High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Relating to the size of solids.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
A genus of aquatic fungi of the family Blastocladiaceae, order Blastocladiales, used in the study of zoospore formation.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.
Polonium. A radioactive element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Po, atomic number 84, and the atomic weight of the isotope with the longest half-life (209Po) is 208.98. It decays by alpha-emission.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.

Cellular effects of beta-particle delivery on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells: a dose-response study. (1/140)

BACKGROUND: Although endovascular radiotherapy inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, the exact cellular alterations induced by beta irradiation remain to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated in vitro the ability of 32P-labeled oligonucleotides to alter (1) proliferation of human and porcine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs), (2) cell cycle progression, (3) cell viability and apoptosis, (4) cell migration, and (5) cell phenotype and morphological features. beta radiation significantly reduced proliferation of VSMCs (ED50 1.10 Gy) and ECs (ED50 2.15 Gy) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to beta emission interfered with cell cycle progression, with induction of G0/G1 arrest in VSMCs, without evidence of cell viability alteration, apoptosis, or ultrastructural changes. This strategy also proved to efficiently inhibit VSMC migration by 80% and induce contractile phenotype appearance, as shown by the predominance of alpha-actin immunostaining in beta-irradiated cells compared with control cells. CONCLUSIONS: 32P-labeled oligonucleotide was highly effective in inhibiting proliferation of both VSMCs and ECs in a dose-dependent fashion, with ECs showing a higher resistance to these effects. beta irradiation-induced G1 arrest was not associated with cytotoxicity and apoptosis, thus demonstrating a potent cytostatic effect of beta-based therapy. This effect, coupled to that on VSMC migration inhibition and the appearance of a contractile phenotype, reinforced the potential of ionizing radiation to prevent neointima formation after angioplasty.  (+info)

Effects of intracoronary beta-radiation therapy after coronary angioplasty: an intravascular ultrasound study. (2/140)

BACKGROUND: Endovascular radiation is emerging as a potential solution for the prevention and treatment of restenosis. Its effects on the morphology of unstented vessels cannot be determined by angiography and therefore require the use of intravascular ultrasound. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a 5F noncentered catheter for delivery of a 90Sr/Y source train, 12, 14, or 16 Gy at 2 mm was delivered to native coronary arteries after successful balloon angioplasty in 30 patients. Four patients required stent deployment in the first week. Quantitative coronary angiography and IVUS were performed during the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up. Binary angiographic restenosis was present in 3 of 30 patients, with target lesion and vessel revascularization performed in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. Angiographic late loss was -0.02+/-0.60 mm, with a -0.09+/-0.46 loss index. IVUS demonstrated no significant reduction in lumen area (from 5.69+/-1.72 mm2 after treatment to 6. 04+/-2.63 mm2 at follow-up), with no significant change in external elastic membrane area (13.71+/-4.54 to 14.22+/-4.71 mm2) over the 6-month follow-up. Wall area was 8.01+/-3.85 mm2 after radiation therapy and 8.19+/-3.44 mm2 at follow-up (P=NS). No significant differences were noted between the different dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: beta-Radiation therapy resulted in a low restenosis rate with negligible late loss by angiography. By IVUS, beta-radiation was shown to inhibit neointima formation, with no reduction of total vessel area at 6-month follow-up.  (+info)

Bremsstrahlung radiation exposure from pure beta-ray emitters. (3/140)

With increasing therapeutic use of radionuclides that emit relatively high-energy (>1 MeV) beta-rays and the production in vivo of bremsstrahlung sufficient for external imaging, the potential external radiation hazard warrants evaluation. METHODS: The exposure from a patient administered beta-ray-emitting radionuclides has been calculated by extending the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement model of a point source in air to account for biologic elimination of activity, the probability of bremsstrahlung production in vivo and its mean energy and the absorption by the patient's body of the bremsstrahlung thus produced. To facilitate such calculations, a quantity called the "specific bremsstrahlung constant" (in C/kg-cm2/MBq-h), betaBr, was devised and calculated for several radionuclides. The specific bremsstrahlung constant is the bremsstrahlung exposure rate (in C/kg/h) in air at 1 cm from a 1 MBq beta-ray emitter of a specified maximum beta-ray energy and frequency of emission in a medium of a specified effective atomic number. RESULTS: For pure beta-ray emitters, the retained activities at which patients can be released from medical confinement (i.e., below which the effective dose equivalent at 1 m will not exceed the maximum recommended value of 0.5 cSv for infrequently exposed members of the general public) are extremely large: on the order of hundreds of thousands to millions of megabecquerels. CONCLUSION: Radionuclide therapy with pure beta-ray emitters, even high-energy beta-ray emitters emitted in bone, does not require medical confinement of patients for radiation protection.  (+info)

Geometric vascular remodeling after balloon angioplasty and beta-radiation therapy: A three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study. (4/140)

BACKGROUND: Endovascular radiation appears to inhibit intimal thickening after overstretching balloon injury in animal models. The effect of brachytherapy on vascular remodeling is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the evolution of coronary vessel dimensions after intracoronary irradiation after successful balloon angioplasty in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one consecutive patients treated with balloon angioplasty and beta-radiation according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial-1.5 were included in the study. Volumetric assessment of the irradiated segment and both edges was performed after brachytherapy and at 6-month follow-up. Intravascular ultrasound images were acquired by means of ECG-triggered pullback, and 3-D reconstruction was performed by automated edge detection, allowing the calculation of lumen, plaque, and external elastic membrane (EEM) volumes. In the irradiated segments, mean EEM and plaque volumes increased significantly (451+/-128 to 490.9+/-159 mm(3) and 201.2+/-59 to 241.7+/-74 mm(3); P=0.01 and P=0.001, respectively), whereas luminal volume remained unchanged (250.8+/-91 to 249.2+/-102 mm(3); P=NS). The edges demonstrated an increase in mean plaque volume (26.8+/-12 to 32. 6+/-10 mm(3), P=0.0001) and no net change in mean EEM volume (71. 4+/-24 to 70.9+/-24 mm(3), P=NS), resulting in a decrease in mean luminal volume (44.6+/-16 to 38.3+/-16 mm(3), P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A different pattern of remodeling is observed in coronary segments treated with beta-radiation after successful balloon angioplasty. In the irradiated segments, the adaptive increase of EEM volume appears to be the major contributor to the luminal volume at follow-up. Conversely, both edges showed an increase in plaque volume without a net change in EEM volume.  (+info)

Preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in coronary segments previously treated with balloon angioplasty and intracoronary irradiation. (5/140)

BACKGROUND: Abnormal endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion has been reported after balloon angioplasty (BA), as well as after intracoronary radiation. However, the long-term effect on coronary vasomotion is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term vasomotion of coronary segments treated with BA and brachytherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with single de novo lesions treated either with BA followed by intracoronary beta-irradiation (according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial-1.5) or with BA alone were eligible. Of these groups, those patients in stable condition who returned for 6-month angiographic follow-up formed the study population (n=19, irradiated group and n=11, control group). Endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion was assessed by selective infusion of serial doses of acetylcholine (ACh) proximally to the treated area. Mean luminal diameter was calculated by quantitative coronary angiography both in the treated area and in distal segments. Endothelial dysfunction was defined as a vasoconstriction after the maximal dose of ACh (10(-6) mol/L). Seventeen irradiated segments (89.5%) demonstrated normal endothelial function. In contrast, 10 distal nonirradiated segments (53%) and 5 control segments (45%) demonstrated endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction (-19+/-17% and -9.0+/-5%, respectively). Mean percentage of change in mean luminal diameter after ACh was significantly higher in irradiated segments (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Endothelium-dependent vasomotion of coronary segments treated with BA followed by beta-radiation is restored in the majority of stable patients at 6-month follow-up. This functional response appeared to be better than those documented both in the distal segments and in segments treated with BA alone.  (+info)

beta-Particle-emitting radioactive stent implantation. A safety and feasibility study. (6/140)

BACKGROUND: This study represents the Heart Center Rotterdam's contribution to the Isostents for Restenosis Intervention Study, a nonrandomized multicenter trial evaluating the safety and feasibility of the radioactive Isostent in patients with single coronary artery disease. Restenosis after stent implantation is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia. In animal studies, beta-particle-emitting radioactive stents decrease neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The radioisotope (32)P, a beta-particle emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days, was directly embedded into the Isostent. The calculated range of radioactivity was 0.75 to 1.5 microCi. Quantitative coronary angiography measurements were performed before and after the procedure and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 31 radioactive stents were used in 26 patients; 30 (97%) were successfully implanted, and 1 was embolized. Treated lesions were in the left anterior descending coronary artery (n=12), the right coronary artery (n=8), or the left circumflex coronary artery (n=6). Five patients received additional, nonradioactive stents. Treated lesion lengths were 13+/-4 mm, with a reference diameter of 2.93+/-0. 47 mm. Minimum lumen diameter increased from 0.87+/-0.28 mm preprocedure to 2.84+/-0.35 mm postprocedure. No in-hospital adverse cardiac events occurred. All patients received aspirin indefinitely and ticlopidine for 4 weeks. Twenty-three patients (88%) returned for 6-month angiographic follow-up; 17% of them had in-stent restenosis, and 13% had repeat revascularization. No restenosis was observed at the stent edges. Minimum lumen diameter at follow-up averaged 1.85+/-0.69 mm, which resulted in a late loss of 0.99+/-0. 59 mm and a late loss index of 0.53+/-0.35. No other major cardiac events occurred during the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The use of radioactive stents with an activity of 0.75 to 1.5 microCi is safe and feasible.  (+info)

Effects of intracoronary radiation on thrombosis after balloon overstretch injury in the porcine model. (7/140)

BACKGROUND: The main complications of PTCA remain thrombosis and restenosis. Recent studies have demonstrated reduction in the neointimal hyperplasia after intracoronary radiation (IR) with doses of 10 to 25 Gy of ionizing radiation delivered by either beta- or gamma-emitters to injured vessels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the thrombosis rate (TR) of injured porcine coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-four juvenile swine (63 coronary arteries) were subjected to overstretch balloon injury followed by IR with doses of 0 to 18 Gy of either beta- or gamma-radiation. Two weeks after treatment, tissue sections were perfusion-fixed, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Verhoeff-van Gieson's stain, and analyzed for presence of a thrombus, thrombus morphology, and neointima formation by computer-assisted histomorphometry techniques. Although the overall TR increased dose-dependently from 0 to 18 Gy prescribed dose, luminal thrombi decreased. Thrombus area also decreased with increasing radiation dose, whether assessed at the prescription point or at the luminal surface, which corresponded to decreased intimal area. Furthermore, luminal thrombi present after IR tended to consist mostly of fibrin and thus were less organized than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IR induces thrombosis but does not necessarily compromise the lumen. Strategies for reducing TR may further decrease intimal area as well as increasing the safety of this therapy.  (+info)

Short- and intermediate-term results of (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stent implantation in patients with coronary artery disease: The Milan Dose-Response Study. (8/140)

