Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Weight Perception: Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.Size Perception: The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Blastocladiella: A genus of aquatic fungi of the family Blastocladiaceae, order Blastocladiales, used in the study of zoospore formation.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.WalesEnglandIntussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.BooksModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.

Cellular effects of beta-particle delivery on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells: a dose-response study. (1/140)

BACKGROUND: Although endovascular radiotherapy inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, the exact cellular alterations induced by beta irradiation remain to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated in vitro the ability of 32P-labeled oligonucleotides to alter (1) proliferation of human and porcine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (ECs), (2) cell cycle progression, (3) cell viability and apoptosis, (4) cell migration, and (5) cell phenotype and morphological features. beta radiation significantly reduced proliferation of VSMCs (ED50 1.10 Gy) and ECs (ED50 2.15 Gy) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to beta emission interfered with cell cycle progression, with induction of G0/G1 arrest in VSMCs, without evidence of cell viability alteration, apoptosis, or ultrastructural changes. This strategy also proved to efficiently inhibit VSMC migration by 80% and induce contractile phenotype appearance, as shown by the predominance of alpha-actin immunostaining in beta-irradiated cells compared with control cells. CONCLUSIONS: 32P-labeled oligonucleotide was highly effective in inhibiting proliferation of both VSMCs and ECs in a dose-dependent fashion, with ECs showing a higher resistance to these effects. beta irradiation-induced G1 arrest was not associated with cytotoxicity and apoptosis, thus demonstrating a potent cytostatic effect of beta-based therapy. This effect, coupled to that on VSMC migration inhibition and the appearance of a contractile phenotype, reinforced the potential of ionizing radiation to prevent neointima formation after angioplasty.  (+info)

Effects of intracoronary beta-radiation therapy after coronary angioplasty: an intravascular ultrasound study. (2/140)

BACKGROUND: Endovascular radiation is emerging as a potential solution for the prevention and treatment of restenosis. Its effects on the morphology of unstented vessels cannot be determined by angiography and therefore require the use of intravascular ultrasound. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a 5F noncentered catheter for delivery of a 90Sr/Y source train, 12, 14, or 16 Gy at 2 mm was delivered to native coronary arteries after successful balloon angioplasty in 30 patients. Four patients required stent deployment in the first week. Quantitative coronary angiography and IVUS were performed during the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up. Binary angiographic restenosis was present in 3 of 30 patients, with target lesion and vessel revascularization performed in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. Angiographic late loss was -0.02+/-0.60 mm, with a -0.09+/-0.46 loss index. IVUS demonstrated no significant reduction in lumen area (from 5.69+/-1.72 mm2 after treatment to 6. 04+/-2.63 mm2 at follow-up), with no significant change in external elastic membrane area (13.71+/-4.54 to 14.22+/-4.71 mm2) over the 6-month follow-up. Wall area was 8.01+/-3.85 mm2 after radiation therapy and 8.19+/-3.44 mm2 at follow-up (P=NS). No significant differences were noted between the different dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: beta-Radiation therapy resulted in a low restenosis rate with negligible late loss by angiography. By IVUS, beta-radiation was shown to inhibit neointima formation, with no reduction of total vessel area at 6-month follow-up.  (+info)

Bremsstrahlung radiation exposure from pure beta-ray emitters. (3/140)

With increasing therapeutic use of radionuclides that emit relatively high-energy (>1 MeV) beta-rays and the production in vivo of bremsstrahlung sufficient for external imaging, the potential external radiation hazard warrants evaluation. METHODS: The exposure from a patient administered beta-ray-emitting radionuclides has been calculated by extending the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement model of a point source in air to account for biologic elimination of activity, the probability of bremsstrahlung production in vivo and its mean energy and the absorption by the patient's body of the bremsstrahlung thus produced. To facilitate such calculations, a quantity called the "specific bremsstrahlung constant" (in C/kg-cm2/MBq-h), betaBr, was devised and calculated for several radionuclides. The specific bremsstrahlung constant is the bremsstrahlung exposure rate (in C/kg/h) in air at 1 cm from a 1 MBq beta-ray emitter of a specified maximum beta-ray energy and frequency of emission in a medium of a specified effective atomic number. RESULTS: For pure beta-ray emitters, the retained activities at which patients can be released from medical confinement (i.e., below which the effective dose equivalent at 1 m will not exceed the maximum recommended value of 0.5 cSv for infrequently exposed members of the general public) are extremely large: on the order of hundreds of thousands to millions of megabecquerels. CONCLUSION: Radionuclide therapy with pure beta-ray emitters, even high-energy beta-ray emitters emitted in bone, does not require medical confinement of patients for radiation protection.  (+info)

Geometric vascular remodeling after balloon angioplasty and beta-radiation therapy: A three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study. (4/140)

