A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC 1.13.11.27.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Homogentisic acid is an organic compound that is an intermediate metabolite in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine and phenylalanine, and its accumulation in the body can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as alkaptonuria.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Phytol is a diterpene alcohol that is a degradation product of chlorophyll and is used in the synthesis of vitamins E and K and other compounds in animals, but can also act as a phytoestrogen in certain plants.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).

Isolation and characterization of homogentisate phytyltransferase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Arabidopsis. (1/7)

Tocopherols, synthesized by photosynthetic organisms, are micronutrients with antioxidant properties that play important roles in animal and human nutrition. Because of these health benefits, there is considerable interest in identifying the genes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis to allow transgenic alteration of both tocopherol levels and composition in agricultural crops. Tocopherols are generated from the condensation of phytyldiphosphate and homogentisic acid (HGA), followed by cyclization and methylation reactions. Homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) performs the first committed step in this pathway, the phytylation of HGA. In this study, bioinformatics techniques were used to identify candidate genes, slr1736 and HPT1, that encode HPT from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Arabidopsis, respectively. These two genes encode putative membrane-bound proteins, and contain amino acid residues highly conserved with other prenyltransferases of the aromatic type. A Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 slr1736 null mutant obtained by insertional inactivation did not accumulate tocopherols, and was rescued by the Arabidopsis HPT1 ortholog. The membrane fraction of wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was capable of catalyzing the phytylation of HGA, whereas the membrane fraction from the slr1736 null mutant was not. The microsomal membrane fraction of baculovirus-infected insect cells expressing the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 slr1736 were also able to perform the phytylation reaction, verifying HPT activity of the protein encoded by this gene. In addition, evidence that antisense expression of HPT1 in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced seed tocopherol levels, whereas seed-specific sense expression resulted in increased seed tocopherol levels, is presented.  (+info)

Characterization of gamma-tocopherol methyltransferases from Capsicum annuum L and Arabidopsis thaliana. (2/7)

Tocopherols are essential micronutrients in human and animal nutrition due to their function as lipophilic antioxidants. They are exclusively synthesized by photosynthetic organisms including higher plants. Despite the attributed beneficial health effects and many industrial applications, research on the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway and its regulation in plants is still limited. In the work presented here we performed a detailed biochemical characterization of a gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase (gamma-TMT) from Arabidopsis thaliana and of a gamma-TMT purified from Capsicum annuum fruits, a tissue with high accumulation of tocopherols. The biochemical characteristics of both enzyme preparations were remarkably similar including substrate specificities. Both enzymes converted delta- and gamma- into beta- and alpha-tocopherol, respectively, but beta-tocopherol was not accepted as a substrate, pointing to a specific methylation at the C(5)-position of the tocopherol aromatic head group. A kinetic analysis performed with the Arabidopsis enzyme was consistent with an iso-ordered bi-bi type reaction mechanism. Our results emphasize the role of gamma-TMT in regulating the spectrum of accumulated tocopherols in plants.  (+info)

The cytotoxicity of vitamin E is both vitamer- and cell-specific and involves a selectable trait. (3/7)

During a study of the effect of vitamin E in activated mouse macrophages, we observed a reduction in the viability of cells treated with various forms of vitamin E. We show in this report that some tocopherols (both gamma- and delta-tocopherol) are cytotoxic to some but not all cell types. Mouse macrophages were especially sensitive (40 micromol/L), whereas human hepatocytes and bovine endothelial cells were almost completely refractory (90 micromol/L). The fully methylated tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc), was not cytotoxic in any cell type tested. The cytotoxicity observed with delta-tocopherol (delta-Toc) was associated with 2 markers of apoptosis. Vitamer-specific cytotoxicity was not due to differences in cellular uptake/accumulation because both alpha-Toc and delta-Toc accumulated equally in any cell type tested. In contrast, the cell-specific cytotoxicity was related in part to uptake/accumulation of the tocopherols. Macrophages accumulated nearly 5 times more tocopherol compared with hepatocytes cultured under similar conditions. To address the hypothesis that uptake accounted for the cell-specific sensitivity, we developed a macrophage "subtype" that was markedly resistant (>150 micromol/L) to delta-Toc. Under many different cell culture conditions (including human serum) uptake/accumulation of tocopherols was reduced in this subtype by approximately 50%. Further selection and evaluation of this phenotype, however, demonstrated no cytotoxicity even when cellular levels were elevated. Our results show that undermethylated tocopherols are cytotoxic to macrophages and that there are independent and selectable processes that determine cellular tocopherol uptake/accumulation and delta-Toc cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Dietary alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols in lung cancer risk. (4/7)

 (+info)

Dietary beta-tocopherol and linoleic acid, serum insulin, and waist circumference predict circulating sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal women. (5/7)

 (+info)

Replacement of alpha-tocopherol by beta-tocopherol enhances resistance to photooxidative stress in a xanthophyll-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (6/7)

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Implications for degenerative disorders: antioxidative activity, total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and beta-tocopherol in Aloe vera. (7/7)

In order to demonstrate whether the known biological effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. could correlate with the antioxidant activity of the plant, the antioxidant activity of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated. The present study demonstrated that the aqueous extract from A. vera leaves contained naturally occuring antioxidant components, including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. The extract exhibited inhibitory capacity against Fe(3+)/ascorbic acid induced phosphatidylcholine liposome oxidation, scavenged stable DPPH(*), ABTS(*+) and superoxide anion radicals, and acted as reductant. In contrast, the leaf inner gel did not show any antioxidant activity. It was concluded that the known beneficial effects of Aloe vera could be attributed to its antioxidant activity and could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds and antioxidant vitamins.  (+info)

Tocopherols are a group of fat-soluble compounds that occur naturally in vegetable oils, nuts, and some fruits and vegetables. They are known for their antioxidant properties and are often referred to as "vitamin E." The term "tocopherol" is derived from the Greek words "tokos," meaning childbirth, and "pherein," meaning to bear, reflecting the historical observation that consumption of certain foods during pregnancy seemed to prevent fetal death and spontaneous abortion.

There are four major forms of tocopherols: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form and is the one most commonly found in supplements. Tocopherols play a crucial role in protecting cell membranes from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can harm cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer and heart disease. They also help to maintain the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes, support immune function, and have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects.

Gamma-tocopherol is a form of vitamin E that is found in various plant seeds and oils. It is one of several types of tocopherols, which are fat-soluble antioxidants that help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Gamma-tocopherol has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to reduce inflammation and protect against certain diseases such as cancer and heart disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects on human health.

Medical Definition of Vitamin E:

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting your body's cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to environmental toxins like cigarette smoke and radiation. Vitamin E is also involved in immune function, DNA repair, and other metabolic processes.

It is a collective name for a group of eight fat-soluble compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol is the most biologically active form of vitamin E in humans and is the one most commonly found in supplements.

Vitamin E deficiency is rare but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders or who cannot absorb fat properly. Symptoms of deficiency include nerve and muscle damage, loss of feeling in the arms and legs, muscle weakness, and vision problems.

Food sources of vitamin E include vegetable oils (such as sunflower, safflower, and wheat germ oil), nuts and seeds (like almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds), and fortified foods (such as cereals and some fruit juices).

Tocotrienols are a subtype of tocopherols, which are both forms of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays a role in the protection of cell membranes from oxidative damage.

Tocotrienols differ from tocopherols in their chemical structure, specifically in the side chain attached to the chroman ring. Tocotrienols have an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain, while tocopherols have a saturated phytyl tail. This structural difference affects their bioavailability and distribution in the body, with tocotrienols being more readily absorbed and distributed to tissues than tocopherols.

Tocotrienols have been found to have potential health benefits, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol-lowering effects. They are found in various plant-based foods such as cereal grains, nuts, and vegetable oils, particularly palm oil, rice bran oil, and annatto seeds.

Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form of vitamin E in humans and is a fat-soluble antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It plays a role in immune function, cell signaling, and metabolic processes. Alpha-tocopherol is found naturally in foods such as nuts, seeds, leafy green vegetables, and vegetable oils, and it is also available as a dietary supplement.

Vitamin E deficiency is a condition that occurs when there is a lack of sufficient vitamin E in the body. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining the health of cell membranes, protecting them from damage caused by free radicals. It also helps to support the immune system and promotes healthy blood vessels and nerves.

Vitamin E deficiency can occur due to several reasons, including malnutrition, malabsorption disorders such as cystic fibrosis or celiac disease, premature birth, or genetic defects affecting the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP), which is responsible for transporting vitamin E from the liver to other tissues.

Symptoms of vitamin E deficiency may include:

* Neurological problems such as peripheral neuropathy, ataxia (loss of coordination), and muscle weakness
* Retinopathy (damage to the retina) leading to vision loss
* Increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation
* Impaired immune function

Vitamin E deficiency is rare in healthy individuals who consume a balanced diet, but it can occur in people with certain medical conditions or those who have undergone bariatric surgery. In these cases, supplementation may be necessary to prevent or treat vitamin E deficiency.

Carotenoids are a class of pigments that are naturally occurring in various plants and fruits. They are responsible for the vibrant colors of many vegetables and fruits, such as carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, and leafy greens. There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin being some of the most well-known.

Carotenoids have antioxidant properties, which means they can help protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, can be converted into vitamin A in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and lutein, have been studied for their potential role in preventing chronic diseases, including cancer and heart disease.

In addition to being found in plant-based foods, carotenoids can also be taken as dietary supplements. However, it is generally recommended to obtain nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible, as food provides a variety of other beneficial compounds that work together to support health.

Beta-tocopherol is a form of vitamin E, which is a fat-soluble antioxidant. Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, including delta-, gamma-, and beta-tocopherols, and alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans.

Beta-tocopherol has weaker vitamin E activity than alpha-tocopherol, but it still has antioxidant properties that can help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can cause cell damage and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.

While beta-tocopherol is found in some foods, including vegetable oils and nuts, it is not as prevalent as other forms of vitamin E. Therefore, it is not considered as essential for human health as alpha-tocopherol. However, some research suggests that beta-tocopherol may have unique health benefits, such as reducing inflammation and improving immune function, although more studies are needed to confirm these effects.

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and is primarily produced by activated macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli. It is a crucial mediator of the innate immune response and plays a key role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1β is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects by binding to the interleukin-1 receptor, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various transcription factors and the expression of target genes.

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is an enzyme that is involved in the catabolism of aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine. The gene for HPPD is located on human chromosome 12q24.11.

The HPPD enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate, which is then further metabolized in the catabolic pathway leading to fumarate and acetoacetate. Deficiencies in HPPD activity have been associated with certain genetic disorders such as tyrosinemia type III, which can result in neurological symptoms and developmental delays.

In addition to its role in normal metabolism, HPPD has also been identified as a target for herbicides that inhibit the enzyme's activity, leading to the accumulation of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and other toxic intermediates that can disrupt plant growth and development.

Intramolecular transferases are a specific class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group from one part of a molecule to another within the same molecule. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biochemical reactions, including the modification of complex carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. By facilitating intramolecular transfers, these enzymes help regulate cellular processes, signaling pathways, and metabolic functions.

The systematic name for this class of enzymes is: [donor group]-transferring intramolecular transferases. The classification system developed by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB) categorizes them under EC 2.5. This category includes enzymes that transfer alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups; methyl groups; hydroxylyl groups, including glycosyl groups; and various other specific functional groups.

Examples of intramolecular transferases include:

1. Protein kinases (EC 2.7.11): Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a specific amino acid residue within a protein, thereby regulating protein function and cellular signaling pathways.
2. Glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4): Enzymes that facilitate the transfer of glycosyl groups between donor and acceptor molecules; some of these enzymes can catalyze intramolecular transfers, playing a role in the biosynthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates.
3. Methyltransferases (EC 2.1): Enzymes that transfer methyl groups between donor and acceptor molecules; some of these enzymes can catalyze intramolecular transfers, contributing to the regulation of gene expression and other cellular processes.

Understanding the function and regulation of intramolecular transferases is essential for elucidating their roles in various biological processes and developing targeted therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with dysregulation of these enzymes.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Medical Definition of Vitamin A:

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal vision, immune function, and cell growth. It is also an antioxidant that helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin A can be found in two main forms: preformed vitamin A, which is found in animal products such as dairy, fish, and meat, particularly liver; and provitamin A carotenoids, which are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, and vegetable oils.

The most active form of vitamin A is retinoic acid, which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections. Chronic vitamin A toxicity can cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, coma, and even death.

Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is found on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body and is involved in presenting intracellular peptides to T-cells for immune surveillance.

β2M is produced at a relatively constant rate by cells throughout the body and is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, most of the filtrated β2M is reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubules of the nephrons. However, when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, as in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubules becomes overwhelmed, leading to increased levels of β2M in the blood and its subsequent appearance in the urine.

Elevated serum and urinary β2M levels have been associated with various clinical conditions, such as CKD, multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases. Measuring β2M concentrations can provide valuable information for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes in these contexts.

Beta-carotene is a type of carotenoid, which is a pigment found in plants that gives them their vibrant colors. It is commonly found in fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, and spinach.

Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A in the body, which is an essential nutrient for maintaining healthy vision, immune function, and cell growth. It acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

According to the medical definition, beta-carotene is a provitamin A carotenoid that is converted into vitamin A in the body. It has a variety of health benefits, including supporting eye health, boosting the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of beta-carotene supplements can lead to a condition called carotenemia, which causes the skin to turn yellow or orange.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that include three distinct subclasses: β1, β2, and β3. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and play important roles in various physiological functions, including cardiovascular regulation, bronchodilation, lipolysis, and glucose metabolism.

β1-adrenergic receptors are primarily located in the heart and regulate cardiac contractility, chronotropy (heart rate), and relaxation. β2-adrenergic receptors are found in various tissues, including the lungs, vascular smooth muscle, liver, and skeletal muscle. They mediate bronchodilation, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. β3-adrenergic receptors are mainly expressed in adipose tissue, where they stimulate lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Agonists of β-adrenergic receptors include catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, as well as synthetic drugs such as dobutamine (a β1-selective agonist) and albuterol (a non-selective β2-agonist). Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors are commonly used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and asthma. Examples of β-blockers include metoprolol (a β1-selective antagonist) and carvedilol (a non-selective β-blocker with additional α1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity).

Integrin β3 is a subunit of certain integrin heterodimers, which are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Integrin β3 combines with either integrin αv (to form the integrin αvβ3) or integrin αIIb (to form the integrin αIIbβ3). These integrins are involved in various cellular processes, including platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis.

Integrin αIIbβ3 is primarily expressed on platelets and mediates platelet aggregation by binding to fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive proteins in the ECM. Integrin αvβ3 is widely expressed in various cell types and participates in diverse functions such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It binds to a variety of ECM proteins, including fibronectin, vitronectin, and osteopontin, as well as to soluble ligands like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

Dysregulation of integrin β3 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, tumor metastasis, and inflammatory diseases.

Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare inherited genetic disorder that affects the way the body absorbs and metabolizes fats and fat-soluble vitamins. It is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for producing proteins involved in the formation and transport of beta-lipoproteins, which are necessary for the absorption of dietary fats and cholesterol from the intestines.

Individuals with abetalipoproteinemia are unable to produce adequate levels of these lipoproteins, leading to a deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and an accumulation of fats in the intestines. This results in various symptoms such as steatorrhea (fatty, foul-smelling stools), malabsorption, diarrhea, failure to thrive, and neurological issues due to vitamin E deficiency.

