine be used as the only surfactant in a shampoo? ...
Betaine HCl provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients. This product is not recommended for anyone diagnosed with any type of ulcer or gastritis, or those with an overproduction of acid. This product was previously in a tablet form, however we have upgraded to a capsule. This ensures delivery of betaine HCl and pepsin to the stomach where they are needed to initiate digestion.. Made with non-GMO ingredients. ...
Maybe youve heard about how betaine derived from beet root can help increase the performance of long-distance cyclists and other endurance athletes. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research recently tested betaines effect on strength training. Scientists supplemented a hydrating beverage with 2.5 grams of betaine and had half of the study subjects drink that…
Platinum 100% Betaine. Ultra-pure Betaine to enhance performance. Stimulant free. Gain muscle and reduce recovery. Free shipping on Platinum 100% Betaine!
Betaine HCl Caps contain the highest potency betaine hydrochloride formula available providing powdered Betaine HCl with pepsin in gelatin capsules for quick acting and enhanced effectiveness.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants are chilling sensitive, and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), a metabolite that functions as a stress protectant. We reported previously that exogenous GB application enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato. To understand its protective role better, we have further evaluated various parameters associated with improved tolerance. Although its effect was most pronounced in younger plants, this benefit was diminished 1 week after GB application. When administered by foliar spray, GB was readily taken up and translocated to various organs, with the highest levels being measured in meristematic tissues, including the shoot apices and flower buds. In leaves, the majority of endogenous GB was found in the cytosol; only 0.6-22.0% of the total leaf GB was localized in chloroplasts. Immediately after GB application, levels of H2O2, catalase activity and expression of the catalase gene (CAT1) were all higher in GB-treated than in ...
Twinlab Betaine HCI with Pepsin Digestive Aid Dietary Supplement Capsules at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Twinlab Betaine HCI with Pepsin Digestive Aid Dietary Supplement Capsules
When you eat a meal‚ it is crucial that proper digestion and absorption of food takes place in order for you to maximize its benefits. In most cases‚ a balanced diet contains an assortment of the nutrients required for your body to function properly. However‚ sometimes all the nutrients in the foods that you eat are not completely absorbed; this lack of absorption can occur for a variety of different reasons: such as inadequate breakdown of food‚ a shortage of required chemical aids in the stomach‚ or certain types of anemia. Its known that betaine HCL facilitates the proper absorption of protein‚ calcium‚ vitamin B-12‚ and iron. These nutrients help your body with a variety of functions‚ such as bone and blood formation. Meanwhile‚ pepsin is used in the digestion of proteins that are used for the growth and repair of body tissues. For the best results‚ a supplement like Pure Encapsulations Betaine HCL Pepsin should be taken with each meal to assist with proper digestion ...
Purica Pure Betaine Details Pure vegan betaine powder for liver and digestive support. Also assists protein synthesis, helping athletes boost muscle strength, power, and mass.
Betaine hydrochloride (betaine HCl) increases the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach relative to how much is taken before meals. This enables the stomach to much more completely dissolve and process foods right down to base nutrients, as we
I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. Best part is the relief has lasted more than the usual 1-2 weeks. I once tried a betaine HCL product in the past but I took it the same time as taking a probiotic (I have found I always rash up from probiotics, without exception.) It may be worth a try, Im having a lot of success using it everyday and cycling my other supplements. In
Betaine Hydrochloride 350mg 120 Capsules. Ingredients: Betaine hydrochloride 350 mg, organic rice flour, gelatin capsule. Suggested Use: Adults and children 12 or more years of age: 1-2 capsules daily with a meal or as directed. For further information, please view the product label by clicking the blue
In general as far as I know customers who bought Betaine HCI Plus Pepsin Bluebonnet 180 Caps or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on Betaine HCI Plus Pepsin Bluebonnet 180 Caps, best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
In general as far as I know customers who bought TWINLAB, Betaine HCL w/Pepsin 10/2 grains - 100 caps ( Multi-Pack) or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on TWINLAB, Betaine HCL w/Pepsin 10/2 grains - 100 caps ( Multi-Pack), best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
bacteria OpuC protein: mediates the uptake of choline for biosynthesis of osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis; amino sequence in first source
We have developed a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of free choline, betaine, and DMG in human plasma or serum. The sample processing involves mixing with acetonitrile, carried out by a robotic workstation, followed by centrifugation of the samples. The sample processing is fast and simple, requiring no derivatization, and all steps except for centrifugation are fully automated. This is the first published method that allows the simultaneous analysis of these three metabolites with use of the same preparation procedure and detection method.. The samples were deproteinized and metabolites were extracted by mixing with three volumes of acetonitrile. Preconditions for this convenient sample preparation are no covalent binding of analytes to plasma proteins (requiring steps such as reduction or acid hydrolysis), solubility of analytes at high percentages of acetonitrile, and no adsorption of analytes to precipitated proteins or protein pellet. The metabolites are all stable under these mild ...
Tri-Methyl Glycine (TMG) is also known as Betaine. It plays a role in methylation processes in the body, helping to maintain a healthy heart and vascular system.
Learn how betaine could help to reduce cardiovascular disease in combination with vitamins B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folic acid) and B12 (cobalamin).
Cocamidopropyl Betaine is an amphoteric detergent, which is a detergent that can act as an acid or a base. It does not irritate the skin or mucous membranes. It is used to thicken shampoos, and to reduce the irritation that would result if only more irritating detergents were used. It has antibiotic effects, and is used in personal sanitary products. It has anti-static properties, making it a conditioning agent in shampoos. ...
Now Foods, Betaine HCL 648 mg, 120 Capsules. For all your vitamins, superfoods and nutritional supplements. Lowest prices, fast delivery and Webshop T
Betaine is named because of its initial discovery as a component of beets. However its also found in spinach, shellfish and whole grains like quinoa.
Purchase Betaine HCL and Pepsin digestive support at forresthealth.com. Buy natural health supplements at low prices, fast delivery, great service.
When taken as a health supplement, betaine hydrochloride provides extra hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which may aid in certain digestive processes.
Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it.
Product Page for Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 600 mg 250 Tabs made by country-life offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
The betaine hydrochloride in Orthoplex Hydrozyme 120 tablets may help improve stomach secretions. Orthoplex Hydrozyme 120 may assist with reflux, burping,…
The best remedy for acid reflux is adequate stomach acid. The use of Betaine HCl for acid reflux is recommended as it helps in increasing stomach acid.
Fast, free shipping with excellent service. Let us help you get your Pure Encapsulations - Betaine HCL Pepsin - 250 Capsules today.
Buy Betaine HCL With Pepsin - Country Life - 250 - Tablet with fast shipping and top-rated customer service.Once you know, you Newegg!
Put TMG in your beverages. When they refine sugar from sugar beets, one of the things they remove from the sugar is TMG, which can be purchased as a food supplement and easily mixed into juice or milk. If the TMG is used properly in small amounts, no one can taste it ...
