Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Nadolol: A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Rhode IslandNeurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.Allied Health Occupations: Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.Book SelectionMetoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Bisoprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker. It is effective in the management of HYPERTENSION and ANGINA PECTORIS.Celiprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry: Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Neurofeedback: A technique to self-regulate brain activities provided as a feedback in order to better control or enhance one's own performance, control or function. This is done by trying to bring brain activities into a range associated with a desired brain function or status.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Imagery (Psychotherapy): The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Anaesthetic/amnesic agents disrupt beta frequency oscillations associated with potentiation of excitatory synaptic potentials in the rat hippocampal slice. (1/161)

1. Anaesthetic agents produce disruption in cognitive function typified by reductions in sensory perception and memory formation. Oscillations within the EEG gamma and beta bands have been linked to sensory perception and memory and have been shown to be modified by anaesthetic agents. 2. Synchronous gamma oscillations generated by brief tetanic stimulation in two regions of hippocampal area CA1 in slices in vitro were seen to potentiate excitatory synaptic communication between the areas. This synaptic potentiation, was seen to contribute to a transition from gamma frequency (30 - 70 Hz) to beta frequency (12 - 30 Hz) oscillations. 3. Four drugs having anaesthetic/hypnotic and amnesic properties were tested on this synchronous gamma-induced beta oscillation. Thiopental 10 - 200 microM, Diazepam 0.05 - 1.0 microM, Morphine 10 - 200 microM, and Ketamine 10 - 200 microM were all added to the bathing medium. Each drug markedly disrupted the formation of beta oscillations in a manner consistent with their primary modes of action. Thiopental and morphine disrupted synchrony of gamma oscillations and prevented potentiation of recurrent excitatory potentials measured in stratum oriens (fEPSPs). Neither diazepam, nor ketamine produced such marked changes in synchrony at gamma frequencies or reduction in potentiation of fEPSPs. However, each disrupted expression of subsequent beta oscillation via changes in the magnitude of inhibitory network gamma oscillations and the duration and magnitude of tetanus-induced depolarization respectively. 4. The degree of disruption of fEPSP potentiation correlated quantitatively with the degree of disruption in synchrony between sites during gamma oscillations. The data indicate that synchronous gamma-induced beta oscillations represent a mode of expression of excitatory synaptic potentiation in the hippocampus, and that anaesthetic/amnesic agents can disrupt this process markedly.  (+info)

Investigation of nonlinear ECoG changes during spontaneous sleep state changes and cortical arousal in fetal sheep. (2/161)

We examined the processes of cortical activation and deactivation of the fetal brain during spontaneous sleep state transitions and during central nervous processing of vibroacoustic stimulations (VASs) using nonlinear analysis of the electrocorticogram (ECoG). Tests of nonlinearity and a random shuffling routine revealed deterministic and nonlinear portions in the fetal ECoG. As common nonlinear measures are not applicable to nonstationary time series, we developed an algorithm to estimate the predictability of the ECoG in its time course by means of a point prediction error (PPE). The ECoG was recorded before and during VAS from the maternal abdominal surface in seven chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.8 of gestation. The PPE during REM sleep was significantly higher than during NREM sleep. VAS in NREM sleep resulted in an abrupt increase of the PPE not reaching the level of REM sleep. The steep increase of the PPE at onset and its slow decrease after cessation of the stimulus were very similar to the dynamics of spontaneous sleep state transitions, suggesting the involvement of the same cortical activating mechanisms. In conclusion, the stage and the time course of fetal brain activation and deactivation patterns can be clearly shown by PPE techniques. The PPE is a useful complement to spectral analysis. Both techniques describe different properties of the ECoG.  (+info)

Beta activity: a carrier for visual attention. (3/161)

The alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (15-25 Hz) and gamma (30-60 Hz) bands of the EEG have been long studied clinically because of their putative functional importance. Old experimental results indicate that repetitive stimulation of the visual pathway evokes synchronous responses at the cortical level with a gain that depends on frequency; oscillations within relevant bands are less damped at subsequent processing levels than others. Our current results show in the cat that cortico-geniculate feedback has a build-in potentiation mechanism that operates at around the beta frequency and activates thalamic cells thus lowering the threshold for visual information transmission. We have also shown that enhanced beta activity is propagated along this feedback pathway solely during attentive visual behavior. This activity consists of 300-1,000 ms bursts that correlate in time with gamma oscillatory events. Beta-bursting activity spreads to all investigated visual centers, including the lateral posterior and pulvinar complex and higher cortical areas. Other supporting data are discussed that are concerned with the enhanced beta activity during attentive-like behavior of various species, including humans. Finally, we put forward a general hypothesis which attributes the appearance of oscillations within the alpha, beta and gamma bands to different activation states of the visual system. According to this hypothesis, alpha activity characterizes idle arousal of the system, while beta bursts shift the system to an attention state that consequently allows for gamma synchronization and perception.  (+info)

Origins and distribution of cholinergically induced beta rhythms in hippocampal slices. (4/161)

Regional variations and substrates of high-frequency rhythmic activity induced by cholinergic stimulation were studied in hippocampal slices with 64-electrode recording arrays. (1) Carbachol triggered beta waves (17.6 +/- 5.7 Hz) in pyramidal regions of 75% of the slices. (2) The waves had phase shifts across the cell body layers and were substantially larger in the apical dendrites than in cell body layers or basal dendrites. (3) Continuous, two-dimensional current source density analyses indicated apical sinks associated with basal sources, lasting approximately 10 msec, followed by apical sources and basal sinks, lasting approximately 20 msec, in a repeating pattern with a period in the range of 15-25 Hz. (4) Carbachol-induced beta waves in the hippocampus were accompanied by 40 Hz (gamma) oscillations in deep layers of the entorhinal cortex. (5) Cholinergically elicited beta and gamma rhythms were eliminated by antagonists of either AMPA or GABA receptors. Benzodiazepines markedly enhanced beta activity and sometimes introduced a distinct gamma frequency peak. (6) Twenty Hertz activity after orthodromic activation of field CA3 was distributed in the same manner as carbachol-induced beta waves and was generated by a current source in the apical dendrites of CA3. This source was eliminated by high concentrations of GABA(A) receptor blockers. It is concluded that cholinergically driven beta rhythms arise independently in hippocampal subfields from oscillatory circuits involving (1) bursts of pyramidal cell discharges, (2) activation of a subset of feedback interneurons that project apically, and (3) production of a GABA(A)-mediated hyperpolarization in the outer portions of the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Multimodal EEG analysis in man suggests impairment-specific changes in movement-related electric brain activity after stroke. (5/161)

Movement-related slow cortical potentials and event-related desynchronization of alpha (alpha-ERD) and beta (beta-ERD) activity after self-paced voluntary triangular finger movements were studied in 13 ischaemic supratentorial stroke patients and 10 age-matched control subjects during movement preparation and actual performance. The stroke patients suffered from central arm paresis (n = 8), somatosensory deficits (n = 3) or ideomotor apraxia (n = 2). The multimodal EEG analysis suggested impairment-specific changes in the movement-related electrical activity of the brain. The readiness potential of paretic subjects was centred more anteriorly and laterally; during movement, they showed increased beta-ERD at left lateral frontal recording sites. Patients with somatosensory deficits showed reduced alpha-ERD and beta-ERD during both movement preparation and actual performance. Patients with ideomotor apraxia showed more lateralized frontal movement-related slow cortical potentials during both movement preparation and performance, and reduced left parietal beta-ERD during movement preparation. We conclude that (i) disturbed motor efference is associated with an increased need for excitatory drive of pyramidal cells in motor and premotor areas or an attempt to drive movements through projections from these areas to brainstem motor systems during movement preparation; (ii) an undisturbed somatosensory afference might contribute to the release of relevant cortical areas from their 'idling' state when movements are prepared and performed; and (iii) apraxic patients have a relative lack of activity of the mesial frontal motor system and the left parietal cortex, which is believed to be part of a network subserving ideomotor praxis.  (+info)

Long-range synchronization of gamma and beta oscillations and the plasticity of excitatory and inhibitory synapses: a network model. (6/161)

