A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.
An early onset form of phytanic acid storage disease with clinical and biochemical signs different from those of REFSUM DISEASE. Features include MENTAL RETARDATION; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; OSTEOPOROSIS; and severe liver damage. It can be caused by mutation in a number of genes encoding proteins involving in the biogenesis or assembly of PEROXISOMES.
An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and CARDIOMYOPATHIES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8) This condition can be caused by mutation in the genes encoding peroxisomal phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase or proteins associated peroxisomal membrane, leading to impaired catabolism of PHYTANIC ACID in PEROXISOMES.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
Water-soluble, copper-containing low molecular weight polypeptides obtained from the culture medium of Streptomyces verticillus. They are specific inhibitors of DNA synthesis in bacteria and have been found to act as antitumor agents. They have also been used against rust fungi of plants.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (1/739)

BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.  (+info)

Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov., a novel halophilic fermentative bacterium that reduces glycine-betaine to trimethylamine with hydrogen or serine as electron donors; emendation of the genus Haloanaerobacter. (2/739)

A novel halophilic fermentative bacterium has been isolated from the black sediment below a gypsum crust and a microbial mat in hypersaline ponds of Mediterranean salterns. Morphologically, physiologically and genetically this organism belongs to the genus Haloanaerobacter. Haloanaerobacter strain SG 3903T (T = type strain) is composed of non-sporulating long flexible rods with peritrichous flagella, able to grow in the salinity range of 5-30% NaCl, with an optimum at 14-15%. The strain grows by fermenting carbohydrates or by using the Stickland reaction with either serine or H2 as electron donors and glycine-betaine as acceptor, which is reduced to trimethylamine. The two species described so far in the genus Haloanaerobacter are not capable of Stickland reaction with glycine-betaine + serine; however, Haloanaerobacter chitinovorans can use glycine-betaine with H2 as electron donor. Strain SG 3903T thus represents the first described strain in the genus Haloanaerobacter capable of the Stickland reaction with two amino acids. Although strain SG 3903T showed 67% DNA-DNA relatedness to H. chitinovorans, it is physiologically sufficiently different from the two described species to be considered as a new species which has been named Haloanaerobacter salinarius sp. nov.  (+info)

Glycine betaine: reserve form of choline in Penicillium fellutanum in low-sulfate medium. (3/739)

In spite of choline's importance in fungal metabolism, its sources in cytoplasm have not been fully established. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of mycelial extracts from day-5 Penicillium fellutanum cultures showed that, as well as choline-O-sulfate, intracellular glycine betaine is another reserve form of choline, depending on the availability of sulfate in the culture medium. These observations are discussed relative to the multiple roles of choline and its precursors in P. fellutanum.  (+info)

Osmosensing by bacteria: signals and membrane-based sensors. (4/739)

Bacteria can survive dramatic osmotic shifts. Osmoregulatory responses mitigate the passive adjustments in cell structure and the growth inhibition that may ensue. The levels of certain cytoplasmic solutes rise and fall in response to increases and decreases, respectively, in extracellular osmolality. Certain organic compounds are favored over ions as osmoregulatory solutes, although K+ fluxes are intrinsic to the osmoregulatory response for at least some organisms. Osmosensors must undergo transitions between "off" and "on" conformations in response to changes in extracellular water activity (direct osmosensing) or resulting changes in cell structure (indirect osmosensing). Those located in the cytoplasmic membranes and nucleoids of bacteria are positioned for indirect osmosensing. Cytoplasmic membrane-based osmosensors may detect changes in the periplasmic and/or cytoplasmic solvent by experiencing changes in preferential interactions with particular solvent constituents, cosolvent-induced hydration changes, and/or macromolecular crowding. Alternatively, the membrane may act as an antenna and osmosensors may detect changes in membrane structure. Cosolvents may modulate intrinsic biomembrane strain and/or topologically closed membrane systems may experience changes in mechanical strain in response to imposed osmotic shifts. The osmosensory mechanisms controlling membrane-based K+ transporters, transcriptional regulators, osmoprotectant transporters, and mechanosensitive channels intrinsic to the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli are under intensive investigation. The osmoprotectant transporter ProP and channel MscL act as osmosensors after purification and reconstitution in proteoliposomes. Evidence that sensor kinase KdpD receives multiple sensory inputs is consistent with the effects of K+ fluxes on nucleoid structure, cellular energetics, cytoplasmic ionic strength, and ion composition as well as on cytoplasmic osmolality. Thus, osmoregulatory responses accommodate and exploit the effects of individual cosolvents on cell structure and function as well as the collective contribution of cosolvents to intracellular osmolality.  (+info)

LeProT1, a transporter for proline, glycine betaine, and gamma-amino butyric acid in tomato pollen. (5/739)

During maturation, pollen undergoes a period of dehydration accompanied by the accumulation of compatible solutes. Solute import across the pollen plasma membrane, which occurs via proteinaceous transporters, is required to support pollen development and also for subsequent germination and pollen tube growth. Analysis of the free amino acid composition of various tissues in tomato revealed that the proline content in flowers was 60 times higher than in any other organ analyzed. Within the floral organs, proline was confined predominantly to pollen, where it represented >70% of total free amino acids. Uptake experiments demonstrated that mature as well as germinated pollen rapidly take up proline. To identify proline transporters in tomato pollen, we isolated genes homologous to Arabidopsis proline transporters. LeProT1 was specifically expressed both in mature and germinating pollen, as demonstrated by RNA in situ hybridization. Expression in a yeast mutant demonstrated that LeProT1 transports proline and gamma-amino butyric acid with low affinity and glycine betaine with high affinity. Direct uptake and competition studies demonstrate that LeProT1 constitutes a general transporter for compatible solutes.  (+info)

The osmoprotectant glycine betaine inhibits salt-induced cross-tolerance towards lethal treatment in Enterococcus faecalis. (6/739)

The response of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 to salt stress has been characterized previously in complex media. In this report, it has been demonstrated that this bacterium actively accumulates the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) from salt-enriched complex medium BHI. To further understand the specific effects of GB and other osmoprotective compounds in salt adaptation and salt-induced cross-tolerance to lethal challenges, a chemically defined medium lacking putative osmoprotectants was used. In this medium, bacterial growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. At 0.75 M NaCl, 90% inhibition of the growth rate was observed; GB and its structural analogues restored growth to the non-salt-stressed level. In contrast, proline, pipecolate and ectoine did not allow growth recovery of stressed cells. Kinetic studies showed that the uptake of betaines shows strong structural specificity and occurs through a salt-stress-inducible high-affinity porter [Km = 3.3 microM; Vmax = 130 nmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1); the uptake activity increased 400-fold in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl]. Moreover, GB and its analogues were accumulated as non-metabolizable cytosolic osmolytes and reached intracellular levels ranging from 1-3 to 1.5 micromol (mg protein)(-1). In contrast to the beneficial effect of GB on the growth of salt-stressed cultures of E. faecalis, its accumulation inhibits the salt-induced cross-tolerance to a heterologous lethal challenge. Indeed, pretreatment of bacterial cells with 0.5 M NaCl induced resistance to 0.3% bile salts (survival of adapted cells increased by a factor of 6800). The presence of GB in the adaptation medium reduced the acquisition of bile salts resistance 680-fold. The synthesis of 11 of the 13 proteins induced during salt adaptation was significantly reduced in the presence of GB. These results raise questions about the actual beneficial effect of GB in natural environments where bacteria are often subjected to various stresses.  (+info)

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (7/739)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Disaccharides as a new class of nonaccumulated osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti. (8/739)

Sucrose and ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidine carboxylic acid) are very unusual osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti because these compounds, unlike other bacterial osmoprotectants, do not accumulate as cytosolic osmolytes in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells. Here, we show that, in fact, sucrose and ectoine belong to a new family of nonaccumulated sinorhizobial osmoprotectants which also comprises the following six disaccharides: trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, turanose, and palatinose. Also, several of these disaccharides were very effective exogenous osmoprotectants for strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars phaseoli and trifolii. Sucrose and trehalose are synthesized as endogenous osmolytes in various bacteria, but the other five disaccharides had never been implicated before in osmoregulation in any organism. All of the disaccharides that acted as powerful osmoprotectants in S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum also acted as very effective competitors of [14C]sucrose uptake in salt-stressed cultures of these bacteria. Conversely, disaccharides that were not osmoprotective for S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum did not inhibit sucrose uptake in these bacteria. Hence, disaccharide osmoprotectants apparently shared the same uptake routes in these bacteria. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantification of cytosolic solutes demonstrated that the novel disaccharide osmoprotectants were not accumulated to osmotically significant levels in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells; rather, these compounds, like sucrose and ectoine, were catabolized during early exponential growth, and contributed indirectly to enhance the cytosolic levels of two endogenously synthesized osmolytes, glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide. The ecological implication of the use of these disaccharides as osmoprotectants is discussed.  (+info)