Heartburn is often caused by stomach acid that is TOO LOW… NOT too high. Many people are shocked when they hear this, but its absolutely true. Low stomach acid leads to a whole host of digestive issues that cause inflammation, swelling, and fluid retention in the stomach and digestive tract. H. Pylori infection and SIBO are highly opportunistic and thrive in low acid environments. These and other infections that crop up when stomach acid is too low aggravate all of this inflammation. Inflamed tissues swelling even just a little cause a build up of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) over the long term. This pressure build up impact tissues such as your hiatal sphincter as well as your esophagus, which leads to stomach acid being able to navigate into the esophagus causing pain and discomfort.. My HCL formula contains Betaine Hydrochloride which supports optimal gastric acidity. Betaine, an amino acid, is a derivative of choline, a vital micronutrient. I combined betaine with hydrochloride in order ...
A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline in
Hepatocler information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Heralds do Brasil, Hepatocler indications, usages and related health products lists
When they say certain foods are good for everyone, they are dead wrong. Everyone has to eat their own special way. This is based on enzymes that we make. You should see the red in the MTHFR genes on our DNA report. It actually makes sense, my daughter has been taking betaine for a couple of years and I have been buying pickled beets to aid in digestion. I just didnt realize that it was not just stomach acid deficiency, it was the inability to properly put folate where it belongs. Need a little extra methyl, get some in the coffee I drink. But that isnt enough, to get enough it would make me sick drinking all that coffee. The combination of betaine and methylcobalamin along with a magnesium pill brought down the inflammation in my body in the last two and a half weeks pretty much. My joints feel lots better all over my body. Im waiting for the side effects. So far, I only had one, running up the porch steps with a planter, I sprained my arch. I was also fighting the urge to go jogging. I need ...
Quickview {"id":3957800632343,"title":"Natures Life Betaine HCL Supplement 350 mg , Includes 150mg of Pepsin , Healthy Digestive Function Support , 100 Tablets","handle":"natures-life-betaine-hcl-supplement-350-mg-includes-150mg-of-pepsin-healthy-digestive-function-support-100-tablets","description":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cb\u003eBrand:\u003c\/b\u003e Natures Life\u003c\/p\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003cb\u003eFeatures:\u003c\/b\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eNatures Remedy: Betaine Hydrochloride is a natural aid used to support digestive health\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eGood for the Gut: Added Pepsin may help support balanced stomach acid levels for healthy digestion\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eWorry Free: Order with confidence with our 60-Day money back guarantee\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eQuality You Can Trust: Manufactured in our own facility\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCustomers Say: Couldnt eat meat without this. Highly ...
Works in combination with Seacure (started 8/1) and Interfase (started 8/8) with leaky gut syndrome.. 3. Betaine Plus HP or HCL Premier - High potency hydrocholoric acid with pepsin to allow easier digestion of meats and other difficult digestive foods. Less work for the digestive system allows for quicker / easier repair. Its in a pill form and easy to take. Last day of Betaine Plus HP supplement was 7/13. HCL Premier used in conjunction with HCL Activator Premier to detoxify the body. Started back up 8/8 with Activator.. 4. Cococurcumin - A combination of Curcumin plus MCT & CoQ10. The curcumin / curcuminoids acts as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Out of all the supplements, this is the worst tasting (the taste is similar to eating your own bile…yes, its that bad) and can stain anything. I suggest 4 tablespoons of applesauce per 2 teaspoons of cococurcumin. Took from 6/11 - 7/15.. 5. Optimal EFAs Caps - Its high quality fish, flaxseed and borage oils all which promote ...
GI doctor tried dilation treatment but the stretched strictures kept shrinking back to original 1/4″ "-(. HI Jane - H Pylori can cause an ulcer and we recommend a specific protocol to get rid of it. Too much stomach acid most likely is not causing. In this case, the patients GI complaints resolved and, in the process, the patient became empowered to maintain her health. and magnesium, and a breath test was positive for methane, suggesting SIBO. She was started on magnesium and digestive enzymes (which improved her constipation) and was prescribed rifaximin 550 mg TID for 10 days. The medication; a low fermentable oligo-saccharides, di-saccharides, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FOMDAP) diet for SIBO; and an elimination diet decreased her complaints of gas but failed to resolve her upper and lower abdominal pains. These were relieved with only forced burping or food.. Heartburn is often caused by stomach acid that is TOO LOW… NOT too high. Many people are shocked when they hear this, but ...
*These statements have not been evaluated by the food and Drug administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
P305 + P351 + P338:¯IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing ...
Just Chill Stress Relief Drink in Tropical - These drinks have SunTheanine, a patented form of L-theanine, which is a unique amino acid found in green tea that has been shown to help improve performance by reducing stress and increasing focus without causing drowsiness. Im usually pretty low-stress in my daily life, but I drank this at work while I was sick and it had a nice peachy flavor and I definitely felt relaxed. Im not sure if that was due to the fact that I usually dont get stressed in the first place, but it certainly didnt hurt ...
Diets, Growth, Sensitivity, Corn, Methionine, Sulfur, Diet, Homoserine, Eye, Eyes, Orientation, Retinal, Binocular, Discrimination, Population, Acidosis, Acids, Amino Acids, Arginine, Betaine
Biotics Research MultiMins 120 Tabs Provides a balance source of mineral chelates and whole food, phytochemically bound trace minerals, with Betaine HCI to facilitate absorption, combined with the antioxidant enzymes SOD and catalase. Use wherever multi-mineral supplementation is indicated.
|p||span|Bath Gel Base is also available in 55 gallon drums at a considerable quantity discount price. Please call for drum pricing.|/span||/p| |p||span|Ingredients: Deionized Water ,Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Cocamide DEA, Soyamidopropyl Betaine|/span||br
Prilog proučavanju tipologije franjevačkih crkava u Istri i na otocima kvarnerskog zaljeva. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The genes encoding the three subunits of the primary ABC transporter Ota of the methanogenic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 were cloned in an expression vector (pBAD24) and transformed into the glycine betaine transport-negative mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. Ota was produced as demonstrated by Western blotting. Uptake studies revealed that Ota catalyzed the transport of glycine betaine in E. coli MKH13(pBAD-Ota) with a Km of 10±5 μM and a maximal velocity of 1.5±0.5 nmol min⁻¹ mg protein⁻¹. Transport was ATP dependent. Ota was activated by salinity gradients, but only marginally by sugar gradients across the membrane. Glycine betaine transport was inhibited to a small extent by an excess of dimethylglycin or proline betaine, but not by sarcosine or glycine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proline accumulation and methylation to proline betaine in citrus. T2 - Implications for genetic engineering of stress resistance. AU - Nolte, Kurt D. AU - Hanson, Andrew D.. AU - Gage, Douglas A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Proline and various betaines can function as osmoprotectants and cryoprotectants when accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells. Genetic engineering can raise levels of these compounds and thereby improve stress resistance; Citrus species are potential candidates for this. Before attempting such engineering, it is necessary to characterize the natural osmoprotectants of Citrus and related genera. We therefore surveyed 55 cultivated and wild species of the Aurantioideae, analyzing proline and betaines in leaves of mature trees. Some citrus relatives accumulated proline alone; others accumulated proline and proline betaine, as did all Citrus species studied. The levels of these two compounds ranged from about 20 to 100 μmol · g-1 dry mass, and were significantly ...
