Histamine H3 Antagonists
Receptors, Histamine H3
A comparison of betahistine hydrochloride with placebo for vertebral-basilar insufficiency: a double-blind study. (1/26)To test the effectiveness of betahistine HC1 in reducing the frequency of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) caused by vertebral-basilar artery insufficiency, we randomly assigned 26 patients with a typical history of the condition to a placebo-drug or a drug-placebo sequence, each sequence lasting two months. During the study, the frequency of TIAs did not differ significantly between the placebo and the drug groups. Subjective responses indicated some value for betahistine as a palliative agent. (+info)
Pre and post betahistine therapy 99m Tc - HMPAO brain spect studies in patients with vertigo. (2/26)Vertebro basilar insufficiency (VBI) is a well known cause of vertigo. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is an important diagnostic tool to detect and to quantitate the perfusion abnormalities in different areas of the brain. Effect of an antivertigo drug Betahistine on improving the hypoperfusion in different areas of the brain in vertigo patients was studied using brain SPECT. Betahistine at a dose of 16 mg three times daily was shown to improve perfusion in the hypoperfused areas of the brain resulting in relief from symptoms of vertigo. The cerebellar region, which is the most important area involved in vertigo patients with vascular pathology, showed almost complete normalisation of perfusion following Betahistine therapy. (+info)
Betahistine inhibits food intake in rats. (3/26)Betahistine, administered intraperitoneally, decreased, in a dose-dependent manner and in a statistically significant degree, total food intake in different experimental models in rats. (+info)
Distribution of cardiac output in dogs during intravenous infusion of betahistine. (4/26)Cardiac output (CO), arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), blood gases and blood flow (BF) to the brain, heart, kidney and skeletal muscles and other cephalic tissues in five dogs were studied before and at 30 minutes of betahistine infusion (0.12 to 0.2 mg per minute per kilogram). The particle distribution method using radioactive labeled 141Ce (15 mu) and 85Sr (15 mu) microspheres was utilized to quantitate and assess BF and CO. In the five dogs, the increase in CO averaged 20.8%, ABP remained constant, and HR increased in all but one exception where it decreased slightly concomitant with a decrease in Paco2. Brain BF increased (+ 29.6%) in the dogs whose Paco2 reamined constant. The BF increased to the heart (25.4%) and skeletal muslce (80%), while BF to the kidney and other tissues did not change. The change in HR appears to account for the change in CO. The dilating effect of betahistine on blood vessels, in the skeletal muscle, brain and heart could reduce peripheral resistance and decreace ABP. Thus, the increase in HR may be mediated through baroreceptor mechanisms rather than by a direct effect of betahistine. In addition, a decrease in Paco2, is more effective for decreasing cerebral BF than betahistine is for increasing blood flow. (+info)
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: a study of two manoeuvres with and without betahistine. (5/26)Efficacy of the liberatory manoeuvre and of gradual otolitis dispersion technique, with or without associated drug therapy, have been compared. Included in this prospective study were 103 patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo seen in the Outpatient Department. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to treatment: Liberatory Manoeuvre according to methods described by Semont et al., with and without betahistine, Gradual Otolitis Dispersion Technique according to Brandt and Daroff, with and without betahistine. Evaluation was performed at baseline and at 3, 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after start of treatment. Response to treatment was evaluated using criteria of Epley. At day 14, liberatory manoeuvre-betahistine and Brandt and Daroff-betahistine groups did significantly better than liberatory manoeuvre and Brandt and Daroff groups (p < 0.05). Improvement reached at day 30 was: 100% in liberatory manoeuvre-betahistine group; 96.30% (p > 0.05) in Brandt and Daroff-betahistine group; these results were significantly better (p < 0.05) than those of liberatory manoeuvre (54.17%) and Brandt and Daroff (25%) groups. As far as concerns differences between disease onset and start of therapy (less and more than 2 weeks), and age (< or =60 years and > or =60 years), response to treatment was similar. In conclusion, both liberatory manoeuvre and Brandt and Daroff, when associated with betahistine, were significantly more effective than manoeuvres alone (p < 0.05). Improvement in liberatory manoeuvre-betahistine group, in the initial phase, was greater that in Brandt and Daroff-betahistine group, albeit, differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Age-related effects of manoeuvres were compared in 71 patients < 60 years and 32 patients > or =60 years, showing a similar improvement rate at the end of the investigation in both groups. In our opinion, liberatory manoeuvre and Brandt and Daroff associated with betahistamine produces faster recovery compared to liberatory manoeuvre and Brandt and Daroff alone. Nevertheless, 3 months after onset of treatment, all patients showed complete recovery due to spontaneous evolution of paroxysmal positional vertigo, in other words, treatment does not appear to influence the final improvement rate and its role should be accepted as a significant reduction in persistence of symptoms. (+info)