BACKGROUND: Radioactive (32)P beta-emitting stents have been shown to reduce intrastent neointimal hyperplasia in a substantial dose-related manner in the animal model. The aim of this dose-response study was to evaluate, in the clinical setting, the safety and efficacy at 6-month follow-up of this approach to reducing restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 122 (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stents (initially the Palmaz-Schatz and later the BX Isostent) with an activity level of 0.75 to 3.0 microCi (group 1), 3.0 to 6.0 microCi (group 2), and 6.0 to 12.0 microCi (group 3) were implanted in 91 lesions in 82 patients. There were no procedural events. At 6-month follow-up, no deaths had occurred, and only 1 patient had stent thrombosis. Pure intrastent binary restenosis was 16% in group 1, 3% in group 2, and 0% in group 3. However, intralesion restenosis was 52% in group 1, 41% in group 2, and 50% in group 3. CONCLUSIONS: The use of (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stents in patients with CAD is feasible. At 6-month follow-up, intrastent neointimal hyperplasia was reduced in a dose-related manner. However, in the 3 groups, intralesion restenosis was high because of a high late lumen loss in the reference segments at the stent edges, possibly as a result of a low activity level of radiation at the edges of the stent combined with an aggressive approach to stenting. We called this "edge effect" the "candy wrapper."  (+info)