Vacuoles were isolated via protoplasts from the leaves of a halophyte Atriplex gmelini C.A.Mey., grown in culture solution supplemented with 250 millimolar NaCl. Lysis of the protoplasts was induced by lowering the medium osmolarity (1.2 to 1.0 molar sorbitol) and adding a detergent, a synthesized cholate derivative, 3-([3-cholamidopropyl] dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate at a concentration of 0.5 millimolar and the resulting vacuoles were purified by successive dilution and floatation. Isolated vacuoles contained almost the same concentration of sodium (569 millimolar) and chloride (260 millimolar) as recorded in protoplasts (582 and 254 millimolar, respectively), suggesting that the vacuoles are the major sequestration site of NaCl in leaves of halophytes. Betaine concentration in the protoplasts was about 16 millimolar, while that in vacuoles was only about 0.24 millimolar, indicating that betaine is accumulated in the cytoplasm as a compatible solute.. ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2wme: Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving their stress tolerance profile and ability to overcome the physiological defences of the host is an important biological goal. In order to reach the gastrointestinal tract in sufficient numbers to exert a therapeutic effect, probiotic bacteria must resist the deleterious actions of low pH, elevated osmolarity and bile salts. Cloning the listerial betaine uptake system, BetL, into the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 significantly improved probiotic tolerance to gastric juice and conditions of elevated osmolarity mimicking the gut environment. Furthermore, whilst stable colonization of the murine intestine was achieved by oral administration of B. breve UCC2003, strains harbouring BetL were recovered at significantly higher levels in the faeces, intestines and caecum of inoculated animals. Finally, in addition to improved gastric transit and intestinal persistence, this approach improved the clinical
2WIT: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE SODIUM-COUPLED GLYCINE BETAINE SYMPORTER BETP FROM CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM WITH BOUND SUBSTRATE
BACKGROUND. The choline oxidation pathway comprises the sequential metabolism of choline into betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), and sarcosine. In addition, dietary choline and betaine can be turned into trimethylamine N-amino oxide (TMAO). Alterations in choline metabolism may relate to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several investigations have focused on systemic concentrations of choline and betaine; however large-scale prospective data are scarce. There is therefore a need for more comprehensive assessments of choline metabolites in relation to incident CVD, T2D and mortality, in addition to investigating any potential benefit in risk prediction from such biomarkers. AIM. We carried out observational cohort studies of the prospective relationships between plasma DMG and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and mortality, as well as the association between systemic and urinary choline metabolites with the risk of incident T2D. The biomarkers impact on model ...
Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. A cDNA clone for BADH (1812 base pairs) was selected from a lambda gt10 cDNA library derived from leaves of salt-stressed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The library was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to amino acid sequences of two peptides prepared from purified BADH. The authenticity of the clone was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis; this analysis demonstrated the presence of a 1491-base-pair open reading frame that contained sequences encoding 12 peptide fragments of BADH. The clone hybridized to a 1.9-kilobase mRNA from spinach leaves; this mRNA was more abundant in salt-stressed plants, consistent with the known salt induction of BADH activity. The amino acid ...
Salinity is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. Despite its global importance soybean production suffer the problems of salinity stress causing damages at plant development. So it is implacable to either search for salinity enhancement of soybean plants. Therefore, in the current study we try to clarify the mechanism that might be involved in the ameliorating effects of osmo-protectants such as proline and glycine betaine as well as, compost application on soybean plants grown under salinity stress. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Graduate School of Biosphere Science Laboratory of Hiroshima University, Japan in 2011. The experiment was designed as a spilt-split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments could be summarized as follows; (i) salinity concentrations (0 and 15 mM), (ii) compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1) and (iii) the exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM
Reviewer: Dr. Tori Hudson, ND. Author: Pasta V, Dinicola S, Giuliani A, et al.. Reference: A randomized pilot study of inositol in association with betaine and boswellia in the management of mastalgia and benign breast lump in premenopausal women. Breast Cancer (Auckl). April 20, 2016;10:37-43.. Design: Women were randomly assigned to a treatment group or placebo group and were instructed to take the capsules for 6 months. A total of 76 premenopausal women aged 22-51 years old received either a combination product called Eumastós (supplied by Lo.Li. Pharma; Rome, Italy) that includes in one capsule: boswellic acid 50 mg, betaine 175 mg, myo-inositol 200 mg, vitamin B2 2.1 mg, B6 2.1 mg, B12 0.003 mg, folic acid 0.3 mg, and N-acetylcysteine 100 mg or a placebo (containing the following per capsule: vitamin B2 2.1 mg, B6 2.1 mg, B12 0.003 mg, folic acid 0.3 mg, and N-acetylcysteine 100 mg) . Each woman took 2 capsules twice daily for 6 months or the placebo at the same 2 capsules twice daily for ...
Aangamik DMG Chewables A dietary supplement to support immune system, circulatory, cardiovascular, and neurological functions; muscle recovery and endurance.* Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a nutrient that is found in the cells of both plants and animals. The human body produces DMG in very small amounts. Supplementing the diet with higher levels of DMG greatly improves the nutritional environment of the cell. Dimethylglycine has been found effective in supporting immune system function and better utilization of oxygen at the cellular level.* We have been issued four U.S. Patents for N, N-Dimethylglycines value and use in improving immunity and for benefiting cellular processes. DMG reduces lactic acid build up in the muscle thereby shortening recovery time after strenuous exercise and improving endurance. DMG can benefit everyone regardless of age or activity level. AANGAMIK® DMG is the only pure DMG product that contains no fillers or binders and is therefore pure and non-allergenic. AANGAMIK®DMG is a
Betaine HCl Pepsin & Gentian Root is a combination of nutrients that are beneficial for promoting healthy digestion. Gentian, a wonderful bitter herbal, combined with Betaine HCl maintains a healthy pH in the stomach, supporting protein digestion, mineral absorption, small intestine pH, and B12 absorption.
Betaine & Pepsin provides the essential components of healthy digestion: hydrochloric acid and the digestive enzyme, pepsin. Betaine & Pepsin supports normal digestion, nutrient absorption, and immune health.
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine ...
Installment #2 of this series is a bit more "anabolic" than the first serving. It explores the effects of betaine supplementation on the adaptational response to resistance training in female rookies and the longitudinal effect of the NOx-boosting combination of citrulline + glutathione on the body composition of resistance-trained male subjects. As usual, the discussion of the studies is infused with plenty of information from previous research... and for those who want nothing but the gist, there are the practical implications in the bottom line.
We screened the nonredundant PA14 transposon mutant library for mutants defective in growth on GB to identify genes involved in the GB catabolic pathway in P. aeruginosa. We identified a putative GB demethylase, encoded by gbcA and gbcB, based on phenotypic data that indicated that the ΔgbcA-gbcB mutant could not grow on GB but could use DMG as a carbon and nitrogen source (Table 2 and data not shown). Furthermore, when the the ΔgbcA-gbcB mutant was fed choline, GB accumulated in the cells (Fig. 4). The gbcA and gbcB transcript levels increased in response to GB and DMG in a GbdR-dependent manner. The transcript accumulation was mirrored in a proteomics analysis, in which the GbcB protein was shown to be more abundant in P. aeruginosa grown in the presence of GB as the sole carbon source (11). We also identified a putative DMG demethylase, encoded by the dgcAB genes, which is necessary for conversion of DMG to sarcosine. Experiments with 13C-labeled choline confirmed that DMG accumulated in ...