Effects of anti-vertigo drugs on medial vestibular nucleus neurons activated by horizontal rotation. (6/26)The effects of anti-vertigo drugs on medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons were examined to assess the site and mode of action using cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Single neuron activity in the MVN was extracellularly recorded using a silver wire microelectrode attached along a seven-barreled micropipette, each of which was filled with diphenhydramine, diphenidol, betahistine, glutamate or NaCl. Type I of the MVN neurons were identified according to the responses obtained when the animal placed on a turn-table was rotated sinusoidally. The effects of the drugs were examined on type I neurons which received impulses primarily from the labyrinth and sent them to the oculomotor nuclei. The microiontophoretic application of diphenhydramine, diphenidol and betahistine inhibited rotation-induced firing of type I MVN neurons. Diphenhydramine and diphenidol were more potent than betahistine. These results suggest that these drugs directly act on MVN neurons to reduce the responsiveness to rotatory stimulation. (+info)
Optimizing the pharmacological component of integrated balance therapy. (7/26)Drug treatment is an important option for the treatment of peripheral vestibular diseases. AIM: To identify the drug component associated with optimal integrated balance therapy (IBT) for Menieres disease or other peripheral vestibular disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of a series of patients with Menieres disease patients or patients with other peripheral vestibular disorders that received IBT involving either no medication or betahistine, cinnarizine, clonazepam, flunarizine or Ginkgo biloba during 120 days. RESULTS: In Menieres disease, significant differences were observed for all drug therapies (60 days) versus no medication; betahistine was significantly more effective than all other drugs at 60 and 120 days. For non-Menieres disorders, significant differences were observed among betahistine, cinnarizine, clonazepam and flunarizine and no medication after 60 days; all drug therapies were significantly more effective than no medication after 120 days; betahistine, cinnarizine or clonazepam were equally effective and betahistine was more effective than flunarizine and EGb 761. All treatment options were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Drug therapies were more effective than no medication in the IBT for patients with Menieres disease or other peripheral vestibular disorders. Betahistine was the most effective medication for patients with Menieres disease and was as effective as cinnarizine and clonazepam for other peripheral vestibular disorders. (+info)
Betahistine in the treatment of vertiginous syndromes: a meta-analysis. (8/26)Vertigo is a very frequent disorder, associated with highly disabling symptomatology. Since the aetiology cannot always be easily identified, treatment is often addressed to the symptoms. Betahistine, a drug characterized by a multi-factorial mode of action of the modulatory type, has been widely employed in the management of various vertiginous syndromes. Its use in Italy is, currently, authorized to treat the vertiginous symptoms related to Meniere's disease. A meta-analysis has, therefore, been carried out to assess, the efficacy of betahistine in the treatment of other vertiginous syndromes, such as positional paroxysmal vertigo (cupulo-canalolithiasis) and vertigo secondary to arterial deficiency of the vertebrobasilar area, regardless of the specific cause. A review has been made of the literature concerning clinical trials performed with betahistine versus placebo in a randomised double-blind, parallel-group or cross-over design. Only studies evaluating betahistine in patients with vertiginous symptomatology not related to Meniere's disease were selected. Of the 104 publications, obtained from an analysis of "Medline", "EMBASE" and "CINAHL" databases, 7 clinical studies, which met the selection criteria, for a total of 367 patients, were extrapolated and analysed. The meta-analysis was conducted using the "Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager" software in all the case series and in the sub-groups identified by the experimental design (parallel or crossover design), range of dosages (32-48 mg/day) and range of treatment duration (from 3 weeks to 4 months). The various parameters used to evaluate efficacy, adopted in the trials, and taken into account in the metaanalysis, as overall judgement of the patient or physician, number of vertiginous episodes and their duration, were classified according to the binary classification of "improved" and "not improved". The results of the meta-analysis confirm the therapeutic benefit of betahistine versus placebo. In particular, the investigation carried out on the overall sample shows an odds ratio of 3.52 (95% confidence interval 2.40-5.18) and a relative risk of 1.78 (95% confidence interval 1.48-2.13), while the analysis of the sub-groups denotes a maximum efficacy after doses of 32 to 36 mg and with a period of treatment of 3-8 weeks. The present meta-analysis confirms the benefit of drug treatment with betahistine for the vertiginous symptomatology related to cupulo-canalolithiasis and vertebro-basilar arterial insufficiency. (+info)
Betahistine is a medication that is primarily used to treat symptoms associated with Ménière's disease, which is an inner ear disorder that can cause vertigo (dizziness), tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and hearing loss. Betahistine is thought to work by improving blood flow in the inner ear and reducing the pressure in the fluid-filled compartments of the ear.