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Definition of beta radiation in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is beta radiation? Meaning of beta radiation as a finance term. What does beta radiation mean in finance?
Other articles where Cerium-144 is discussed: poison: Local toxicities of common beta-particle emitters: …the isotopes strontium-90, iodine-131, and cerium-144 emit beta particles that are not distributed evenly in the body. Strontium-90 releases only beta particles, while iodine-131 and cerium-144 release both beta particles and gamma rays, but their toxicities are primarily caused by the beta particles. These radioisotopes produce toxicities in the tissues…
OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing intracoronary brachytherapy using Beta- irradiation (Beta-BT). BACKGROUND: Beta-BT is effective in reducing angiographic restenosis as well as target vessel revascularization (TVR) in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) after bare-metal stenting (BMS). METHODS: 81 consecutive patients undergoing Beta-BT for ISR (irradiated length 32 [32-54] mm) after BMS in native vessels (n = 79) or saphenous vein grafts (n = 2) between 2001 and 2003 were followed. Major cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and TVR occurring , 1 year or , 1 year were assessed 5.2 (4.4-5.6) years after the index procedure. RESULTS: During the entire follow-up period, the total MACE rate was 49.4%. Within the first year and at , 1 year, MACE rates were 25.9% and 23.5%, cardiac death occurred in 2.4% and 6.2%, and nonfatal MI in 6.2% and 12.3% for annual cardiac death/MI rates of 8.7% at 32 mm ...
Vienna; 2007 PMID 16971011 -- Randomized comparison between intracoronary beta-radiation brachytherapy and implantation of paclitaxel-eluting stents for the treatment of diffuse in-stent restenosis. (Schukro C, Radiother Oncol. 2007 Jan;82(1):18-23. Epub 2006 Sep 12.). F/U 6 months ...
Some materials give off radiation. We say that those substances are radioactive. Radioactive materials are often, though not always, hazardous to living things.. There are many different types of radioactive materials. Some emit particle radiation, like alpha or beta particles or neutron radiation. Some give off electromagnetic radiation, such as gamma rays or X-rays.. Most elements come in various versions, called isotopes, with different numbers of neutrons and slightly differing properties. In many cases, less-common isotopes of common substances are radioactive. For example, the rare isotope of carbon called carbon-14 is radioactive. It has 8 neutrons (instead of the usual 6) and radiates beta particles. When they emit radiation, radioactive substances undergo radioactive decay. The element may be transformed from one isotope to another, or may become a different element altogether. When carbon-14 decays by emitting a beta particle, it becomes nitrogen-14. Isotopes that do not decay are ...
An intraoperative probe system for preferentially detecting beta radiation over gamma radiation emitted from a radiopharmaceutical is described. In one embodiment, the probe system of the present invention is a probe having an ion-implanted silicon charged-particle detector for generating an electrical signal in response to received beta particles. In such an embodiment, a preamplifier may be located in close proximity to the detector filters and amplifies the electrical signal. Furthermore, a wire may be used to couple the probe to a processing unit for amplifying and filtering the electrical signal, and a counter may be utilized to analyze the resulting electrical signal to determine the number of beta particles being received by the detector. Alternatively, the wire can be replaced with an infrared or radio transmitter and receiver for wireless operation of the probe.
To further complicate the issue, different radioisotopes give off different kinds of radiation-alpha, beta, gamma, X ray, or neutron emissions-all of which behave differently. Alpha emitters, such as plutonium and radon, are intensely ionizing but dont penetrate very far and generally cant get through the dead layers of cells covering skin. But when they are inhaled from the air or ingested from radiation-contaminated food or water, they emit high-energy particles that can do serious damage to the cells of sensitive internal soft tissues and organs. The lighter, faster-moving beta particles can penetrate far more deeply than alpha particles, though sheets of metal and heavy clothing can block them. Beta particles are also very dangerous when inhaled or ingested. Strontium-90 and tritium, a radioactive form of hydrogen, are both beta emitters. Gamma radiation is a form of electromagnetic energy like X rays, and it passes through clothing and skin straight into the body. A one-inch shield of ...
Slide 8: What are three types of nuclear radiation?. Alpha decay. Beta decay. Gamma decay. Slide 9: What is an alpha particle?. An alpha particle is a postively charged particle that is emited from the nucleus of an atom.. Slide 10: What is a beta particle?. A beta particle is a high energy electron that is emiited from the nucleus of an atom. Slide 11: What is gamma radiation. Gamma radiation is high energy electromagnetic radiation.. What to do now?. 1. Animate the points in your slide 2. Answer the Summary Questions on a slide. ...
Among patients with in-stent restenosis, treatment with the RDX beta radiation balloon following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was associated with a reduction in the primary end point of MACE at nine months, and with a reduction in restenosis at nine-month angiographic follow-up. The reduction in MACE was driven almost exclusively by a reduction in TVR, with no difference observed in death or MI. Despite the positive results of the BRITE II trial, the presenter indicated the RDX system is not likely to reach the market, due to commercial consideration ...
Some materials give off radiation. We call those materials radioactive. Radioactive materials are often dangerous to people and other living things.. There are many different kinds of radioactive materials. Some give off particle radiation, like alpha or beta particles or neutron radiation. Some give off electromagnetic radiation, such as gamma rays or X-rays.. Most elements come in various versions, called isotopes. Some isotopes are radioactive. Other isotopes are not. Isotopes that are not radioactive are called stable isotopes. During radioactive decay, a radioactive isotope gives off some type of radiation. The isotope is transformed into a different isotope or sometimes into a different element. For example, carbon-14 is a rare isotope of carbon. Carbon-14 is radioactive. When a carbon-14 atom decays, it gives off a beta particle. The carbon-14 atom is transformed into a nitrogen atom.. Radioactive isotopes can be dangerous to living things. They can also cause damage to equipment ...
Principle of operation:Geiger Counter detects beta particles and gamma rays and X, called ionizing radiation, with great sensitivity. It has Beta particles, and ionization creat
These particles are negatively charged and largely deflected by magnetic and electric field. The speed of it is 50% of the speed of light but it can be inc
Feasibility of photoelectron sources for testing the energy scale stablity of the KATRIN beta-ray spectrometer - Nuclear Experiment. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The notes on beta spectra that accompany the table are excellent. The parameters, b LL (n), which express the beta-ray angular distributions, are given for first-forbidden transitions of a general interaction, STPVA, where we assume no interferences … principles of radioactive decay in Section 1.3 and we studied more in depth alpha decay in Section 3.3. discovered that more beta particles are always detected opposite the nuclear spin, breaking the … E. N. Fortson and L.L. We shall first summarize the experimental results together with their direct theoretical implications. After the discovery of parity violation in 1956, papers on this subject appeared in torrents. Having studied all of them, by the end of 1956, Sudarshan was convinced that if there was a Universal Fermi Interaction it had to include the axial vector interaction since the charged pion decay may be viewed as if it were beta decay … Lederman and M. Weinrich, Observation of the Failures of Conservation of Parity and Charge ...
To protect from beta radiation is more difficult than from alpha. If beta radiation is prevalent in the contaminated zone, then a shield of glass, aluminium sheet or plexiglass will be needed to protect the body from its harmful effects. To protect against beta radiation from the respiratory system, a normal respirator is no longer suitable. This requires a gas mask.. Being in a brick or concrete building, with tightly closed windows and doors, you will be relatively safe from these two kinds of radiation. The situation will be more complicated with gamma radiation.. ...
Beta attenuation monitoring (BAM) is a widely used air monitoring technique employing the absorption of beta radiation by solid particles extracted from air flow. This technique allows for the detection of PM10 and PM2.5, which are monitored by most air pollution regulatory agencies. The main principle is based on a kind of Bouguer (Lambert-Beer) law: the amount by which the flow of beta radiation (electrons) is attenuated by a solid matter is exponentially dependent on its mass and not on any other feature (such as density, chemical composition or some optical or electrical properties) of this matter. So, the air is drawn from outside of the detector through an infinite (cycling) ribbon made from some filtering material so that the particles are collected on it. There are two sources of beta radiation placed one before and one after the region where air flow passes through the ribbon leaving particles on it; and there are also two detectors on the opposite side of the ribbon, facing the ...
The Environmental Protection Agency recommends reverse osmosis water treatment to remove radioactive isotopes that emit beta-particle radiation. But iodine-131, a beta emitter, is typically present in water as a dissolved gas, and reverse osmosis is known to be ineffective at capturing gases. A combination of technologies, however, may remove most or [...]
Esco Frontier® Radioisotope™ Fume Hood is designed to be used when handling radioactive materials. This specialized fume hood is built with stainless steel internal surfaces (including the work surface) with coved seamless welded corners for easy cleaning and decontamination. Frontier® Radioisotope™ fume hoods have been engineered to provide maximum safety while using low level Alpha and lower level Beta particles. In addition, these hoods provide containment performance similar to that of high performance low velocity fume hoods.. ...
A metal stent for vascular implantation comprising a generally tubular structure whose external surface is adapted to engage the interior vascular surface when implanted, said metal of said stent containing a substantially uniform dispersion of from about 0.05 to about 10.00 percent by weight of one or more naturally occurring or enriched stable isotopes having a half-life of less than two months and that are principally beta particle emitters, so that when activated, said stent emits low to moderate dosages of radiation uniformly to reduce cell proliferation.
C a radioactive isotope of normal carbon (12C) emitting a weak beta particle. The half-life of 14C is 5,700 years. This radioisotope is extensively used as a tracer in molecular biology.. null ...
C a radioactive isotope of normal carbon (12C) emitting a weak beta particle. The half-life of 14C is 5,700 years. This radioisotope is extensively used as a tracer in molecular biology. ...
a) Beta decay - most common type of decay in lighter elements. It is caused when a nucleus has unstable neutron-proton ratio (based on Pauli exclusion principle). It has two variations, β- changes a neutron into a proton, and β+ changes a proton into a neutron - emitting beta particles(leptons) in both case. The number of particles in the nucleus stays the same, only the quantity of protons protons changes. Very similar to beta decay is the process of electron capture, which absorbs one of the atoms own inner electrons and changes one of its protons into a neutron ...
Beta decay definition. a radioactive process in which a beta particle is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, raising the atomic number of the atom by one if the particle is nega
22:27, 6 June 2020 ‎Radioluminescence (hist) ‎[2,263 bytes] ‎Mabus (Talk , contribs) (Created page with {{Stub}} Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or...) ...
Page 686 from E. Rutherford, The scattering of alpha and beta particles by matter and the structure of the atom, Philosophical Magazine, volume 21 (1911), pages 669-688. ...
The Model 43-65-1 is a plastic scintillator detector for measuring beta radiation. It has a 63 cm|sup|2|/sup| (9.8 in|sup|2|/sup|) active window area.
The Model 43-78-1 is a sample counter head with a plastic scintillator detector for measuring beta radiation. It can hold samples up to 12.7 cm (5 in.) dia.
ISO 21439:2009 specifies methods for the determination of absorbed-dose distributions in water or tissue that are required prior to initiating procedures for the application of beta radiation in ophthalmic tumour and intravascular brachytherapy]. Recommendations are given for beta-radiation source calibration, dosemetry measurements, dose calculation, dosemetric quality assurance, as well as for beta-radiation brachytherapy treatment planning. Guidance is also given for estimating the uncertainty of the absorbed dose to water. ISO 21439:2009 is applicable to sealed radioactive sources, such as plane and concave surface sources, source trains of single seeds, line sources, shell and volume sources, for which only the beta radiation emitted is of therapeutic relevance.. The standardization of procedures in clinical dosemetry described in ISO 21439:2009 serves as a basis for the reliable application of beta-radiation brachytherapy. The specific dosemetric methods described in ISO 21439:2009 apply ...
sources]. Typically, when radiation treatment is recommended for cancer patients, doctors are able to choose from several radiopharmaceuticals that use low-energy radiation particles, known as beta particles.. For years, scientists have been studying how to use alpha particles, which are radioactive particles that contain a large amount of energy, in cancer treatments.. The challenges to using alpha particles, which are more than 7,000 times heavier than beta particles, include confining the powerful alpha particles in a designated location inside the body while preventing radiation from wandering to healthy organs and tissues.. If you think of beta particles as slingshots or arrows, alpha particles would be similar to cannon balls, says J. David Robertson, director of research at the University of Missouri Research Reactor and professor of chemistry in the College of Arts and Science.. Scientists have had some successes using alpha particles recently, but nothing that can battle different ...
The amplitude of the electron spin resonance (ESR) peak at g = 2.0018 for hydroxyapatite of fossil tooth enamel can be used to measure the acquired radiation dose (AD) and thus the time (T) since burial of the tooth in a sediment. No significant fading or saturation occurs up to at least 1 Ma, permitting dating of middle Pleistocene deposits. AD is determined by the additive-dose method, using a sufficiently large modulation amplitude to avoid the interference of organic free radicals, and a logarithmic transformation of the ESR intensity to correct for saturation effects. AD increases through time as a result of (1) constant irradiation by U, K, and Th in the surrounding sediment and by cosmic rays; (2) external irradiation by beta particles from U in the dentine; and (3) alpha and beta particles from U in the enamel. We derive an expression for AD(T) taking into account (1) approach to equilibrium between U and its long-lived daughters; and (2) T-dependent (early or linear) uptake of U by ...