Betaine (BET), a component of many foods, is an essential osmolyte and a source of methyl groups; it also shows an antioxidant activity. Moreover, BET stimulates muscle differentiation via insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I). The processes of myogenesis and osteogenesis involve common mechanisms with skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts sharing the same precursor. Therefore, we have hypothesized that BET might be effective on osteoblast cell differentiation. The effect of BET was tested in human osteoblasts (hObs) derived from trabecular bone samples obtained from waste material of orthopedic surgery. Cells were treated with 10 mM BET at 5, 15, 60 min and 3, 6 and 24 h. The possible effects of BET on hObs differentiation were evaluated by real time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Calcium imaging was used to monitor intracellular calcium changes. Real time PCR results showed that BET stimulated significantly the expression of RUNX2, osterix, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin. Western
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is important enzyme which plays a dual role in cereals. It acts as an osmoprotectant and has an important role during abiotic stress. In addition it also influences the fragrance in rice. Therefore, this gene has both agronomical and breeding values. An 8pb deletion in exon 7 cause a premature termination codon in BADH2 resulting a mutate badh2 allele; which ultimately elevates the level of 2AP leading fragrance in fragrant rice (Bradbury et al., 2008). Unlike rice wheat is a hexaploid and has two BADH homologs i.e. BADH1 and BADH2. Our genomic data shows that there are three alleles for BADH homologs. One allele is present in the progenitors and these indicates that, these allele is inheritate from each of the progenitors during polyploidy in hexaploid wheat. Our data show that a total of 4 and 14 SNPs are present among the genomes in BADH2 and BADH1respectivly. Investigation on two different tissues (i.e. leaves and seeds), at two different time point (i.e. 14 DPA
Treatment with any experimental drug for NASH, betaine, ursodeoxycholic acid (URSO), methionine, rosiglitazone, metformin, pioglitazone, or vitamin E within 3 months of enrollment or at time of pre-entry liver biopsy. (Patients with diabetes and on stable medical management for six months prior to entry and an anticipated stable program throughout the study will be eligible. Medications that may be used include insulin, biguanides, thiazolidnediones, metformin, and sulfonylureas. Patients with hyperlipidemia on a medical program for control of lipids who have had a change in drug treatment in the preceding six months or with anticipated changes in the year of the study will also be eligible ...
Eat protein foods at the beginning of your meal to stimulate the digestive enzymes necessary for digesting protein.. Chew thoroughly. This is one of the most important parts of digestion. Food proteins need to be broken down to be properly digested.. Limit liquid intake during meals until at least 30 minutes after a meal to allow for proper stomach acid production, pathogen sterilization, and protein metabolism.. Stay hydrated between meals to support proper gut motility; this pushes the contents of the intestines out of the body instead of back into the stomach. This is very important for those who are prone to SIBO.. Betaine hydrochloride supplements help support healthy gut function and safely restore normal gastric acidity. (Do not confuse betaine HCl with anhydrous betaine, a methyl-donor nutrient taken to control homocysteine levels.). Always take the betaine HCL either half-way through the meal or right at the end of the meal. Taking it before a meal may create a false experience of ...
Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride supplementation may help to increase stomach acid levels, preventing the insufficient breakdown of food resulting in digestive problems.
TABLE-US-00002 Components Ceteath-20 Ethoxylated-20 Cetyl Alcohol - 20 moles of ethylation Chembetaine ® CAD Cocamidopropyl Betaine (amphoteric surfactant), Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. Chembetain ® CGF Cocamidopropyl Betaine (amphoteric surfactant - glycerin free), Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. Chembetaine ® LEC INCI Name: Lauramidopropyl Betaine (amphoteric surfactant), Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. Chemonic ® SI-7 PEG-7 Glyceryl Soyate (nonionic surfactant), Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. Chemoryl ® SFB- INCI Name: Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate (and) Sodium Cocoyl 10SK Isethionate (and) Cocamidopropyl Betaine (sulfate and amide free surfactant blend), Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. Chemoxide ® CAW INCI Name: Cocamidopropylamine Oxide (amine oxide surfactant), Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. Dow Corning ® 2-8194 INCI Name: Amodimethicone and Trideceth-12 and Cetrimonium Silicone Chloride (microemulsion of amine functional silicone polymers), Dow Corning Ethal ...
Cocoanut diethanolamide (6501)|Coconut Monoethanol Amide (CMEA)|Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAB)--Shanghai Mailun Daily Chemical Co.,Ltd2019-07-06-三单佌肰罗顮扎朶抑泰
Feed enzymes and betaine could help poultry producers adapt to the forthcoming EU ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), meet increasing consumer demands for safe, affordable food and exploit the growing demand for 'natural' and 'organic' poultry products in markets outside the EU, according to Danisco Animal Nutrition.
Betaine HCl and fenugreek are an effective combination to support healthy digestion that help sooth gastrointestinal inflammation
China Food Grade Distilled Monoglyceride (dmg) 90 Price Supplier, Find details about China Dmg Supplier, Dmg Price from Food Grade Distilled Monoglyceride (dmg) 90 Price Supplier - Fooding Group Limited
The PhoQ/PhoP two-component system is well known to respond to several host-associated cues, such as the levels of magnesium, pH, and AMPs (4??-7). In contrast, high osmolarity, another major stimulus encountered by enterobacteria within the host (39), was up to now only suggested to affect translation of individual PhoP-regulated genes (20, 21). In this study, we demonstrate that E. coli and Salmonella PhoQ is activated by osmotic upshift. The magnitude of the observed hyperosmotic stimulation of the PhoQ/PhoP system was comparable to its activation by low magnesium or by other established stimuli (6, 7, 11, 13, 24). However, in contrast to all other established stimuli (except cytoplasmic pH) the activation of PhoQ by osmotic upshift does not require the sensor domain but depends on the transmembrane region. Our data suggest that PhoQ senses hyperosmotic stimuli through the interaction of its transmembrane domain with the lipid bilayer, apparently responding to its increased thickness and ...
... mellitus (T2DM) disease pathogenesis and progression the urinary metabolomes of well characterized rhesus macaques (normal or spontaneously and naturally ATF1 diabetic) were examined. compounds. Urinary compounds significantly increased (< 0.05) in the T2DM when compared with the normal group included glycine betaine (9-fold) citric acid (2.8-fold) kynurenic acid (1.8-fold) glucose (68-fold) and pipecolic acid (6.5-fold). When compared with the conventional definition of T2DM the metabolites were also useful in defining the T2DM condition and the urinary elevations in glycine betaine and pipecolic acid (as well as proline) indicated defective re-absorption in the kidney proximal tubules by SLC6A20 a Na+-dependent transporter. The mRNA levels of SLC6A20 were significantly reduced in the kidneys of monkeys with T2DM. These observations had been validated in the mouse style of T2DM. This research provides convincing proof the ...
The parietal cells of the stomach produce HCl and secrete it primarily in response to ingested protein or fat. Stress also may stimulate acid output. When we eat more frequently than required by the body or over-consume fats and proteins, acid production begins to decrease. With low stomach acid levels, there can be an increase in bacteria, yeasts, and parasites growing in the intestines.. Sources:. An HCl supplement may improve digestion of meals containing protein and/or fat, although not for such foods as rice and vegetables, which are largely carbohydrate and thus need less HCl for digestion. Hydrochloric acid is available primarily as betaine hydrochloride. Betaine may be used alone, in supplements, or along with pepsin or other digestive agents.. Functions:. The use of HCl support is part of the antiaging process. The digestive tract and its function may be the single most important body component determining health and disease.. Signs of deficiency:. ...
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