Betahistine is a histamine analogue, which means that it has a similar chemical structure to histamine, a naturally occurring compound in the body that plays a role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of blood flow and inflammation. Betahistine acts as an agonist at H1 and H3 histamine receptors and as an antagonist at H2 receptors, which leads to its therapeutic effects on the inner ear.
The medication is available in tablet form and is typically taken two or three times a day, with or without food. The dosage may vary depending on the individual's response to treatment and any underlying medical conditions. Common side effects of betahistine include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as headache, dizziness, and dry mouth.
It is important to note that betahistine may interact with other medications, including certain antidepressants, antihistamines, and sedatives, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting treatment with betahistine. Additionally, individuals with asthma or a history of peptic ulcers should use caution when taking this medication, as it may exacerbate these conditions.
Histamine agonists are substances that bind to and activate histamine receptors, leading to the initiation or enhancement of various physiological responses. Histamine is a naturally occurring molecule that plays a key role in the body's immune and allergic responses, as well as in the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, and appetite.
There are four main types of histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4), each with distinct functions and signaling pathways. Histamine agonists can be selective for one or more of these receptor subtypes, depending on their pharmacological properties.
For example, H1 agonists are commonly used as decongestants and antihistamines to treat allergies, while H2 agonists are used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcers. H3 agonists have been investigated for their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, while H4 agonists are being studied for their role in inflammation and immune regulation.
It is important to note that histamine agonists can also have adverse effects, particularly if they are not selective for a specific receptor subtype or if they are used at high doses. These effects may include increased heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation (opening of the airways), as well as gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Histamine H3 antagonists, also known as inverse agonists, are a class of drugs that block the activity of histamine at the H3 receptor. Histamine is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and autacoid involved in various physiological functions, including the modulation of wakefulness and arousal, regulation of food intake, and control of blood pressure and fluid balance.
The H3 receptor is primarily located in the central nervous system (CNS) and acts as an auto-receptor on histamine-containing neurons to regulate the release of histamine. By blocking the activity of these receptors, histamine H3 antagonists increase the release of histamine in the CNS, which can lead to increased wakefulness and arousal.
Histamine H3 antagonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic use in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Alzheimer's disease. However, further research is needed to fully understand the clinical benefits and safety of these drugs.
Menière disease is an inner ear disorder that is characterized by episodes of vertigo (a spinning sensation), tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ear), hearing loss, and aural fullness (a feeling of pressure or blockage in the ear). It is caused by an abnormal accumulation of endolymphatic fluid in the inner ear, which can lead to damage of the vestibular system and cochlea. The exact cause of this fluid buildup is not known, but it may be related to genetics, allergies, or autoimmune disorders. Menière disease is typically a chronic condition, with symptoms that can vary in frequency and severity over time. Treatment options include dietary modifications, diuretics, vestibular rehabilitation therapy, and, in some cases, surgery.
Vertigo is a specific type of dizziness characterized by the sensation that you or your surroundings are spinning or moving, even when you're perfectly still. It's often caused by issues with the inner ear or the balance-sensing systems of the body. Vertigo can be brought on by various conditions, such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), labyrinthitis, vestibular neuritis, Meniere's disease, and migraines. In some cases, vertigo may also result from head or neck injuries, brain disorders like stroke or tumors, or certain medications. Treatment for vertigo depends on the underlying cause and can include specific exercises, medication, or surgery in severe cases.
Histamine H3 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that are widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. They are activated by the neurotransmitter histamine and function as autoreceptors, inhibiting the release of histamine from presynaptic nerve terminals. Histamine H3 receptors also modulate the activity of other neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, by regulating their synthesis, release, and uptake.
Histamine H3 receptors have been identified as potential targets for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including sleep disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Antagonists or inverse agonists of Histamine H3 receptors may enhance the release of neurotransmitters in the brain, leading to improved cognitive function, mood regulation, and reward processing. However, further research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential and safety profile of Histamine H3 receptor modulators.
Methylhistamines are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, the term "methylhistamine" may refer to the metabolic breakdown product of the antihistamine drug, diphenhydramine, which is also known as N-methyldiphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate.
Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine that works by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical released during an allergic reaction. When diphenhydramine is metabolized in the body, it is converted into several breakdown products, including methylhistamines.