The disorder is typically diagnosed in infancy or early childhood and requires lifelong dietary management, including a low-fat diet and supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins. Early intervention can help prevent the progression of neurological symptoms and improve overall prognosis.

Plastoquinone is a lipid-soluble electron carrier in the photosynthetic electron transport chain located in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. It plays a crucial role in both the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and cyclic photophosphorylation.

In more detail, plastoquinone exists in an oxidized (PQ) and reduced form (PQH2). In its oxidized state, it accepts electrons from cytochrome b6f complex during the transfer of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I. Once plastoquinone accepts two electrons and two protons, it converts into its reduced form, plastoquinol (PQH2). Plastoquinol then donates the electrons to the cytochrome b6f complex, which in turn passes them on to the next carrier in the electron transport chain.

Plastoquinone is a member of the quinone family and is synthesized via the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, also known as the non-mevalonate pathway.

"Chromans" are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a five-membered saturated carbon ring containing one oxygen atom. This particular ring structure is also known as a chromane. Chromans have various applications in the field of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, with some derivatives exhibiting biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. Some well-known chroman derivatives include vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and several synthetic drugs like chromanol, a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Xanthophylls are a type of pigment known as carotenoids, which are naturally occurring in various plants and animals. They are characterized by their yellow to orange color and play an important role in photosynthesis. Unlike other carotenoids, xanthophylls contain oxygen in their chemical structure.

In the context of human health, xanthophylls are often studied for their potential antioxidant properties and their possible role in reducing the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision loss in older adults. The two main dietary sources of xanthophylls are lutein and zeaxanthin, which are found in green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and kale, as well as in other fruits and vegetables.

It's important to note that while a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables has many benefits for overall health, including eye health, more research is needed to fully understand the specific role of xanthophylls in preventing or treating diseases.

Medical definitions generally do not include plant oils as a specific term. However, in a biological or biochemical context, plant oils, also known as vegetable oils, are defined as lipid extracts derived from various parts of plants such as seeds, fruits, and leaves. They mainly consist of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids can vary between different plant sources, leading to a range of physical and chemical properties that make plant oils useful for various applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Some common examples of plant oils include olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, and jojoba oil.

"Sesamum" is the genus name for the plant species that includes sesame seeds. The most common species is Sesamum indicum, which is widely cultivated for its edible seeds. These seeds are rich in oil and protein and have been used in traditional medicine and food for centuries. They contain beneficial nutrients such as vitamin B1, dietary fiber, iron, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus. Sesame seeds have a variety of uses, including as a condiment, in cooking oil, and in various dishes around the world.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling protein involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). TGF-β plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It also has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

TGF-β exists in multiple isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that are produced by many different cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. The protein is synthesized as a precursor molecule, which is cleaved to release the active TGF-β peptide. Once activated, TGF-β binds to its receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

In summary, Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Homogentisic acid is not a medical condition, but rather an organic compound that plays a role in certain metabolic processes. It is a breakdown product of the amino acid tyrosine, and is normally further metabolized by the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase.

In some individuals, a genetic mutation can result in a deficiency of this enzyme, leading to a condition called alkaptonuria. In alkaptonuria, homogentisic acid accumulates in the body and can cause damage to connective tissues, joints, and other organs over time. Symptoms may include dark urine, arthritis, and pigmentation of the ears and eyes. However, it is important to note that alkaptonuria is a rare condition, affecting only about 1 in 250,000 people worldwide.

Lutein is a type of carotenoid, specifically a xanthophyll, that is naturally present in many fruits and vegetables. It is considered a dietary antioxidant with potential health benefits for the eyes. Lutein is not a vitamin, but it is often grouped with vitamins and minerals because of its importance to human health.

In the eye, lutein is selectively accumulated in the macula, a small area in the center of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision. It helps filter harmful blue light and protects the eye from oxidative damage, which may help maintain eye health and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in older adults.

It is important to note that lutein is not produced by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources or supplements. Foods rich in lutein include dark leafy greens, such as spinach and kale, as well as other fruits and vegetables, such as corn, orange pepper, and egg yolk.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lettuce" is not a medical term. It is a type of vegetable that belongs to the family Asteraceae. It is commonly used in salads and sandwiches due to its crisp leaves and mild flavor. If you have any questions about lettuce or its nutritional value, I would be happy to help with that instead.

Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.

In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.

Integrin α5β1, also known as very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) or fibronectin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits: α5 and β1. This integrin is widely expressed in various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

Integrin α5β1 plays a crucial role in mediating cell-matrix adhesion by binding to the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present in the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The interaction between integrin α5β1 and fibronectin is essential for various biological processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, this integrin has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including tumor progression, angiogenesis, and fibrosis.

Integrin beta4, also known as ITGB4 or CD104, is a type of integrin subunit that forms part of the integrin receptor along with an alpha subunit. Integrins are transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, signal transduction, and regulation of various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Integrin beta4 is unique among the integrin subunits because it has a large cytoplasmic domain that can interact with several intracellular signaling molecules, making it an important regulator of cell behavior. Integrin beta4 is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells.

Integrin beta4 forms heterodimers with integrin alpha6 to form the receptor for laminins, which are major components of the basement membrane. This receptor is involved in maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell migration during development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. Mutations in ITGB4 have been associated with several human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering.

Alkyl and aryl transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or aryl groups from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a role in various biological processes, including the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, as well as the biosynthesis of certain natural compounds.

Alkyl transferases typically catalyze the transfer of methyl or ethyl groups, while aryl transferases transfer larger aromatic rings. These enzymes often use cofactors such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or acetyl-CoA to donate the alkyl or aryl group to a recipient molecule.

Examples of alkyl and aryl transferases include:

1. Methyltransferases: enzymes that transfer methyl groups from SAM to various acceptor molecules, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and small molecules.
2. Histone methyltransferases: enzymes that methylate specific residues on histone proteins, which can affect chromatin structure and gene expression.
3. N-acyltransferases: enzymes that transfer acetyl or other acyl groups to amino groups in proteins or small molecules.
4. O-acyltransferases: enzymes that transfer acyl groups to hydroxyl groups in lipids, steroids, and other molecules.
5. Arylsulfatases: enzymes that remove sulfate groups from aromatic rings, releasing an alcohol and sulfate.
6. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs): enzymes that transfer the tripeptide glutathione to electrophilic centers in xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, facilitating their detoxification and excretion.

'Brassica rapa' is the scientific name for a species of plant that includes various types of vegetables such as turnips, Chinese cabbages, and bok choy. It is a member of the Brassicaceae family, also known as the mustard or cabbage family. The plants in this species are characterized by their broad leaves and branching stem, and they are native to Europe and Central Asia.

Turnips, which are one of the most common vegetables in this species, are cool-season root crops that are grown for their enlarged taproot. They have a white or yellowish flesh that is crisp and tender with a sweet, slightly bitter flavor. Turnips can be eaten raw or cooked and are often used in soups, stews, and casseroles.

Chinese cabbages, also known as Napa cabbages, are another type of vegetable in the 'Brassica rapa' species. They have elongated, pale green leaves that form a compact head, and they are often used in Asian cuisine. Chinese cabbages have a mild flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked.

Bok choy, also known as pak choi, is another type of vegetable in the 'Brassica rapa' species. It has dark green leaves and white stems, and it is often used in stir-fries and soups. Bok choy has a mild flavor and a crisp texture.

Overall, 'Brassica rapa' is an important species of plant that includes many nutritious and delicious vegetables that are popular around the world.

Integrin α6β4 is a type of cell surface receptor that is composed of two subunits, α6 and β4. It is also known as CD49f/CD104. This integrin is primarily expressed in epithelial cells and plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, and signal transduction.