Betaine has quickly become a staple of many athletes supplementation plans because of its ability to deliver real musclebuilding results. With the launch of the original AMINO BUILD® formula, Team MuscleTech® researchers were among the first to include a clinical dose of betaine in any supplement, and the science continues to support this amazing ingredient!. In a 2013 study featuring 23 experienced strength-trained men between the ages of 18 and 35 conducted at a leading American university and published in the Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition, researchers found that subjects who supplemented with 1.25g of betaine twice a day with weight training, gained 3.75 lbs. of muscle in 6 weeks - while the placebo group gained just 0.66 lbs. Thats over 5.5 times the muscle gained versus the placebo group from the exact dose found in 2 scoops of AMINO BUILD NEXT GEN ENERGIZED!. ...
We keep seeing new improvements all the time and now have added Neruo DMG. I cant recommend this product enough! I, his mom, have also been benefited as it aids in dealing with stress and gives a sense of well being. It has helped negate the many migraine headaches I have had and my cognition and energy have increased. My father in law, with diabetes has been feeling a great deal better and wants to continue to take it. I dont know how much I can legally say, but I know you can read the following info on the product.. DMG can help normalize physical body functions and help maintain system balance within the body. These physical functions include blood glucose levels, pH, blood pressure, hypoxic or low oxygen conditions, hormone levels, cholesterol levels and levels of important nutrients. DMG is receiving a great deal of attention because it is beneficial in so many areas of human health and well-being. Research and clinical studies over the last 25 years demonstrates that DMG can help the ...
As noted earlier, organic osmolytes are typically called compatible solutes based on the hypothesis that these solutes (other than urea) do not interact with macromolecules in detrimental ways; thus, they can be safely up- and downregulated with little impact on cellular functions (Brown and Simpson, 1972; Yancey et al., 1982). This is in stark contrast to inorganic ions, which at high concentrations typically bind to and destabilize proteins and nucleic acids. Indeed, exposure of some cells to high NaCl medium can produce breaks in DNA (Kültz and Chakravarty, 2001).. In concert with the compatibility hypothesis, most osmolytes are neutral (either zwitterionic or lacking charges) at physiological pH, although some bacterial and archaeal osmolytes are anionic (e.g. diglycerol phosphate; Fig. 2) and are paired with K+ to achieve neutrality (Martin et al., 1999). In its simplest form, the compatibility hypothesis also suggests that organic osmolytes are interchangeable, i.e. that a cell can be ...
Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a crucial role in methylation reactions. Transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine creates methionine, which donates the methyl group to methylate DNA, proteins, lipids, and other intracellular metabolites. The protein encoded by this gene is one of two methyl transferases that can catalyze the transfer of the methyl group from betaine to homocysteine. Anomalies in homocysteine metabolism have been implicated in disorders ranging from vascular disease to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
As part of my PhD (in exercise physiology) I am researching the effects of betaine supplementation on strength, power, and body composition in highly
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This book highlights the important roles of compatible solutes in plant biology, by providing an integrated and comprehensive mix of basic and advanced information of students, scholars and scientists interested in, or already engaged in, research involving proline, glycinebetaine and trehalose.
We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks and Sparks (1999) Biochem. J. 341, 639-645]. To examine whether a similar relationship occurs in vivo, hepatic BHMT expression was induced by feeding rats a Met (L-methionine)-restricted betaine-containing diet, and parameters of ApoB metabolism were evaluated. There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L-homocysteine levels. Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Betaine plus Met restriction induced hepatic BHMT 4-fold and ApoB mRNA 3-fold compared with Met restriction alone. No changes in percentage of edited ApoB mRNA were observed on the test diets. An increase ...
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into Glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N, N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Dimethylglycine in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , AbD \ GOAT ANTI ALCALIGENES SPP CHOLINE OXIDASE, Product Type Polyclonal Antibody, Specificity CHOLINE OXIDASE, Target Species Bacterial, Host Goat, Format Purified, Isotypes Polyclonal IgG, Applicati \ 2080-5050 for more molecular products just contact us
Betaine Hydrochloride and Gentian with acid-stable digestive enzymes HCL V-Plus is designed to provide digestive support via supplemental Betaine Hydrochloride, as optimum gastric pH is required for the complete digestion of proteins and absorption of vital nutrients in the diet. Combined with an all-vegetarian herbal and enzyme blend of Gentian root, Protease 3.0 (from aspergillus niger), and Lipase (from aspergillus niger) along with Vitamin B1 as a metabolizing synergist, this enhanced pH-stable formula provides for added digestive support in the stomach. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are altered by choline supply during negative energy balance in Holstein cows. AU - Coleman, Danielle N.. AU - Vailati-Riboni, M.. AU - Elolimy, Ahmed A.. AU - Cardoso, Felipe C.. AU - Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.. AU - Miura, Makoto. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Loor, Juan J.. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Although choline requirements are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and increase flux through the methionine cycle, helping cows during a negative energy balance (NEB). The objective was to investigate effects of postruminal choline supply during NEB on hepatic activity of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine adenosyltransferase, transcription of enzymes, and metabolite concentrations in the methionine cycle. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± ...
Your shown homocysteine pathway is way too simple. Especially the production of the neuromodulator H2S from excess sulfur amino acids is not shown. In the last years many more enzymes and reactions have been discovered. I have summarized human sulfur amino acid metabolism in reactome.org, so please use this link to discover all the details and new papers. Ill also append some of the relevant papers below.. Brosnan, JT, Brosnan, ME The sulfur-containing amino acids: an overview 2006 J Nutr PMID 16702333. Remethylation of homocysteine to methionine can also happen using betaine as a methyl donor. This reaction is also part of choline catabolism.. Li, F, Feng, Q, Lee, C, Wang, S, Pelleymounter, LL, Moon, I, Eckloff, BW, Wieben, ED, Schaid, DJ, Yee, V, Weinshilboum, RM Human betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and BHMT2: common gene sequence variation and functional characterization 2008 Mol Genet Metab PMID 18457970. Bearden, SE, Beard RS, Jr, Pfau, JC Extracellular transsulfuration ...
A dietary supplement to support immune system functions.Immuno-DMG is an advanced nutritional supplement that combines 2 patented and highly researched products: Gluconic N,N-Dimethylglycine (DMG), ImmunEnhancer AG (Larch Tree Extract) with a highly purified Maitake mushroom extract called the D-Fraction, and Beta-1,3 Glucan in an enteric coated, vegetarian tablet. These nutrients work synergistically to balance and support immune system functions. SUGGESTED USAGE: Take 1 tablet, 3 times daily. INGREDIENTS:SERVING SIZE:1 Enteric Coated Vegetable Tablet SERVINGS PER CONTAINER: 90 AMOUNT PER SERVING: Dimethylglycine HCl 300 mg Maitake PD-Fraction(Grifola frondosa) Extract 17 mg (yielding D-Fraction 5 mg) Larix occidentalis (Larch tree) Extract 227 mg (yielding Arabinogalactan polysaccharides 222.5 mg) Beta 1, 3 Glucan (from baker s yeast cell walls) 100 mg Microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, vegetable stearate, croscarmellose sodium, silicon dioxide, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, talc, titanium
成分4無患子萃取液 有機薰衣草精露 白柳樹皮萃取 洋甘菊萃取 銀杏萃取 雷公根萃取 紅石柳萃取 小黃瓜萃取 純水 Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate Cocamidopropyl Betaine Disodium Laureth Sulfosuccinate Cocoamide DEA Polyquaternium -7 Polyquaternium -10 Water & Saccharum Officinarum (Sugar Cane)Extract & Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Fruit Extract & Betaine & Hexylene Glycol & Pyrus Malus (Apple) Fruit Extract & Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract & Hexapeptide-11 Phenoxyethanol & Caprylyl Glycol Citric Acid Sodium Chloride Fragrance ...