BACKGROUND: Endovascular radiation appears to inhibit intimal thickening after overstretching balloon injury in animal models. The effect of brachytherapy on vascular remodeling is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the evolution of coronary vessel dimensions after intracoronary irradiation after successful balloon angioplasty in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one consecutive patients treated with balloon angioplasty and beta-radiation according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial-1.5 were included in the study. Volumetric assessment of the irradiated segment and both edges was performed after brachytherapy and at 6-month follow-up. Intravascular ultrasound images were acquired by means of ECG-triggered pullback, and 3-D reconstruction was performed by automated edge detection, allowing the calculation of lumen, plaque, and external elastic membrane (EEM) volumes. In the irradiated segments, mean EEM and plaque volumes increased significantly (451+/-128 to 490.9+/-159 mm(3) and 201.2+/-59 to 241.7+/-74 mm(3); P=0.01 and P=0.001, respectively), whereas luminal volume remained unchanged (250.8+/-91 to 249.2+/-102 mm(3); P=NS). The edges demonstrated an increase in mean plaque volume (26.8+/-12 to 32. 6+/-10 mm(3), P=0.0001) and no net change in mean EEM volume (71. 4+/-24 to 70.9+/-24 mm(3), P=NS), resulting in a decrease in mean luminal volume (44.6+/-16 to 38.3+/-16 mm(3), P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A different pattern of remodeling is observed in coronary segments treated with beta-radiation after successful balloon angioplasty. In the irradiated segments, the adaptive increase of EEM volume appears to be the major contributor to the luminal volume at follow-up. Conversely, both edges showed an increase in plaque volume without a net change in EEM volume.  (+info)

Preserved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in coronary segments previously treated with balloon angioplasty and intracoronary irradiation. (5/140)

BACKGROUND: Abnormal endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion has been reported after balloon angioplasty (BA), as well as after intracoronary radiation. However, the long-term effect on coronary vasomotion is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term vasomotion of coronary segments treated with BA and brachytherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with single de novo lesions treated either with BA followed by intracoronary beta-irradiation (according to the Beta Energy Restenosis Trial-1.5) or with BA alone were eligible. Of these groups, those patients in stable condition who returned for 6-month angiographic follow-up formed the study population (n=19, irradiated group and n=11, control group). Endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion was assessed by selective infusion of serial doses of acetylcholine (ACh) proximally to the treated area. Mean luminal diameter was calculated by quantitative coronary angiography both in the treated area and in distal segments. Endothelial dysfunction was defined as a vasoconstriction after the maximal dose of ACh (10(-6) mol/L). Seventeen irradiated segments (89.5%) demonstrated normal endothelial function. In contrast, 10 distal nonirradiated segments (53%) and 5 control segments (45%) demonstrated endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction (-19+/-17% and -9.0+/-5%, respectively). Mean percentage of change in mean luminal diameter after ACh was significantly higher in irradiated segments (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Endothelium-dependent vasomotion of coronary segments treated with BA followed by beta-radiation is restored in the majority of stable patients at 6-month follow-up. This functional response appeared to be better than those documented both in the distal segments and in segments treated with BA alone.  (+info)

beta-Particle-emitting radioactive stent implantation. A safety and feasibility study. (6/140)

BACKGROUND: This study represents the Heart Center Rotterdam's contribution to the Isostents for Restenosis Intervention Study, a nonrandomized multicenter trial evaluating the safety and feasibility of the radioactive Isostent in patients with single coronary artery disease. Restenosis after stent implantation is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia. In animal studies, beta-particle-emitting radioactive stents decrease neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The radioisotope (32)P, a beta-particle emitter with a half-life of 14.3 days, was directly embedded into the Isostent. The calculated range of radioactivity was 0.75 to 1.5 microCi. Quantitative coronary angiography measurements were performed before and after the procedure and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 31 radioactive stents were used in 26 patients; 30 (97%) were successfully implanted, and 1 was embolized. Treated lesions were in the left anterior descending coronary artery (n=12), the right coronary artery (n=8), or the left circumflex coronary artery (n=6). Five patients received additional, nonradioactive stents. Treated lesion lengths were 13+/-4 mm, with a reference diameter of 2.93+/-0. 47 mm. Minimum lumen diameter increased from 0.87+/-0.28 mm preprocedure to 2.84+/-0.35 mm postprocedure. No in-hospital adverse cardiac events occurred. All patients received aspirin indefinitely and ticlopidine for 4 weeks. Twenty-three patients (88%) returned for 6-month angiographic follow-up; 17% of them had in-stent restenosis, and 13% had repeat revascularization. No restenosis was observed at the stent edges. Minimum lumen diameter at follow-up averaged 1.85+/-0.69 mm, which resulted in a late loss of 0.99+/-0. 59 mm and a late loss index of 0.53+/-0.35. No other major cardiac events occurred during the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The use of radioactive stents with an activity of 0.75 to 1.5 microCi is safe and feasible.  (+info)

Effects of intracoronary radiation on thrombosis after balloon overstretch injury in the porcine model. (7/140)