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium. In natural uranium and in uranium ore, 234U occurs as an indirect decay product of uranium-238, but it makes up only 0.0055% (55 parts per million) of the raw uranium because its half-life of just 245,500 years is only about 1/18,000 as long as that of 238U. The path of production of 234U via nuclear decay is as follows: 238U nuclei emit an alpha particle to become thorium-234. Next, with a short half-life, a 234Th nucleus emits a beta particle to become protactinium-234. Finally, 234Pa nuclei each emit another beta particle to become 234U nuclei.[17][18]. 234U nuclei usually last for hundreds of thousands of years, but then they decay by alpha emission to thorium-230, except for the small percentage of nuclei that undergo spontaneous fission. Extraction of rather small amounts of 234U from natural uranium would be feasible using isotope separation, similar to that used for regular uranium-enrichment. However, there is no real demand in chemistry, physics, ...
Glycogen, a highly branched polymer of glucose, functioning as a blood-glucose buffer. It comprises relatively small beta particles, which may be joined as larger aggregate alpha particles. The molecular size distributions from size-exclusion chromatography of liver glycogen from non-diabetic and diabetic mice show that diabetic mice have impaired alpha particle formation in liver glycogen, with diabetic mice unable to form as many large glycogen particles as non-diabetic controls. Glycogen structure is analysed during degradation by acid hydrolysis and by glycogen phosphorylase, from the size distributions, obtained using size-exclusion chromatography, of pig-liver glycogen and phytoglycogen as functions of time and size. These experiments show that alpha particles degrade via a different mechanism to that of the smaller beta particles, indicating a different type of chemical bonding (most likely proteinaceous). This shows that diabetic mice, which have been shown to lack the larger alpha ...
Introduction: The choice of optimal radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy depends on several factors, especially the radionuclide and antibody. The dosimetric characteristics of a non-internalizing and an internalizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) labeled with beta emitting radionuclides were investigated. Methods: Using Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo simulation, we carry out dosimetric calculations for different subcellular distributions of beta-emitting radionuclides; 131I, 177Lu, 64Cu, 186Re and 153Sm. Results:The dependency of theradialdose profiles on the energy spectra of electrons (beta particles and Auger and internal conversion electrons) and also their relative yield of emission is clear. The highest difference between the radionuclides tested was observed when the activity was localized in the nucleus. There was not considerable difference in the nucleus dose when radionuclides were localized in cytoplasm and over the cell membrane. Conclusion: There is a very significant increase in the dose deposited
To use 2-DG with such a scanner, however, it had to be tagged with a gamma-emitting isotope, rather than 14C. When radioactive isotopes decay, they give off alpha, beta, or gamma radiation, or positrons. (Alpha particles are protons and neutrons; beta particles are electrons; gamma radiation is light waves or photons; positrons are electron-sized particles that have a positive charge.) In a tracer substance containing a gamma-emitting isotope, positrons escape from the nuclei of the decaying radioactive atoms with a kinetic energy that drives them through the tissue. Moving through the tissue, they soon interact with the nearest negatively charged electrons. The two types of particles annihilate each other, and each collision produces two gamma rays. The two gamma rays move away from the point of annihilation with the speed of light in almost exactly opposite directions, at approximately 180 degrees with respect to each other. By placing two shielded detectors opposite each other in a line and ...
Next time youre waiting in the security line in an airport, why dont you pull out your smartphone and count all the radiation being emitted by those body scanners and x-rays? Theres an app for that, courtesy of Mr. [Rolf-Dieter Klein].. The app works by blocking all the light coming into a phones camera sensor with a piece of tape or plastic. Because high energy radiation will cause artifacts on the CMOS camera sensor inside the phone, radiation will be captured as tiny specks of white light. The title picture for this post was taken from a camera phone at the Helmholtz Research Center in Munich being bathed in 10 Sieverts per hour of Gamma radiation from the decay of Cesium-137.. We have to note that blips of bad data from a CMOS camera sensor arent unusual. These can come from electrical weirdness in the sensor itself or even the heat from the battery. [Rolf]s app takes a reading of the noise floor and subtracts it from the counter. Radioactive decay resulting in Beta particles such as ...
Instead of generating current by absorbing electrons at the outermost layer of a thin sheet, surfaces deep within these porous silicon wafers accommodate a much larger amount of incoming radiation. In early tests, nearly all electrons emitted during the tritiums beta decay were absorbed. There were a number of practical reasons for selecting tritium as the source of energy, says co-author Larry Gadeken of BetaBatt - particularly safety and containment. Tritium emits only low energy beta particles (electrons) that can be shielded by very thin materials, such as a sheet of paper, says Gadeken. The hermetically-sealed, metallic BetaBattery cases will encapsulate the entire radioactive energy source, just like a normal battery contains its chemical source so it cannot escape. Even if the hermetic case were to be breached, adds Gadeken, the source material the team is developing will be a hard plastic that incorporates tritium into its chemical structure. Unlike a chemical paste, the plastic ...
Liquid scintillation counting (LS Counting) is a laboratory-based technique that uses a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) to count the radioactive emissions from a liquid sample. It is often used in the biological sciences to measure the uptake of radioactive isotopes into biological materials. The different forms of an element are called isotopes.. For instance, the nucleus of the element phosphorus has 15 protons but it may contain differing numbers of neutrons. If it has 13 neutrons it is called 28P (15 + 13 = 28) and if it has 19 neutrons it is called 34P. In fact phosphorus exists as 7 different isotopes:. 28P, 29P, 30P, 31P,32P, 33P, 34P. 31P is the most abundant form and is stable whereas the other isotopes may be unstable and emit radioactivity. In the case of 32P, a beta particle is emitted.. LSC is a method of counting radioactive emissions from a limited range of radionuclides. The common isotopes used include:. ...
Medical definition of iron-59: a heavy radioisotope of iron that has a mass number of 59 and a half-life of 45.1 days, emits beta particles and gamma…
Radioactive elements such as uranium and barium, release excess energy in the form of particles or waves. Alpha particles, Beta particles, and gamma r...
Characterization of the Water-Equivalence of Phantom Materials for Sr-90/Y-90 Beta Particles Using the Novoste Beta-CathTM System ...
A paper by Oksyuk and Gerasimenko says that effect 2 is normally the important one.. From Linear Christmass answer, we know that in the case of $\ce{^14C}$ decay, which has an unusually low energy, there is a fairly small but still appreciable probability of breaking the bond, and this is presumably caused by one or more of the above processes.. For process 1, it certainly isnt safe to assume that its negligible because the electron leaves the molecule so quickly. If this were true, then beta particles wouldnt produce ionization when they came along from the outside and hit atoms. Although the time-scale for the electron to exit is short, its electromagnetic fields are intense. By the way, the motion of this electron is not insanely fast compared to the velocities of the other electrons. It has a typical velocity in this decay of about $0.5c$, which could be compared to an estimate of $Zc/137\approx 0.04c$ for an inner-shell electron in carbon.. To estimate process 1, lets use the mean rate ...
Landing an aircraft is a high precision job. A pilot and co pilot with the help of air traffic control must do this job meticulously every time .They are not afford to make any mistake .Number of lives are at stake. In cath lab something similar happens every day although a single life is…
Inclusions are considered to be nonliving components of the cell that do not possess metabolic activity and are not bounded by membranes. The most common inclusions are glycogen, lipid droplets, crystals and pigments.[1] Glycogen: Glycogen is the most common form of glucose in animals and is especially abundant in cells of muscles, and liver. It appears in electron micrograph as clusters, or rosette of beta particles that resemble ribosomes, located near the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.[1] Glycogen is an important energy source of the cell; therefore, it will be available on demand. The enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis degrade glycogen into individual molecules of glucose and can be utilized by multiple organs of the body.[2][3] Lipids: Lipids are triglycerides in storage form is the common form of inclusions, not only are stored in specialized cells (adipocytes) but also are located as individuals droplets in various cell type especially hepatocytes.[1] These are fluid at body ...
Iodine-131, for example, can be ingested into the thyroid, where it emits beta particles (electrons) that damage tissue. A plague of damaged thyroids has already been reported among as many as 40 percent of the children in the Fukushima area. That percentage can only go higher. In developing youngsters, it can stunt both physical and mental growth. Among adults it causes a very wide range of ancillary ailments, including cancer ...
Question 3: Nickel-56 is produced in large quantities in type Ia supernovae and the shape of the light curve of these supernovae corresponds to the decay via beta radiation of nickel-56 to ________-56 and then to iron-56. ...
Beta particle is emitted when a heavy element decays with atomic number of above 82 decays. Alpha radiation reduces the ratio of protons to neutrons in the parent nucleus. A beta particle is emitted when there is too many neutrons, a neutron decays into a proton, an electron and an antineutrino. Difference between nuclear fission reaction and natural radioactive decay: The fission of a nucleus involves splitting it into two more or less equal fragments. For example uranium, in which it yields two or more lighter nuclei and a large amount of energy. If an atom of U- 235 is given sufficient energy through the absorption of one neutron, it enters an excited state and begins to oscillate. ...
We have previously shown that in situ beta radiation prevents recanalization after coil embolization.1 This process seems to occur soon after coil implantation into canine arteries, and if recanalization is inhibited for 3 weeks, arteries remain occluded at 3 months.1 We thus limited the period of observation to 4 weeks for most animals of the present experiments. The coil arterial occlusion model is simple and reliable. Multiple devices (up to 6) can be compared within the same animal. Coil occlusions routinely recanalize, and, as such, this model is well suited to evaluate coil modification strategies designed to inhibit recanalization. This model is not subject to variations of residual flow found after embolization at the neck of aneurysmal models, which can confuse follow-up results.. The present study emphasizes the strength of the recanalization process after coil occlusion of canine arteries, which occurred routinely regardless of coil caliber, coil length, resulting packing density, and ...
An electron microscopic study was performed on a conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in an 82-year-old man. Biopsies were taken before and during beta-irradiation and the morphologic features of nonirradiated tumor cells were compared to those after application of 10,000 rad. There occur striking changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm after irradiation. The nuclei show hypertrophic and electron-dense nucleoli as well as altered chromatin structures. The cytoplasm of many cells appears destroyed and contains numerous vacuole-like structures, as well as swollen mitochondria. It is of interest that numerous normal lymphoid cells were present within the irradiated tumor.
This study is the first to show that platelet activation is increased by the brachytherapy currently applied in clinical practice. A notable increase was found after brachytherapy compared with PCI without irradiation. We have previously identified increased platelet activation after conventional PCI as an independent risk factor for acute ischaemic events.20 The data on radiation delivery devices submitted for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval showed that patients treated with radiation benefit from a reduction in recurrent stenosis but also have the disadvantage of an increased rate of thrombotic events.192324 Thrombotic occlusions are associated with increased mortality after PCI21 and an increased risk of myocardial infarctions after VBT.1419232526 The increase in platelet activation after brachytherapy is not suppressed by concomitant treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. Both drugs were given to all 23 patients three to four weeks before elective brachytherapy. In the group ...
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus. During those processes, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay.[1] These emissions are considered ionizing radiation because they are powerful enough to liberate an electron from another atom. The radioactive decay can produce a stable nuclide or will sometimes produce a new unstable radionuclide which may undergo further decay. Radioactive decay is a random process at the level of single atoms: it is impossible to predict when one particular atom will decay.[2][3][4][5] However, for a collection of atoms of a single element the decay rate, and thus the half-life (t1/2) for that ...
Yes, energy is released in this reaction even though the total amount of nucleons in the two new atoms are still the same. Why? Well, the textbook says that when an element transmutates, energy is released in three forms: gamma radiation, the kinetic energy of the alpha or beta particle, and the kinetic energy of the new element. In addition, gamma radiation is massless energy. So if the radium particle emitted gamma rays, its mass would not be affected, even though energy was released ...
The findings of this study imply that improper energy flow during the tennis serve can decrease ball velocity, increase upper limb joint kinetics, and thus increase overuse injuries of the upper limb joints.
We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the diagnosis of chronic Achilles tendinosis (degenerative changes) with a long duration of symptoms despite conventional nonsurgical treatment. Calf muscle strength and the amount of pain during activity (recorded on a visual analog scale) were measured before onset of training and after 12 weeks of eccentric training. At week 0, all patients had Achilles tendon pain not allowing running activity, and there was significantly lower eccentric and concentric calf muscle strength on the injured compared with the noninjured side. After the 12-week training period, all 15 patients were back at their preinjury levels with full running activity. There was a significant decrease in pain during activity, and the calf muscle strength on the injured side had increased significantly and did not differ significantly from that of the noninjured ...
Well-type re-entrant ionization chamber calibrations are performed for High Dose Rate (HDR) 192Ir, Low Dose Rate (LDR) Sources (see Brachytherapy Manufacturers), Intravascular Brachytherapy (IVBT) (Novoste), and Electronic Brachytherapy Sources (EBT ...
John Mignano, MD, PhD, brings his expertise as a radiation oncologist to the Boston Gamma Knife Center team. A board-certified member of the American Board of Radiology, Dr. Mignano trained at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and at Tufts Medical Center. His special areas of interest include brain tumors and intravascular brachytherapy. Dr. Mignano is co-medical director of the Boston Gamma Knife Center ...