The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
In this study, we reported the expression of the S. meliloti betS gene in B. japonicum USDA110 and addressed the question of possible accumulation and role of glycine betaine in transformed cells submitted to salt stress. B. japonicum is one of the most salt-sensitive rhizobia and possesses neither high-affinity uptake systems for betaines or choline nor the choline-glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway (3). These deficiencies were the rationale to install the betaine transport activity. Analysis of the B. japonicum transformed cells revealed strong glycine betaine and proline betaine uptake activities in an osmotically stimulated manner. It is also noteworthy that the stimulated BetS-mediated glycine betaine transport in B. japonicum leads to a large accumulation of this compatible solute, up to 240 mM, which is not used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, in contrast to many other members of the family Rhizobiaceae. Genetic engineering has also proved fruitful in the freshwater cyanobacterium ...
Glycinebetaine is an important non-toxic osmoprotectant, which is accumulated in higher plants under various stresses. The biosynthesis of glycinebetaine achieved via is a two-step oxidation from choline and betaine aldehyde, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), respectively. Up-regulated gene expression of BADH and CMO induced by stress is clearly observed, but the signal transduction is poorly understood. Here, glycinebetaine accumulation in response to osmotic stress and growth recovery induced by exogenous glycinebetaine were observed in a watermelon cell line. When tracing back to the genome sequence of watermelon, it shows that there exists only one member of ClCMO or ClBADH corresponding to glycinebetaine biosynthesis. Both genes harbor a CGTCA-motif in their promoter region which is involved in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-responsiveness. Amongst MeJA, Ethephon, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA), MeJA was most effective in gene inducing the
Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine and the results were compared to isocaloric dextrose-fed controls. Livers were subjected to microarray analysis, and functional pathways and individual gene expression changes were analyzed. Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a large number of genes indicating that the changes were global. The bio-informatic analysis showed that all the KEGG functional pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed rats. The most profound effect of betaine was on the metabolic
Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, Sylvestre PB, Lindor KD. Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(9):2711-2717.. Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, Saarela J, Aro A. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(4):665-669.. Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):577-585.. Angulo P, Lindor KD. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver: present and emerging therapies. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):81-88.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badkhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21(6):1100-1102.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. ...
Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, Sylvestre PB, Lindor KD. Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(9):2711-2717.. Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, Saarela J, Aro A. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(4):665-669.. Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):577-585.. Angulo P, Lindor KD. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver: present and emerging therapies. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):81-88.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badkhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21(6):1100-1102.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. ...
Betaine HCl Supports healthy stomach acidity, gastric function, and protein digestion. Why is betaine important? Betaine has other benefits for the body beyond digestion support: Betaine is linked to healthy homocysteine levels, a variable in healthy bone metabolism. Betaine works with B vitamins to synthesize amino acids, precursor to SAM-e (S-adenosyl-L-Methionine). Why use Betaine HCl? It works with the body to support healthy, natural digestion: Betaine mirrors the action of healthy stomach acid levels, supporting comfortable digestion. The addition of pepsin ensures additional support for protein digestion. Combined in an easy-to-swallow UltraCap to support stomach acidity, gastric function, and protein digestion. Recommendations: Take 1 or 2 UltraCaps at the beginning of each meal, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Do not chew. Not recommended for use if peptic ulcer, gastritis or heartburn is present. Supplement Facts: Serving Size: 2 UltraCaps
DIETARY SUPPLEMENT Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 100 CAPSULES More Info: Betaine HCl [ with Pepsin ] Betaine HCl increases stomach acidity and may reduce food sensitivities through improved digestion. Our formula complexes 648mg Betaine HCl with 200mg Pepsin - an enzyme that aids in the digestion of protein. Supplemental Facts: Each preservative-free vegetarian capsule contains only the active ingredients listed on the label. Excipient-free. Ingredients: Serving Size: 1 capsule Amount Per Capsule Betaine Hydrochloride ...648mg* Pepsin (1:3,000) ...200mg* * Daily Value not established for this ingredient Contains: vegetarian capsule, L-leucine Dosage: DIRECTIONS: One (1) capsule daily with a meal as a dietary supplement, or as directed by a Doctor. WARNINGS: STORAGE: Keep tightly closed in a dry place; do not expose to excessive heat. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
According to the market research report Betaine Market :By Type (Synthetic, Natural); By Form (Betaine Anhydrous, Cocamidopropyl Betaine); By End-users (Food & Beverages, Animal Feed) & Geography - Forecast (2016-2021), published by IndustryARC, estimates tremendous expansion for new entrants.. Browse Report @ http://industryarc.com/Report/15179/betaine-market.html. Betaine is a by-product of sugar beet processing. This works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid causes harm to blood vessels and contributes to heart disease, stroke and circulation problems.. After the discovery of betaine supplement, this was originally used to turn homocysteine into L-methionine. Homocysteine is a toxic samino acid that can lead to various health problems when elevated in the body including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and multiple cardiovascular issues. Betaine supplementation is extremely important for individuals with homocystinuria, a rare genetic condition that ...
Roughly 140 million people worldwide are chronically exposed to As-contaminated drinking water at concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 10 µg/L. Arsenic is a class I carcinogen known to cause several types of cancer and ischemic heart disease. Metabolism of inorganic As (InAs), which facilitates urinary As excretion, relies on one-carbon metabolism and involves two methylation steps; both utilize S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor. SAM biosynthesis relies on B vitamins including folate and B12 for the recruitment and transfer of methyl groups, but other nutrients, including choline and betaine, also contribute to the methyl pool. Our recent findings from a cross-sectional study of Bangladeshi adults exposed to a wide range of As concentrations in drinking water show that plasma choline and betaine concentrations are positively associated with As methylation. These findings suggest that choline and/or betaine may play an important role in As ...
Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK activation
Highlights: • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. • Betaines anti-tumorigenic effect might be due to a reversal of the Warburg effect. - Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. It reduces cardiovascular disease risk and protects liver cells from alcoholic liver damage and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Its pretreatment can rescue cells exposed to toxins such as rotenone, chloroform, and LiCl. Furthermore, it has been suggested that betaine can suppress cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is essential to produce cellular energy, ATP. Reduced mitochondrial respiration and energy status have been found in many human pathological conditions including aging, cancer, and ...
1. Wilcken DEL, Dudman NPB, Tyrrell PA. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency-the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism. 1985;34:1115-1121. 2. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. 3. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993;17:552-555. 4. Murakami T, Nagamura Y, Hirano K. The recovering effect of betaine on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 1998;44:249-255. 5. Gray ME, Titlow LW. The effect of pangamic acid on maximal treadmill performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14:424-427. 6. Mangoni AA, Jackson SH. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects. Am J Med. 2002;112:556-565. 7. Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and ...
What is Betaine Anhydrous?. Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. Betaines two main functions in the body are as a methyl donor and osmolyte. As an osmolyte, betaine protects proteins, cells, and enzymes from heat, dehydration, and other physiological stresses. As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine.. ...
Betaine HCL Pespin - 250 vCapsules Betaine HCI Pepsin provides a professional strength of 520 mg betaine HCl per capsule with additional pepsin. Betaine HCl is an acidic form of betaine, and pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme.
Cocamidopropyl betaine, Cocamidopropyl betaine supplier, Cocamidopropyl betaine distributor, CAS 61789-40-0 70851-07-9 83138-08-3 , Cocamidopropyl betaine manufacturer, Cocamidopropyl betaine wholesale
To examine the effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance. Sixteen recreationally active subjects (7 females and 9 males) completed three sprint tests, each consisting of four 12 sec efforts against a resistance equal to 5.5% of body weight; efforts were separated by 2.5 min of cycling at zero resistance. Test one established baseline; test two and three were preceded by seven days of daily consumption of 591 ml of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage as a placebo or a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage containing 0.42% betaine (approximately 2.5 grams of betaine a day); half the beverage was consumed in the morning and the other half in the afternoon. We used a double blind random order cross-over design; there was a 3 wk washout between trials two and three. Average and maximum peak and mean power were analyzed with one-way repeated measures ANOVA and, where indicated, a Student Newman-Keuls. Compared to baseline, betaine ingestion increased average peak power (6.4%; p | 0.001),
• Features an acidic form of betaine to aid digestion • Includes the digestive enzyme pepsin Betaine HCl and pepsin are naturally occurring gastric-juice components that render nutrients available for absorption and biological activity. Betaine HCl is an acidic form of betaine, which promotes optimal gastric lumen acid
Betaine supplementation has numerous positive effects on animal performance. Recent studies with betaine from sugar beet molasses looked if this naturally derived betaine can substitute a certain amount of added methionine in broiler diets.
Microorganisms are known to counteract salt stress through salt influx or by the accumulation of osmoprotectants (also called compatible solutes). Understanding the pathways that synthesize and/or breakdown these osmoprotectants is of interest to studies of crops halotolerance and to biotechnology applications that use microbes as cell factories for production of biomass or commercial chemicals. To facilitate the exploration of osmoprotectants, we have developed the first online resource, Dragon Explorer of Osmoprotection associated Pathways (DEOP) that gathers and presents curated information about osmoprotectants, complemented by information about reactions and pathways that use or affect them. A combined total of 141 compounds were confirmed osmoprotectants, which were matched to 1883 reactions and 834 pathways. DEOP can also be used to map genes or microbial genomes to potential osmoprotection-associated pathways, and thus link genes and genomes to other associated osmoprotection ...
Betaine is the top-ranking plasma metabolite correlated with insulin sensitivity (SI) in humans with normal glucose tolerance, as revealed by unbiased metabolomics analysis. Moreover, increasing betaine levels via long-term dietary supplementation improve systemic metabolism in mice, with prevention of impaired glucose homeostasis and liver fat accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity, increased energy expenditure, and increased oxidative capacity of iWAT, even in mice made obese and insulin resistant with continued high-fat feeding. Thus, plasma betaine concentrations can serve as a biomarker of insulin resistance and a target for prevention and treatment.. More broadly, our data provide support for the emerging concept that one-carbon metabolic pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic disease. Prior cross-sectional analysis of data from Framingham Heart Study participants demonstrated inverse correlations between plasma betaine ...