BACKGROUND: The main complications of PTCA remain thrombosis and restenosis. Recent studies have demonstrated reduction in the neointimal hyperplasia after intracoronary radiation (IR) with doses of 10 to 25 Gy of ionizing radiation delivered by either beta- or gamma-emitters to injured vessels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the thrombosis rate (TR) of injured porcine coronary arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-four juvenile swine (63 coronary arteries) were subjected to overstretch balloon injury followed by IR with doses of 0 to 18 Gy of either beta- or gamma-radiation. Two weeks after treatment, tissue sections were perfusion-fixed, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Verhoeff-van Gieson's stain, and analyzed for presence of a thrombus, thrombus morphology, and neointima formation by computer-assisted histomorphometry techniques. Although the overall TR increased dose-dependently from 0 to 18 Gy prescribed dose, luminal thrombi decreased. Thrombus area also decreased with increasing radiation dose, whether assessed at the prescription point or at the luminal surface, which corresponded to decreased intimal area. Furthermore, luminal thrombi present after IR tended to consist mostly of fibrin and thus were less organized than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IR induces thrombosis but does not necessarily compromise the lumen. Strategies for reducing TR may further decrease intimal area as well as increasing the safety of this therapy.  (+info)

Short- and intermediate-term results of (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stent implantation in patients with coronary artery disease: The Milan Dose-Response Study. (8/140)

BACKGROUND: Radioactive (32)P beta-emitting stents have been shown to reduce intrastent neointimal hyperplasia in a substantial dose-related manner in the animal model. The aim of this dose-response study was to evaluate, in the clinical setting, the safety and efficacy at 6-month follow-up of this approach to reducing restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 122 (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stents (initially the Palmaz-Schatz and later the BX Isostent) with an activity level of 0.75 to 3.0 microCi (group 1), 3.0 to 6.0 microCi (group 2), and 6.0 to 12.0 microCi (group 3) were implanted in 91 lesions in 82 patients. There were no procedural events. At 6-month follow-up, no deaths had occurred, and only 1 patient had stent thrombosis. Pure intrastent binary restenosis was 16% in group 1, 3% in group 2, and 0% in group 3. However, intralesion restenosis was 52% in group 1, 41% in group 2, and 50% in group 3. CONCLUSIONS: The use of (32)P radioactive beta-emitting stents in patients with CAD is feasible. At 6-month follow-up, intrastent neointimal hyperplasia was reduced in a dose-related manner. However, in the 3 groups, intralesion restenosis was high because of a high late lumen loss in the reference segments at the stent edges, possibly as a result of a low activity level of radiation at the edges of the stent combined with an aggressive approach to stenting. We called this "edge effect" the "candy wrapper."  (+info)

*Beta particle

A beta particle, sometimes called beta ray, denoted by the lower-case Greek letter beta (β), is a high-energy, high-speed ... Although the beta particles given off by different radioactive materials vary in energy, most beta particles can be stopped by ... He found that e/m for a beta particle is the same as for Thomson's electron, and therefore suggested that the beta particle is ... Strontium-90 is the material most commonly used to produce beta particles. Beta particles are also used in quality control to ...

*Ionization chamber

These chambers often have an end window made of material thin enough, such as mylar, so that beta particles can enter the gas ... gamma rays and beta particles. Conventionally, the term "ionization chamber" is used exclusively to describe those detectors ... The beta end window limits the differential pressure from atmospheric pressure that can be tolerated, and common materials are ... The chamber of the integral instrument is generally at the front of the case facing downwards, and for beta/gamma instruments ...

*Geiger-Müller tube

For alpha particles, low energy beta particles, and low energy X-rays, the usual form is a cylindrical end-window tube. This ... It is used for the detection of gamma radiation, X-rays, and alpha and beta particles. It can also be adapted to detect ... Alpha particles are also attenuated by the window. As alpha particles have a maximum range of less than 50 mm in air, the ... Normally when a particle ionizes gas atoms, complete ionization of the gas occurs. But for a low energy particle, it is ...

*Nuclear Power and the Environment

Beta Particles". US Environmental Protection Agency. UEA. Retrieved 7 November 2014. Barrens, Richard E. "Beta Particles and ... From there certain particles can cause ionization. The ionizing particles are alpha particles (a type of ionizing radiation ... beta particles (subatomic particles ejected from the nucleus of some radioactive atoms that are equivalent to electrons), gamma ... "Radiation: Alpha Particles". US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. Retrieved 7 November 2014. "Radiation: ...

*Linear energy transfer

... much more so than heavier particles. Beta particle tracks are therefore crooked. In addition to producing secondary electrons ( ... Electrons produced in nuclear decay are called beta particles. Because of their low mass relative to atoms, they are strongly ... The transfer of energy from an uncharged primary particle to charged secondary particles can also be described by using the ... and the heavier nuclei called HZE ions found in cosmic rays or produced by particle accelerators. These particles cause ...

*Atom

The electron or positron emissions are called beta particles. Beta decay either increases or decreases the atomic number of the ... Electrons, like other particles, have properties of both a particle and a wave. The electron cloud is a region inside the ... Each particle of matter has a corresponding antimatter particle with the opposite electrical charge. Thus, the positron is a ... Particle Data Group (2002). "The Particle Adventure". Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Archived from the original on 4 January ...