The Centers individualized, patient-focused care and expertise make it a unique regional resource for healthcare providers and their patients with complex cardiac diseases-and it has one of the lowest mortality rates in the country, at rates 71 percent lower than the national average. The Angioplasty Center is also the only hospital in the tri-state area and one of only 20 centers nationwide to offer a procedure called coronary brachytherapy.. Brachytherapy is an intervention for stent restenosis, which occurs in less than 10 percent of procedures with the newer medicated stents. In these rare cases, scar tissue forms in the artery after an angioplasty, creating a new blockage.. Jeffersons cardiologists were among the first in the world to perform brachytherapy. Jefferson was a participating center and the national core angiography laboratory for the Beta-Cath device, a temporary catheter inserted in the coronary artery that delivers short bursts of beta-radiation to an area only a few ...
Tritium paint has been utilized around the hands and numerals of watches because the 1930s. Initially fraxel treatments was Key and limited to experience military watches.. Tritium paint on watches is a combination of tritium and phospor. Tritium is of course radio-active and requires no exterior light or charge to operate. Tritium doesnt glow. Because it decays, tritium emits beta radiation, that are several excited electrons that consequently excite the electron within the phosphor atoms which makes them emit photons, or light. Because they go back to their ground (non-excited) condition, the phosphor glows. Phosphor may also be excited by Ultra violet sunlight or any other light sources. Thus, the tritium paint depends on tritium radioactivity to help make the phosphor glow at nighttime, no charge from exterior source of light.. Tritium, includes a half existence of 12.three years, one half-existence is just the time that it takes 1 / 2 of the tritium to decay. In order lengthy as theres ...
The patient with a hip fracture will have pain over the outer upper thigh or in the groin. There will be significant discomfort with any attempt to flex or rotate the hip.. If the bone has been weakened by disease (such as a stress injury or cancer), the patient may notice aching in the groin or thigh area for a period of time before the break. If the bone is completely broken, the leg may appear to be shorter than the noninjured leg. The patient will often hold the injured leg in a still position with the foot and knee turned outward (external rotation). ...
At three-year follow-up target lesion revascularisation was significantly less in the 192Ir group (15.4% vs 48.3%; P ,0.01). The dichotomous restenosis rate at 3 years was also significantly less in 192Ir patients (33% vs 64%; P ,0.05). No events occurred at either the 6 months or 3 year follow-up to suggest an adverse effect of vascular radiotherapy. ...
free download. RadiationHelper RadiationHelper is a data analysis tool for : 1. gross alpha and beta radiation measurement and...
ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTOR 1.) A very sensitive detector for the presence of certain classes of molecules, most notably chlorine-containing molecules. It is based on a steady current produced by a long-lived beta-emitter and the measurable perturbations in that current caused by the presence of small quantities of molecules that scavenge or capture the electrons. 2.) A detector for electron capture decay ...
These chambers often have an end window made of material thin enough, such as mylar, so that beta particles can enter the gas ... gamma rays and beta particles. Conventionally, the term "ionization chamber" is used exclusively to describe those detectors ... The beta end window limits the differential pressure from atmospheric pressure that can be tolerated, and common materials are ... The chamber of the integral instrument is generally at the front of the case facing downwards, and for beta/gamma instruments ...
For alpha particles, low energy beta particles, and low energy X-rays, the usual form is a cylindrical end-window tube. This ... It is used for the detection of gamma radiation, X-rays, and alpha and beta particles. It can also be adapted to detect ... Alpha particles are also attenuated by the window. As alpha particles have a maximum range of less than 50 mm in air, the ... Normally when a particle ionizes gas atoms, complete ionization of the gas occurs. But for a low energy particle, it is ...
The electron or positron emissions are called beta particles. Beta decay either increases or decreases the atomic number of the ... Electrons, like other particles, have properties of both a particle and a wave. The electron cloud is a region inside the ... Each particle of matter has a corresponding antimatter particle with the opposite electrical charge. Thus, the positron is a ... Particle Data Group (2002). "The Particle Adventure". Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Archived from the original on 4 January ...
... much more so than heavier particles. Beta particle tracks are therefore crooked. In addition to producing secondary electrons ( ... Electrons produced in nuclear decay are called beta particles. Because of their low mass relative to atoms, they are strongly ... The transfer of energy from an uncharged primary particle to charged secondary particles can also be described by using the ... and the heavier nuclei called HZE ions found in cosmic rays or produced by particle accelerators. These particles cause ...
It decays by emitting beta (β) particles and gamma (γ) radiation. About 96% of 192Ir decays occur via emission of β and γ ... Some of the β particles are captured by other 192Ir nuclei, which are then converted to 192Os. Electron capture is responsible ...
... with special reference to counting alpha and beta particles. CUP Archive. p. 68. The Electrician. 128. Feb 13, 1942. Missing or ... beta }{1-\beta }}\right]} We are taking values of R, C and β such that we get a symmetrical square wave. Thus, we get T1 = T2 ... beta V_{\text{sat}}} − β V sat = − V sat + ( V d + V sat ) e − T / R C {\displaystyle -\beta V_{\text{sat}}=-V_{\text{sat}}+(V ... beta V_{sat}=V_{sat}(1-[\beta +1]e^{\tfrac {-T1}{RC}})} Upon solving, we get: T 1 = R C ln ⁡ [ 1 + β 1 − β ] {\displaystyle T1= ...
Particles with 0.1 < β < 0.5 {\displaystyle 0.1<\beta < 1 {\displaystyle \beta ... Particles with β ≥ 0.5 {\displaystyle \beta \geq 0.5} have radiation pressure at least half as strong as gravity, and will pass ... Radiation pressure affects the effective force of gravity on the particle: it is felt more strongly by smaller particles, and ... and the radiation pressure is no longer isotropic in the particle's reference frame. If the particle rotates slowly, the ...
SRPRB: Signal recognition particle receptor subunit beta. *TM4SF1: Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 1 ...
a beta particle (e− or e+). *sound intensity. *velocity divided by the speed of light in special relativity ... Beta B. β. {\displaystyle \mathrm {B} \,\beta }. Β β Zeta Z. ζ. {\displaystyle \mathrm {Z} \,\zeta }. Ζ ζ Lambda Λ. λ. {\ ... Β represents the beta function. *. β. {\displaystyle \beta }. represents: *the thermodynamic beta, equal to (kBT)−1, where kB ... A hypothetical particle Ϝ speculated to be implicated in the 750 GeV diphoton excess, now known to be simply a statistical ...
Rodejohann, Werner (2011). "Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay and Particle Physics". International Journal of Modern Physics. E20 ... Neutrinoless double beta decay, which has not yet been observed, can be viewed as two beta decay events with the produced ... "New Particle Is Both Matter and Antimatter". Scientific American. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. He, Qing Lin; Pan, ... Because particles and antiparticles have opposite conserved charges, Majorana fermions have zero charge. All of the elementary ...
Beta Particles". US Environmental Protection Agency. UEA. Retrieved 7 November 2014. Barrens, Richard E. "Beta Particles and ... From there certain particles can cause ionization. The ionizing particles are alpha particles (a type of ionizing radiation ... beta particles (subatomic particles ejected from the nucleus of some radioactive atoms that are equivalent to electrons), gamma ... "Radiation: Alpha Particles". US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. Retrieved 7 November 2014. "Radiation: ...
For alpha particles and low energy beta particles, the "end-window" type of G-M tube has to be used as these particles have a ... particularly with high energy beta particles. However, for discrimination between alpha and beta particles or provision of ... Particle detection of alpha and beta can used in both integral and two-piece designs. A pancake probe (for alpha/beta) is ... It detects ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays using the ionization effect produced in a ...
The second important effect is caused by the high energy beta particles. These are constantly being created by the radioactive ... while above the atmosphere it is due to the action of high-energy beta particles released from the decaying bomb debris. At ... causing them to ionize while slowing the beta down. Each beta can thus cause multiple ionizations, as well as being a free ... The particles penetrate the atmosphere to a depth depending on their energy: Two of these effects are particularly notable. The ...
The production of beta particles is termed beta decay. They are designated by the Greek letter beta (β). There are two forms of ... Typical ionizing subatomic particles from radioactivity include alpha particles, beta particles and neutrons. Almost all ... turning that electron into a beta particle (secondary beta particle) that will ionize many other atoms. Since most of the ... There are special plastic shields that stop beta particles, and air will stop most alpha particles. The effectiveness of a ...
Beta particles emitted from the isotopic sample transfer energy to the solvent molecules: the π cloud of the aromatic ring ... It is generally used for alpha and beta particle detection. Samples are dissolved or suspended in a "cocktail" containing a ... "Cerenkov counting technique for beta particles: advantages and limitations". J. Chem. Educ., August 1983, 60 (8), 682-684. doi: ... High-energy beta emitters, such as phosphorus-32, can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the cocktail, instead ...
X-rays and beta particles. Soft radiation Ultrasoft radiation "hardness of x-rays". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-05-21 ...
Examples of low penetrating radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and low-energy photons. This dose quantity is used ... The sievert is used only to convey the fact that a gray of absorbed alpha particles would cause twenty times the biological ... Radiation fluence is the number of radiation particles impinging per unit area per unit time, kerma is the ionising effect of ... 31 May 2013). "Measurements of Energetic Particle Radiation in Transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory". Science. 340 ( ...
... like alpha and beta rays. Rutherford initially believed that they might be extremely fast beta particles, but their failure to ... In certain cases, the excited nuclear state that follows the emission of a beta particle or other type of excitation, may be ... However, they are less ionising than alpha or beta particles, which are less penetrating. Low levels of gamma rays cause a ... Because a beta decay is accompanied by the emission of a neutrino that also carries a varying amount of energy away, the beta ...
When the beta active nuclides (e.g., krypton-85 or argon-39) emit beta particles, they excite their own electrons in the narrow ... The diameter of the dust particles is so small (a few micrometers) that the electrons from the beta decay leave the dust ... The advantage of this design is that precision electrode assemblies are not needed, and most beta particles escape the finely- ... This permits a nearly lossless emission of beta electrons from the emitting dust particles. The electrons then excite the gases ...
Wilson, C.T.R. (1925). "The acceleration of beta-particles in strong electric fields such as those of thunderclouds". ... Ice or water particles then accumulate charge as in a Van de Graaff generator. Researchers at the University of Florida found ... Some high energy cosmic rays produced by supernovas as well as solar particles from the solar wind, enter the atmosphere and ... enormous quantity of pulverized material and gases explosively ejected into the atmosphere creates a dense plume of particles. ...
The first beta decays are rapid and may release high energy beta particles or gamma radiation. However, as the fission products ... many of them quickly undergo beta decay. This releases additional energy in the form of beta particles, antineutrinos, and ... Thus in the 50.5 days it takes half the 89Sr atoms to decay, emitting the same number of beta particles as there were decays, ... Fission products emit beta radiation, while actinides primarily emit alpha radiation. Many of each also emit gamma radiation. ...
C-14 undergoes beta decay giving non-radioactive nitrogen and high energy beta particles. 614C → 714N + −10β These beta ... This can be restated in terms of band theory by saying that due to the high energy of the beta particles, electrons in the ... C-14 has been chosen as the source of radioactivity mainly because its beta particle radiation is easily absorbed by any solid ... "Nuclear Reactions/Beta Decay". libretexts.org. libretexts.org. "Flash Physics: Nuclear diamond battery, M G K Menon dies, four ...
The electron or positron emissions are called beta particles. Beta decay either increases or decreases the atomic number of the ... Subatomic particles. Main article: Subatomic particle. Though the word atom originally denoted a particle that cannot be cut ... or the kinetic energy of a beta particle), as described by Albert Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula, E. =. m. c. 2. {\ ... Electrons, like other particles, have properties of both a particle and a wave. The electron cloud is a region inside the ...
Note that 90Sr/Y is almost a pure beta particle source; the gamma photon emission from the decay of 90Y is so infrequent that ...
234Th then decays through beta particle emission to protactinium-234 (234Pa)). This decays with a half-life of 6.7 hours, again ... through emission of a beta particle, to 234U. This isotope has a half-life of about 245,000 years. The next decay product, ... 238U, with a half-life of about 4.5 billion years, decays to 234U through emission of an alpha particle to thorium-234 (234Th ... in which 238U undergoes 14 alpha and beta decay events on the way to the stable isotope 206Pb. Other dating techniques using ...
EPA has issued standards for alpha particles, beta particles and photon emitters, radium and uranium. EPA proposed regulations ...
This concentrated central mass and charge is responsible for deflecting both alpha and beta particles. The mass of heavy atoms ... For concreteness, consider the passage of a high speed α particle through an atom having a positive central charge N e, and ... Rutherford designed an experiment to use the alpha particles emitted by a radioactive element as probes to the unseen world of ... From purely energetic considerations of how far particles of known speed would be able to penetrate toward a central charge of ...
Rutherford, Ernest (1911). The scattering of alpha and beta particles by matter and the structure of the atom. Taylor & Francis ... lithium into alpha particles by bombardment with protons from a particle accelerator they had constructed. Rutherford realized ... Continuing his research in Canada, he coined the terms alpha ray and beta ray in 1899 to describe the two distinct types of ... Rutherford was inspired to ask Geiger and Marsden in this experiment to look for alpha particles with very high deflection ...
Because of their continuous energy distribution and greater range, beta particles cannot form distinct rings.) The final ... One explanation is that the discolouration is caused by alpha particles emitted by the nuclei; the radius of the concentric ... shells are proportional to the particle's energy (Henderson & Bateson 1934). Uranium-238 follows a sequence of decay through ...