Methylhistamines are not known to have any specific pharmacological activity or clinical significance. However, they can be used as a marker for the presence of diphenhydramine or its metabolism in the body.
Vestibular diseases are a group of disorders that affect the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. The vestibular system includes the inner ear and parts of the brain that process sensory information related to movement and position.
These diseases can cause symptoms such as vertigo (a spinning sensation), dizziness, imbalance, nausea, and visual disturbances. Examples of vestibular diseases include:
1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): a condition in which small crystals in the inner ear become dislodged and cause brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that can cause sudden onset of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Vestibular neuronitis: inflammation of the vestibular nerve that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and imbalance but typically spares hearing.
4. Meniere's disease: a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
5. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that includes vestibular symptoms such as dizziness, imbalance, and disorientation.
6. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome: a condition in which there is a thinning or absence of bone over the superior semicircular canal in the inner ear, leading to vertigo, sound- or pressure-induced dizziness, and hearing loss.
7. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction: reduced function of both vestibular systems, causing chronic imbalance, unsteadiness, and visual disturbances.
Treatment for vestibular diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.
Tinnitus is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present. It can be described as a sensation of hearing sound even when no actual noise is present. The sounds perceived can vary widely, from a whistling, buzzing, hissing, swooshing, to a pulsating sound, and can be soft or loud.
Tinnitus is not a disease itself but a symptom that can result from a wide range of underlying causes, such as hearing loss, exposure to loud noises, ear infections, earwax blockage, head or neck injuries, circulatory system disorders, certain medications, and age-related hearing loss.
Tinnitus can be temporary or chronic, and it may affect one or both ears. While tinnitus is not usually a sign of a serious medical condition, it can significantly impact quality of life and interfere with daily activities, sleep, and concentration.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
H3 receptor antagonist
Histamine H3 receptor
List of MeSH codes (D03)
List of drugs: Be
Sensorineural hearing loss
ATC code N07
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Histamine H1 recep2
- Betahistine is a strong antagonist of the histamine H3 receptor and a weak agonist of the histamine H1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- Both animal and clinical studies have shown that co-treatment with betahistine (a histamine H1 receptor agonist/H3 receptor antagonist) is effective in controlling olanzapine-induced weight gain. (edu.au)
Effect of betahistine3
- One trial with good methods showed no effect of betahistine on tinnitus compared with placebo in 35 patients. (wikipedia.org)
- None of the trials showed any effect of betahistine on hearing loss. (wikipedia.org)
- Table 2 The effect of betahistine on HOD production in Glutamicibacter sp. (springeropen.com)
- Pushvert 16 tablets contain betahistine hydrochloride which belongs to the class of medications called antihistamine anti-vertigo medicines. (scottmorrison.in)
- Betahistine Hydrochloride is prescribed to treat Meniere's disease symptoms including ringing in the ears (tinnitus), vertigo, loss of balance, and hearing loss. (scottmorrison.in)
- Take Betahistine Hydrochloride tablets with or without a meal or as prescribed by a doctor. (scottmorrison.in)
- Before taking this medication inform your doctor if you are allergic to Betahistine Hydrochloride or if you have any other allergies. (scottmorrison.in)
- How long does Betahistine Hydrochloride 16 MG Tablets show benefits? (scottmorrison.in)
- Is there any food or drink you should avoid while taking Betahistine Hydrochloride 16 MG Tablets? (scottmorrison.in)
- There have been studies of the use of betahistine which showed a reduction in symptoms of vertigo and to a lesser extent, tinnitus, in subjects, but conclusive evidence is lacking at present. (wikipedia.org)
- The Cochrane Library concluded in 2001 that "Most trials suggested a reduction of vertigo with betahistine and some suggested a reduction in tinnitus but all these effects may have been caused by bias in the methods. (wikipedia.org)
- Betahistine is indicated for the treatment of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss and nausea associated with Ménière's syndrome. (videmak.com)
- Betahistine in the treatment of tinnitus in patients with vestibular disorders. (bvsalud.org)
- Before taking Betahistine , what precautions must I follow? (nccs.com.sg)
- citation needed] Patients taking betahistine may experience following side effects: Headache Low level of gastric side effects Nausea can be a side effect, but the patient is generally already experiencing nausea due to the vertigo so it goes largely unnoticed. (wikipedia.org)
- Betahistine, sold under the brand name Serc among others, is an anti-vertigo medication. (wikipedia.org)