*Multivibrator

... with special reference to counting alpha and beta particles. CUP Archive. p. 68. The Electrician. 128. Feb 13, 1942. Missing or ... beta }{1-\beta }}\right]} We are taking values of R, C and β such that we get a symmetrical square wave. Thus, we get T1 = T2 ... beta V_{\text{sat}}} − β V sat = − V sat + ( V d + V sat ) e − T / R C {\displaystyle -\beta V_{\text{sat}}=-V_{\text{sat}}+(V ... beta V_{sat}=V_{sat}(1-[\beta +1]e^{\tfrac {-T1}{RC}})} Upon solving, we get: T 1 = R C ln ⁡ [ 1 + β 1 − β ] {\displaystyle T1= ...

*Geiger counter

For alpha particles and low energy beta particles, the "end-window" type of G-M tube has to be used as these particles have a ... particularly with high energy beta particles. However, for discrimination between alpha and beta particles or provision of ... Particle detection of alpha and beta can used in both integral and two-piece designs. A pancake probe (for alpha/beta) is ... It detects ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays using the ionization effect produced in a ...

*Liquid scintillation counting

Beta particles emitted from the isotopic sample transfer energy to the solvent molecules: the π cloud of the aromatic ring ... It is generally used for alpha and beta particle detection. Samples are dissolved or suspended in a "cocktail" containing a ... "Cerenkov counting technique for beta particles: advantages and limitations". J. Chem. Educ., August 1983, 60 (8), 682-684. doi: ... High-energy beta emitters, such as phosphorus-32, can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the cocktail, instead ...

*Timeline of particle physics

Ernest Rutherford discovered the alpha and beta particles emitted by uranium; 1900 - Paul Villard discovered the gamma ray in ... 2012 - Higgs boson-like particle discovered at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Particle physics Timeline of particle ... The timeline of particle physics lists the sequence of particle physics theories and discoveries in chronological order. The ... Burton Richter and Samuel Ting discovered the J/ψ particle composed of charm quarks; 1977 - Upsilon particle discovered at ...

*Nuclear blackout

The second important effect is caused by the high energy beta particles. These are constantly being created by the radioactive ... while above the atmosphere it is due to the action of high-energy beta particles released from the decaying bomb debris. At ... causing them to ionize while slowing the beta down. Each beta can thus cause multiple ionizations, as well as being a free ... The particles penetrate the atmosphere to a depth depending on their energy: Two of these effects are particularly notable. The ...

*Strontium-90

Note that 90Sr/Y is almost a pure beta particle source; the gamma photon emission from the decay of 90Y is so infrequent that ...

*Uranium-uranium dating

234Th then decays through beta particle emission to protactinium-234 (234Pa)). This decays with a half-life of 6.7 hours, again ... through emission of a beta particle, to 234U. This isotope has a half-life of about 245,000 years. The next decay product, ... 238U, with a half-life of about 4.5 billion years, decays to 234U through emission of an alpha particle to thorium-234 (234Th ... in which 238U undergoes 14 alpha and beta decay events on the way to the stable isotope 206Pb. Other dating techniques using ...

*Beta decay

He found that m/e for a beta particle is the same as for Thomson's electron, and therefore suggested that the beta particle is ... The two types of beta decay are known as beta minus and beta plus. In beta minus (β−) decay, a neutron is converted to a proton ... Neither the beta particle nor its associated neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the ... In beta decay, Q is therefore also the sum of the kinetic energies of the emitted beta particle, neutrino, and recoiling ...

*Scintillation proximity assay

During the process of radioactive decay, a beta particle will be released. While this particle travels in the medium, the ... For instance, the decay of a Tritium atom releases a beta particle. Tritium is highly recommended as it suits SPA very well. It ... The energy of these particles influences the distance travelled by the particles itself through a medium such as water. This ... So, when the ß-particle is within that particular range of 1.5 µm with the scintillant bead, there is sufficient energy to ...

*Synthetic radioisotope

Alpha particle, beta particle, and gamma ray radioactive emissions are industrially useful. Most sources of these are synthetic ... or by bombarding parent isotopes with high energy particles from a particle accelerator. Most synthetic radioisotopes are ... Some must be manufactured in particle accelerators. Some synthetic radioisotopes are extracted from spent nuclear reactor fuel ...

*Hard radiation

X-rays and beta particles. Soft radiation Ultrasoft radiation "hardness of x-rays". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2016-05-21 ...

*Sievert

Examples of low penetrating radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and low-energy photons. This dose quantity is used ... The sievert is used only to convey the fact that a gray of absorbed alpha particles would cause twenty times the biological ... Radiation fluence is the number of radiation particles impinging per unit area per unit time, kerma is the ionising effect of ... 31 May 2013). "Measurements of Energetic Particle Radiation in Transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory". Science. 340 ( ...