During the process of radioactive decay, a beta particle will be released. While this particle travels in the medium, the ... For instance, the decay of a Tritium atom releases a beta particle. Tritium is highly recommended as it suits SPA very well. It ... The energy of these particles influences the distance travelled by the particles itself through a medium such as water. This ... So, when the ß-particle is within that particular range of 1.5 µm with the scintillant bead, there is sufficient energy to ...
In this case, the Rayleigh scattering intensity for a single particle is given in CGS-units by[16] I. =. I. 0. 8. π. 4. α. 2. λ ... displaystyle \alpha _{\text{scat}}={\frac {8\pi ^{3}}{3\lambda ^{4}}}n^{8}p^{2}kT_{\text{f}}\beta }. ... The fraction of light scattered by a group of scattering particles is the number of particles per unit volume N times the cross ... The particle, therefore, becomes a small radiating dipole whose radiation we see as scattered light. The particles may be ...
The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle. The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to ... The VP35 protein directly inhibits the production of interferon-beta.[95] By inhibiting these immune responses, EBOV may ... As with all filoviruses, ebolavirus virions are filamentous particles that may appear in the shape of a shepherd's crook, of a ... Airborne transmission among humans is theoretically possible due to the presence of Ebola virus particles in saliva, which can ...
Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has keratolytic properties.[ ... Particles that release nitric oxide into the skin to decrease skin inflammation caused by C. acnes and the immune system have ...
high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. Biological process. • lipid ... A critical role for nuclear liver X receptors alpha and beta". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 31900-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202993200. ... very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. ...
Odd-odd primordial nuclides are rare because most odd-odd nuclei are highly unstable with respect to beta decay, because the ... However, Perey noticed decay particles with an energy level below 80 keV. Perey thought this decay activity might have been ... Caesium-137 undergoes high-energy beta decay and eventually becomes stable barium-137. It is a strong emitter of gamma ... free to beta decay toward the lowest-mass nuclide. An effect of the instability of an odd number of either type of nucleons is ...
Known instances of nuclear reactions, aside from producing energy, also produce nucleons and particles on readily observable ... "Whatever happened to cold fusion?", American Scholar, Phi Beta Kappa Society, 63 (4): 527-541, ISSN 0003-0937, retrieved 25 ... Price, PB; Barwick, SW; Williams, WT; Porter, JD (1989), "Search for energetic-charged-particle emission from deuterated Ti and ... the study of particles reportedly emitted from deuterated foils using state-of-the-art apparatus and methods. The reviewers ...
At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature ... virus-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes associated with TGF-beta, TNF-alpha and NK cells activity". Virology. 345 (1): 22-30. ... form, so is denoted as precursor M (prM) and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi ...
The concepts of the Rydberg formula can be applied to any system with a single particle orbiting a nucleus, for example a He+ ... ", "H-beta", "H-gamma" and so on, where H is the element hydrogen.[9] Four of the Balmer lines are in the technically "visible ...
displaystyle \beta =-}. 1. {\displaystyle 1}. ∂. V. {\displaystyle \partial V}. V. {\displaystyle V}. ∂. p. {\displaystyle \ ... heat will be found to consist in the living force of the particles of the bodies in which it is induced;. , Lecture on Matter, ...
M cells within the Peyer's patches physically transport the insoluble whole glucan particles into the gut-associated lymphoid ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... 1995). "Plasma (13)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes". Lancet. 345 ( ... In general, β-1,3 linkages are created by 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase, and β-1,4 linkages are created by cellulose synthase. The ...
The non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is ubiquitously produced by cyanobacteria in marine, ... Plastic particle water pollution. *Point source pollution. *Shutdown of thermohaline circulation. *Silver nanoparticles ...
... dengan didominasi emisi partikel beta dan kadang-kadang alfa, dan 228Ac, yang beta aktif dengan waktu paruh 6,15 jam. Satu ton ... 2004). "Alpha-particle emitting atomic generator (Actinium-225)-labeled trastuzumab (herceptin) targeting of breast cancer ... Mengingat jumlah yang tersedia rendah, energi partikel beta-nya juga rendah (maksimum 44,8 keV), dan intensitas radiasi alfanya ... Ia meluruh sesuai waktu paruhnya (21,772 tahun) dengan memancarkan mayoritas partikel beta (98,62%) dan beberapa partikel alfa ...
In contrast, however, if LDL particle number is low (mostly large particles) and a large percentage of the HDL particles are ... The role of cholesterol in such endocytosis can be investigated by using methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) to remove cholesterol ... Since higher blood LDL, especially higher LDL particle concentrations and smaller LDL particle size, contribute to this process ... Conditions with elevated concentrations of oxidized LDL particles, especially "small dense LDL" (sdLDL) particles, are ...
displaystyle {\boldsymbol {\beta }}=(\beta _{1},\,\beta _{2},\,\beta _{3})={\frac {1}{c}}(v_{1},\,v_{2},\,v_{3})={\frac {1}{c ... The four-velocity of a particle is defined by: U. =. d. X. d. τ. =. d. X. d. t. d. t. d. τ. =. γ. (. u. ). (. c. ,. u. ). ,. {\ ... where P is the power transferred to move the particle, and f is the 3-force acting on the particle. For a particle of constant ... beta _{i}\beta _{j}}{\beta ^{2}}}+\delta _{ij}=(\gamma -1){\dfrac {v_{i}v_{j}}{v^{2}}}+\delta _{ij},\\\end{aligned}}\,\!}. ...
Meyer F, Heilmeyer LM Jr, Haschke RH, Fischer EH (Dec 1970). "Control of phosphorylase activity in a muscle glycogen particle. ... Jul 1994). "The design of potential antidiabetic drugs: experimental investigation of a number of beta-D-glucose analogue ...
Alpha α · Beta β (2β, β+) · K/L capture · Isomeric (Gamma γ · Internal conversion) · Spontaneous fission · Cluster decay · ... Differential cross-section (non-identical particles in a coulomb potential): d. σ. d. Ω. =. (. 1. n. ). d. N. d. Ω. =. (. α. 4 ... Differential cross-section (for identical particles in a coulomb potential, in centre of mass frame): d. σ. d. Ω. =. (. α. 4. E ... Particle Physics (3rd ed.). Manchester Physics Series, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-03294-7. .. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
... similar to beta particles). Of the nuclei, about 90% are simple protons (i.e., hydrogen nuclei); 9% are alpha particles, ... high-energy particles originating outside the solar system, and solar energetic particles, high-energy particles (predominantly ... These particles as well as muons can be easily detected by many types of particle detectors, such as cloud chambers, bubble ... Extensive air shower arrays made of particle detectors measure the charged particles which pass through them. EAS arrays can ...
In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... Photoanomerization with UV light allows for inversion about the 1' anomeric centre to give the correct beta stereochemistry; ... Powner MW, Sutherland JD (2008). "Potentially prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidine beta-D-ribonucleotides by photoanomerization/ ...
19S regulatory particleEdit. The 19S particle in eukaryotes consists of 19 individual proteins and is divisible into two ... "Contribution of proteasomal beta-subunits to the cleavage of peptide substrates analyzed with yeast mutants". The Journal of ... Other regulatory particlesEdit. 20S proteasomes can also associate with a second type of regulatory particle, the 11S ... The 20S particle is assembled from two half-proteasomes, each of which consists of a seven-membered pro-β ring attached to a ...
... pathogens or particles. To engulf a particle or pathogen, a phagocyte extends portions of its plasma membrane, wrapping the ... For example, beta-lysine, a protein produced by platelets during coagulation, can cause lysis of many Gram-positive bacteria by ... membrane around the particle until it is enveloped (i.e., the particle is now inside the cell). Once inside the cell, the ... Most leukocytes are able to move freely and interact with and capture cellular debris, foreign particles, and invading ...
Stirling piston engine Rhombic Drive - Beta Stirling Engine Design, showing the second displacer piston (green) within the ... Can a car engine be built out of a single particle? Physorg, November 30, 2012 by Lisa Zyga. Accessed 01-12-12 ...
Beta-binomial distribution, for the number of "positive occurrences" (e.g. successes, yes votes, etc.) given a fixed number of ... from the kinetic properties of gases to the quantum mechanical description of fundamental particles. For these and many other ... Beta distribution, for a single probability (real number between 0 and 1); conjugate to the Bernoulli distribution and binomial ...
The four most common modes of radioactive decay are: alpha decay, beta decay, inverse beta decay (considered as both positron ... The energy release includes the total kinetic energy of all the emitted particles (electrons, alpha particles, gamma quanta, ... There are many relatively short beta decay chains, at least two (a heavy, beta decay and a light, positron decay) for every ... For some isotopes with a relatively low n/p ratio, there is an inverse beta decay, by which a proton is transformed into a ...
PDGF-BB is the highest-affinity ligand for the PDGFR-beta; PDGFR-beta is a key marker of hepatic stellate cell activation in ... A non-viral PDGF "bio patch" can regenerate missing or damaged bone by delivering DNA in a nano-sized particle directly into ... Age related downregulation of the PDGF receptor on islet beta cells has been demonstrated to prevent islet beta cell ... "Role of alpha beta receptor heterodimer formation in beta platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor activation by PDGF-AB" ...
Small particles which accompany natural and industrial gases pass through two laser beams focused a short distance apart in the ... beta ratio and operating Reynolds numbers from being collected and published. Calibrated cone meters have an uncertainty up to ... As the same particle crosses the second beam, the detecting optics collect scattered light on a second photodetector, which ... As particles pass through the fringes, the Doppler-shifted light is collected into the photodetector. In another general LDV ...
Particle therapy[edit]. Main article: Particle therapy. In particle therapy (proton therapy being one example), energetic ... Particle therapy is a special case of external beam radiation therapy where the particles are protons or heavier ions. ... charged particle therapy. This procedure reduces damage to healthy tissue between the charged particle radiation source and the ... Charged particles such as protons and boron, carbon, and neon ions can cause direct damage to cancer cell DNA through high-LET ...
Beta-carotene and other carotenoids. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids, Washington ... Plasma LDL and HDL subspecies are heterogeneous in particle content of tocopherols and oxygenated and hydrocarbon carotenoids: ... beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein, on colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats. - Cancer Lett, 1996, kd 107, nr 1, lk 137 ... Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene. - Nutr ...
Newton hypothesized light to be made up of "corpuscles" (particles) of different colors, with the different colors of light ... Alpha particle. *Background radiation. *Beta particle. *Cosmic ray. *Gamma ray. *Nuclear fission ...
Upon infection with chikungunya, the host's fibroblasts produce type-1 alpha and beta interferon (IFN-α and IFN-β).[44] In ... December 2010). "Glycoprotein organization of Chikungunya virus particles revealed by X-ray crystallography". Nature. 468 (7324 ... Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the USA were testing an experimental vaccine which uses virus-like particles ( ...
... is used to detect high-energy charged particles. In pool-type nuclear reactors, beta particles (high-energy ... displaystyle p=\hbar \beta }. (. β. {\displaystyle \beta }. is phase constant)[21] rather than the de Broglie relation p. =. ℏ ... is the electric charge of the particle, v. {\displaystyle v}. is the speed of the particle, and c. {\displaystyle c}. is the ... The frequency spectrum of Cherenkov radiation by a particle is given by the Frank-Tamm formula: d. 2. E. d. x. d. ω. =. q. 2. 4 ...
Join in the discussions at Creative COW where particle Illusion users exchange ideas in their online home. - particle Illusion ... The particle Illusion Community of the World (COW) is designed as a place where particle Illusion users can exchange ideas and ... 3.0.1 beta E by Alan Lorence on Dec 10, 2003 at 8:27:44 pm*Re: 3.0.1 beta E by tachylon on Dec 10, 2003 at 9:32:13 pm*Re: 3.0.1 ... Re: 3.0.1 beta E by Alan Lorence on Dec 11, 2003 at 2:17:46 pm*Re: 3.0.1 beta E by Roger Wilshaw on Dec 11, 2003 at 3:03:38 pm* ...
A beta particle, sometimes called beta ray, denoted by the lower-case Greek letter beta (β), is a high-energy, high-speed ... Although the beta particles given off by different radioactive materials vary in energy, most beta particles can be stopped by ... He found that e/m for a beta particle is the same as for Thomsons electron, and therefore suggested that the beta particle is ... Strontium-90 is the material most commonly used to produce beta particles. Beta particles are also used in quality control to ...
The Official Marathon 4 Beta Particle Feedback Loop - posted in Mac Action & Shooters: Mini-Update: Due to the time-traveling ... The Official Marathon 4 Beta Particle Feedback Loop. Started by Bernie, Jun 12 2005 04:41 AM ...
... shRNA and Lentiviral Particle Gene Silencers designed to knockdown human CaMKIIβ gene expression. Cited in 3 publications ... CaMKII beta siRNA and shRNA Plasmids (h) human CaMKIIβ-specific siRNA, shRNA Plasmid and Lentiviral Particle gene silencers * ...
Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability are modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients ... Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability are modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients ...
... shRNA and Lentiviral Particle Gene Silencers are designed to knockdown gene expression of mouse HLA-DO beta ... HLA-DO beta siRNA and shRNA Plasmids (m)mouse HLA-DOβ-specific siRNA, shRNA Plasmid and Lentiviral Particle gene silencers. * ... Lentiviral Particles are provided as transduction-ready viral particles for gene silencing ... Lentiviral Particles generally contain three to five expression constructs each encoding target-specific 19-25 nt (plus hairpin ...
... lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS from AMS Biotechnology (Archived ... Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS by AMS ... Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS. ... Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS ...
Home > All Levels > Physics > Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles. Detailes Document about the rays ... Beta particles ionise atoms that they pass, but not as strongly as alpha particles do. Alpha particles are made of 2 protons ... Beta particles have a medium penetrating power they are stopped by a sheet of aluminium or plastics such as perspex. ... beta rays ... consist of electrons of different speed between 108m/s and 0.999c0. Because of their negative charge, they are ...
Diesel exhaust particles activate the matrix-metalloproteinase-1 gene in human bronchial epithelia in a beta-arrestin-dependent ... diesel particles. urban smog. β-arrestin. Analysis of Variance. Arrestins. Blotting, Western. Bronchi. Cell Line. DNA Primers. ... which can be scaffolded by beta-arrestins. Short interfering RNA mediated beta-arrestin1/2 knockout eliminated formation, ... BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are globally relevant air pollutants that exert a detrimental human health impact. ...
... mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of complexes with beta-lactoglobulin ... mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of complexes with beta-lactoglobulin ... title = "Effect of alginate size, mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of ... T1 - Effect of alginate size, mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of ...
The influence of particle size and multiple apoprotein E-receptor interactions on the endocytic targeting of beta-VLDL in mouse ... However, large beta-VLDL was much more resistant to acid-mediated release from LDL receptors than small beta-VLDL. Furthermore ... Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) are internalized by the same receptor in mouse ... The influence of particle size and multiple apoprotein E-receptor interactions on the endocytic targeting of beta-VLDL in mouse ...
These particles are negatively charged and largely deflected by magnetic and electric field. The speed of it is 50% of the ... beta particle in Science Expand. beta particle. A high-speed electron or positron, usually emitted by an atomic nucleus ... The motion of these particles can be stopped by a 3mm thick aluminum sheet. Beta particles can produce enough ionization in a ... These particles can produce fluorescence. Their penetrating power is more than that of the Alpha particles. ...
Beta particles[edit]. Main articles: Radiation astronomy/Beta particles and Beta particles ... Def. "growth of a cloud or precipitation particle by the collision and union of a frozen particle (ice crystal or snowflake) ... electron captures and beta decays [such as the beta decay of boron-8]) that produce neutrinos."[15] ... 1999). "Energetic particles observations near Ganymede". J.of Geophys. Res. 104 (A8): 17, 459-17, 469. Bibcode:1999JGR... ...
Beta particles[edit]. Main articles: Radiation astronomy/Beta particles, Beta particle astronomy, and Beta particles ... Beta-particles astronomy/Quiz · Blue astronomy/Quiz · Cloud astronomy quiz · Color astronomy quiz · Cometary astronomy quiz · ... Beta-particles astronomy · Blue astronomy · Cloud astronomy · Color astronomy · Cosmic radiation astronomy · Cryometeor ... Absorption astronomy · Acoustic astronomy · Aerometeor astronomy · Alpha-particle astronomy · Asteroid astronomy · Astronomy · ...
BETA PARTICLES AND OF ELECTRONS Suppliers and Exporters from India. DIFFUSION CHAMBER OF ALPHA, BETA PARTICLES AND OF ELECTRONS ... BETA PARTICLES AND OF ELECTRONS Manufacturers in India. We are well known Didactic DIFFUSION CHAMBER OF ALPHA, ... BETA PARTICLES AND OF ELECTRONS This device can be used to display high energy alpha particles, beta particles of lower energy ... Home / Our Products / TVET Training Workshop Labs / Physical Structure of Matter / DIFFUSION CHAMBER OF ALPHA, BETA PARTICLES ...
An alpha particle is common in the field of nuclear physics because it is one of the three particles emitted during radioactive ... An alpha particle is made up of two protons and two neutrons. ... What Is the Definition of "beta Particle"?. A: A beta particle ... What Is the Charge of a Beta Particle?. A: According to Encyclopædia Britannica, a beta particle can have either a negative ... The electron is called a beta particle as a way of distin... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Particle Physics ...
The maximum difference between the absorbed fractions for beta particles accounting for the whole beta spectrum of all the ... In order to obtain the beta particle absorbed fraction, Monte Carlo simulations were performed by using the MCNPX code. The ... The absorbed fractions were calculated and compared by using an actual beta energy spectrum with those obtained through the ... The purpose of this research is to study the effect of beta spectrum on absorbed fraction ( ) and to find suitable analytical ...
Superfine Particle Nanocapsule Technology. Particularly effective for materials such as macromolecule polysaccharides like ... We prepared the diameter of a Nanocapsule particle at the 100-500nm required for intestinal absorption, so improvement of the ...
It is shown that these particles obey the Lorentz model for electrons rather than the Abraham model, for velocities as high as ... An accurate determination of the values of me and v of three Ra B β-particles was made by means of an electrostatic ... A Determination of the Masses and Velocities of Three Radium B Beta-Particles The Relativistic Mass of the Electron *Rogers, ... An accurate determination of the values of me and v of three Ra B β-particles was made by means of an electrostatic ...
RELION-3.0 reconstruction of beta-galactosidase particles in EMPIAR-10061 ... RELION-3.0 reconstruction of beta-galactosidase particles in EMPIAR-10061 Map released: 2018-12-26. ... Proteins: Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase bound to phenylethyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (PETG), Escherichia coli beta- ... Sample name: Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase bound to phenylethyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (PETG) ...
Positively charged beta particles are positrons and negatively charged beta particles are electrons. Beta particles can cause ... Beta Particle. a charged particle emitted from the nucleus of some atoms as part of those atoms radioactive decay. ...
Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays affect tissue in different ways. Alpha particles disrupt more molecules ... Certain radioactive nuclei emit alpha particles. Alpha particles generally carry more energy than gamma or beta particles, and ... See also alpha particle, beta particle, gamma ray, nucleon, x-ray.. Non-ionizing radiation: radiation that has lower energy ... However, alpha particles and all but extremely high-energy beta particles are not considered penetrating radiation. ...
... study has found the mechanism by which amyloid beta (A-beta) - the protein deposited into plaques in the brains of patients ... Amyloid beta protein protects brain from herpes infection by entrapping viral particles By Ralph Turchiano on July 8, 2018. • ... Enhanced Disease Transmission › Amyloid beta protein protects brain from herpes infection by entrapping viral particles ... A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) study has found the mechanism by which amyloid beta (A-beta) - the protein deposited ...
What is particle theory?. * Q: What is the definition of "beta particle"?. ...
Modeling the facet growth rate dispersion of beta L-glutamic acid-Combining single crystal experiments with nD particle size ...
B) beta particles;. (C) neutrons;. (D) gamma rays; or. (E) accelerated ions or subatomic particles from accelerator machines. ... during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have been present at such facility. ... scientific evidence supports the conclusion that occupational exposure to dust particles or vapor of beryllium can cause ...
SPS3.a: Differentiate between alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation.. Nuclear Decay. ... Temperature and Particle Motion. SPS5.b: Relate temperature, pressure, and volume of gases to the behavior of gases.. Boyles ... Temperature and Particle Motion. SC6.b: Collect data and calculate the amount of heat given off or taken in by chemical or ... Temperature and Particle Motion. SPS6: Students will investigate the properties of solutions.. SPS6.a: Describe solutions in ...
Similar Discussions: Alpha beta and Gamma * Bombarment of beta particles against a alpha target (Replies: 1) ... alpha is the particle from an unstable nucleus. he-4 yes it is. beta is an electron but where does it come from? is it from the ... In a nuclear reaction, a neutron can be broken into a proton and an electron, that electron is called a beta particle. ... will be assocaited will be part of a nucleus so in effect the beta particle will come from the nucleus.. Gamma rays are simply ...
  • Beta particles are a type of ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three common types of radiation given off by radioactive materials, alpha, beta and gamma, beta has the medium penetrating power and the medium ionising power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being composed of charged particles, beta radiation is more strongly ionizing than gamma radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In water, beta radiation from many nuclear fission products typically exceeds the speed of light in that material (which is 75% that of light in vacuum), and thus generates blue Cherenkov radiation when it passes through water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intense beta radiation from the fuel rods of pool-type reactors can thus be visualized through the transparent water that covers and shields the reactor (see illustration at right). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ionizing or excitation effects of beta particles on matter are the fundamental processes by which radiometric detection instruments detect and measure beta radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the beta radiation is absorbed while passing through the product. (wikipedia.org)
  • DIFFUSION CHAMBER OF ALPHA, BETA PARTICLES AND OF ELECTRONS This device can be used to display high energy alpha particles, beta particles of lower energy and electrons output by some sources as radioactive material, as well as cosmic rays and other forms of radiation. (didacticlabequipments.com)
  • They also pose a serious internal radiation threat if beta-emitting atoms are ingested or inhaled . (cdc.gov)
  • Differentiate between alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation. (explorelearning.com)
  • Alpha vs. beta radiation? (physicsforums.com)
  • This analogy works on the basis of thinking about matter as an enormous mass of atoms (that is nuclei with orbiting electrons) and that the radiation is a particle/photon passing through this type of environment. (wikibooks.org)
  • We can also appreciate from the table that alpha-particles are quite massive relative to the other types of radiation and also to the electrons of atoms of the material through which they are passing. (wikibooks.org)
  • These are the major source of human exposure to alpha radiation (high-energy, high-mass particles, each consisting of two protons and two neutrons). (cdc.gov)
  • one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivity radioactivity, spontaneous disintegration or decay of the nucleus of an atom by emission of particles, usually accompanied by electromagnetic radiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta radiation (or beta rays) was identified and named by E. Rutherford, who found that it consists of high-speed electrons electron, elementary particle carrying a unit charge of negative electricity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta rays come from an e-beam generator, which provides the same features as gamma radiation but with reduced penetrating power. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The company criticised media reports that radiation levels in the tanks were high enough to kill someone in hours if exposed, and said that they mostly gave off beta rays which could be safely deflected, not the more dangerous gamma rays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When the ionizing radiations are made up of charged particles such as protons, carbon, and other ions, then radiation therapy is called as hadron therapy. (marketwatch.com)
  • Gamma radiation is electromagnetic radiation, whereas alpha and beta radiation are forms of particulate radiation. (answers.com)
  • Beta radiation is made from electrons (or positrons for inverse beta radiation). (answers.com)
  • Gammas covers a bigger area than beta and alpha and is in that way more dangerous, but if you ever get alpha radiation inside of you, that is very dangerous. (answers.com)
  • Of alpha, beta and gamma radiation, gamma radiation has the greater ability to penetrate either shielding or living tissue. (answers.com)
  • The penetration issue aside, a contact source that is an alpha emitter can do more tissue damage than beta or gamma radiation. (answers.com)
  • Alpha and beta radiation are particulate radiation. (answers.com)
  • Cosmic radiation is penetrating ionizing radiation comprised of particles and electromagnetic energy that comes from outer space. (radiationanswers.org)
  • The "current" (second finger flow of charged particles) is the beam of radiation. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • gave 3 types of nuclear radiation as 'alpha particles, beta particles, and neutrons. (apple.com)
  • The most common types of nuclear radiation are alpha and beta radiation, and the processes for each are respectively alpha decay and beta decay. (conservapedia.com)
  • Capable of detecting Gamma and Beta radiation, this sensor has a simple pulsed output that can be used with any microcontroller. (sparkfun.com)
  • Gamma rays (denoted as γ) are a form of electromagnetic radiation or light emission of frequencies produced by sub-atomic particle interactions, such as electron-positron annihilation or radioactive decay. (bionity.com)
  • Gamma rays are often produced alongside other forms of radiation such as alpha or beta. (bionity.com)
  • Large amounts of beta radiation may cause skin burns, and beta emitters are harmful if they enter the body, but the particles are easily stopped by materials such as metal or plastic. (nap.edu)
  • Alpha particles, the primary radiation type produced by DU, are blocked by skin, while beta particles are blocked by the boots and battle dress utility uniform (BDUs) typically worn by Service members. (health.mil)
  • Alpha particles, the primary radiation type produced by DU, are blocked by skin, while beta particles are blocked by clothing and shoes. (health.mil)
  • Radiation is energy being emitted in the form of particles or waves. (virginia.edu)
  • In general, the following kinds of radiation are monitored for purposes of radiation protection: alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays and neutrons. (virginia.edu)
  • A Geiger counter is an instrument that does just this - it detects when radiation is present, and tells us how much is present by electronically counting the number of radioactive particles that interact with the counter. (virginia.edu)
  • A maximum range of beta radiation can be defined experimentally which is smaller than the range that would be measured along the particle path. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain radioactive nuclei emit alpha particles. (cdc.gov)
  • Alphas are He-4 nuclei, betas are electrons or positrons, and gammas are photons (electromagnetic). (physicsforums.com)
  • Alpha particles are emitted from the nuclei of some radioactive substances in the process of decaying into other elements. (angelfire.com)
  • - Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137 , iodine-131 ). (hubpages.com)
  • Linear energy transfer is best defined for monoenergetic ions, i.e. protons, alpha particles, and the heavier nuclei called HZE ions found in cosmic rays or produced by particle accelerators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their low mass relative to atoms, they are strongly scattered by nuclei (Coulomb or Rutherford scattering), much more so than heavier particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to study subatomic particles you need a method of detecting them. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Biosafety - Lentiviral Particles are replication-incompetent and are designed to self-inactivate after transduction and integration of shRNA constructs into genomic DNA of target cells. (scbt.com)
  • A beta particle, sometimes called beta ray, denoted by the lower-case Greek letter beta (β), is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted in the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus, such as a potassium-40 nucleus, in the process of beta decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-plus (or positron) decay of a radioactive tracer isotope is the source of the positrons used in positron emission tomography (PET scan). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Encyclopædia Britannica, a beta particle can have either a negative charge (if it is an electron) or a positive charge (a positron). (reference.com)