The ability of oscillating networks to synchronize despite significant separation in space, and thus time, is of biological significance, given that human gamma activity can synchronize over distances of several millimeters to centimeters during perceptual and learning tasks. We use computer simulations of networks consisting of excitatory pyramidal cells (e-cells) and inhibitory interneurons (i-cells), modeling two tonically driven assemblies separated by large (>or=8 ms) conduction delays. The results are as follows. 1) Two assemblies separated by large conduction delays can fire synchronously at beta frequency (with i-cells firing at gamma frequency) under two timing conditions: e-cells of (say) assembly 2 are still inhibited "delay + spike generation milliseconds" after the e-cell beat of assembly 1; this means that the e-cell inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) cannot be significantly shorter than the delay (2-site effect). This implies for a given decay time constant that the interneuron --> pyramidal cell conductances must be large enough. The e-cell IPSP must last longer than the i-cell IPSP, i.e., the interneuron --> pyramidal cell conductance must be sufficiently large and the interneuron --> interneuron conductance sufficiently small (local effect). 2) We define a "long-interval doublet" as a pair of interneuron action potentials-separated by approximately "delay milliseconds"-in which a) the first spike is induced by tonic inputs and/or excitation from nearby e-cells, while b) the second spike is induced by (delayed) excitation from distant e-cells. "Long-interval population doublets" (long-interval doublets of the i-cell population) are necessary for synchronized firing in our networks. Failure to produce them leads to almost anti-phase activity at gamma frequency. 3) An (almost) anti-phase oscillation is the most stable oscillation pattern of two assemblies that are separated by axonal conduction delays of approximately one-half a gamma period (delays from 8 to 17 ms in our simulations) and that are firing at gamma frequency. 4) Two assemblies separated by large conduction delays can synchronize their activity with the help of interneuron plasticity. They can also synchronize without pyramidal cell --> pyramidal cell connections being present. The presence of pyramidal cell --> pyramidal cell connections allows, however, for synchronization if other parameters are at inappropriate values for synchronization to occur. 5) Synchronization of two assemblies separated by large conduction delays with the help of interneuron plasticity is not simply due to slowing down of the oscillation frequency. It is reached with the help of a "synchronizing-weak-beat," which induces sudden changes in the oscillation period length of the two assemblies.  (+info)

Movement rate effect on activation and functional coupling of motor cortical areas. (7/161)

We investigated changes in the activation and functional coupling of bilateral primary sensorimotor (SM1) and supplementary motor (SMA) areas with different movement rates in eight normal volunteers. An auditory-cued repetitive right-thumb movement was performed at rates of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Hz. As a control condition, subjects listened to pacing tones with no movements. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 28 scalp electrodes and electromyogram was obtained from the hand muscles. The event-related changes in EEG band-power (ERpow: activation of each area) and correlation (ERcor: functional coupling between each pair of cortical areas) were computed every 32 ms. Modulations of ERpow and ERcor were inspected in alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (16-20 Hz) bands. Motor cortical activation and coupling was greater for faster movements. With increasing movement rate, the timing relationship between movement and tone switched from synchronization (for 0.5-1 Hz) to syncopation (for 3-4 Hz). The results suggested that for slow repetitive movements (0.5-1 Hz), each individual movement is separately controlled, and EEG activation and coupling of the motor cortical areas were immediately followed by transient deactivation and decoupling, having clear temporal modulation locked to each movement. In contrast, for fast repetitive movements (3-4 Hz), it appears that the rhythm is controlled and the motor cortices showed sustained EEG activation and continuous coupling.  (+info)

Reversibility of the chronic post-stroke state. (8/161)

Forty patients with cerebral infarction associated with occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were treated with hyperbaric oxygenation (HO). EEG analyses were performed regularly in order to assess the course of the cerebral lesion. Patients in an early post-stroke stage (III B) and patients in a chronic post-stroke stage (IV) had the changes in EEG analysis and neurological distributed evenly between these two groups.  (+info)