Integrin α6β4 specifically binds to laminin-332 (also known as laminin-5), a component of the basement membrane, and forms a stable anchorage complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. This interaction is critical for maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell behavior during processes such as wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Mutations in the genes encoding integrin α6β4 have been associated with various human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering. Additionally, integrin α6β4 has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis, as its expression is often upregulated in tumor cells and contributes to their invasive behavior.

Integrin beta chains are a type of subunit that make up integrin receptors, which are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. These receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation.

Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form functional heterodimeric receptors. In humans, there are 18 different alpha subunits and 8 different beta subunits that can combine to form at least 24 distinct integrin receptors. The beta chain contributes to the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin receptor, which is involved in intracellular signaling and cytoskeletal interactions.

The beta chains are characterized by a conserved cytoplasmic region called the beta-tail domain, which interacts with various adaptor proteins to mediate downstream signaling events. Additionally, some integrin beta chains have a large inserted (I) domain in their extracellular regions that is responsible for ligand binding specificity.

Examples of integrin beta chains include β1, β2, β3, β4, β5, β6, β7, and β8, each with distinct functions and roles in various tissues and cell types. Mutations or dysregulation of integrin beta chains have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, fibrosis, and developmental disorders.

Beta 2-glycoprotein I, also known as apolipoprotein H, is a plasma protein that belongs to the family of proteins called immunoglobulin-binding proteins. It has a molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa and is composed of five domains with similar structures.

Beta 2-glycoprotein I is primarily produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it plays a role in several physiological processes, including coagulation, complement activation, and lipid metabolism. It has been identified as an autoantigen in certain autoimmune disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), where autoantibodies against beta 2-glycoprotein I can cause blood clots, miscarriages, and other complications.

In medical terminology, the definition of "beta 2-glycoprotein I" is as follows:

A plasma protein that belongs to the family of immunoglobulin-binding proteins and has a molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa. It is primarily produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it plays a role in several physiological processes, including coagulation, complement activation, and lipid metabolism. Autoantibodies against beta 2-glycoprotein I are associated with certain autoimmune disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), where they can cause blood clots, miscarriages, and other complications.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

F2-isoprostanes are a type of prostaglandin-like compound that is formed in the body through the free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid found in cell membranes. They are produced in response to oxidative stress and are often used as a biomarker for lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in various diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. F2-isoprostanes are chemically stable and can be measured in biological fluids such as blood, urine, and breath condensate. They have been shown to cause vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and inflammation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases.

Pyrogallol is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to the field of pathology as a chemical reagent. Pyrogallol is an organic compound with the formula C6H3(OH)3. It is a type of phenol and can be used in histological stains to demonstrate the presence of certain enzymes or structures within tissue samples.

In a medical context, pyrogallol may be mentioned in pathology reports related to the use of this chemical in laboratory tests. However, it is not a condition or disease entity itself.

Integrin α4β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits, α4 and β1. It is involved in various cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, and signaling. This integrin plays a crucial role in the immune system by mediating the interaction between leukocytes (white blood cells) and the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. The activation of Integrin α4β1 allows leukocytes to roll along and then firmly adhere to the endothelium, followed by their migration into surrounding tissues, particularly during inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, Integrin α4β1 also interacts with extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and helps regulate cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation in various cell types.

Integrin α2β1, also known as very late antigen-2 (VLA-2) or laminin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α2 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α2β1 is widely expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some hematopoietic cells. It functions as a receptor for several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, and V), laminin, and fibronectin. The binding of integrin α2β1 to these ECM components mediates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival, thereby regulating various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor progression.

In addition, integrin α2β1 has been implicated in several diseases, including fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, targeting this integrin with therapeutic strategies may provide potential benefits for treating these conditions.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the lungs, heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and skeletal muscle.

When β2-ARs are activated by catecholamines, they trigger a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle, increased heart rate and contractility, bronchodilation, and inhibition of insulin secretion. These effects are mediated through the activation of intracellular signaling pathways involving G proteins and second messengers such as cyclic AMP (cAMP).

β2-ARs have been a major focus of drug development for various medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, hypertension, and anxiety disorders. Agonists of β2-ARs, such as albuterol and salmeterol, are commonly used to treat asthma and COPD by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle and reducing airway obstruction. Antagonists of β2-ARs, such as propranolol, are used to treat hypertension, angina, and heart failure by blocking the effects of catecholamines on the heart and blood vessels.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Dimethylallyltranstransferase (DMAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various natural compounds, including terpenoids and alkaloids. These compounds have diverse functions in nature, ranging from serving as pigments and fragrances to acting as defense mechanisms against predators or pathogens.

The primary function of DMAT is to catalyze the head-to-tail condensation of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) with various diphosphate-bound prenyl substrates, forming prenylated products. This reaction represents the first committed step in the biosynthesis of many terpenoids and alkaloids.

The enzyme's catalytic mechanism involves the formation of a covalent bond between the pyrophosphate group of DMAPP and a conserved cysteine residue within the DMAT active site, followed by the transfer of the dimethylallyl moiety to the diphosphate-bound prenyl substrate.

DMAT is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. In humans, DMAT is involved in the biosynthesis of steroids, which are essential components of cell membranes and precursors to important hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.

In summary, dimethylallyltranstransferase (DMAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) with various prenyl substrates, playing a critical role in the biosynthesis of diverse natural compounds, including terpenoids and alkaloids.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in small quantities for the normal growth, development, and maintenance of life in humans. They are required for various biochemical functions in the body such as energy production, blood clotting, immune function, and making DNA.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), vitamins do not provide energy but they play a crucial role in energy metabolism. Humans require 13 essential vitamins, which can be divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body's fat tissues and liver, and can stay in the body for a longer period of time. Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body and need to be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation.

Deficiency of vitamins can lead to various health problems, while excessive intake of certain fat-soluble vitamins can also be harmful due to toxicity. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides all the essential vitamins in adequate amounts.

Phytol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a diterpene alcohol that is a breakdown product of chlorophyll and is found in green plants. It is used in the synthesis of various compounds, including vitamins E and K, and is also used in the production of perfumes and fragrances. In the context of human health, phytol has been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Integrins are a type of cell-adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. They are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits, which form more than 24 distinct integrin heterodimers in humans.

Integrins bind to specific ligands, such as ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin), cell surface molecules, and soluble factors, through their extracellular domains. The intracellular domains of integrins interact with the cytoskeleton and various signaling proteins, allowing them to transduce signals from the ECM into the cell (outside-in signaling) and vice versa (inside-out signaling).

These molecular interactions are essential for numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of integrin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

CD29, also known as integrin β1, is a type of cell surface protein called an integrin that forms heterodimers with various α subunits to form different integrin receptors. These integrin receptors play important roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and signaling.

CD29/integrin β1 is widely expressed on many types of cells including leukocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. It can bind to several extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, and mediate cell-matrix interactions. CD29/integrin β1 also participates in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

CD29/integrin β1 can function as an antigen, which is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response. Antibodies against CD29/integrin β1 have been found in some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies can contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases by activating complement, inducing inflammation, and damaging tissues.

Therefore, CD29/integrin β1 is an important molecule in both physiological and pathological processes, and its functions as an antigen have been implicated in some autoimmune disorders.

Integrin α6β1, also known as CD49f/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α6 and β1 subunits. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hematopoietic cells. Integrin α6β1 plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesion, particularly to the laminin component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This receptor is involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, integrin α6β1 has been implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in certain cancers.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Beta-1 adrenergic receptors (also known as β1-adrenergic receptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. They are activated by the catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine), which are released by the sympathetic nervous system as part of the "fight or flight" response.

When a catecholamine binds to a β1-adrenergic receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to an increase in the rate and force of heart contractions, as well as an increase in renin secretion from the kidneys. These effects help to prepare the body for physical activity by increasing blood flow to the muscles and improving the efficiency of the cardiovascular system.