*Gamma ray

... like alpha and beta rays. Rutherford initially believed that they might be extremely fast beta particles, but their failure to ... In certain cases, the excited nuclear state that follows the emission of a beta particle or other type of excitation, may be ... However, they are less ionising than alpha or beta particles, which are less penetrating. Low levels of gamma rays cause a ... Because a beta decay is accompanied by the emission of a neutrino that also carries a varying amount of energy away, the beta ...

*Lightning

Wilson, C.T.R. (1925). "The acceleration of beta-particles in strong electric fields such as those of thunderclouds". ... Ice or water particles then accumulate charge as in a Van de Graaff generator. Researchers at the University of Florida found ... Some high energy cosmic rays produced by supernovas as well as solar particles from the solar wind, enter the atmosphere and ... enormous quantity of pulverized material and gases explosively ejected into the atmosphere creates a dense plume of particles. ...

*Nuclear fission product

The first beta decays are rapid and may release high energy beta particles or gamma radiation. However, as the fission products ... many of them quickly undergo beta decay. This releases additional energy in the form of beta particles, antineutrinos, and ... Thus in the 50.5 days it takes half the 89Sr atoms to decay, emitting the same number of beta particles as there were decays, ... Fission products emit beta radiation, while actinides primarily emit alpha radiation. Many of each also emit gamma radiation. ...

*Diamond battery

C-14 undergoes beta decay giving non-radioactive nitrogen and high energy beta particles. 614C → 714N + −10β These beta ... This can be restated in terms of band theory by saying that due to the high energy of the beta particles, electrons in the ... C-14 has been chosen as the source of radioactivity mainly because its beta particle radiation is easily absorbed by any solid ... "Nuclear Reactions/Beta Decay". libretexts.org. libretexts.org. "Flash Physics: Nuclear diamond battery, M G K Menon dies, four ...

*Selenium-79

The low specific activity and relatively low energy of its beta particle have been said to limit the radioactive hazards of ... Se-79 decays by emitting a beta particle with no attendant gamma radiation. ...

*Isotopes of helium

Helium-6 decays by emitting a beta particle and has a half-life of 0.8 seconds. Helium-7 also emits a beta particle as well as ... Trace amounts are also produced by the beta decay of tritium. In stars, however, 3 He is more abundant, a product of nuclear ... 10 He , despite being a doubly magic isotope, has a very short half-life as it is not particle-bound and near-instantaneously ... The most common isotope, 4 He , is produced on Earth by alpha decay of heavier radioactive elements; the alpha particles that ...

*Safe Drinking Water Act

EPA has issued standards for alpha particles, beta particles and photon emitters, radium and uranium. EPA proposed regulations ...