  • Frequency analysis using simultaneously recorded EEG focused on infant theta (2-6 Hz), alpha (6-9 Hz), and beta (9-14 Hz) rhythms. (
  • In each region, they found that when an image was either being encoded (when it was first presented) or recalled (when working memory was tested), the power of theta and gamma frequency bands of brain waves would increase in bursts and power in alpha and beta bands would decrease. (
  • When the information had to be held in mind, for instance in the period between first sight and the test, theta and gamma power went down and alpha and beta power went up in bursts. (
  • On each visit, patients received beta/sensorimotor rhythm training for 30 minutes, and then alpha/theta training for 30 minutes. (
  • In children up to the age of puberty the appearance of high-amplitude theta waves, having a velocity between those of alpha and delta rhythms, usually signals the onset of emotional stimulation. (
  • Beta-blockers reduced mortality in individuals with HF with reduced ejection fraction in sinus rhythm regardless of pretreatment heart rate, according to findings presented at Heart Failure 2017 in Paris. (
  • Beta-blockers reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with [HFrEF] in sinus rhythm," Dipak Kotecha , PhD, of the Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, and the Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics at Monash University, Australia, and colleagues wrote in a simultaneous publication in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology . (
  • In participants randomly assigned to beta-blockers, ventricular rate was reduced by 12 beats per minute regardless of whether they were in sinus rhythm or AF. (
  • Our analysis confirms a reduction in mortality with beta-blockers for patients with HFrEF in sinus rhythm, irrespective of pretreatment heart rate within the studied range," the researchers wrote. (
  • This is the "natural pacemaker " that causes the normal range of regular heartbeats (normal rhythm or sinus rhythm) that begin with electrical-induced muscular contraction in the atrium to move oxygenated blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle (blood enters the left atrium through the pulmonary veins). (
  • Are beta blockers safe to use for sinus tachycardia? (
  • Amidarone may be considered for patients in whom beta-blockers are contraindicated and as therapy for postoperative sinus rhythm control. (
  • 100 . The method according to claim 96 , wherein administering the drug comprises administering a sinus rhythm maintenance drug. (
  • We propose that physiological properties of the parietal cortex, which can produce a unique brain rhythm at low beta (12 to 20 Hz), make this cortex an excellent candidate for a substrate of such a buffer. (
  • Beta rhythm reflects a balance between networks of nerve cells projecting from the cortex to other parts of the brain and spinal cord (i. (
  • 6Hz, although a recent report on the health effects of mobile phones and transmitters has warned that frequency levels of 16Hz interfere with the Beta rhythm of the human brain, and are particularly damaging for children. (
  • PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] -- To better understand the brain and to develop potential therapies, neuroscientists have been investigating how "beta" frequency brainwaves help the brain filter distractions to process sensations. (
  • The new insight, reported in the journal eLife , arose from the scientists looking beneath the covers of the typical practice of averaging beta brain wave data. (
  • The brain seemed to be flexibly modulating the expression of these beta events for optimal perception. (
  • The findings, made with consistency in humans and mice, can not only refine ongoing research into how beta waves arise and work in the brain, Jones said, but also provide guidance to clinicians as they develop therapies that seek to modulate beta waves. (
  • In the computational model all patterns of deep brain stimulation suppressed beta band oscillatory activity, and the degree of suppression was strongly correlated with the clinical efficacy across stimulation patterns. (
  • Pineda JA, Allison BZ, Vankov A. The effects of self-movement, observation, and imagination on mu rhythms and readiness potentials (RP's): toward a brain-computer interface (BCI). (
  • Measurements of brain wave power while animals waited to see a new image show distinct peaks in the beta frequency band in each region: About 11 Hz in visual cortex V4, 15 Hz in parietal cortex, and 19 in prefrontal cortex. (
  • Brain imaging reveals frequency-dependent lateralized rhythmic finger tapping control by the auditory cortex with left-lateralized control of relative fast and right-lateralized control of relative slow rhythms. (
  • Across species, tasks and recording modalities, the rate of transient neocortical beta frequency (15-29Hz) events strongly predicts perceptual ability, providing fundamental mechanistic insight, with implications for tracking and manipulating brain dynamics. (
  • Intraoperative human brain recordings during a memory task reveal that when participants inhibit memory formation, the subthalamic nucleus shows higher beta power and beta coherence with areas of the lateral cortex implicated in memory processing. (