Betaine is a byproduct of sugar beet processing. Betaine works by preventing the build-up of an amino acid called homocysteine. This amino acid can harm blood vessels and contribute to heart disease, stroke, or circulation problems. Betaine is used to reduce homocysteine levels in people with a genetic condition called...
Aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines and certain water-soluble inorganic or organic salts provide compositions of remarkably high viscosities. The inorganic salts suitable for this purpose are the sulfates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB, and IIIA of the period table; sulfates of non-metallic ions; and alkali metal carbonates. Organic salts suitable in the present compositions include the citrates, tartrates, succinates, and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB and IIIA of the period table and the citrates, tartrates, succinates and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of ammonium ions. These salts have a synergistic viscosity-building effect on aqueous compositions containing alkylamido betaines in combination with micelle-forming anionic surfactants. Other salts increase the viscosity of aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines only in the presence of anionic surfactants. Suitable inorganic salts in this category include sulfates of metals from Group IB of the
Aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines and certain water-soluble inorganic or organic salts provide compositions of remarkably high viscosities. The inorganic salts suitable for this purpose are the sulfates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB, and IIIA of the period table; sulfates of non-metallic ions; and alkali metal carbonates. Organic salts suitable in the present compositions include the citrates, tartrates, succinates, and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of metals from Groups IA, IIA, IIB and IIIA of the period table and the citrates, tartrates, succinates and carboxymethyloxysuccinates of ammonium ions. These salts have a synergistic viscosity-building effect on aqueous compositions containing alkylamido betaines in combination with micelle-forming anionic surfactants. Other salts increase the viscosity of aqueous solutions containing alkylamido betaines only in the presence of anionic surfactants. Suitable inorganic salts in this category include sulfates of metals from Group IB of the
Betaine HCl provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients.** This product is not recommended for anyone diagnosed with any type of ulcer or gastritis, or those with an overproduction of acid.. This product is in capsule form in order to ensure the delivery of betaine HCl and pepsin to the stomach where they are needed to initiate digestion. It has recently been reformulated to utilize a higher potency Pepsin (1:15,000) to maintain efficacy while reducing input and improving manufacturability.. Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement, take one capsule per day before a meal, or as directed by your health care practitioner.. ...
China Animal Feed Additive Betaine Hcl manufacturers - Select 2020 high quality Animal Feed Additive Betaine Hcl products in best price from certified Chinese Food Additive Chemical manufacturers, China Additive suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 100 Tablets About Supplements.co.nz Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride provides a safe and effective dose of Hydrochloric acid (stomach acid) with pepsin to aid protein digestion when taken with meals. Many people, especially the elderly and th
In the July Q&A on my Patreon feed, Doris asked: I fell down this particular rabbit hole because I wanted to duplicate a simple shampoo that I love. (Its this shampoo - Dirty Girl Farm, Bamboo Shampoo.) I think the order of the ingredients is off, but according to the label they are: water, glycerin, cocamidopropyl betaine, sodium chloride, bamboo extract. fragrance, citric acid, neem infusion. The cocamidopropyl betaine seems to be the only surfactant, which strikes me as odd, but I went with it. I put together a basic recipe, but cant get it to thicken with either salt or Crothix. My bamboo extract is 40% water, 40% glycerin, and 20% bamboo. I used it at 10% and didnt add any additional glycerin, since my hair is very prone to frizz. I couldnt find neem infusion anywhere, but I did include liquid Germall Plus (using a preservative is just one of the many important things Ive learned from you). Finally, my questions. Can cocamidopropyl betaine be used as the only surfactant in a shampoo? ...
Betaine HCl provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients. This product is not recommended for anyone diagnosed with any type of ulcer or gastritis, or those with an overproduction of acid. This product was previously in a tablet form, however we have upgraded to a capsule. This ensures delivery of betaine HCl and pepsin to the stomach where they are needed to initiate digestion.. Made with non-GMO ingredients. ...
Betaine HCl provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients.. This product is not recommended for anyone diagnosed with any type of ulcer or gastritis, or those with an overproduction of acid.. This product was previously in a tablet form, however we have upgraded to a capsule. This ensures delivery of betaine HCl and pepsin to the stomach where they are needed to initiate digestion.. Made with non-GMO ingredients.. ...
Maybe youve heard about how betaine derived from beet root can help increase the performance of long-distance cyclists and other endurance athletes. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research recently tested betaines effect on strength training. Scientists supplemented a hydrating beverage with 2.5 grams of betaine and had half of the study subjects drink that…
Platinum 100% Betaine. Ultra-pure Betaine to enhance performance. Stimulant free. Gain muscle and reduce recovery. Free shipping on Platinum 100% Betaine!
Betaine HCl Caps contain the highest potency betaine hydrochloride formula available providing powdered Betaine HCl with pepsin in gelatin capsules for quick acting and enhanced effectiveness.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) plants are chilling sensitive, and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), a metabolite that functions as a stress protectant. We reported previously that exogenous GB application enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato. To understand its protective role better, we have further evaluated various parameters associated with improved tolerance. Although its effect was most pronounced in younger plants, this benefit was diminished 1 week after GB application. When administered by foliar spray, GB was readily taken up and translocated to various organs, with the highest levels being measured in meristematic tissues, including the shoot apices and flower buds. In leaves, the majority of endogenous GB was found in the cytosol; only 0.6-22.0% of the total leaf GB was localized in chloroplasts. Immediately after GB application, levels of H2O2, catalase activity and expression of the catalase gene (CAT1) were all higher in GB-treated than in ...
Twinlab Betaine HCI with Pepsin Digestive Aid Dietary Supplement Capsules at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Twinlab Betaine HCI with Pepsin Digestive Aid Dietary Supplement Capsules
When you eat a meal‚ it is crucial that proper digestion and absorption of food takes place in order for you to maximize its benefits. In most cases‚ a balanced diet contains an assortment of the nutrients required for your body to function properly. However‚ sometimes all the nutrients in the foods that you eat are not completely absorbed; this lack of absorption can occur for a variety of different reasons: such as inadequate breakdown of food‚ a shortage of required chemical aids in the stomach‚ or certain types of anemia. Its known that betaine HCL facilitates the proper absorption of protein‚ calcium‚ vitamin B-12‚ and iron. These nutrients help your body with a variety of functions‚ such as bone and blood formation. Meanwhile‚ pepsin is used in the digestion of proteins that are used for the growth and repair of body tissues. For the best results‚ a supplement like Pure Encapsulations Betaine HCL Pepsin should be taken with each meal to assist with proper digestion ...
Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 100 Tablets contain the gastric acidifier Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins. Digestion and absorption of nutrients are important functions of the body to remain healthy and to support general well-being. In order to receive all the benefits from the foods consumed, the digestive system needs to breakdown carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into molecules so they can enter the bodys circulation. The digestive tract may be the most important component in the body as it singly is responsible for making sure we receive the full effect of the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients from our food. Maintaining healthy digestion is therefore of utmost importance. Natural botanicals and digestive enzymes are excellent aids in the digestive system. A number of digestive support supplements are available.
Purica Pure Betaine Details Pure vegan betaine powder for liver and digestive support. Also assists protein synthesis, helping athletes boost muscle strength, power, and mass.
Betaine HCl from Designs For Health provides 750 mg betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, a key protein digestive enzyme produced in the stomach. This product is ideal for those who are looking to support their stomachs digestive function. Taking one capsule before a meal aids digestion, especially the digestion of protein-containing foods, and helps with the assimilation of nutrients.** Thi
Betaine hydrochloride (betaine HCl) increases the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the stomach relative to how much is taken before meals. This enables the stomach to much more completely dissolve and process foods right down to base nutrients, as we
I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. Best part is the relief has lasted more than the usual 1-2 weeks. I once tried a betaine HCL product in the past but I took it the same time as taking a probiotic (I have found I always rash up from probiotics, without exception.) It may be worth a try, Im having a lot of success using it everyday and cycling my other supplements. In
Betaine HCL aids digestion, breaks down carbs and protein, and helps ensure a healthy gastrointestinal pH balance. Order your bottle of Betaine HCL today.
Betaine Hydrochloride 350mg 120 Capsules. Ingredients: Betaine hydrochloride 350 mg, organic rice flour, gelatin capsule. Suggested Use: Adults and children 12 or more years of age: 1-2 capsules daily with a meal or as directed. For further information, please view the product label by clicking the blue
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In general as far as I know customers who bought TWINLAB, Betaine HCL w/Pepsin 10/2 grains - 100 caps ( Multi-Pack) or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on TWINLAB, Betaine HCL w/Pepsin 10/2 grains - 100 caps ( Multi-Pack), best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
Betaine HCL/Pepsin 250s-Promotes a healthy digestive tract *Betaine HCl and pepsin are gastric-juice components essential to the digestion of food an
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
Save 45% Lindberg - Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin 300 Tablets Discontinued by Nutrition Express. Try similar item 99-353 Betaine HCI 648 mg with Pepsin 120 C.
Betaine Hydrochloride (Betaine HCL) Tablets with Pepsin to increase acidity in the stomach & encourage effective digestion. Small, taste free tablets.
Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin contains the gastric acidifier Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin, an enzyme which breaks down proteins. ✓Authorised Solgar Stockist ✓Free Delivery on orders over £15
Betaines and similar compounds[edit]. The compound trimethylglycine, which was isolated from sugar beet, was named as "betaine ... At the present time, all compounds whose structure includes this motif are known as betaines. Betaines do not isomerize because ... Betaines are zwitterions that cannot isomerize to an all-neutral form, such as when the positive charge is located on a ...
2005 - Corticosteroids 2004 - Cocamidopropyl betaine 2003 - Bacitracin 2002 - Thimerosal 2001 - Gold 2000 - Disperse Blue Dyes ... 2006). Focus on the Non-T.R.U.E. Test Allergen - Cocamidopropyl Betaine. The Dermatologist. http://www.the-dermatologist.com/ ... article/6127 Jacob, S. E.; Amini, S (2008). "Cocamidopropyl betaine". Dermatitis. 19 (3): 157-60. doi:10.2310/6620.2008.06043. ...
Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a surfactant manufactured from coconut oil that is increasingly used as an ingredient in ... Schnuch A, Lessmann H, Geier J, Uter W (2011). "Is cocamidopropyl betaine a contact allergen? Analysis of network data and ... Jacob SE, Amini S (2008). "Cocamidopropyl betaine". Dermatitis (Review). 19 (3): 157-160. doi:10.2310/6620.2008.06043. PMID ...
2002). Betaine. University of Maryland Medical Center.. *^ Potter, K.; Hankey, G. J.; Green, D. J.; Eikelboom, J. W.; Arnolda, ... Beets contain betaines which may function to reduce the concentration of homocysteine,[19] a homolog of the naturally occurring ... Pajares, M. A.; Pérez-Sala, D (2006). "Betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase: Just a regulator of homocysteine metabolism ...