Betaine - WikipediaBetaine - Wikipedia

For glycine betaine, see trimethylglycine.. A betaine (/ˈbiːtə.iːn, bɪˈteɪ-, -ɪn/) in chemistry is any neutral chemical ... Phosphonium betaines are intermediates in the Wittig reaction. The addition of betaine to polymerase chain reactions improves ... In the 21st century, this substance is called glycine betaine to distinguish it from other betaines that are widely distributed ... The original betaine, N,N,N-trimethylglycine, was named after its discovery in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betaine

Betaine: MedlinePlus Drug InformationBetaine: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Betaine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Betaine comes as a powder to be mixed with food or drink and taken by mouth. It is usually taken twice a day. Take betaine at ... Betaine controls homocystinuria but does not cure it. Continue to take betaine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking ... Before taking betaine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to betaine or any other medications. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a608012.html

glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750)glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750)

... is a amino-acid betaine (CHEBI:22860) glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750) is a glycine derivative ( ... N,N,N-trimethylglycyl-CoA (CHEBI:85888) has functional parent glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750). N,N,N-trimethylglycinium (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:17750 - glycine betaine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750) is conjugate base of N,N,N-trimethylglycinium (CHEBI:41139) ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=17750

Welldorm tablets (chloral betaine)Welldorm tablets (chloral betaine)

Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. Chloral ... Welldorm tablets (chloral betaine). Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the ... Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. Chloral ...
more infohttps://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/brain-nervous-system/a6399/welldorm-tablets-chloral-betaine/

Betaine | Define Betaine at Dictionary.comBetaine | Define Betaine at Dictionary.com

Betaine definition, a colorless, crystalline, water-soluble, sweet-tasting alkaloid, C 5 H 11 NO 2 , usually obtained from ... betaine in Medicine Expand. betaine be·ta·ine (bētə-ēn, -ĭn). n. A sweet crystalline alkaloid occurring in sugar beets and ... Betaine is used in the treatment of muscular weakness and degeneration. Chemical formula: C5H11NO2. ... It is a product of the decomposition of choline, betaine, and neuridine, when these substances are distilled with potash. ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/betaine