  • The historical view of electro-/magneto-encephalography (EEG/MEG) measured alpha rhythms (7-14Hz) as a 'resting' brain state is being challenged by evidence that they are actively and topographically deployed to gate information processing. (
  • Beta wave, or beta rhythm, is a neural oscillation (brainwave) in the brain with a frequency range of between 12.5 and 30 Hz (12.5 to 30 cycles per second). (
  • Rhythms of the Brain. (
  • The researchers also saw a significant difference in alpha rhythm synchrony between the IFC on the left side of the brain (specifically the left inferior frontal sulcus, IFS) and the somatosensory cortex pertaining to the hand, which they speculate could be related to formulating the rules about whether suppress or attend to sensations. (
  • Brain rhythms are the most prominent signal measured noninvasively in humans with magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG). (
  • The scientific professions were slow in giving proper attention to Berger's discovery of the brain rhythms he named alpha waves, but since then at least three other standard brainwave patterns have been isolated and identified. (
  • Although the FDA has not specifically approved its use for other purposes, doctors sometimes prescribe atenolol (Tenormin) to treat irregular heart rhythms, performance anxiety such as stage fright, and to prevent migraine headaches. (
  • We show that cell assemblies shaped by this rhythm have the required properties of a WM buffer, allowing for robust yet manipulable representations of sensory stimuli. (
  • We show that the natural beta1 rhythm (12 to 20 Hz) of the PC provides a substrate for an episodic buffer that can synergistically combine executive commands (e.g., from PFC) and multimodal information into a flexible and updatable representation of recent sensory inputs. (
  • The mu rhythm has been documented on subdural recording of both sensory and motor cortex and shows the same characteristics as that seen on surface EEG, including distribution, morphology, and reactivity. (
  • However, allocation of these rhythms following an attentional cue, in anticipation of tactile sensory processing, has not been investigated. (
  • A central pattern generator (CPG) is defined as a neural network that does not require sensory input to generate a rhythm. (
  • Bursts of beta activity are associated with a strengthening of sensory feedback in static motor control and reduced when there is movement change. (
  • The primary sensory signals of vision , audition and touch pass through thalamus en route to cortex. (
  • The proposed algorithm in this paper uses a fully data-driven multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) in order to obtain the mu and beta rhythms from the nonlinear EEG signals. (
  • Antiarrhythmics work by slowing down the electrical signals in the heart so the heart can resume a regular rhythm. (
  • The grouping rule thus enables SSA to be adaptive to EEG signals containing different levels of artifacts and rhythms. (
  • Chi & Cauwenberghs (2010) developed a system using wireless non-contact EEG electrodes to collect EEG signals for the alpha rhythm extraction. (
  • Additionally, we examined the involvement of this beta signal relative to other neural signals such as the ERP components P2 and P3, which have been previously identified in reward processing and value computations. (
  • The decision-phase beta signal was preceded by the P2/P3b components, and all of these neural signals reliably dissociated the different reward and risk levels, suggesting the encoding of decision variables. (
  • Benzodiazepines, drugs that modulate GABAA receptors, induce beta waves in EEG recordings from humans and rats. (
  • The process occurs via period concatenation, with basic rhythm-generating microcircuits underlying gamma and beta2 rhythms forming the building blocks of the beta1 rhythm by a process of addition. (
  • A new DNA vaccine tested in mice significantly reduces tau and amyloid beta, two proteins implicated in Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Recent studies have demonstrated the disassociation between the mu and beta rhythms of electroencephalogram (EEG) during motor imagery tasks. (
  • This paper shows that the supplementary information of the power difference between mu and beta rhythms obtained using SUTCCSP provides an important feature for the classification of the left- and right-hand motor imagery tasks. (
  • Mu and beta rhythm topographies during motor imagery and actual movements. (
  • Figure 1A ) to assess the anatomical and functional specificity of alpha- and beta-band rhythms and their effects on the local excitability of sensorimotor neuronal ensembles during performance of a motor imagery task that offers a window into movement selection. (
  • Beta-cell deficit and increased beta-cell apoptosis in humans with type 2 diabetes. (
  • The research team, led by graduate student Hyeyoung Shin, acquired the data through a series of experiments in which they measured beta waves in the somatosensory neocortex of humans and mice in the second leading up to inducing (or not inducing) varying amounts of a tactile sensation. (
  • This is just one example of how rhythm could contribute to humans unique cognitive abilities. (
  • Despite the importance of understanding the underlying neural mechanisms creating these rhythms, relatively little is known about their in vivo origin in humans. (
  • A 10-second segment showing a well-formed and well-regulated alpha rhythm at 9 Hz. (