*Muon tomography

The drift tubes measure particle coordinates in X and Y with a typical accuracy of several hundred micrometers. The MMT can be ... Some waste form may be difficult and/or impossible to measure and characterize (i.e. encapsulated alpha/beta emitters, heavily ... The scattering provides a novel method for obtaining radiographic information with charged particle beams. More recently, ... Marchant, Jo (November 2, 2017). "Cosmic-Ray Particles Reveal Secret Chamber in Egypt's Great Pyramid". Nature Magazine. ...
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Definition of beta radiation in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is beta radiation? Meaning of beta radiation as a finance term. What does beta radiation mean in finance?
Other articles where Cerium-144 is discussed: poison: Local toxicities of common beta-particle emitters: …the isotopes strontium-90, iodine-131, and cerium-144 emit beta particles that are not distributed evenly in the body. Strontium-90 releases only beta particles, while iodine-131 and cerium-144 release both beta particles and gamma rays, but their toxicities are primarily caused by the beta particles. These radioisotopes produce toxicities in the tissues…
Vienna; 2007 PMID 16971011 -- "Randomized comparison between intracoronary beta-radiation brachytherapy and implantation of paclitaxel-eluting stents for the treatment of diffuse in-stent restenosis." (Schukro C, Radiother Oncol. 2007 Jan;82(1):18-23. Epub 2006 Sep 12.). F/U 6 months ...
An intraoperative probe system for preferentially detecting beta radiation over gamma radiation emitted from a radiopharmaceutical is described. In one embodiment, the probe system of the present invention is a probe having an ion-implanted silicon charged-particle detector for generating an electrical signal in response to received beta particles. In such an embodiment, a preamplifier may be located in close proximity to the detector filters and amplifies the electrical signal. Furthermore, a wire may be used to couple the probe to a processing unit for amplifying and filtering the electrical signal, and a counter may be utilized to analyze the resulting electrical signal to determine the number of beta particles being received by the detector. Alternatively, the wire can be replaced with an infrared or radio transmitter and receiver for wireless operation of the probe.
To further complicate the issue, different radioisotopes give off different kinds of radiation-alpha, beta, gamma, X ray, or neutron emissions-all of which behave differently. Alpha emitters, such as plutonium and radon, are intensely ionizing but dont penetrate very far and generally cant get through the dead layers of cells covering skin. But when they are inhaled from the air or ingested from radiation-contaminated food or water, they emit high-energy particles that can do serious damage to the cells of sensitive internal soft tissues and organs. The lighter, faster-moving beta particles can penetrate far more deeply than alpha particles, though sheets of metal and heavy clothing can block them. Beta particles are also very dangerous when inhaled or ingested. Strontium-90 and tritium, a radioactive form of hydrogen, are both beta emitters. Gamma radiation is a form of electromagnetic energy like X rays, and it passes through clothing and skin straight into the body. A one-inch shield of ...
Slide 8: What are three types of nuclear radiation?. Alpha decay. Beta decay. Gamma decay. Slide 9: What is an alpha particle?. An alpha particle is a postively charged particle that is emited from the nucleus of an atom.. Slide 10: What is a beta particle?. A beta particle is a high energy electron that is emiited from the nucleus of an atom. Slide 11: What is gamma radiation. Gamma radiation is high energy electromagnetic radiation.. What to do now?. 1. Animate the points in your slide 2. Answer the Summary Questions on a slide. ...
Among patients with in-stent restenosis, treatment with the RDX beta radiation balloon following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was associated with a reduction in the primary end point of MACE at nine months, and with a reduction in restenosis at nine-month angiographic follow-up. The reduction in MACE was driven almost exclusively by a reduction in TVR, with no difference observed in death or MI. Despite the positive results of the BRITE II trial, the presenter indicated the RDX system is not likely to reach the market, due to commercial consideration ...
Some materials give off radiation. We call those materials "radioactive". Radioactive materials are often dangerous to people and other living things.. There are many different kinds of radioactive materials. Some give off particle radiation, like alpha or beta particles or neutron radiation. Some give off electromagnetic radiation, such as gamma rays or X-rays.. Most elements come in various "versions", called isotopes. Some isotopes are radioactive. Other isotopes are not. Isotopes that are not radioactive are called "stable" isotopes. During radioactive decay, a radioactive isotope gives off some type of radiation. The isotope is transformed into a different isotope or sometimes into a different element. For example, carbon-14 is a rare isotope of carbon. Carbon-14 is radioactive. When a carbon-14 atom decays, it gives off a beta particle. The carbon-14 atom is transformed into a nitrogen atom.. Radioactive isotopes can be dangerous to living things. They can also cause damage to equipment ...
Principle of operation:Geiger Counter detects beta particles and gamma rays and X, called ionizing radiation, with great sensitivity. It has Beta particles, and ionization creat
These particles are negatively charged and largely deflected by magnetic and electric field. The speed of it is 50% of the speed of light but it can be inc
Feasibility of photoelectron sources for testing the energy scale stablity of the KATRIN beta-ray spectrometer - Nuclear Experiment. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Beta attenuation monitoring (BAM) is a widely used air monitoring technique employing the absorption of beta radiation by solid particles extracted from air flow. This technique allows for the detection of PM10 and PM2.5, which are monitored by most air pollution regulatory agencies. The main principle is based on a kind of Bouguer (Lambert-Beer) law: the amount by which the flow of beta radiation (electrons) is attenuated by a solid matter is exponentially dependent on its mass and not on any other feature (such as density, chemical composition or some optical or electrical properties) of this matter. So, the air is drawn from outside of the detector through an "infinite" (cycling) ribbon made from some filtering material so that the particles are collected on it. There are two sources of beta radiation placed one before and one after the region where air flow passes through the ribbon leaving particles on it; and there are also two detectors on the opposite side of the ribbon, facing the ...