In addition to their role in the regulation of cardiovascular function, β1-adrenergic receptors have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including lipolysis (the breakdown of fat), glucose metabolism, and the regulation of mood and cognition.

Dysregulation of β1-adrenergic receptor signaling has been linked to several pathological conditions, including heart failure, hypertension, and anxiety disorders. As a result, β1-adrenergic receptors are an important target for the development of therapeutics used in the treatment of these conditions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Heptanes are a group of hydrocarbons that are composed of straight-chain or branched arrangements of six carbon atoms and are commonly found in gasoline. They are colorless liquids at room temperature with a characteristic odor. In a medical context, exposure to heptanes can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and can cause symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Chronic exposure has been linked to more serious health effects, including neurological damage and cancer. Proper handling and use of heptanes, as well as adequate ventilation, are important to minimize exposure and potential health risks.

Integrin α1β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-1 (VLA-1) or CD49a/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α1 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α1β1 is primarily expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some immune cells. This integrin binds to several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, IV), laminin, and fibronectin, mediating cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, α1β1 integrin has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, fibrosis, and tumor progression.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

... (beta-tocopherol) is a type of tocopherol with formula C28H48O2. "beta-Tocopherol". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ...
The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the ... 1996). "Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease" (PDF). N Engl J Med ... All other carotenoids, including lycopene, have no beta-ring and thus no vitamin A activity (although they may have antioxidant ... 1996). "Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial" (PDF ...
For beta(β)-tocopherol: R1 = methyl group, R2 = H, R3 = methyl group. For gamma(γ)-tocopherol: R1 = H, R2 = methyl group, R3 = ... Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (April 1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the ... "Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of tocopherol‐rich extract (E 306), α‐tocopherol (E 307), γ‐tocopherol (E 308) and δ‐ ... The naturally occurring plant form of alpha-tocopherol is RRR-α-tocopherol, also referred to as d-tocopherol, whereas the ...
... and alpha-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) (5 studies) content; milk studies reported on beta-carotene (4 studies) and alpha- ... tocopherol levels (4 studies). Few studies examined vitamin content in meats, but these found no difference in beta-carotene in ... Produce studies reported on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) (31 studies), beta-carotene (a precursor for vitamin A) (12 studies), ... α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- ...
"Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes". Diabetologia. 51 (1): 47-53 ... Song Y, Cook NR, Albert CM, Van Denburgh M, Manson JE (August 2009). "Effects of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene on the risk ... Antioxidants: Three vitamins, ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; and β-carotene, are well recognized for their antioxidant activities ... the continuing autoimmune disease which initially destroyed the beta cells of the pancreas may also cause neuropathy, and ...
Zhang P, Omaye ST (February 2001). "Antioxidant and prooxidant roles for beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in ... In a high-risk group like smokers, high doses of beta carotene increased the rate of lung cancer since high doses of beta- ... In neuronal progenitor cells, DNA damage is associated with increased secretion of amyloid beta proteins Aβ40 and Aβ42. This ... Since dietary sources contain a wider range of carotenoids and vitamin E tocopherols and tocotrienols from whole foods, ex post ...
The authors found 4 studies on each of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels in milk; differences were heterogeneous and ...
"Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in smokers". Oral ... Another study examined a combination of Vitamin E and beta carotene in smokers with early-stage cancer of the oropharynx and ...
The oil contains high concentrations of oleic acid, tocopherols, and carotenoids, especially beta-carotene. The oil has a ...
Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Tocopherol Gamma-Tocopherol (+)-δ-Tocopherol at Sigma-Aldrich "Approved additives and E numbers". ... δ-Tocopherol (delta-tocopherol) is a tocopherol and one of the chemical compounds that is considered vitamin E. As a food ...
... and Retinol and Risk of Lung Cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cohort Study". American Journal of Epidemiology. 156 ... Evidence points to beta carotene being one example of such a compound, which has led researchers to caution against the ... Tanvetyanon, T; Bepler, G (July 2008). "Beta-carotene in multivitamins and the possible risk of lung cancer among smokers ... In recent years, people substitute health supplements for healthy meals.[citation needed] Some myths even state beta carotene[ ...
She manages the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a prospective cohort study that began as a ...
The vitamin E family comprises four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). ... Tocotrienols are named by analogy to tocopherols (from Greek words meaning to bear a pregnancy (see tocopherol); but with this ... Various studies have shown that alpha-tocopherol interferes with tocotrienol benefits. High levels of α-tocopherol increase ... "Influence of major structural features of tocopherols and tocotrienols on their omega-oxidation by tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase ...
1997). "Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with ... beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E) may increase mortality, although with respect to beta-carotene this conclusion may be ... Some vitamins are toxic in high doses, including niacin (B3), cholecalciferol (D) and tocopherol (E). The view of the medical ... Patrick Lyn (December 1999). "Nutrients and HIV: part one -- beta carotene and selenium" (PDF). Altern Med Rev. 4 (6): 403-13. ...
Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (April 1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the ... 1 IU of tocopherol is defined as ⅔ milligrams of RRR-α-tocopherol (formerly named d-α-tocopherol or sometimes ddd-α-tocopherol ... As a food additive, tocopherol is labeled with these E numbers: E306 (tocopherol), E307 (α-tocopherol), E308 (γ-tocopherol), ... "Mixed tocopherols" in the USA contain at least 20% w/w other natural R, R,R- tocopherols, i.e. R, R,R-α-tocopherol content plus ...
Sowell AL, Huff DL, Yeager PR, Caudill SP, Gunter EW (March 1994). "Retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta- ... Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and ... The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) study of lung cancer patients found that smokers given supplements ... Beta-carotene may also increase lung cancer. Overall, the large number of clinical trials carried out on antioxidant ...
... alpha-tocopherol MeSH D03.438.150.909.750.374 - beta-tocopherol MeSH D03.438.150.909.750.500 - gamma-tocopherol MeSH D03.438. ... alpha-tocopherol MeSH D03.830.219.909.750.374 - beta-tocopherol MeSH D03.830.219.909.750.500 - gamma-tocopherol MeSH D03.830. ... beta-naphthoflavone MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.190 - biflavonoids MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.206 - catechin MeSH D03.438.150.266. ... beta-naphthoflavone MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.190 - biflavonoids MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.206 - catechin MeSH D03.830.219.266. ...
... making both beta / gamma tocotrienol as well as the beta / gamma tocopherol pairs of stereoisomer. Vitamin E Tocopherol ... The beta- and gamma- forms both have two substituted methyl groups, although at different structural positions (5,8-dimethyl ... The four compounds with the saturated tails are the tocopherols, and the four compounds with the unsaturated tails are the ... 2013). Tocotrienols: Vitamin E Beyond Tocopherols (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 9781439884416. Komiyama K, Iizuka K, ...
Arbutus berries have a high content of sugars (40%), and antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin C, beta-carotene, niacin, ... The analysed fruits contain very useful bioactive phytochemicals such as phenolics, vitamins (ascorbic acid and tocopherols) ... tocopherols, and organic acids that are precursors to omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (nearly 9%). They are edible fresh, but ...