Betaine. 1.5 mg. ~ Water. 215 g. 215 g Ash. 1.7 g. 1.8 g ...
Betaine hydrochloride is a powerful lipotropic and increases gastric acid. Betaine itself (in a non-hydrochloric form, also ... "Betaine Hydrochloride Information on Healthline". Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2008-04-24. CS1 maint: ... Schwahn, BC; Wang, XL; Mikael, LG; Wu, Q; Cohn, J; Jiang, H; Maclean, KN; Rozen, R (Dec 2007). "Betaine supplementation ... discouraged parameter (link)Craig, SA (September 2004). "Betaine in human nutrition". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80 (3): 539-49. doi: ...
Fertaric acid Betaine beetroot. Hexose wheat, barley. Pentose rye, oat. Beta-glucan Chitin fungi includes other edible ...
Betaine can provide a methyl group to glycocyamine, via methionine, for the formation of creatine. In overall, such treatment ... A series of studies showed that a combination of betaine and glycocyamine improves the symptoms of patients with chronic ... The biochemical basis of betaine-glycocyamine therapy. Ann West Med Surg 1951;5:825-9. Borsook ME, Borsook H. Treatment of ... The simultaneous intake of methyl providing substances such as betaine appears advisable because of the risk of homocysteine ...
GAT2 also transports taurine, while BGT1 transports betaine. These two transporters are predominantly expressed in the liver, ... Betaine transporter (BGT1; SLC6A12) A8/CT1 A6/TauT GAT1 and GAT3 are the major GABA transporters in the brain and spinal cord, ...
Cocamidopropyl betaine (from coconut oil). Cocamidopropyl Betaine Decyl glucoside. Decyl Glucoside* Citric acid. Citric Acid* ...
A16AA06 Betaine. A16AA07 Metreleptin. QA16AA51 Levocarnitine, combinations. A16AB Enzymes[edit]. A16AB01 Alglucerase. A16AB02 ...
Cocamidopropyl betaine Guin JD (2000). "Reaction to cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, an amphoteric surfactant and conditioner". ...
TMG is also used as the hydrochloride salt (marketed as betaine hydrochloride or betaine HCl). Betaine hydrochloride was once ... Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC ... Trimethylglycine was the first betaine discovered; originally it was simply called betaine because, in the 19th century, it was ... Since then, many other betaines have been discovered, and the more specific name glycine betaine distinguishes this one. ...
Mesomeric betaine IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006 ... Mesoionic compounds are a subclass of betaines. Examples are sydnones and sydnone imines (e.g. the stimulant mesocarb), ... "Heterocyclic mesomeric betaines". Tetrahedron. 41 (12): 2239-2329. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(01)96625-6. "SYDNONES" (PDF).[page ...
5-MTHF: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate; 5,10-methyltetrahydrofolate; BAX: Bcl-2-associated X protein; BHMT: betaine-homocysteine S- ...
"Betaines and Related Osmoprotectants. Targets for Metabolic Engineering of Stress Resistance". Plant Physiology. 120 (4): 945- ...
Kato, Misako; Sakai, Miho; Adachi, Kyoko; Ikemoto, Hisato; Sano, Hiroshi (1996). "Distribution of betaine lipids in marine ...
It contains betaine and the trisaccharide raffinose. These are a result of concentration from the original plant material or ...
Chloral betaine Hindmarch I, Parrott AC (1980). "The effects of combined sedative and anxiolytic preparations on subjective ...
"Deletion of the betaine-GABA transporter (BGT1; slc6a12) gene does not affect seizure thresholds of adult mice". Epilepsy Res. ...
Kato M, Sakai M, Adachi K, Ikemoto H, Sano H (1996). "Distribution of betaine lipids in marine algae". Phytochemistry. 42 (5): ...
McNeil SD (1999). "Betaines and related osmoprotectants. Targets for metabolic engineering of stress resistance". Plant ...
Caramella, Pierluigi; Houk, K.N. (1976). "Geometries of nitrilium betaines. The clarification of apparently anomalous reactions ...
betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase Ja 1.2.1.12 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) Ja ...
Thesis on the preparation of phenyl-betaine (Thesis). University of Edinburgh. hdl:1842/23813. https://www.royalsoced.org.uk/ ...
... is a methyl betaine of nicotinic acid. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 9606. Kuroda, Rei; Kazumura, Kimiko; Ushikata, ...
The erythro betaine can be converted to the threo betaine using phenyllithium at low temperature. This modification affords the ... Allylic alcohols can be prepared by reaction of the betaine ylide with a second aldehyde. For example: An example of its use is ... The existence and interconversion of the betaine (3a and 3b) is subject of ongoing research. For lithium-free Wittig reactions ... The main limitation of the traditional Wittig reaction is that the reaction proceeds mainly via the erythro betaine ...
"Glycine betaine and glycine betaine analogues in common foods". Food Chemistry. 83 (2): 197-204. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03) ...
Additionally, sarcosine and betaine can act as electron acceptors. Nisman, B. (1954). "The Stickland Reaction". Bacteriological ...
For glycine betaine, see trimethylglycine.. A betaine (/ˈbiːtə.iːn, bɪˈteɪ-, -ɪn/) in chemistry is any neutral chemical ... Phosphonium betaines are intermediates in the Wittig reaction. The addition of betaine to polymerase chain reactions improves ... In the 21st century, this substance is called glycine betaine to distinguish it from other betaines that are widely distributed ... The original betaine, N,N,N-trimethylglycine, was named after its discovery in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) in ...
Betaine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Betaine comes as a powder to be mixed with food or drink and taken by mouth. It is usually taken twice a day. Take betaine at ... Betaine controls homocystinuria but does not cure it. Continue to take betaine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking ... Before taking betaine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to betaine or any other medications. ...
... has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role human ... betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) is a quaternary ammonium ... CHEBI:15710 - betaine aldehyde. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... betaine aldehyde (CHEBI:15710) has role Aspergillus metabolite (CHEBI:76956) ...
... is a amino-acid betaine (CHEBI:22860) glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750) is a glycine derivative ( ... N,N,N-trimethylglycyl-CoA (CHEBI:85888) has functional parent glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750). N,N,N-trimethylglycinium (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:17750 - glycine betaine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... glycine betaine (CHEBI:17750) is conjugate base of N,N,N-trimethylglycinium (CHEBI:41139) ...
Betaine definition, a colorless, crystalline, water-soluble, sweet-tasting alkaloid, C 5 H 11 NO 2 , usually obtained from ... betaine in Medicine Expand. betaine be·ta·ine (bētə-ēn, -ĭn). n. A sweet crystalline alkaloid occurring in sugar beets and ... Betaine is used in the treatment of muscular weakness and degeneration. Chemical formula: C5H11NO2. ... It is a product of the decomposition of choline, betaine, and neuridine, when these substances are distilled with potash. ...
Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. Chloral ... Welldorm tablets (chloral betaine). Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the ... Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. Chloral ...
Cocamidopropyl betaine to a significant degree has replaced cocamide DEA. Despite the name cocamidopropyl betaine, the molecule ... Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. It is a medium-strength surfactant also used in bath products ... Fowler, J. F.; Fowler, L. M.; Hunter, J. E. (1997). "Allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine may be due to amidoamine: A patch test ... Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a mixture of closely related organic compounds derived from coconut oil and ...
... betaine hydrochloride provides extra hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which may aid in certain digestive processes. ... Thorne Research, B.P.P., (Betaine/Pepsin/Pancreatin), Digestive Enzymes, 180 Capsules. ...
... betaine hydrochloride provides extra hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which may aid in certain digestive processes. ... Natural Factors, Betaine HCL, with Fenugreek, 500 mg, 180 Veggie Caps. 56 ... Thorne Research, B.P.P., Betaine / Pepsin / Pancreatin, 180 Vegetarian Capsules. 21 ...
Understand more about Betaine Hydrochloride uses, health benefits, side effects, interactions, safety concerns, and ... Acide Chlorhydrique de Bétaïne, Betaine, Bétaïne, Betaine Chlorhydrate, Betaine HCl, Bétaïne HCl, Betaine Hydrochloric Acid, ... How does Betaine Hydrochloride work?. In the stomach, betaine hydrochloride separates into betaine and hydrochloric acid. The ... Dont confuse betaine hydrochloride with betaine anhydrous. Use only the FDA-approved betaine anhydrous product for the ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Side Effects & Safety. Betaine anhydrous is LIKELY SAFE for most children and adults when taken by mouth ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Uses & Effectiveness Effective for:. *High homocysteine levels in the urine (homocystinuria). Taking betaine ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Overview Information. Betaine anhydrous is a chemical that occurs naturally in the body, and can also be ...
... betaine powder, for solution), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products that ...
cystadane (betaine, anhydrous) powder, for solution. NDC Code(s): 68727-400-01 *Packager: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ... CYSTADANE (betaine) powder, for solution. NDC Code(s): 66621-4000-1 *Packager: Rare Disease Therapeutics, Inc. ... ATONO2 OXYGEN BABY (betaine) lotion. NDC Code(s): 70993-0005-1 *Packager: LAORGANIC Co., Ltd. ... CYSTADANE (betaine) powder, for solution. NDC Code(s): 52276-401-01 *Packager: Orphan Europe SARL ...
Products containing COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE made by company: Procter & Gamble Showing 61 - 70 of 609 results See more: 1 2 3 4 5 ...
The preparation of betaine cations of methine dyes by three methods, viz., cyanine condensations of some quaternary salts and ... Nitrogen Organic Chemistry Nitrogen Atom Betaine Methine Translated from Khimiya Geterotsiklicheskikh Soedinenii, No. 1, pp. 3- ...
Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. Choline or betaine ... Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ... Zeisel SH (2006a) Betaine supplementation and blood lipids: fact or artifact? Nutr Rev 64:77-79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Barak AJ, Tuma DJ (1983) Betaine, metabolic by-product or vital methylating agent? Life Sci 32:771-774PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
BETAINE (UNII: 3SCV180C9W) (BETAINE - UNII:3SCV180C9W) BETAINE. 1 g in 1 g. ... betaine 1000 MG Powder for Oral Solution [Cystadane]. SBD. 3. 404539. Cystadane 1000 MG (as betaine anhydrous) Powder for Oral ... CYSTADANE- betaine powder, for solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... Betaine occurs naturally in the body. It is a metabolite of choline and is present in small amounts in foods such as beets, ...
other: Multiple studies performed on humans studying the effect of betaine for improving skin and mu cous membrane health.. ...
Betaine EC Number:. 203-490-6. EC Name:. Betaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7 Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2 IUPAC Name:. 2-( ... BetaineBetaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7. Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2. IUPAC Name:. 2-( ... BetaineBetaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7. Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2. IUPAC Name:. 2-( ... BetaineBetaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7. Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2. IUPAC Name:. 2-( ...
Betaine. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] Trade names [6] IUPAC names [4] ...
Betaine Hydrochloride supports normal gastrointestinal pH.*. *Reformulated with non-dairy ingredients and can now support even ... Betaine hydrochloride, ammonium chloride, pepsin (1:10,000), calcium lactate, and magnesium citrate. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
This page features an image of a recrystallized mixture of betaine and urea. ... While some marine seaweed contains only betaine-glycine, other species feature a mixture of betaines. Betaine surfactants are ... Other betaines have been attributed similar functions in a variety of plants and it is believed that betaine-glycine plays a ... Betaine-Urea Mixture. Both betaine and urea are naturally occurring organic substances that are also often synthesized by ...
... IUPAC name {[3-(dodecanoylamino)propyl] (dimethyl)ammonio}acetate Identifiers CAS ... Cocamidopropyl betaine is a derivate of cocamide and betaine. See cocamide for the discussion of the length of carbon chain in ... Cocamidopropyl betaine to a significant degree has replaced cocamide DEA. Cocamidopropyl betaine is the active ingrediant in ... a b Mowad CM.Cocamidopropyl betaine allergy. Am J Contact Dermat. 2001 Dec;12(4):223-4. PMID 11753899 ...