The Environmental Protection Agency recommends reverse osmosis water treatment to remove radioactive isotopes that emit beta-particle radiation. But iodine-131, a beta emitter, is typically present in water as a dissolved gas, and reverse osmosis is known to be ineffective at capturing gases. A combination of technologies, however, may remove most or [...]
Esco Frontier® Radioisotope™ Fume Hood is designed to be used when handling radioactive materials. This specialized fume hood is built with stainless steel internal surfaces (including the work surface) with coved seamless welded corners for easy cleaning and decontamination. Frontier® Radioisotope™ fume hoods have been engineered to provide maximum safety while using low level Alpha and lower level Beta particles. In addition, these hoods provide containment performance similar to that of high performance low velocity fume hoods.. ...
C a radioactive isotope of normal carbon (12C) emitting a weak beta particle. The half-life of 14C is 5,700 years. This radioisotope is extensively used as a tracer in molecular biology.. null ...
C a radioactive isotope of normal carbon (12C) emitting a weak beta particle. The half-life of 14C is 5,700 years. This radioisotope is extensively used as a tracer in molecular biology. ...
a) Beta decay - most common type of decay in lighter elements. It is caused when a nucleus has unstable neutron-proton ratio (based on Pauli exclusion principle). It has two variations, β- changes a neutron into a proton, and β+ changes a proton into a neutron - emitting beta particles(leptons) in both case. The number of particles in the nucleus stays the same, only the quantity of protons protons changes. Very similar to beta decay is the process of electron capture, which absorbs one of the atoms own inner electrons and changes one of its protons into a neutron ...
... a radioactive process in which a beta particle is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, raising the atomic number of the atom by one if the particle is nega
Page 686 from E. Rutherford, The scattering of alpha and beta particles by matter and the structure of the atom, Philosophical Magazine, volume 21 (1911), pages 669-688. ...
ISO 21439:2009 specifies methods for the determination of absorbed-dose distributions in water or tissue that are required prior to initiating procedures for the application of beta radiation in ophthalmic tumour and intravascular brachytherapy]. Recommendations are given for beta-radiation source calibration, dosemetry measurements, dose calculation, dosemetric quality assurance, as well as for beta-radiation brachytherapy treatment planning. Guidance is also given for estimating the uncertainty of the absorbed dose to water. ISO 21439:2009 is applicable to "sealed" radioactive sources, such as plane and concave surface sources, source trains of single seeds, line sources, shell and volume sources, for which only the beta radiation emitted is of therapeutic relevance.. The standardization of procedures in clinical dosemetry described in ISO 21439:2009 serves as a basis for the reliable application of beta-radiation brachytherapy. The specific dosemetric methods described in ISO 21439:2009 apply ...
sources]. Typically, when radiation treatment is recommended for cancer patients, doctors are able to choose from several radiopharmaceuticals that use low-energy radiation particles, known as beta particles.. For years, scientists have been studying how to use "alpha particles," which are radioactive particles that contain a large amount of energy, in cancer treatments.. The challenges to using alpha particles, which are more than 7,000 times heavier than beta particles, include confining the powerful alpha particles in a designated location inside the body while preventing radiation from wandering to healthy organs and tissues.. "If you think of beta particles as slingshots or arrows, alpha particles would be similar to cannon balls," says J. David Robertson, director of research at the University of Missouri Research Reactor and professor of chemistry in the College of Arts and Science.. "Scientists have had some successes using alpha particles recently, but nothing that can battle different ...
The amplitude of the electron spin resonance (ESR) peak at g = 2.0018 for hydroxyapatite of fossil tooth enamel can be used to measure the acquired radiation dose (AD) and thus the time (T) since burial of the tooth in a sediment. No significant fading or saturation occurs up to at least 1 Ma, permitting dating of middle Pleistocene deposits. AD is determined by the additive-dose method, using a sufficiently large modulation amplitude to avoid the interference of organic free radicals, and a logarithmic transformation of the ESR intensity to correct for saturation effects. AD increases through time as a result of (1) constant irradiation by U, K, and Th in the surrounding sediment and by cosmic rays; (2) external irradiation by beta particles from U in the dentine; and (3) alpha and beta particles from U in the enamel. We derive an expression for AD(T) taking into account (1) approach to equilibrium between U and its long-lived daughters; and (2) T-dependent (early or linear) uptake of U by ...
Glycogen, a highly branched polymer of glucose, functioning as a blood-glucose buffer. It comprises relatively small beta particles, which may be joined as larger aggregate alpha particles. The molecular size distributions from size-exclusion chromatography of liver glycogen from non-diabetic and diabetic mice show that diabetic mice have impaired alpha particle formation in liver glycogen, with diabetic mice unable to form as many large glycogen particles as non-diabetic controls. Glycogen structure is analysed during degradation by acid hydrolysis and by glycogen phosphorylase, from the size distributions, obtained using size-exclusion chromatography, of pig-liver glycogen and phytoglycogen as functions of time and size. These experiments show that alpha particles degrade via a different mechanism to that of the smaller beta particles, indicating a different type of chemical bonding (most likely proteinaceous). This shows that diabetic mice, which have been shown to lack the larger alpha ...
To use 2-DG with such a scanner, however, it had to be tagged with a gamma-emitting isotope, rather than 14C. When radioactive isotopes decay, they give off alpha, beta, or gamma radiation, or positrons. (Alpha particles are protons and neutrons; beta particles are electrons; gamma radiation is light waves or photons; positrons are electron-sized particles that have a positive charge.) In a tracer substance containing a gamma-emitting isotope, positrons escape from the nuclei of the decaying radioactive atoms with a kinetic energy that drives them through the tissue. Moving through the tissue, they soon interact with the nearest negatively charged electrons. The two types of particles annihilate each other, and each collision produces two gamma rays. The two gamma rays move away from the point of annihilation with the speed of light in almost exactly opposite directions, at approximately 180 degrees with respect to each other. By placing two shielded detectors opposite each other in a line and ...