... tocopherols) and steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol). Grapeseed oil contains small amounts of vitamin E, but ... ISBN 978-0-85199-723-0. Sabir, A; Unver, A; Kara, Z (2012). "The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil ... A study of 21 grape cultivars showed variation of oil composition, especially for linoleic acid and tocopherols. Although grape ...
The main carotenoids are beta-carotene, zeaxanthin and lycopene while alpha-tocopherol is the major vitamin E compound. The ... Kallio H, Yang B, Peippo P, Tahvonen R, Pan R (2002). "Triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in ...
One hundred grams (dry weight) contains 49.3 micrograms (µg) of tocopherols (20.0 µg alpha, 21.3 µg beta, and 8.0 µg gamma) and ... A water-insoluble beta-glucan, RVS3-II, has been isolated from the fruit bodies. Sulfated derivatives of this compound have ...
... higher in beta-carotene, 288% higher in vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), higher in the B-vitamins thiamin and riboflavin, higher ... which is presumed to be due to the lower rate of use of dietary ALA for beta-oxidation. One preliminary study showed that EPA ...
... has been shown as a powerful protective antioxidant for thalassemia and prevents the breakdown of alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E ... Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (Syn.: Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla (L.) Arcang., Beta vulgaris subsp. rapacea (Koch) Döll).: all ... description of Beta vulgaris and Beta maritima Uotila, P. (2011). Beta vulgaris In: "Chenopodiaceae (pro parte majore)." - Euro ... Beta vulgaris belongs to the subfamily Betoideae in family Amaranthaceae (s.l, including the Chenopodiaceae). Beta vulgaris is ...
... tocopherols, and sitosterols. Other compounds include perillaldehyde, limonene, linalool, beta-caryophyllene, menthol, and ...
Twenty-five varieties were tested, with the key nutrients measured being ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherols (vitamin E), ... phylloquinone (vitamin K), and beta-carotene (a vitamin A precursor), plus other related carotenoids in the cotyledons. Among ...
The oil does not contain vitamin A directly, however it contains provitamin A (mostly beta-Carotene). It also contains the ... It also contains antioxidants including δ- and γ-tocopherol, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. ...
3 mg d-alpha-tocopherol = 0.90 mg of dl-alpha-tocopherol Peptides: 1 IU insulin ≙ 0.0347 mg human insulin (28.8 IU/mg) 1 IU ... Micronutrients: 1 IU Vitamin A = 0.3 μg retinol (~0.1 nmol) = 0.6 μg beta-carotene 1 IU Vitamin D = 0.025 µg D2/D3 ≈ 0.65 pmol ... Many biological agents exist in different forms or preparations (e.g. vitamin A in the form of retinol or beta-carotene). The ... See Vitamin A § Equivalencies of retinoids and carotenoids (IU). The US NIH has replaced IU with mg d-alpha-tocopherol equiv. ...
For example, high doses of beta-carotene and vitamin E was found to increase the risk of lung cancer and overall mortality in ... Tocopherol, tocotrienols), and many more. These compounds can be found as ingredients in various products, or as components of ... Examples are, but not limited to, Carotenoids (Beta-carotene, Lycopene), Lutein, Manganese, Magnesium, Selenium, Vitamin A ( ... and tocopherols, among others. Phenolic compounds found in foods generally contribute to their astringency and may also reduce ...
The plant has a potent antioxidant activity with a significant α-tocopherol equivalent vitamin E. The word for the plant is ... It is traditionally served with white rice.[citation needed] The leaves are rich in folate, beta-carotene, iron, calcium, ...
Vitamin E and beta carotene supplementation in high risk for stroke: a subgroup analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene ... Objective: To determine if vitamin E (dl-alpha tocopherol) and beta carotene supplementations could be used in prevention of ... Interventions: Alpha tocopherol, 50 mg; beta carotene, 20 mg; both; or placebo. ... Context: High serum or dietary levels of vitamin E and beta carotene appear to be associated with lower risk of stroke, but ...
Free Radical Interaction Between Vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol), Ascorbate and Flavonoids. YOSHINORI ... Free Radical Interaction Between Vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol), Ascorbate and Flavonoids ... Free Radical Interaction Between Vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol), Ascorbate and Flavonoids ... Free Radical Interaction Between Vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol), Ascorbate and Flavonoids ...
β-Tocopherol (beta-tocopherol) is a type of tocopherol with formula C28H48O2. "beta-Tocopherol". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ...
View top 100 fast foods with beta-tocopherol. Learn more about the nutrients your food contains and what they can do for your ... Foods With beta-Tocopherol In Other Food Categories. The food categories below have foods that contain beta-tocopherol. ... Top 100 Fast Foods With beta-Tocopherol - Care Omnia Nutrition. Below we list 100 Fast Foods with beta-tocopherol. The list is ... We recommend you also check out our top ranked list of all foods with beta-tocopherol or take a look at what other foods there ...
160 Pages Report] Mixed Tocopherols Market categorizes the Global Market by Source (Soybean Oil, Rapeseed Oil, Sunflower Oil, ... 8.3 Beta Tocopherols 8.4 Gamma Tocopherols 8.5 Delta Tocopherols 9 Mixed Tocopherols Market, By Form (Page No. - 77). 9.1 ... Table 28 Beta Tocopherols Market Size, By Region, 2014 2022 (USD Million). Table 29 Beta Tocopherols Market Size, By Region, ... 12.2 Mixed Tocopherol 95 & 70 IZ By Royal DSM 12.3 Decanox By Archer Daniels Midland Company 12.4 ( )-?-Tocopherol By Sigma ...
Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study A study conducted in Finland to evaluate the long-term effects ...
Tocopherol, beta. Nutrient Val: 0 mg. Additional Fortification: Tag Name: TOCPHB. Rounded to dec points: 2. Tocopherol, gamma. ... Tocopherol, delta. Nutrient Val: 0 mg. Additional Fortification: Tag Name: TOCPHD. Rounded to dec points: 2. Vitamin D (D2 + D3 ... Cryptoxanthin, beta. Nutrient Val: 0 mcg. Additional Fortification: Tag Name: CRYPX. Rounded to dec points: 0. Vitamin A, IU. ... Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol). Nutrient Val: 0.03 mg. Additional Fortification: Tag Name: TOCPHA. Rounded to dec points: 2. ...
Tocopherol, beta. ~. Tocopherol, delta. ~. Tocopherol, gamma. ~. Vitamin A. 954.99 IU. 19 % Vitamin B12. 2.62 mcg. 44 % ...
Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of ... 3). In addition, a hypocaloric diet has been shown to promote the regeneration of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells and ... Fasting-mimicking diet promotes Ngn3-driven beta-cell regeneration to reverse diabetes. Cell 168, 775-788.e712 (2017). ... 4), although clinical trials using vitamin E and beta carotene have been unsuccessful or even have been associated with ...
Tocopherol, beta. 0 mg. Tocopherol, delta. 0 mg. Tocopherol, gamma. 0.04 mg. ...
The alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Circulation 1996;94:2720-7. View abstract. ... Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan ... High beta-glucan oat bran and oat gum reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin in subjects with and without type 2 ... Oat beta-glucan increases bile acid excretion and a fiber-rich barley fraction increases cholesterol excretion in ileostomy ...
Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of ... In fact, two large phase III clinical trials (the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention [ATBC] [56] and the Beta- ... The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study reported a 30-40% decrease in prostate cancer incidence and ... Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J ...
The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 330 (15): 1029-35, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract] ... Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al.: Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and ... The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. ...
Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of ...
Olive oil is high in antioxidants tocopherols, lutein and beta-carotene to name a few and 1 tbsp contains around 1.6 mg or 8% ...
Response of Beta-Carotene to Dietary Selenium and Alpha-Tocopherol. 08A084:. Use of Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) in ... Gamma-tocopherol is one of eight compounds that make up vitamin E. Earlier research focused on the related alpha-tocopherol ... Yet cell and animal studies suggest that gamma-tocopherol may provide even stronger anti-inflammatory protection than alpha- ... tocopherol. In both cell and animal studies, gamma-tocopherol decreases cancer cell growth. ...
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) [mg]. 0.11. Tocopherol, beta [mg]. 0.6. Tocopherol, delta [mg]. 0.18. ...
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 3.15 mg. Tocopherol, beta 0.03 mg. Tocopherol, gamma 0.64 mg. ... My P.L.A.N. version 0.56 beta.. This program is currently in beta testing, please report any problem you encounter by clicking ... This program is new and currently in beta testing, and may contain errors (known as bugs). Please report any problem you may ...