  • The contrast between the first and second halves of the page illustrates the reactivity of a normal alpha rhythm, with attenuation upon eye opening. (
  • At times, as shown here, the alpha rhythm can be identified only in very brief bursts and often immediately after eye closure. (
  • This is an example of an alpha rhythm with a wider distribution than is typical. (
  • The patient's alpha rhythm at 12 Hz is seen in the second half of the sample. (
  • For example, the alpha rhythm reflects attention demands and the beta rhythm reflects emotional and cognitive processes ( Rowland, Meile & Nicolaidis, 1985 ). (
  • The three non-regular patterns of stimulation that improved motor performance over regular stimulation also suppressed beta band oscillatory activity in the computational model more effectively than regular stimulation. (
  • Our results from healthy young adults (N = 31), showed a significant decrease in sensorimotor beta power during a decision phase without any motor response, in addition to an action phase when a response was made. (
  • Currently, heart rhythm medications are reserved for occasionally treating serious heart rhythm problems when they arise. (
  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and pacemakers are safer and better than drugs for the long-term treatment of serious heart rhythm problems. (
  • More people who must also be very carefully monitored if they take beta-blockers: Women who plan to become pregnant or breastfeed should not take this medication unless their doctors determine it is appropriate. (
  • Some people feel tired or feel dizzy or lightheaded when they take beta-blockers. (
  • A particularly good example, Shin said, was that in experiments where people were first instructed to focus on their foot, there was more beta power in the hand region of the neocortex. (
  • While the study helps to characterize the nature of beta in the somatosensory neocortex, it doesn't explain how it affects sensations, Jones acknowledged. (
  • Shin is already doing experiments to dissect how distinct neural subpopulations contribute to beta bursts and somatosensory detection, respectively. (
  • We detail the development and application of the model to study the spontaneous somatosensory mu-rhythm, containing mu-alpha (7-14 Hz) and mu-beta (15-29 Hz) components. (
  • Both rhythms displayed effector-specific modulations, tracked spectral markers of action potentials in the local neuronal population, and showed spatially systematic phase relationships (traveling waves). (
  • These observations indicate the relevance of both inhibition and disinhibition mechanisms for precise spatiotemporal coordination of movement-related neuronal populations, and illustrate how those mechanisms are implemented through the substantially different neurophysiological properties of sensorimotor alpha- and beta-band rhythms. (
  • A new Brown University study stands to substantially refine what they thought was going on: What really matters is not a sustained elevation in beta wave power, but instead the rate of specific bursts of beta wave activity, ideally with perfect timing. (
  • Confirming that mice model the human experience means researchers can rely on mice in experiments that delve more deeply into how beta bursts arise and what their consequence are in neurons and circuits. (
  • Alpha and beta power bursts, meanwhile, were anti-correlated with that same spiking activity. (
  • The researchers tracked the association of beta power with whether subjects accurately detected, or didn't detect, stimuli. (
  • Led by Raffaele Bugiardini, professor of cardiology at the University of Bologna (Bologna, Italy), researchers analysed the effects of beta blockers on men and women with hypertension and no history of cardiovascular disease after presenting with acute coronary syndromes. (
  • Researchers found that among the participants taking beta blockers women had a 4.6% higher rate of heart failure than men when presenting to the hospital with acute coronary syndrome. (
  • The heart rate monitors built into the Apple Watch and other wearable devices can detect abnormal heart rhythms with 97 percent accuracy, according to a new study conducted by the team behind the Cardiogram app for Apple Watch in conjunction with researchers at the University of California, San Francisco. (
  • Apple has been working with researchers at Stanford on its own study to determine whether the heart rate sensor in the Apple Watch can be used to detect abnormal heart rhythms and common heart conditions. (
  • Published in the August issue of CHEST , the peer-reviewed journal of the ACCP, the guidelines offer specific recommendations on cardiac pacing, anticoagulation therapy, pharmaceutical prophylaxis, intraoperative interventions, and pharmacologic control of ventricular rate and rhythm. (
  • Spontaneous beta waves are also observed diffusely in scalp EEG recordings from children with duplication 15q11.2-q13.1 syndrome (Dup15q) who have duplications of GABAA receptor subunit genes GABRA5, GABRB3, and GABRG3. (
  • For this reason, it is possible that, in certain clinical contexts, beta waves could be a general biomarker of GABAA receptor gene overexpression or otherwise aberrant GABAergic transmission. (
  • This specialty organization represents medical, allied health, and science professionals from more than 70 countries who specialize in cardiac rhythm disorders. (