Information and statements regarding dietary supplements/products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Information on this website is provided for informational purposes only and is a result of years of practice and experience by the author. This information is not intended as a substitute for the advice provided by your physician or other healthcare professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. Do not use the information on this website for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing medication or other treatment. Always speak with your physician or other healthcare professional before taking any medication or nutritional, herbal, or homeopathic supplement, or using any treatment for a health problem. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, contact your healthcare provider promptly. Do not disregard professional medical advice ...
Drug: Betaine Betaine will be given orally (mixed with food or dissolved in water, juice, milk, or formula) or through ... Experimental: Betaine Betaine will be given orally to all participants and dose will be adjusted to body weight. ... Drug Information available for: Betaine Betaine hydrochloride Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: X-linked ... Betaine is a medication already available as a powder for oral solution, for another rare disease. It is approved in many ...
Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous ... The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become ... Users inhalation exposure to betaine is expected to be minimal. Betaine anhydrous should be considered irritant to skin, eyes ... The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns ...
Coco betaine Description. Pale yellow transparent liquid Uses. Cocamidopropyl Betaine is an amphoteric detergent, which is a ... Cocamidopropyl Betaine Chemical Formula: Synonyms. N-(carboxy methyl)-N, N-Dimethyl-3-[(1-Oxococonut) amino]-1-Propanaminium ... cocamidopropyl betaine: InChI=1/C20H42N2O5S/c1-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-14-20(24)21-15-13-16-22(2,3)17-19(23)18-28(25,26)27/h19,23H ...
  • Thorne Research Betaine HCL & Pepsin offers hydrochloric acid and pure pepsin from a porcine source. (nutrichem.com)
  • Douglas Labs now offers Betaine Plus tablets with Pepsin and Betaine. (pureformulas.com)
  • Douglas Labs' Betaine Plus Capsules contain 496 mg of Betaine and 140 mg of Pepsin in each serving. (pureformulas.com)
  • Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin is formulated for maximum potency. (nutrichem.com)
  • It combines Betaine Hydrochloride with Pepsin that is standardized. (nutrichem.com)
  • For the best results‚ a supplement like Pure Encapsulations' Betaine HCL Pepsin should be taken with each meal to assist with proper digestion and absorption of nutrients. (pureformulas.com)
  • One bottle of 250 Betaine HCL Pepsin 250 capsules should last at least two months‚ depending on your dosage. (pureformulas.com)
  • Betaine Plus from Douglas Labs contains 650 mg of Betaine HCI and 140 mg Pepsin in each serving! (evitamins.com)
  • Combination of Betaine-HCl & Pepsin intended to provide digestive support. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Betaine hydrochloride is used as a supplemental source of hydrochloric acid, which can be utilized by the stomach to produce pepsin. (smallflower.com)
  • The combination of betaine hydrochloride and pepsin provide an excellent stomach tonic.Contains milk. (smallflower.com)
  • Per 1 Tablet: Betaine Hydrochloride - 650mg Pepsin 1:3000 - 165mg Other Ingredients: stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, modified cellulose gum, colloidal silicon dioxide. (smallflower.com)
  • This is a specialist product for aiding digestion which supplies a relevant level of betaine, a compound that releases hydrochloric acid, plus pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins in food. (naturesbest.co.uk)
  • Purchase a bottle of betaine hydrochloride tablets with pepsin. (holistichelp.net)
  • Betaine HCl and Pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme, can provide relief for those with occasional heartburn. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine HCl, on the other hand, uses HCl and pepsin already in your stomach to naturally raise the pH of stomach acid and soothe discomfort. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine HCl from Enzymedica uses a blend of fungal protease enzymes that act as pepsin-promoting the breakdown of proteins in an acidic environment, but with an entirely vegetarian approach. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine HCl with Pepsin Activity assists digestion that begins in the stomach with hydrochloric acid (HCl). (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Betaine & Pepsin supports balanced levels of HCI in the stomach and normal digestive function. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Betaine HCl and pepsin are produced by the hormone gastrin. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Support of natural gastric secretions and acidity with Betaine & Pepsin supports normal digestion, absorption and optimal immune health. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Betaine & Pepsin provides two essential components of healthy digestion: hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the digestive enzyme, pepsin. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Betaine & Pepsin includes 1,040 mg Betaine HCl USP and 208 mg Pepsin per serving. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • My particular supplement has pepsin in it too, I think its around 500-650 mg betaine HCL. (rosaceagroup.org)
  • Each tablet provides 324mg of betaine hydrochloride along with pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins in food. (worldwideshoppingmall.co.uk)
  • Betaine HCL and Pepsin contains specific nutrients required for digestion of protein in the stomach. (forresthealth.com)
  • VitaSprings does not imply any medical claims from the customer reviews on this Betaine HCl with Pepsin 324mg product on this website. (vitasprings.com)
  • Write a Review on this Betaine HCl with Pepsin 324mg product and share your experience or opinion with other customers. (vitasprings.com)
  • Buy Betaine HCl with Pepsin 324mg from Thompson Nutritional at VitaSprings, and we guarantee you a safe, secure online shopping experience! (vitasprings.com)
  • Doctor's Best Betaine HCl Pepsin & Gentian Bitters may support the stomach's digestive capacity and optimize digestive efficiency. (bodykind.com)
  • Below are reviews of Betaine HCl Pepsin & Gentian Bitters - 360 Capsules by bodykind customers. (bodykind.com)
  • Betaine and pepsin are essential for the digestion of food and the absorption of most nutrients. (fairvital.com)
  • Betaine Hydrochloride 325mg (Equivalent to 11 drops of dilute Hydrochloric Acid USP) Pepsin (1:10,000 units) 59mg. (evergreen.ie)
  • For glycine betaine, see trimethylglycine . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 21st century, this substance is called glycine betaine to distinguish it from other betaines that are widely distributed in microorganisms, plants, and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acid betaine derived from glycine. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This substance may be called glycine betaine to distinguish it from other betaines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine-glycine, the structurally simplest betaine compound, was originally commercially extracted from sugar beets and a variety of seaweeds. (fsu.edu)
  • As a naturally occurring substance, betaine, in its structurally-simplest form (betaine-glycine), was first commercially extracted from sugar beets. (fsu.edu)
  • Biochemists found that betaine-glycine was responsible for retaining chlorophyll in the plant cells. (fsu.edu)
  • Cytokinin (a plant hormone that influences cell division, plant metabolism, and the synthesis of RNA) properties discovered in sugar beets and marine seaweed extracts, have been attributed, at least in part, to betaine-glycine. (fsu.edu)
  • Through additional extract experiments, betaine-glycine was also found to be a major controller of water movements in and out of higher plant cells, particularly those species adapted for aquatic or salt-stressed habitats. (fsu.edu)
  • Other betaines have been attributed similar functions in a variety of plants and it is believed that betaine-glycine plays a role in frost resistance. (fsu.edu)
  • While some marine seaweed contains only betaine-glycine, other species feature a mixture of betaines. (fsu.edu)
  • Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. (europa.eu)
  • 1) (that is, R 3 N + -CHR'-COO - ), for example, glycine betaine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • proline, sugar, glycine betaine and cell membrane stability while significant positive osmotic adjustment under drought stress. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Betaine is actually the amino acid glycine with three methyl groups attached, and it's thought that these methyl groups play a role in betaine's performance and muscular enhancement qualities. (muscletech.com)
  • Betaine is composed of the amino acid glycine which is attached to three methyl groups. (enzymedica.com)
  • Binding protein dependent transport of glycine betaine and its osmotic regulation in Escherichia coli K12. (nih.gov)
  • Glycine betaine, which functions as an osmoprotectant, is accumulated to high intracellular concentrations in Escherichia coli at high osmolarity. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate the presence of a high-affinity, binding protein dependent transport system for glycine betaine, which is encoded by the proU region. (nih.gov)
  • We show the osmotically regulated synthesis of a 32 kDa periplasmic protein that is a glycine betaine binding protein with a KD of 1.4 microM. (nih.gov)
  • ProU-mediated glycine betaine transport is osmotically stimulated at the level of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The osmolarity of the medium also regulates the activity of the transport system, while binding of glycine betaine to its binding protein is independent of the osmolarity. (nih.gov)
  • We also find a second glycine betaine transport system that is dependent on proP and exhibits a lower substrate affinity. (nih.gov)
  • Glycine betaine is a potent osmoprotectant accumulated by Sinorhizobium meliloti to cope with osmotic stress. (pnas.org)
  • The biosynthesis of glycine betaine from choline is encoded by an operon of four genes, betICBA , as determined by sequence and mutant analysis. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike what has been shown in other bacteria and plants, choline- O -sulfate is not used as an osmoprotectant per se in S. meliloti , but is metabolized into glycine betaine. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, choline- O -sulfate and phosphorylcholine, which are found in higher plants and fungi, appear to be substrates for glycine betaine biosynthesis in S. meliloti . (pnas.org)
  • Osmolytes identified until now are either ions (potassium) or small organic molecules such as amino acids (glutamate, proline), sugars (trehalose, glucosylglycerol), ectoine, dipeptides, and quartenary amines (stachydrine, glycine betaine) ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Among these compatible solutes, glycine betaine ( N , N , N -trimethylglycine) has been shown to be a very efficient osmolyte found in a wide range of bacterial and plant species, where it is accumulated at high cytoplasmic concentrations in response to osmotic stress. (pnas.org)
  • Although it has been shown that S. meliloti has the ability to use different compatible solutes in presence of an osmotic stress, it appears that glycine betaine is the most potent osmoprotectant and strongly stimulates the growth rate of the bacteria in high-salt medium ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unlike enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli , S. meliloti also catabolizes glycine betaine and uses it both as a carbon and a nitrogen source for growth ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glycine betaine either can be taken up directly from the environment by specific transport systems or synthesized from choline by a two-step pathway with betaine aldehyde as intermediate ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Higher plants and Gram-negative bacteria both are using a conserved betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase to catalyze the betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine reaction. (pnas.org)
  • Dimethylthetin can substitute for glycine betaine as an osmoprotectant molecule for Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • Glycine betaine is believed to be the most active naturally occurring osmoprotectant molecule for Escherichia coli and other bacteria. (asm.org)
  • To examine the molecular requirements for osmoprotective activity, dimethylthetin was compared with glycine betaine. (asm.org)
  • Dimethylthetin is identical to glycine betaine except for substitution of dimethyl sulfonium for the quaternary nitrogen group. (asm.org)
  • Dimethylthetin was found to be about equally as effective as glycine betaine in permitting E. coli to grow in hypertonic NaCl, and both compounds were recovered almost completely from bacterial cells grown in the presence of hypertonic NaCl. (asm.org)
  • Based on several studies, betaine is considered as the most effective osmo-protectant among the organic osmolytes like proline, glycine, glutamine, sarcosine, and taurine. (pigprogress.net)
  • 18060588 ). Proline betaine is a glycine betaine analogue found in many citrus foods. (hmdb.ca)