My P.L.A.N. version 0.56 beta.. This program is currently in beta testing, please report any problem you encounter by clicking ... This program is new and currently in beta testing, and may contain errors (known as bugs). Please report any problem you may ... Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) mg. Tocopherol, beta mg. Tocopherol, gamma mg. Tocopherol, delta mg. ...
There are four subtypes of tocopherols: alpha, beta, delta, and gamma.. Tocotrienols. These are present in lower quantities ... Tocopherols. These are the most abundant type of vitamin E in the human body. ...
... α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- ... beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol into cows milk. J Dairy Res 66, 511-522.Google Scholar ... α-tocopherol; 3R, natural isomers of α-tocopherol; BC, β-carotene; BI, breed index; CLA9, rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-18 : 2 ... α-tocopherol in the dairy diet and nearly exclusively contains 3R stereoisomers of α-tocopherol; and (2) 2R stereoisomers are ...
Tocopherol, beta 0 mg. *Tocopherol, gamma 0 mg. *Tocopherol, delta 0 mg ...
Shop for Deva Vegan Vitamin E with Mixed Tocopherols Capsules 400IU (90 ct) at City Market. Find quality health products to add ... It contains d-alpha, d-beta, d-gamma, and d-delta tocopherols. ... Deva Vegan Vitamin E with Mixed Tocopherols Capsules 400IU. 5( ... Vitamin E , Mixed Tocopherols , Vegan Capsule ( Cellulose ) , Sunflower Oil ( All , from : Non-animal Sources ) . ...
The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1994. ... Antioxidants such as beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, selenium, vitamins A, C, and E are found in many foods and are also ... The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. ... researchers found a higher incident of lung cancer among men who received beta-carotene compared to those who did not. These ...
One-stop vegan store for cruelty-free products including Deva Vegan Vitamin E with Mixed Tocopherols ... Deva Vegan Vitamin E with Mixed Tocopherols from Shop Vegan - ... D-beta, D-gamma and D-delta), compared to many other ... Home Our Products Vegan Supplements Deva Nutrition Vitamins Deva Vegan Vitamin E with Mixed Tocopherols ... This high quality Deva Vegan Vitamin E supplement offers 400IU natural Vitamin E with mixed tocopherols. There are a total of ...
Tocopherol, beta 0.065 mg. *Tocopherol, gamma 6.221 mg. *Tocopherol, delta 3.013 mg ...
d-Gamma Tocopherol 100 mg. †. d-Beta & d-Delta Tocopherol 40 mg ... an exclusive blend of eight forms of natural source tocopherols ... E-Gems Elite is an exclusive blend of eight forms of natural source tocopherols and tocotrienols providing the antioxidant ...
The Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study was a double blind, randomised controlled trial to test α- ... Controlled trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on stroke incidence and mortality in male smokers. ... 9 13 The Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention trial was the first, showing that in male smokers 50 mg/day of ... Hoppe PP, Krennrich G. Bioavailability and potency of natural-source and all-racemic alpha-tocopherol in the human: a dispute. ...
Tocopherol, TCP, beta. mg. ⊕ Tocopherol, TCP, delta. mg. ⊕ Tocopherol, TCP, gamma. mg. ...
Alpha-tocopherol beta-oxidation localized to rat liver mitochondria.. Free Radic Biol Med. 48(1):73-81. ... Alpha-tocopherol beta-oxidation localized to rat liver mitochondria.. Free Radic Biol Med. 48(1):73-81. ... Alpha-tocopherol beta-oxidation localized to rat liver mitochondria.. Free Radic Biol Med. 48(1):73-81. ... Alpha-tocopherol regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450s and ABC transporters in rats.. Free Radic Biol Med. 41(7):1069-78. ...
  • To determine if vitamin E (dl-alpha tocopherol) and beta carotene supplementations could be used in prevention of stroke in men at high risk for hemorrhagic or ischemic events. (nih.gov)
  • Population-based, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial design trial (the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study), conducted from April 1985 through April 30, 1993, with median follow-up of 6 years. (nih.gov)
  • VE, particularly alpha-tocopherol, shows less antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals, suggesting that VE possesses functions that are independent of its antioxidant/radical-scavenging activity. (iiarjournals.org)
  • Alpha tocopherol may be slightly decreased in mature milk after high-risk pregnancies (Sámano 2017) . (e-lactancia.org)
  • Alpha-tocopherol regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450s and ABC transporters in rats. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Alpha-tocopherol beta-oxidation localized to rat liver mitochondria. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Regulatory mechanisms to control tissue alpha-tocopherol. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 1) Alpha-tocopherol beta carotene cancer prevention study group. (acsh.org)
  • Alpha-tocopherol Attenuates the Severity of -induced Pneumonia. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 2005. Alpha-tocopherol modulates Cyp3a expression, increases gamma-CEHC production, and limits tissue gamma-tocopherol accumulation in mice fed high gamma-tocopherol diets. . (oregonstate.edu)
  • Gene-nutrient interactions exemplified by the alpha-tocopherol content of tissues from alpha-tocopherol transfer protein-null mice fed different dietary vitamin E concentrations. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A combination of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol may help support endothelial function, but the effects were not observed when the tocotrienols were used alone, says a new study. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Regular intake of vitamin E alpha-tocopherol may not deplete tissue levels of tocotrienols, says a new study with lab rats. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The acute oral toxicity of 'DL-alpha-Tocopherol' was investigated in Wistar rats equivalent or similar to the OECD guideline 401 for acute oral toxicity studies (limit test). (europa.eu)
  • Finally, the researchers verified their findings through the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study , which also looked into the effects of vitamin E on cancer risk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Alpha-tocopherol is also involved in immune function, DNA repair, and other metabolic processes. (vitaminmd.net)
  • For this reason, consuming a mix of tocopherols-similar to what you would get from a healthy, balanced diet-can offer a broader range of benefits than consuming alpha-tocopherol alone. (vitaminmd.net)
  • Some research indicates that tocopherols, especially alpha-tocopherol, may help protect against Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline associated with aging. (vitaminmd.net)
  • The most biologically active is alpha-tocopherol, but beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols, 4 tocotrienols, and several stereoisomers may also have important biologic activity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Normally, the plasma alpha-tocopherol level is 5 to 20 mcg/mL (11.6 to 46.4 mcmol/L). (msdmanuals.com)
  • We conducted a high-resolution mass spectrometry based untargeted lipidomics analysis of pre-diagnostic serum samples from a nested case-control study (219 liver cancer cases and 219 controls) within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite a large number of previous studies, the mechanism of free radical interaction between vitamin E (VE) (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol) and ascorbate or flavonoids as coantioxidants remains unclear. (iiarjournals.org)
  • For delta-tocopherol, a synergistic antioxidant effect was observed in the presence of both EC and EGCG, whereas antioxidant activity for alpha-, beta- and gamma-tocopherol was decreased by addition of EC and EGCG. (iiarjournals.org)
  • There are a total of four different tocopherols present in the formulation (D-alpha, D-beta, D-gamma and D-delta), compared to many other formulations which contain only d-alpha. (shopvegan.co.uk)
  • Beta, gamma and delta tocopherol are also natural. (e-lactancia.org)
  • 5-nitro-gamma-tocopherol increases in human plasma exposed to cigarette smoke in vitro and in vivo. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Supplementation with gamma-tocopherol could alleviate premenstrual symptoms (PMS), according to a new study from Japanese researchers. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Further analysis of the participants in the above study revealed that a pecan-enriched diet significantly raised blood levels of gamma tocopherol compared to the Step I diet. (tpga.org)
  • This is due to the high amounts of naturally occurring gamma tocopherol (a unique form of vitamin E) in the pecans. (tpga.org)
  • Gamma tocopherol is an important antioxidant nutrient and studies have shown that it may benefit intestinal health and have a protective effect against prostate cancer. (tpga.org)
  • There are eight naturally occurring forms of vitamin E, which are the alpha, beta, gamma and delta forms of tocopherol and tocotrienol. (positivehealth.com)