  • An energetic electron or positron ejected by beta decay . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An electron or positron emitted from a nucleus during beta decay. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • what stays the same in a beta emission/equation & a Positron Emission? (studystack.com)
  • a negatively charged beta particle is identical to an electron, and a positively charged particle is called a positron. (nap.edu)
  • Beta particles ionise atoms that they pass, but not as strongly as alpha particles do. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • a charged particle emitted from the nucleus of some atoms as part of those atoms' radioactive decay. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • We can see from the table above that alpha-particles have a double positive charge and we can therefore easily appreciate that they will exert considerable electrostatic attraction on the outer orbital electrons of atoms near which they pass. (wikibooks.org)
  • A beta particle is an energetic electron given off by atoms when the atoms have too much energy. (radiationanswers.org)
  • Two forms of beta decay, β− and β+, respectively produce electrons and positrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta decay commonly occurs among the neutron-rich fission byproducts produced in nuclear reactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alpha particle is common in the field of nuclear physics because it is one of the three particles emitted during radioactive decay. (reference.com)
  • The three particles emitted during radioactive decay are alpha, beta and gamma. (reference.com)
  • A beta particle is an electron emitted from the nucleus of an atom that has undergone beta decay. (reference.com)
  • Am-241 is formed spontaneously by the beta decay of plutonium-241. (cdc.gov)
  • little neutral (particle)], elementary particle with no electric charge and a very small mass emitted during the decay of certain other particles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A type of nuclear decay in which a rearrangement of nuclear particles releases a gamma ray. (learner.org)
  • I am trying to teach myself about radioactive decay via beta emission whereby a neutron spontaneously transmutes into a proton, releasing an electron. (physicsforums.com)
  • This decay releases about 4.3 MeV of kinetic energy, in the form of the motion of the alpha particle. (conservapedia.com)
  • Beta decay}} As stated above, a beta particle is an electron. (conservapedia.com)
  • As with the alpha decay, notice that the particle count is again conserved. (conservapedia.com)
  • Beta particles ( b ) are fast electrons produced following nuclear decay of certain radioactive materials. (virginia.edu)
  • During his investigations of radioactivity, Ernest Rutherford coined the terms alpha rays, beta rays and gamma rays for the three types of emissions that occur during radioactive decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrons produced in nuclear decay are called beta particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • These averages are not widely separated for heavy particles with high LET, but the difference becomes more important in the other type of radiations discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing DU from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluate particle size distributions. (nih.gov)
  • These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. (nih.gov)
  • The impactor substrates were analyzed using proportional counting, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. (nih.gov)
  • [4] Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle . (wikipedia.org)
  • For example 221 Ra emits an alpha-particle with an energy of 6.71 MeV. (wikibooks.org)
  • Another example is 230 U which emits three alpha-particles with energies of 5.66, 5.82, 5.89 MeV. (wikibooks.org)
  • Alpha particles do not travel very far and are not considered an exposure hazard unless the radioactive material that emits them gets inside the body. (radiationanswers.org)
  • When a nucleus emits an α or β particle, the daughter nucleus is sometimes left in an excited state. (bionity.com)
  • DU emits alpha and beta particles, and gamma rays. (health.mil)
  • Positively charged beta particles are positrons and negatively charged beta particles are electrons . (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • In some forms of induced, or artificial, radioactivity, the electron's antiparticle antiparticle, elementary particle corresponding to an ordinary particle such as the proton, neutron, or electron, but having the opposite electrical charge and magnetic moment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Next, a question, one that increasingly emerges in various guises at the frontiers of physics: "Just exactly what is an elementary particle? (mdpi.com)
  • However, this does not mean that beta-emitting isotopes can be completely shielded by such thin shields: as they decelerate in matter, beta electrons emit secondary gamma rays, which are more penetrating than betas per se. (wikipedia.org)
  • the isotopes strontium-90, iodine-131, and cerium-144 emit beta particles that are not distributed evenly in the body. (britannica.com)
  • See also beta particle , gamma ray , neutron , x-ray . (cdc.gov)
  • In a nuclear reaction, a neutron can be broken into a proton and an electron, that electron is called a beta particle. (physicsforums.com)
  • In most cases the neutron and the proton (all in the protons case) will be assocaited will be part of a nucleus so in effect the beta particle will come from the nucleus. (physicsforums.com)
  • Alpha particles can be stopped by a thin layer of light material, such as a sheet of paper, and cannot penetrate the outer, dead layer of skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Although they can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum, beta particles can penetrate the dead skin layer, potentially causing burns. (cdc.gov)
  • Beta particles and gamma rays can penetrate one's body to cause great harm. (conservapedia.com)
  • These particles can penetrate more deeply into skin (1 to 2 cm) and cause both epithelial and sub-epithelial damage. (hubpages.com)
  • Strontium-90 releases only beta particles, while iodine-131 and cerium-144 release both beta particles and gamma rays, but their toxicities are primarily caused by the beta particles. (britannica.com)
  • When passing through matter, a beta particle is decelerated by electromagnetic interactions and may give off bremsstrahlung x-rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influence of particle size and multiple apoprotein E-receptor interactions on the endocytic targeting of beta-VLDL in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • The Interactions of Beta Particles with Matter. (grin.com)
  • That's all we need to build a model of the elementary particles of physics, one with fermions and bosons, hadrons and leptons, interactions weak and strong and the attributes of spin, isospin, mass, charge, CPT invariance and more. (mdpi.com)
  • Section 7 relates and contrasts that model with the Standard Model in terms of the particles and interactions most commonly encountered and Section 8 extends the discussion to the triplication of particles and interactions observed in the high energy domain. (mdpi.com)
  • Many studies focus upon the energy transferred in the vicinity of the primary particle track and therefore exclude interactions that produce delta rays with energies larger than a certain value Δ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioactive strontium generates beta particles as it decays. (cdc.gov)
  • Beta particles do have a charge-those that are negatively charged are essentially electrons and those that are positively charged are called positrons. (radiationanswers.org)
  • Alpha particles are positively charged and are therefore attracted to the negative plate in an electric field. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Which Atomic Particle Has the Least Mass? (reference.com)
  • Hydrogen is the atomic particle that has the least mass. (reference.com)
  • The mass lost by nuclear particles when they come together to form a nucleus. (learner.org)
  • An antimatter particle equal in mass to the electron but with a positive charge. (learner.org)
  • Energy in excess of the equivalent rest mass of the two particles (1.02 MeV) appears as the kinetic energy of the pair and the recoil nucleus. (bionity.com)
  • The entire mass of these two particles is then converted into two gamma photons of 0.51 MeV energy each. (bionity.com)
  • Nor do we require the importation of an enigmatic Higgs boson to confer mass upon the particles of our world. (mdpi.com)
  • Both of these processes contribute to the copious quantities of beta rays and electron antineutrinos produced by fission-reactor fuel rods.These fuel rods also help control the rate of reaction inside of a reactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The water discharged contained a maximum 24 becquerels per liter of radioactive substances emitting beta rays , lower than the allowable level of 30 becquerels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 35 billion becquerels of cesium and 750 million becquerels of other, unnamed radioactive substances, including strontium, that emit beta rays , the Japan Times reports. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Contemporary jargon refers to alpha and beta ''particles'' and gamma ''rays'', though quantum mechanics makes the two actually the same. (conservapedia.com)
  • they have less penetrating power than beta rays . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fortunately, DU is only mildly radioactive emitting alpha and beta particles, and gamma rays. (health.mil)
  • The secondary electrons produced during the process of ionization by the primary charged particle are conventionally called delta rays, if their energy is large enough so that they themselves can ionize. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the device, a thin film of the radioisotope 63 Ni generates beta particles which are used to generate electricity in two ways. (machinedesign.com)
  • Notice that positrons are not considered here since as we noted in chapter 2 these particles do not last for very long in matter before they are annihilated. (wikibooks.org)
  • alpha is the particle from an unstable nucleus he-4 yes it is beta is an electron but where does it come from? (physicsforums.com)
  • Unlike alpha and gamma particles, whose energy can be explained as the difference of the energies of the radioactive nucleus before and after emission, beta particles emerge with a variable energy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6) While linking exposure to occupational hazards with the development of occupational disease is sometimes difficult, scientific evidence supports the conclusion that occupational exposure to dust particles or vapor of beryllium can cause beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease. (dol.gov)
  • These progeny tend to be electrically charged and tend to attach to dust particles. (cdc.gov)
  • Strontium-90 is the material most commonly used to produce beta particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of strontium-90 Beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma. (ac.ir)
  • Unfortunately, this resulted in a large amount of Strontium-90 particles that eventually settled back to earth, contaminating grass lands. (conservapedia.com)
  • The splitting of an atomic nucleus into smaller particles. (learner.org)
  • they are electrically charged particles or electromagnetic waves of extremely short wavelength. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein at least 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% or 95% of the particles of hemihydrate calcium sulfate in the composition have a diameter of from 50 nm to 500 nm. (patentgenius.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 3, wherein the composition comprises nCS-hemi-.beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • particles in the composition have diameters of from 50 nm to 250 nm. (patentgenius.com)
  • 13. The method of claim 1, wherein the composition comprising hemihydrate calcium sulfate particles is provided as a compressed tablet. (patentgenius.com)
  • A laboratory contains radioactive substances emitting alpha, beta, and gamma particles. (bartleby.com)
  • Although the beta particles given off by different radioactive materials vary in energy, most beta particles can be stopped by a few millimeters of aluminium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: The maximum difference between the absorbed fractions for beta particles accounting for the whole beta spectrum of all the considered nuclides was 29.62% with respect to the mean beta energy case. (ac.ir)
  • Suitable analytical relationships were found between the absorbed fraction and the generalized radius, and the dependence of the fitting parameters from beta spectrum energy was discussed and fitted by appropriate parametric functions. (ac.ir)
  • Alpha particles generally carry more energy than gamma or beta particles , and deposit that energy very quickly while passing through tissue. (cdc.gov)
  • This energy in the case of alpha-particles is always distinct. (wikibooks.org)
  • Every alpha-particle emitted from this radionuclide has this energy. (wikibooks.org)
  • A final and important point to note is that the energy of beta-particles is never found to be distinct in contrast to the alpha-particles above. (wikibooks.org)
  • The energies of the beta-particles from a radioactive source forms a spectrum up to a maximum energy - see figure below. (wikibooks.org)
  • When a particle and its antiparticle collide, both are annihilated and energy is released. (learner.org)
  • higher-energy beta particles will be stopped by approximately a centimeter or about a third (1/3) of an inch of tissue. (radiationanswers.org)
  • The amount of energy (speed) that a beta particle contains determines its penetrating capacity. (virginia.edu)
  • In dosimetry, linear energy transfer (LET) is the amount of energy that an ionizing particle transfers to the material traversed per unit distance. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, the higher concentration of deposited energy can cause more severe damage to any microscopic structures near the particle track. (wikipedia.org)
  • This energy limit is meant to exclude secondary electrons that carry energy far from the primary particle track, since a larger energy implies a larger range. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mathematical terms, Restricted linear energy transfer is defined by L Δ = d E Δ d x {\displaystyle L_{\Delta }={\frac {{\text{d}}E_{\Delta }}{{\text{d}}x}}} , where d E Δ {\displaystyle {\text{d}}E_{\Delta }} is the energy loss of the charged particle due to electronic collisions while traversing a distance d x {\displaystyle {{\text{d}}x}} , excluding all secondary electrons with kinetic energies larger than Δ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha particle scattering experiment (by Rutherford/Geiger+Marsden) involved firing alpha particles at a sheet of very thin gold foil, and detecting where they went (with a screen). (wikibooks.org)
  • A particle diagram is a visual representation of the particles of a substance, with the particles typically represented as dots. (reference.com)
  • Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. (nih.gov)
  • alpha and beta particles follow circular paths in magnetic fields. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Electron microscopy shows alpha and beta glycogen particles. (medscape.com)
  • After first finding that transgenic mice engineered to express human A-beta survive significantly longer after injections of herpes simplex into their brains than do nontransgenic mice, the researchers found that A-beta inhibited infection of cultured human brain cells with herpes simplex and two other herpes strains by binding to proteins on the viral membranes and clumping into fibrils that entrap the virus and prevent it from entering cells. (evesdrift.com)
  • Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been widely used as bone substitutes and delivery carriers of osteogenic proteins. (bioquant.com)
  • Protein release was further modulated by simultaneously delivering proteins from two different substrates: acid-etched and apatite-coated particles. (bioquant.com)
  • Assembly of gag-beta-galactosidase proteins into retrovirus particles. (semanticscholar.org)