  • Here we report the determination of the X-ray structure of a member of the family of betaine/choline/carnitine transporters, the Na(+)-coupled symporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a highly effective osmoregulated uptake system for glycine betaine. (rcsb.org)
  • Glycine betaine is bound in a tryptophan box occluded from both sides of the membrane with aromatic side chains lining the transport pathway. (rcsb.org)
  • Betaine anhydrous is also known as Trimethyl Glycine (TMG). (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Betaine is formed from choline and the amino acid glycine. (fairvital.com)
  • The original betaine, N , N , N -trimethylglycine, was named after its discovery in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine, or trimethylglycine, is a Health Canada and FDA approved orphan drug for the treatment of homocystinuria and is used by us safely and regularly in genetic medicine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Betaine (trimethylglycine) functions very closely with choline , folic acid , vitamin B12 , and a form of the amino acid methionine known as S-adenosylmethionine ( SAMe ). (peacehealth.org)
  • When choline donates one of these groups to another molecule, it becomes betaine (trimethylglycine). (peacehealth.org)
  • Betaine (trimethylglycine) has been shown to lower homocysteine levels. (peacehealth.org)
  • Betaine (trimethylglycine) (6 grams per day) and choline (2 grams per day) have each been shown to lower homocysteine levels. (peacehealth.org)
  • For the few cases in which vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid fail to normalize homocysteine, adding betaine (trimethylglycine) may be effective. (peacehealth.org)
  • Betaine has humble beginnings in the supplement world sold in bottles labeled as trimethylglycine or TMG. (muscletech.com)
  • Betaine is a naturally occurring amino acid compound also known as trimethylglycine, or TMG. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine, scientifically referred to as Trimethylglycine, is a metabolite of choline. (musclefeast.com)
  • Many plants, as well as other organisms, accumulate betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a nontoxic or protective osmolyte under saline or dry conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Betaine (also known as trimethylglycine) is a natural substance found in foods such as beets and spinach. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Betaine HCL, also called trimethylglycine, is a natural digestive aid that helps top break down fats and carbohydrates more efficiently. (bodybio.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of betaine? (wellspan.org)
  • Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2013, 10:39. (muscletech.com)
  • However, adequate concentration of cysteine is required to achieve the beneficial effects of betaine supplementation. (wattagnet.com)
  • We investigated the metabolic effects of betaine (Bet) supplementation on CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase/Pcyt2 heterozygous mice (HET). (frontiersin.org)
  • The European market for betaine application in food and beverage is projected to increase as the regulatory bodies in Europe are continuously researching to analyze the effects of betaine on animals and humans. (pitchengine.com)
  • A form of betaine called betaine anhydrous helps in the metabolism of homocysteine, a chemical involved in the normal function of many different parts of the body, including blood, bones, eyes, heart , nerves, and the brain . (webmd.com)
  • Betaine anhydrous prevents the buildup of homocysteine seen in people who have problems with its metabolism from birth. (webmd.com)
  • Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, which links choline and betaine to the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The link to one-carbon metabolism and the recent availability of food composition data have motivated studies on choline and betaine as risk factors of chronic diseases previously studied in relation to folate and homocysteine status. (springer.com)
  • Allen RH, Stabler SP, Lindenbaum J (1993) Serum betaine, N, N-dimethylglycine and N-methylglycine levels in patients with cobalamin and folate deficiency and related inborn errors of metabolism. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that feeding betaine to hens modulates hypothalamic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and brain functions in F1 cockerels with modification of promoter DNA methylation. (labome.org)
  • Besides, betaine improves the metabolism in animals and acts as a methyl donor. (prsync.com)
  • Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. (hindawi.com)
  • Betaine also plays a role in hepatic fat metabolism, promoting muscle protein synthesis, and has been suggested to increase nitric oxide levels. (musclefeast.com)
  • Dietary choline and betaine have been hypothesized to decrease the risk of cancer because of their role as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • It is widely reported how betaine addition regulates lipid metabolism but how betaine affects cholesterol metabolism is still unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the role of betaine in hepatic cholesterol metabolism of Sprague-Dawley rats. (mdpi.com)
  • In summary, dietary betaine addition promoted hepatic cholesterol metabolism, including cholesterol synthesis, conversion of bile acids, and bile acid export. (mdpi.com)
  • Research suggests that betaine supports cell health by acting as a methyl donor, This, in turn, supports healthy methionine, homocysteine and hepatic fat metabolism. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Dimethylthetin may prove useful as a molecular probe to study betaine metabolism and as a model for the development of antibacterial agents. (asm.org)
  • Cho has multiple roles in metabolism including incorporation into membrane phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin, neurotransmitter formation (i.e., acetylcholine), and mitochondrial oxidation to betaine (Bet), a critical osmolyte and methyl-group donor in one carbon metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Betaine, being involved in the energy metabolism, can reduce the required energy for the osmoregulation. (pigprogress.net)
  • Betaine in dietary supplements contributes to a healthy metabolism and improves physical performance, especially strength, power, and muscle endurance. (pitchengine.com)
  • The addition of betaine might improve circularisation of single-stranded DNA Cocamidopropyl betaine Mesoionic Mesomeric betaine Osmoprotectants Ylide Alex Nickon and Ernest F. Silversmith (1987). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a mixture of closely related organic compounds derived from coconut oil and dimethylaminopropylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine to a significant degree has replaced cocamide DEA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the name cocamidopropyl betaine, the molecule is not synthesized from betaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine is used as a foam booster in shampoos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine was voted 2004 Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine ( CAPB ) is a zwitterionic surfactant with a quaternary ammonium cation in its molecule. (bionity.com)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine is a derivate of cocamide and betaine. (bionity.com)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine is a medium strength surfactant which most often does not irritate skin or mucous membranes. (bionity.com)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine is the active ingrediant in Johnson's Baby wash. (bionity.com)
  • a b Mowad CM.Cocamidopropyl betaine allergy. (bionity.com)
  • Allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine and amidoamine in North America. (bionity.com)
  • Korting HC, Parsch EM, Enders F, Przybilla B. Allergic contact dermatitis to cocamidopropyl betaine in shampoo. (bionity.com)
  • Fowler JF, Fowler LM, Hunter JE, Allergy to cocamidopropyl betaine may be due to amidoamine: a patch test and product use test study. (bionity.com)
  • Cocamidopropyl Betaine is an amphoteric detergent, which is a detergent that can act as an acid or a base. (sci-toys.com)
  • Two ingredients for which this is true are betaine and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAB). (naturallycurly.com)
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine is a popular synthetic surfactant used as an emulsifier, cleansing agent, and foam booster in many hair products. (naturallycurly.com)
  • Cocamidopropyl Betaine (CAPB) and Lauramidopropyl Betaine are part of a class of ingredients called amidopropyl betaines. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Lauramidopropyl Betaine and related amidopropyl betaines are used mainly as surfactants in cosmetic and personal care products. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Lauramidopropyl Betaine and the other related amidopropyl betaines are similar in chemistry. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • The safety of Cocamidopropyl Betaine and related amidopropyl betaine ingredients has been assessed on several occasions by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Cocamidopropyl Betaine and Lauramidopropyl Betaine are zwitterions. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Betaine hydrochloride is now available only as a dietary supplement whose purity and strength can vary. (medicinenet.com)
  • Dietary betaine supplementation to gestational sows enhances hippocampal IGF2 expression in newborn piglets with modified DNA methylation of the differentially methylated regions. (labome.org)
  • Dietary betaine supplementation in hens modulates hypothalamic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in F1 cockerels through modification of DNA methylation. (labome.org)
  • In general, animal studies show that betaine can replace choline chloride with higher efficacy and can replace part of total dietary methionine, resulting in a cheaper diet, whilst maintaining performance. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, and choline and risk of peripheral artery disease. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the associations between plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, choline, and supplemental folic acid use and incidence of PAD. (nih.gov)
  • Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. (hindawi.com)
  • Dietary betaine supplementation might be an effective approach for treatment of obesity and improving body composition. (anabolic.ca)
  • However, it remains unknown whether dietary intake of choline and betaine is associated with colorectal cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • We prospectively examined the associations between dietary choline and betaine intake and risk of colorectal cancer in men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. (nih.gov)
  • We assessed dietary and supplemental choline and betaine intake every 4 years using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. (nih.gov)
  • The experimental group received a dietary supplement called Eumastós, which contained the same combination with the addition of myo-inositol (200 mg), Boswellia serrata (50 mg), and betaine (175 mg). (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Dietary supplementation of betaine may decrease the requirement of methyl donors like methionine and choline. (wattagnet.com)
  • Inadequate dietary concentration of cysteine may affect the activity of betaine by reducing the concentrations of homocysteine for methionine formation. (wattagnet.com)
  • Improved cell integrity and surface area of gastrointestinal lumen with betaine supplementation appeared to enhance the digestibility of dietary nutrients. (wattagnet.com)
  • Dietary supplementation of betaine increased the activities of several hormones in serum such as luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, triiodo-thyronine, thyroxine, oestradiol and progesterone in laying hens. (wattagnet.com)
  • The results showed that dietary betaine supplementation reduced the feed intake of rats with final weight unchanged. (mdpi.com)
  • Dietary betaine addition enhanced cholesterol synthesis as well as conversion of bile acid from cholesterol by increasing the levels of HMGCR and CYP7A1. (mdpi.com)
  • The high-fat diet decreased the level of bile salt export pump, while dietary betaine addition inhibited this decrease and promoted bile acid efflux and increased total bile acid levels in the intestine. (mdpi.com)
  • Both functions of betaine play a key role, particularly when animals are under challenging conditions, which include heat stress, temperature stress such as fluctuation between the day and night temperatures, dietary changes and pathogenic challenges (mainly coccidiosis which often causes wet litter). (pigprogress.net)
  • The betaine in this dietary supplement by Fairvital is present as betaine hydrochloride. (fairvital.com)
  • Humans also obtain betaine from dietary choline, as the liver and kidney are able to oxidize choline into betaine in a two-step enzyme-dependent reaction [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The betaine market serves to the feed manufacturers, cosmetic companies, energy sports drinks manufacturers, and pharmaceutical companies, who produce dietary and nutritional supplements. (pitchengine.com)
  • Multiple studies performed on humans studying the effect of betaine for improving skin and mu cous membrane health. (europa.eu)