Betaine HCL - iHerb.comBetaine HCL - iHerb.com

... betaine hydrochloride provides extra hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which may aid in certain digestive processes. ... Natural Factors, Betaine HCL, with Fenugreek, 500 mg, 180 Veggie Caps. 56 ... Thorne Research, B.P.P., Betaine / Pepsin / Pancreatin, 180 Vegetarian Capsules. 21 ...
more infohttps://www.iherb.com/c/betaine-hcl

Standard Process - Betaine HydrochlorideStandard Process - Betaine Hydrochloride

Betaine Hydrochloride supports normal gastrointestinal pH.*. *Reformulated with non-dairy ingredients and can now support even ... Betaine hydrochloride, ammonium chloride, pepsin (1:10,000), calcium lactate, and magnesium citrate. ...
more infohttps://www.standardprocess.com/Products/Standard-Process/Betaine-Hydrochloride

Help: what is glycl betaine?Help: what is glycl betaine?

What you want is the osmolyte glycine betaine sometimes called just betaine. Not only do people refuse to pronounce it ... Help: what is glycl betaine?. the End jgraham at bronze.ucs.indiana.edu Fri Oct 15 12:56:18 EST 1993 *Previous message: Help: ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1993-October/008194.html

Betaine - Registration Dossier - ECHABetaine - Registration Dossier - ECHA

other: Multiple studies performed on humans studying the effect of betaine for improving skin and mu cous membrane health.. ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/15954/7/11/5

Betaine - Substance Information - ECHABetaine - Substance Information - ECHA

Betaine. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] Trade names [6] IUPAC names [4] ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/it/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.003.174

Ingredients -- Cocamidopropyl BetaineIngredients -- Cocamidopropyl Betaine

Coco betaine Description. Pale yellow transparent liquid Uses. Cocamidopropyl Betaine is an amphoteric detergent, which is a ... Cocamidopropyl Betaine Chemical Formula: Synonyms. N-(carboxy methyl)-N, N-Dimethyl-3-[(1-Oxococonut) amino]-1-Propanaminium ... cocamidopropyl betaine: InChI=1/C20H42N2O5S/c1-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-14-20(24)21-15-13-16-22(2,3)17-19(23)18-28(25,26)27/h19,23H ...
more infohttp://sci-toys.com/ingredients/cocamidopropyl_betaine.html

betaine homocysteine methyltransferasebetaine homocysteine methyltransferase

... Summary. Gene Symbol: betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Description: betaine-- ... High homocysteine induces betaine depletion. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher ..In kidney, betaine concentrations were not ... Concurrently, dietary betaine supplementation to F0 dams increased hepatic expression of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase ... b>Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the synthesis of methionine using betaine and homocysteine (Hcy), ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/gene/human/betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase-635.html

betaine Archives | The Body Ecologybetaine Archives | The Body Ecology

Information and statements regarding dietary supplements/products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Information on this website is provided for informational purposes only and is a result of years of practice and experience by the author. This information is not intended as a substitute for the advice provided by your physician or other healthcare professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. Do not use the information on this website for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing medication or other treatment. Always speak with your physician or other healthcare professional before taking any medication or nutritional, herbal, or homeopathic supplement, or using any treatment for a health problem. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, contact your healthcare provider promptly. Do not disregard professional medical advice ...
more infohttps://bodyecology.com/articles/tag/betaine/

KAL, Betaine HCl+, 100 Tablets - iHerbKAL, Betaine HCl+, 100 Tablets - iHerb

Discussion: Betaine-HCL is a delivery for of Hydrochloric Acid. This combination of Betaine-HCL & Pepsin is intended to provide ...
more infohttps://www.iherb.com/pr/KAL-Betaine-HCl-100-Tablets/89945

BETAINE ANHYDROUS: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMDBETAINE ANHYDROUS: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD

Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Side Effects & Safety. Betaine anhydrous is LIKELY SAFE for most children and adults when taken by mouth ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Uses & Effectiveness Effective for:. *High homocysteine levels in the urine (homocystinuria). Taking betaine ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Overview Information. Betaine anhydrous is a chemical that occurs naturally in the body, and can also be ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1008-BETAINE+ANHYDROUS.aspx?activeIngredientId=1008&

betaine - WellSpan Health Librarybetaine - WellSpan Health Library

Betaine works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid can harm blood vessels and ... Betaine is used to reduce homocysteine levels in people with a genetic condition called... ... Betaine is a byproduct of sugar beet processing. ... Betaine is not a cure for homocysteinuria.. Betaine may also be ... What is betaine?. Betaine is a byproduct of sugar beet processing.. Betaine works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid ...
more infohttps://www.wellspan.org/health-library/Document.aspx?id=d04875a1

CYSTADANE (betaine powder, for solution) | Healthgrades.comCYSTADANE (betaine powder, for solution) | Healthgrades.com

... betaine powder, for solution), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products that ...
more infohttps://www.healthgrades.com/drugs/cystadane

Browse Products Containing: BETAINE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGBrowse Products Containing: BETAINE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
more infohttp://www.ewg.org/skindeep/browse.php?brand_id=372&ingred06=707116&showmore=products&atatime=100

Mesoionic heterocycles and heterocyclic betaine cations (review) | SpringerLinkMesoionic heterocycles and heterocyclic betaine cations (review) | SpringerLink

The preparation of betaine cations of methine dyes by three methods, viz., cyanine condensations of some quaternary salts and ... Nitrogen Organic Chemistry Nitrogen Atom Betaine Methine Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. 1, pp. 3- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00512805

Choline and betaine in health and disease | SpringerLinkCholine and betaine in health and disease | SpringerLink

Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. Choline or betaine ... Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ... Zeisel SH (2006a) Betaine supplementation and blood lipids: fact or artifact? Nutr Rev 64:77-79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Barak AJ, Tuma DJ (1983) Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? Life Sci 32:771-774PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10545-010-9088-4

Betaine Anhydrous, thoughts? - AnabolicMinds.comBetaine Anhydrous, thoughts? - AnabolicMinds.com

AnabolicMinds.com , Forum , Supplement Forum , Supplements , Advanced Discussion With Patrick Arnold , Betaine Anhydrous, ... Betaine Anhydrous, thoughts? What would be your thoughts on the use of Trimethylglycine (TMG) in regards to:. a)Hypertrophy. b) ... betaine is not gonna do anything noticeable in any of those areas. that doesnt mean its inclusion in a supplement formula is a ...
more infohttp://anabolicminds.com/forum/advanced-discussion-patrick/208530-betaine-anhydrous-thoughts.html