- Betahistine was once believed to have some positive effects in the treatment of Ménière's disease and vertigo but more recent evidence casts doubt over its efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
- Oral betahistine has been approved for the treatment of Ménière's disease and vestibular vertigo in more than 80 countries worldwide, and has been reportedly prescribed more than 130 million patients. (wikipedia.org)
- It was found in our study that Betahistine as a sole modality of treatment of vertigo in BPPV can be preferred in patients who are unfit to undergo canal repositioning manouvres. (tinnitusjournal.com)
- The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three modalities of treatment, Epleys manoeuvre along with Betahistine, Betahistine alone and Epleys manoeuvre alone in patients who presented with vertigo to a tertiary care centre. (tinnitusjournal.com)
- Betahistine is belongs to a group of medications used to treat Vertigo associated with Ménière's disease. (pocketpills.com)
- Betahistine is used to reduce the number of episodes of vertigo associated with Ménière's disease. (pocketpills.com)
- Vertigo was attributed to vestibular deficiency and treated with betahistine. (cdc.gov)
- The length of time that each patient receives betahistine medication may differ. (scottmorrison.in)
- The package insert for Serc, a trade name for betahistine, states that patients may experience several gastrointestinal side effects. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients experiencing chronic digestive problems may lower their dose to the minimum effective range and by taking betahistine with meals. (wikipedia.org)
- What happens if I overlook taking my betahistine dose? (scottmorrison.in)
- Take your betahistine dose as soon as you remember if you forget to take it. (scottmorrison.in)
- The usual recommended dose of betahistine for adults is 24 mg to 48 mg given in 2 or 3 divided doses (i.e., 12 mg to 24 mg twice a day, or 8 mg to 16 mg three times a day). (pocketpills.com)
- Do not give Pms Betahistine to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. (pocketpills.com)
- This stimulation explains the potent vasodilatory effects of betahistine in the inner ear, that are well documented. (wikipedia.org)
- Betahistine seems to dilate the blood vessels within the inner ear which can relieve pressure from excess fluid and act on the smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- Betahistine works by boosting blood flow to the brain and reducing the buildup of excess pressure inside the inner ear. (scottmorrison.in)
- Betahistine is also undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (wikipedia.org)
- Betahistine co-treatment ameliorates dyslipidemia induced by chronic o" by Xuemei Liu, Jiamei Lian et al. (edu.au)
- In the present study, we investigate whether co-treatment with betahistine is able to prevent dyslipidemia induced by chronic olanzapine treatment and the underlying mechanisms. (edu.au)
- Then, rats were divided into 4 groups for 5 weeks treatment: (1) vehicle, (2) olanzapine-only (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.), (3) betahistine-only (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.), and (4) olanzapine and betahistine (O + B) co-treatment. (edu.au)
- To prevent stomach upset, it is recommended that Pms Betahistine be taken with food. (pocketpills.com)
- More importantly, betahistine has a powerful antagonistic effects at H3 receptors, thereby increasing the levels of neurotransmitters histamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and GABA released from the nerve endings. (wikipedia.org)
- This study provided the first evidence that betahistine could act on hepatic H1 receptors via modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1 and PPARα-dependent pathways to ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidemia in rats. (edu.au)
- Patients in Group A were treated with Epleys manoeuvre alone, in Group B were treated with Epleys Manouvre followed by oral Betahistine and patients in Group C were treated with Betahistine alone. (tinnitusjournal.com)
- Betahistine is contraindicated for patients with pheochromocytoma. (wikipedia.org)
- In our study we found that patients responded better when they were treated with Epleys Manouvre with Betahistine with less relapse and recurrence. (tinnitusjournal.com)
- One study that followed patients treated with betahistine by using intratympanic contrast-enhanced MR imaging did not show hydrops reversal despite symptomatic improvement. (ajnr.org)
- You could get Pms Betahistine delivered at your doorstep from us in Canada if you ordered prescription medications with a valid prescription. (pocketpills.com)
- Betahistine may also cause several digestive-related side effects. (wikipedia.org)
- People taking betahistine may experience several other side effects ranging from mild to serious. (wikipedia.org)
- What side effects can Betahistine cause? (nccs.com.sg)
- RateADrug users have reported 11 Betahistine side effects and 4 Betahistine benefits. (rateadrug.com)
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- Contact your provider or us to help you find out if you qualify to get Pms Betahistine for free. (pocketpills.com)
- Your doctor may have suggested Pms Betahistine for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. (pocketpills.com)
- If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking Pms Betahistine, speak to your doctor. (pocketpills.com)
- Do not stop taking Pms Betahistine without consulting your doctor. (pocketpills.com)
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