  • We investigated the effect of betaine supplementation on ethanol induced steatosis and alterations in prooxidant and antioxidant status in the liver of guinea pigs. (curezone.com)
  • Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. (muscletech.com)
  • Chinese nutrition scientists at Qingdao University tracked 6 human studies in the scientific literature, in which the effect of betaine supplementation on body weight, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage was studied, involving a total of 195 subjects. (anabolic.ca)
  • Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. (europa.eu)
  • Additionally, betaine is an osmolyte. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine also functions as an osmolyte, which supports the integrity of cells and proteins during fluctuations in hydration, salinity and temperature. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • As an excellent organic osmolyte, betaine restores and maintains cellular integrity and functionality, and it prevents dehydration. (pigprogress.net)
  • Welldorm tablets contain the active ingredient chloral betaine, which is converted in the body to chloral hydrate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Betaine hydrochloride used to be included in over-the-counter (OTC) products as a 'stomach acidifier and digestive aid. (medicinenet.com)
  • Douglas Labs' Betaine Plus Capsules may be a great option if you want to potentially improve your overall digestive health. (pureformulas.com)
  • Betaine has long been studied for its positive impact on heart health, but now we are thoroughly exploring ever expanding benefits, such as digestive support and the improvement of exercise performance and body composition. (enzymedica.com)
  • Luckily, there is a compound of betaine that is frequently used to aid this digestive issue. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine Hydrochloride is a combination formula providing betaine, plus papain and digestive enzymes. (frysfood.com)
  • Betaine HCl may support the stomach`s digestive capacity by decreasing gastric pH. (bodykind.com)
  • Natures Aid Digestive Enzyme complex with betaine HCl, contain enzymes that assist in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. (bodykind.com)
  • Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride may help to alleviate symptoms of digestive discomfort such as bloating, IBS, diarrhea, gas and stomach cramps. (evergreen.ie)
  • These ingredients consist of various fatty acids bound to amidopropyl betaine. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Therefore, manufacturers keep the levels of DMAPA and amidoamine in ingredients like CAPB and Lauramidopropyl Betaine as low as possible through manufacturing controls and continual quality monitoring. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • CAPB and related amidopropyl betaine ingredients have the potential to form by-products called nitrosamines. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • A: While the capsules are made from kosher-certified bovine gelatin, the active ingredients in BodyBio Betaine HCL are not of animal origin. (bodybio.com)
  • Nutritionists tell me that it could be cheaper to design the diet to a higher energy level from normal ingredients than to spend €6-€8/tonne on supplementary betaine to do the same job. (pigprogress.net)
  • Taking betaine anyhydrous lowers homocysteine levels. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that supplementation with betaine anhydrous can decrease homocysteine levels in the blood of some but not all people. (webmd.com)
  • Taking betaine anhydrous might also lower homocysteine levels in the blood in people with kidney failure . (webmd.com)
  • Betaine is used to reduce homocysteine levels in people with a genetic condition called homocystinuria, in which the amino acid builds up in the body. (wellspan.org)
  • More recently, 1.5 grams of betaine per day, an amount similar to that in a typical diet, also has been found to lower homocysteine levels. (peacehealth.org)
  • Betaine supplementation has been shown to reduce homocysteine levels while resulting in modest increases of plasma serine and cysteine levels. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effects of excess methionine on growth performance, serum homocysteine levels, apoptotic rates, and Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels in geese and to study the role of betaine in relieving excess Met-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. (mdpi.com)
  • It was found that excess methionine reduces body weight induced by myocardial apoptosis, and betaine can be used to effectively lower plasma homocysteine levels. (mdpi.com)
  • Betaine is also a methyl donor of increasingly recognised significance in biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract: Betaine protects cells from environmental stress and serves as a methyl donor in several biochemical pathways. (osti.gov)
  • One of the well-known applications of betaine in animal feed is saving feed costs by replacing choline chloride and methionine as methyl donor in poultry diets. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Betaine is known as a "methyl donor," because it has so many of these methyl groups to distribute around the body. (enzymedica.com)
  • As a methyl donor, betaine is used to convert homocysteine to L-methionine, and is therefore, a precursor to creatine. (musclefeast.com)
  • Betaine acts as a methyl donor and an osmolytes that assists in cellular water homeostasis. (wattagnet.com)
  • Just like some B vitamins, including folic acid and vitamin B12, betaine is regarded as a so-called methyl donor. (fairvital.com)
  • Betaine (B) is another major methyl donor [ 8 ], which maintains normal DNA methylation patterns [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Intracellular accumulation of betaines, non-perturbing to enzyme function, protein structure, and membrane integrity, permits water retention in cells, thus protecting from the effects of dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria (an inherited condition in which the body cannot break down a certain protein, causing build-up of homocysteine in the blood). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Using patient cell lines with this mutation, we reported the recovery of peroxisome functions by treatment with Betaine, acting as a nonspecific chemical chaperone for the misfolded PEX1 protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Because betaine influences fat and protein deposition, it can also be used to improve carcass quality and reduce fatty livers. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes sarcosine from betaine. (uniprot.org)
  • It's known that betaine HCL facilitates the proper absorption of protein‚ calcium‚ vitamin B-12‚ and iron. (pureformulas.com)
  • Betaine HCL‚ which is used to treat abnormally low levels of potassium‚ stave off hay fever‚ and assist in the absorption of protein‚ iron‚ vitamin B12‚ and calcium. (pureformulas.com)
  • Betaine was reported to improve apparent digestibility of lysine, protein, fat and carotenoids and in-vitro methionine uptake in broilers challenged with coccidia. (wattagnet.com)
  • In addition to the genes encoding a presumed regulatory protein ( betI ), the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ( betB ), and the choline dehydrogenase ( betA ) enzymes also found in Escherichia coli , a new gene ( betC ) was identified as encoding a choline sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of choline- O -sulfate and, at a lower rate, phosphorylcholine, into choline. (pnas.org)
  • Betaine HCl (betaine hydrochloride) augments your natural production of hydrochloric acid to optimize digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, protein and fat. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Your doctor may tell you to take other medications such as vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 12 (cobalamin), and folic acid together with betaine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The results of this study, however, point to the potential benefit of increasing one's intake of foods rich in betaine (such as whole wheat, spinach, beets, and other plant foods). (peacehealth.org)
  • After the sugar has been extracted, the remaining pulp is rich in betaine. (pigprogress.net)
  • Natural sources rich in betaine are spinach, which contains approx. (fairvital.com)
  • When included in a hair conditioner, one role of betaine is to act as a moisturizing agent or humectant. (naturallycurly.com)
  • Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of betaine and gradually increase your dose based on your body's response to the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The appropriate dose of betaine hydrochloride depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. (medicinenet.com)
  • Overwhelmingly studies have used 2.5g as the daily dose of betaine. (muscletech.com)
  • Betaine HCl, the acidic form of betaine, has been used for years to support digestion and absorption due to its ability to lower gastric pH. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Betaine HCl is an acidic form of betaine, which is able to contribute to an optimal acidity level of the gastric juice . (fairvital.com)
  • For oral solution: in bottles containing 180 grams of betaine anhydrous. (nih.gov)
  • We show that betaine treatment leads to an upregulation of mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome c oxidase activity in H2.35 cells, the proposed rate limiting enzyme of ETC in vivo. (osti.gov)
  • the more i look, the more i find studies that do in fact show that betaine (or TMG or DMG as its called in supplemental form) does boost glutathione levels. (curezone.com)
  • Try betaine HCl for digestion support. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Douglas Laboratories Betaine Plus supports digestion of proteins and food in the stomach. (ovitaminpro.com)
  • Betaine HCl has really improved my bad digestion and with this brand I need fewer capsules thanks to the high dosage, which together with the big pack makes them competitively priced. (bodykind.com)
  • Solgar Betaine Hydrochloride may help to support the digestion process (the breakdown of food into nutrients) by increasing stomach acid levels. (evergreen.ie)
  • In the stomach, betaine hydrochloride separates into betaine and hydrochloric acid. (medicinenet.com)
  • There is a concern that the hydrochloric acid produced from betaine hydrochloride might irritate stomach ulcers or keep them from healing. (medicinenet.com)
  • Betaine-HCl is a delivery form of Hydrochloric Acid. (vitanetonline.com)
  • The Betaine HCL Challenge test is the easiest and most affordable way to assess hydrochloric acid levels and it can also tell you how much supplementation is needed, if required. (holistichelp.net)
  • Betaine HCl is an excellent source of hydrochloric acid, which is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. (bodybio.com)
  • Betaine hydrochloride can increase stomach acid. (medicinenet.com)
  • Betaine hydrochloride increases stomach acid. (medicinenet.com)
  • Betaine HCI is a synthetic compound that may support our natural stomach acid. (pureformulas.com)
  • What finally worked for me is a CONTROLLED dosage of BETAINE HCL without risking in finding myself in surgery with a hole in my stomach. (earthclinic.com)
  • In case some of you don't know, BETAINE HCL is really pure stomach acid in a capsule with a PH less than 2 enough to burn through metal! (earthclinic.com)
  • Since I have totally changed my eating habits by favoring raw fruits and vegetables along with stomach enzymes and of course Betaine HCL, I have not experience another major heartburn for more than 10 months. (earthclinic.com)
  • Your body should secrete more acid naturally if you continue with the consumption of BETAINE HCL for a little while until you cannot ingest a single capsule without feeling a burning sensation in your stomach. (earthclinic.com)
  • Reduced gut pH and intestinal villi height with betaine (hydrochloride) supplementation in the stomach may improve the digestibility of methionine and other nutrients. (wattagnet.com)
  • Betaine HCl increases acid levels so your stomach can naturally digest properly. (enzymedica.com)
  • In addition, Betaine HCl comes with MucoSave to support and maintain a healthy mucosal system in the stomach. (enzymedica.com)
  • The donation of methyl groups by betaine is very important to proper liver function, cellular replication, and detoxification reactions. (peacehealth.org)
  • If betaine donates one of its methyl groups, then it becomes dimethylglycine. (peacehealth.org)
  • To generate methyl groups, choline can be oxidised to betaine within the mitochondria ( Figure 1 ). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Regeneration of methionine occurs by betaine donating one of its three methyl groups to homocysteine, via the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Betaine is rich in methyl groups. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine contributes methyl groups for the synthesis of carnitine via S- adenosyl methionine. (wattagnet.com)
  • Betaine increases the concentration of S-adenosyl methionine and homocysteine in liver, which facilitates in-vivo methionine synthesis by utilising methyl groups from a single carbon pool. (wattagnet.com)
  • Take betaine at around the same times every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take betaine exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Continue to take betaine even if you feel well. (medlineplus.gov)