Betaine AnhydrousBetaine Anhydrous

What is Betaine Anhydrous?. Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaines two ... Doses of 2500-6000mg betaine daily may increase muscular strength, endurance, and total training volume. Betaine also plays a ... As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a ... A study conducted by the University of Connecticut found that individuals supplementing with 1.25 grams of betaine twice/daily ...
more infohttps://www.musclefeast.com/collections/endurance-energy/products/betaine-anhydrous/?shopify-debug=true&show=PayPal

Cocamidopropyl Betaine | Cosmetics InfoCocamidopropyl Betaine | Cosmetics Info

Cocamidopropyl Betaine (CAPB) and Lauramidopropyl Betaine are part of a class of ingredients called amidopropyl betaines. These ... Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Lauramidopropyl Betaine and related amidopropyl betaines are used mainly as surfactants in cosmetic and ... Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Lauramidopropyl Betaine and the other related amidopropyl betaines are similar in chemistry. These ... Cocamidopropyl Betaine and Lauramidopropyl Betaine are zwitterions. This means that these compounds have both positive and ...
more infohttps://cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/cocamidopropyl-betaine-0

Browse Products Containing: COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGBrowse Products Containing: COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
more infohttps://www.ewg.org/skindeep/browse.php?category=sunscreen:%20SPF%2015-30&ingred06=701520

Betaine Plus - 100 CapsulesBetaine Plus - 100 Capsules

Betaine Plus! This Pepsin and Betaine supplement may improve digestion and SHIPS FREE with PureFormulas! ... Betaine ...496mg*. (from 650 mg Betaine HCI). Pepsin ...140mg*. (1:10‚000). * Daily Value not established. Contains:. Cellulose ... Douglas Labs Betaine Plus Capsules contain 496 mg of Betaine and 140 mg of Pepsin in each serving. ... Douglas Labs now offers Betaine Plus tablets with Pepsin and Betaine. These comprehensive ingredients may help support proper ...
more infohttps://pureformulas.com/betaine-plus-100-capsules-by-douglas-laboratories.html
  • Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to betaine or any other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You should not use betaine if you are allergic to it. (wellspan.org)
  • Based upon new information showing a substantial increase in the number of uses of CAPB, including new uses in aerosol products, and reports of allergic skin reactions in patients who used rinse-off products, the CIR Expert Panel undertook an additional review of CAPB and related amidopropyl betaines in 2012. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Betaine surfactants are mixed with weak organic acids, weak organic salts, water, and plant extract to form a mixture that shows promise to help control the foul odors associated with industrial hog farms, commercial chicken operations, sewage treatment plants, and paper and pulp mills. (fsu.edu)
  • These results indicate that feeding betaine to hens modulates hypothalamic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and brain functions in F1 cockerels with modification of promoter DNA methylation. (labome.org)
  • Allen RH, Stabler SP, Lindenbaum J (1993) Serum betaine, N, N-dimethylglycine and N-methylglycine levels in patients with cobalamin and folate deficiency and related inborn errors of metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The primary inquiry for the 2012 review related to the presence of the 3,3-dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) and fatty acid amidopropyl dimethylamine (amidoamine) in CAPB and other related amidopropyl betaines. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • DMAPA and amidoamine are present in CAPB and other related amidopropyl betaines as manufacturing by-products. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • However, literature reviewed by the CIR Expert Panel has shown that when the levels of DMAPA and amidoamine are reduced, the number of people reacting is also reduced.Based on its review of the published scientific literature, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that cosmetics using CAPB and related amidopropyl betaines were safe as long as they were formulated to be non-sensitizing. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • In biological systems, many naturally occurring betaines serve as organic osmolytes , substances synthesized or taken up from the environment by cells for protection against osmotic stress, drought, high salinity, or high temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine is made naturally as well as syntheticaly from a number of plants and animals (Boch et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both betaine and urea are naturally occurring organic substances that are also often synthesized by chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturers. (fsu.edu)
  • Betaine serves as osmoregulator and can be used to reduce negative effects of heat stress and coccidiosis. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Betaine, being a dipolar zwitterion and highly soluble in water can function as an osmoregulator. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Anas MK, Lee MB, Zhou C et al (2008) SIT1 is a betaine/proline transporter that is activated in mouse eggs after fertilization and functions until the 2-cell stage. (springer.com)
  • Betaines occur in the extracts of most species of marine algae, many of which are used as food additives and nutritional/health supplements. (fsu.edu)
  • Besides this application, betaine can be dosed on top for several applications in different animal species. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of betaine and gradually increase your dose based on your body's response to the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (wellspan.org)
  • At the current stage of scientific knowledge, it is a critical next step to evaluate the benefit of betaine in children having a PBD due to a PEX1-Gly843Asp mutation, to ensure that the medication is safe and to measure the level of improvement of the function of the peroxisome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The CIR Expert Panel recommend that CAPB and related amidopropyl betaines not be used in products that also contained nitrosating agents. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Castro C, Millian N, Garrow T. Liver betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity undergoes a redox switch at the active site zinc. (labome.org)
  • Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: human liver genotype-phenotype correlation. (labome.org)
  • Abdelmalek MF, Sanderson SO, Angulo P et al (2009) Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • Barak AJ, Tuma DJ (1983) Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? (springer.com)
  • Betaine is well known for its ability to help cells tolerate osmotic stress and allows them to continue regular metabolic activities in conditions that would normally inactivate the cell. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Your doctor may tell you to take other medications such as vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 12 (cobalamin), and folic acid together with betaine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaine is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include other vitamin and mineral supplements and a special diet. (wellspan.org)
  • Other drugs may interact with betaine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (wellspan.org)
  • Betaine is used in the treatment of muscular weakness and degeneration. (dictionary.com)
  • A betaine (BEET-ah-een, /ˈbiːtɑːˌiːn/) in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (generally: onium ions) that bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group that may not be adjacent to the cationic site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine HCI is a synthetic compound that may support our natural stomach acid. (pureformulas.com)
  • Betaine will be given orally to all participants and dose will be adjusted to body weight. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while taking betaine, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biologically, betaine is involved in methylation reactions and detoxification of homocysteine . (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of betaine to polymerase chain reactions improves the amplification of DNA by reducing the formation of secondary structure in GC-rich regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about betaine. (wellspan.org)