  • When researchers gave a gamma tocopherol rich vitamin E supplement to 8 people with allergic asthma for 3 weeks, they were able to measure a reduction in levels of oxidative stress and inflammation, compared to a control group. (positivehealth.com)
  • Gamma-tocopherol has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties and may help protect against certain types of cancer and heart disease. (vitaminmd.net)
  • E-Gems Elite is an exclusive blend of eight forms of natural source tocopherols and tocotrienols providing the antioxidant benefits of the entire family of vitamin E. Research supports that all natural forms of vitamin E as found in foods have beneficial properties playing roles in protecting body cells from free radical damage. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • Tocotrienols are also vitamin E. Natural alpha-tocopherols are d-isomers. (e-lactancia.org)
  • Vitamin E is not actually a single vitamin, but a group of fat soluble vitamins known as tocopherols and tocotrienols. (positivehealth.com)
  • Vitamin E is a group of compounds (including tocopherols and tocotrienols) that have similar biologic activities. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The factors influencing the mixed tocopherols market growth include health & wellness trends such as vitamin fortification in food & beverages and in feed, and regulations for sourcing, processing, packaging, and labeling of food & beverages. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • High serum or dietary levels of vitamin E and beta carotene appear to be associated with lower risk of stroke, but studies regarding their supplementation have not supported their use in stroke prevention. (nih.gov)
  • Beta carotene supplementation appeared to increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and modestly decrease that of cerebral infarction among men with greater alcohol consumption. (nih.gov)
  • At least, that's what the latest data suggest about beta-carotene. (acsh.org)
  • Beta-carotene is a compound found in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. (acsh.org)
  • In the early 1990s, some animal studies and small, observational human studies suggested that beta-carotene, as an antioxidant, might have cancer-preventive properties. (acsh.org)
  • Then, in 1994, a large study of heavy smokers suggested that beta-carotene slightly increased their risk of lung cancer (1). (acsh.org)
  • The researchers found that for never-smokers, the highest level of beta-carotene use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of several cancers (including cancer of the lung, lower intestine, thyroid, ovary, and cervix). (acsh.org)
  • Conversely, among ever-smokers (current as well as ex-smokers), high intake of beta-carotene was associated with an increased risk of such cancers. (acsh.org)
  • In both groups of women, those who consumed the greatest amounts of beta-carotene intake obtained them from dietary supplements. (acsh.org)
  • For example, the use of beta-carotene supplements was relatively uncommon in the population studied (only 2% used them), and very few of the supplement-users developed one of the cancers of interest -- only five in the never-smoking group and twelve in the ever-smoking group. (acsh.org)
  • The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. (acsh.org)
  • 2) Touvier M, Kesse E, Clavel-Chapelon F, and Boutron-Ruault, M-C. Dual association of beta-carotene with risk of tobacco-related cancers in a cohort of French women. (acsh.org)
  • The regeneration of delta-tocopherol, a monomethyl tocol, by flavonoids may be due to the lower steric effect of tocol. (iiarjournals.org)
  • Delta-tocopherol has potent antioxidant activity and unique cardiovascular health benefits. (vitaminmd.net)
  • This high quality Deva Vegan Vitamin E supplement offers 400IU (268 mg) of Vitamin E with mixed tocopherols derived from a plant source (i.e. non-gmo sunflowers). (shopvegan.co.uk)
  • This high quality Deva Vegan Vitamin E supplement offers 400IU natural Vitamin E with mixed tocopherols. (shopvegan.co.uk)
  • Deuterium-labeled phylloquinone fed to α-tocopherol-injected rats demonstrates sensitivity of low phylloquinone-containing tissues to menaquinone-4 depletion. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The mixed tocopherols market was valued at USD 3.66 billion in 2016, and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2017, to reach USD 5.27 billion by 2022. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The concentration of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is highest in colostrum (6.5 to 15 mg/L) (Xue 2017, Melo 2017) and drops to half/a third in transition milk and a third/a fifth in mature milk (Xue 2017, Silva 2017, Jiang 2016, Lima 2014) . (e-lactancia.org)
  • Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the concentration of vitamin E in colostrum and transition milk (Keikha 2021, Melo 2017, Pires 2016, Clemente 2015) , but not in mature milk (Pires 2016) and no relationship has been found between diet and the concentration of α-tocopherol in breastmilk (Jiang 2016) , although higher levels of vitamin E in breast milk were associated with a higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (e-lactancia.org)
  • The global Tocopherol market will reach xxx Million USD in 2020 with CAGR xx% 2020-2025. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • 2015. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α. . (oregonstate.edu)
  • The acute oral toxicity of 'Mixed Tocopherols' was investigated in five Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex. (europa.eu)
  • Mixed tocopherols are widely used as a source of vitamin E by pharmaceutical and dietary supplement manufacturing companies. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • In this blog, we'll delve deep into the powerhouse of mixed tocopherols , shedding light on their significance, health benefits, dietary sources, and how to incorporate them into your wellness routine effectively. (vitaminmd.net)
  • Each of these tocopherols is naturally present in different amounts in various foods, and all have a role in health. (vitaminmd.net)
  • The primary role of tocopherols in the body is to act as antioxidants. (vitaminmd.net)
  • This round-up looks at the latest findings from health and nutrition research, including the benefit of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in lowering cardiovascular disease risk among diabetic patients, γ-tocopherol in reducing premenstrual symptoms such as. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The health benefits of mixed tocopherols vary, from cardiovascular wellness to skin health. (vitaminmd.net)
  • The world of nutrition and wellness is brimming with buzzwords, but if there's one term worth knowing, it's 'mixed tocopherols. (vitaminmd.net)
  • The most important component are the tocopherols, the α-tocopherol being the most active and widely distributed in nature. (e-lactancia.org)
  • Intriguingly, mixed tocopherols represent a more comprehensive form of vitamin E, offering many health benefits. (vitaminmd.net)
  • This is the least active form of tocopherol in our bodies but still contributes to our overall health. (vitaminmd.net)
  • Some evidence also suggests that tocopherols can help maintain healthy blood pressure levels. (vitaminmd.net)
  • β-Tocopherol (beta-tocopherol) is a type of tocopherol with formula C28H48O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum causes breastfed newborns to reach adult plasma levels of vitamin E. (initially one third of them) in 4 to 6 days. (e-lactancia.org)
  • When choosing supplements, many healthcare professionals recommend products that contain a mixture of tocopherols to mimic what you would find in nature. (vitaminmd.net)
  • Comer avena, salvado de avena y otras fibras solubles puede reducir un poco el colesterol total y de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL o "malo") cuando se consume como parte de una dieta baja en grasas saturadas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Plasma tocopherol levels vary with total plasma lipid levels. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Mixed tocopherols are used by food & beverage and feed manufacturers to meet the global consumer demand for vitamin E-rich products. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • While not as prevalent or well-studied as its alpha counterpart, beta-tocopherol still plays an important role as an antioxidant. (vitaminmd.net)
  • The first week's milk of mothers of premature babies and of children over 4kg at birth has a higher content of α-tocopherol (Grilo 2013, Gross 1985) . (e-lactancia.org)
  • The leading players in the mixed tocopherols market are considered for this study. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Daily Consumption of Oregon Hazelnuts Affects α-Tocopherol Status in Healthy Older Adults: A Pre-Post Intervention Study. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Tocopherols can protect the skin from ultraviolet (UV) damage, help maintain healthy skin moisture levels, and support wound healing. (vitaminmd.net)
  • Studies have shown that mixed tocopherols may help maintain a healthy heart. (vitaminmd.net)
  • Further research is needed to solidify the relationship between mixed tocopherols and these health benefits. (vitaminmd.net)