  • My main problem is that when I take betaine hcl for an extended period of time, I experience asthmatic symptoms when I wake up in the morning such as wheezing and shortness of breath. (healingwell.com)
  • Who should not take Betaine-Lactic Acid-Water Liquid? (webmd.com)
  • To make sure you can safely take betaine, tell your doctor about all of your medical conditions. (wellspan.org)
  • How should I take betaine? (wellspan.org)
  • This stimulation of betaine-dependent homocysteine re-methylation and the subsequent decrease in plasma homocysteine can be maintained as long as supplemental betaine is taken. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This systematic review and meta-analysis provided further evidence that supplemental betaine could reduce body fat in human subjects", write the researchers. (anabolic.ca)
  • In biological systems, many naturally occurring betaines serve as organic osmolytes , substances synthesized or taken up from the environment by cells for protection against osmotic stress, drought, high salinity, or high temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biological systems, many naturally occurring betaines serve as organic osmolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betaine anhydrous is a chemical that occurs naturally in the body, and can also be found in foods such as beets, spinach, cereals, seafood, and wine. (webmd.com)
  • Both betaine and urea are naturally occurring organic substances that are also often synthesized by chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturers. (fsu.edu)
  • Betaine is made naturally as well as syntheticaly from a number of plants and animals (Boch et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Betaine is naturally a chemical compound and is typically found in a variety of vegetables. (prsync.com)
  • Betaine hydrochloride is a compound that consists of betaine and hydrochloride and is naturally found in beets. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine is naturally derived from the breakdown of choline and it is also found in a number of food sources. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Also, as a result of their direct interaction with the proteins in hair, betaine can improve the mechanical properties, such as strength and elasticity. (naturallycurly.com)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes sarcosine from betaine , the pathway betaine degradation and in Amine and polyamine degradation . (uniprot.org)
  • We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data do not support the hypothesis that choline and betaine intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • This study is certainly the most important study on betaine to date for athletes and bodybuilders and makes betaine a must-have supplement! (muscletech.com)
  • People with blood sugar issues should not supplement with Betaine anhydrous or products containing this ingredient, and pregnant or nursing women should consult a physician prior to Betaine anhydrous administration. (musclefeast.com)
  • Betaine is an effective fat loss supplement. (anabolic.ca)
  • According to a meta-study published in Nutrients, you can lose 2.5 kilos of fat if you take a betaine supplement. (anabolic.ca)
  • I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. (rosaceagroup.org)
  • I've a feeling that a betaine supplement could well be part of the 'gilt developer' diets now recommended, as SBP is not available everywhere. (pigprogress.net)
  • Betaines occur in the extracts of most species of marine algae, many of which are used as food additives and nutritional/health supplements. (fsu.edu)
  • Betaine is only part of a complete program of treatment that may also include other vitamin and mineral supplements and a special diet. (wellspan.org)
  • The growing demand for nutritional supplements and nutritious foods should support the global betaine market. (prsync.com)
  • Here's how betaine became one of the top musclebuilding supplements on the market! (muscletech.com)
  • The most popular composition of betaine supplements is betaine HCl. (enzymedica.com)
  • Why is Betaine HCl better than other supplements? (enzymedica.com)
  • Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, Saarela J, Aro A (2004) The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. (springer.com)
  • There isn't enough information to know if betaine hydrochloride is safe when taken in multiple doses. (medicinenet.com)
  • At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for betaine hydrochloride. (medicinenet.com)
  • We will perform a 6 month pilot study with 12 patients to test the hypothesis that Betaine, at recommended doses, can recover peroxisome biochemical functions in blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Betaine doses are based on weight in children, and any changes may affect your child's dose. (wellspan.org)
  • Doses of 2500-6000mg betaine daily may increase muscular strength, endurance, and total training volume. (musclefeast.com)
  • Supplementation with divided doses of myo-inositol (800 mg), Boswellia serrata (200 mg), and betaine (700 mg) may be a valuable new therapy in treating patients with mastalgia, benign breast disease, and/or high breast density. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • The potential importance of this molecule for stress resistance among agronomically important organisms has led to investigations of betaine biosynthesis and transport in Sinorhizobium meliloti . (pnas.org)
  • Betaine is named because of its initial discovery as a component of beets. (muscletech.com)
  • It was originally discovered in beets, which is where the name betaine is derived from. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine received its name because it was sourced from sugar beets, and the scientific name for beets is beta vulgaris. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Betaine comes as a powder to be mixed with food or drink and taken by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One level scoop of powder is equal to 1 gram of betaine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaine powder may also be mixed with food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Betaine is a medication already available as a powder for oral solution, for another rare disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Betaine is a powder medicine that must be mixed with a liquid before using it. (wellspan.org)
  • Store betaine powder at room temperature away from moisture and heat. (wellspan.org)
  • However, betaine anhydrous does not seem to increase the homocysteine-lowering effects of folate in people with kidney failure. (webmd.com)
  • The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. (europa.eu)
  • The Global Betaine market can be divided based on application into the following segments: Feed Industry Applications, Food Industry Applications, and Other Industrial Applications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The global betaine market was valued at around USD 3.6 billion in 2019 and is expected to garner a CAGR of 6.46% to reach USD 4.9 billion in 2024. (prsync.com)
  • Global betaine market size was $2,637.5 Million in 2012, and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 5.8% to reach $3,686.0 Million by 2019. (pitchengine.com)
  • No changes in alpha-tocopherol and total AA levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed with betaine treatment in alcohol treated guinea pigs. (curezone.com)
  • In plants, the last step in betaine synthesis is catalyzed by betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8), a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic enzyme. (pnas.org)
  • A 6-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of boswellic acid, betaine, and myo-inositol in the treatment of mastalgia and benign breast lumps. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Betaine is a neutral chemical compound and a nutrient provitamin, usually in the form of natural betaine. (prsync.com)
  • Evidence increasingly shows that betaine is a critical nutrient in protecting and enhancing the function of internal organs and improving vascular health. (enzymedica.com)
  • Because it has been shown to help convert homocysteine back to methionine, betaine HCL is an important nutrient for cardiovascular health. (bodybio.com)
  • A funny old nutrient - betaine! (pigprogress.net)
  • Even when the pig is not dehydrated and can drink sufficient water, betaine helps in maintaining a correct balance of water and electrolytes in the body's cells, making the pumps run efficiently, especially those lining the gut involved in the nutrient absorption process. (pigprogress.net)
  • The compound is a derivative of the nutrient choline, which means that choline is a precursor of betaine and has to be present in order for the body to synthesise betaine. (fairvital.com)
  • Feed enzymes and betaine could help poultry producers adapt to the forthcoming EU ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), meet increasing consumer demands for safe, affordable food and exploit the growing demand for 'natural' and 'organic' poultry products in markets outside the EU, according to Danisco Animal Nutrition. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Abdelmalek MF, Sanderson SO, Angulo P et al (2009) Betaine for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • Castro C, Millian N, Garrow T. Liver betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activity undergoes a redox switch at the active site zinc. (labome.org)
  • Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: human liver genotype-phenotype correlation. (labome.org)
  • In addition, histopathological assessment of guinea pigs showed that betaine reduced the alcoholic fat accumulation in the liver. (curezone.com)
  • In a preliminary trial, supplementation with betaine (20 grams per day) for 12 months improved signs of liver inflammation in seven patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a type of liver inflammation. (peacehealth.org)
  • Intake of choline and betaine shows no consistent relation to cancer or cardiovascular risk or risk factors, whereas an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile was associated with high choline and low betaine concentrations in plasma. (springer.com)
  • Such results were in parallel with our previous findings that betaine supplementation can be used to enhance the feed intake [13] although the FI of BET10 in the present study was significantly lower than the control. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling. (hindawi.com)
  • We did not find any statistically significant associations between choline intake or betaine intake and risk of colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • P(trend) = 0.79) for betaine intake. (nih.gov)
  • If energy costs climb upwards or modern high performance genetics demand more daily intake of energy in future, then added betaine used in this way could come back in again. (pigprogress.net)
  • Betaine appears to be safe at a daily intake of 9-15 g [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • http://www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/15384256/The_effect_of_betaine_trea. (curezone.com)
  • Thus, choline and betaine showed opposite relations with key components of metabolic syndrome, suggesting a disruption of mitochondrial choline oxidation to betaine as part of the mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Betaine enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial respiration. (osti.gov)
  • Betaine increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy levels. (osti.gov)
  • However, the efficiency of converting choline to betaine is reduced by polyether ionophore anticoccidials by interfering with mitochondrial membrane transport of the compound. (wattagnet.com)
  • This suggests that betaine may contribute to the improved performance of coccidia-infected chickens directly, by partial inhibition of coccidial invasion and development, and indirectly, by supporting the intestinal structure and function in the presence of coccidial infection. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • In a 2013 study conducted at the College of Springfield in Massachusetts and published in the Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition, researchers found that subjects who supplemented with 1.25g of betaine twice a day gained 3.75 lbs. of muscle in 6 weeks. (muscletech.com)
  • So there is not all kinds of unpublished research in which supplementation with betaine has no effect on fat mass. (anabolic.ca)
  • Intracellular accumulation of betaines permits water retention in cells, thus protecting from the effects of dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • A betaine (/ˈbiːtə.iːn, bɪˈteɪ-, -ɪn/) in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (generally: onium ions) that bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group that may not be adjacent to the cationic site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proline betaine is a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). (hmdb.ca)
  • Proline betaine is an osmoprotective compound found in urine. (hmdb.ca)
  • In chicks, betaine donates a methyl group (CH 3 ) to homocysteine for the synthesis of methionine approximately three times more efficiently than choline. (wattagnet.com)
  • Betaine is involved in the synthesis of methionine, which serves as a major supplier of cellular cysteine via a transsulfuration pathway for the synthesis of reduced glutathione that protects the cell from reactive oxygen species [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)

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