Instead of generating current by absorbing electrons at the outermost layer of a thin sheet, surfaces deep within these porous silicon wafers accommodate a much larger amount of incoming radiation. In early tests, nearly all electrons emitted during the tritiums beta decay were absorbed. There were a number of practical reasons for selecting tritium as the source of energy, says co-author Larry Gadeken of BetaBatt - particularly safety and containment. "Tritium emits only low energy beta particles (electrons) that can be shielded by very thin materials, such as a sheet of paper," says Gadeken. "The hermetically-sealed, metallic BetaBattery cases will encapsulate the entire radioactive energy source, just like a normal battery contains its chemical source so it cannot escape." Even if the hermetic case were to be breached, adds Gadeken, the source material the team is developing will be a hard plastic that incorporates tritium into its chemical structure. Unlike a chemical paste, the plastic ...
Liquid scintillation counting (LS Counting) is a laboratory-based technique that uses a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) to count the radioactive emissions from a liquid sample. It is often used in the biological sciences to measure the uptake of radioactive isotopes into biological materials. The different forms of an element are called isotopes.. For instance, the nucleus of the element phosphorus has 15 protons but it may contain differing numbers of neutrons. If it has 13 neutrons it is called 28P (15 + 13 = 28) and if it has 19 neutrons it is called 34P. In fact phosphorus exists as 7 different isotopes:. 28P, 29P, 30P, 31P,32P, 33P, 34P. 31P is the most abundant form and is stable whereas the other isotopes may be unstable and emit radioactivity. In the case of 32P, a beta particle is emitted.. LSC is a method of counting radioactive emissions from a limited range of radionuclides. The common isotopes used include:. ...
Medical definition of iron-59: a heavy radioisotope of iron that has a mass number of 59 and a half-life of 45.1 days, emits beta particles and gamma…
Radioactive elements such as uranium and barium, release excess energy in the form of particles or waves. Alpha particles, Beta particles, and gamma r...
Characterization of the Water-Equivalence of Phantom Materials for Sr-90/Y-90 Beta Particles Using the Novoste Beta-CathTM System ...
Landing an aircraft is a high precision job. A pilot and co pilot with the help of air traffic control must do this job meticulously every time .They are not afford to make any mistake .Number of lives are at stake. In cath lab something similar happens every day although a single life is…
Inclusions are considered to be nonliving components of the cell that do not possess metabolic activity and are not bounded by membranes. The most common inclusions are glycogen, lipid droplets, crystals and pigments.[1] Glycogen: Glycogen is the most common form of glucose in animals and is especially abundant in cells of muscles, and liver. It appears in electron micrograph as clusters, or rosette of beta particles that resemble ribosomes, located near the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.[1] Glycogen is an important energy source of the cell; therefore, it will be available on demand. The enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis degrade glycogen into individual molecules of glucose and can be utilized by multiple organs of the body.[2][3] Lipids: Lipids are triglycerides in storage form is the common form of inclusions, not only are stored in specialized cells (adipocytes) but also are located as individuals droplets in various cell type especially hepatocytes.[1] These are fluid at body ...
Iodine-131, for example, can be ingested into the thyroid, where it emits beta particles (electrons) that damage tissue. A plague of damaged thyroids has already been reported among as many as 40 percent of the children in the Fukushima area. That percentage can only go higher. In developing youngsters, it can stunt both physical and mental growth. Among adults it causes a very wide range of ancillary ailments, including cancer ...
Question 3: Nickel-56 is produced in large quantities in type Ia supernovae and the shape of the light curve of these supernovae corresponds to the decay via beta radiation of nickel-56 to ________-56 and then to iron-56. ...
We have previously shown that in situ beta radiation prevents recanalization after coil embolization.1 This process seems to occur soon after coil implantation into canine arteries, and if recanalization is inhibited for 3 weeks, arteries remain occluded at 3 months.1 We thus limited the period of observation to 4 weeks for most animals of the present experiments. The coil arterial occlusion model is simple and reliable. Multiple devices (up to 6) can be compared within the same animal. Coil occlusions routinely recanalize, and, as such, this model is well suited to evaluate coil modification strategies designed to inhibit recanalization. This model is not subject to variations of residual flow found after embolization at the neck of aneurysmal models, which can confuse follow-up results.. The present study emphasizes the strength of the recanalization process after coil occlusion of canine arteries, which occurred routinely regardless of coil caliber, coil length, resulting packing density, and ...
An electron microscopic study was performed on a conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in an 82-year-old man. Biopsies were taken before and during beta-irradiation and the morphologic features of nonirradiated tumor cells were compared to those after application of 10,000 rad. There occur striking changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm after irradiation. The nuclei show hypertrophic and electron-dense nucleoli as well as altered chromatin structures. The cytoplasm of many cells appears destroyed and contains numerous vacuole-like structures, as well as swollen mitochondria. It is of interest that numerous normal lymphoid cells were present within the irradiated tumor.
This study is the first to show that platelet activation is increased by the brachytherapy currently applied in clinical practice. A notable increase was found after brachytherapy compared with PCI without irradiation. We have previously identified increased platelet activation after conventional PCI as an independent risk factor for acute ischaemic events.20 The data on radiation delivery devices submitted for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval showed that patients treated with radiation benefit from a reduction in recurrent stenosis but also have the disadvantage of an increased rate of thrombotic events.192324 Thrombotic occlusions are associated with increased mortality after PCI21 and an increased risk of myocardial infarctions after VBT.1419232526 The increase in platelet activation after brachytherapy is not suppressed by concomitant treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. Both drugs were given to all 23 patients three to four weeks before elective brachytherapy. In the group ...
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus. During those processes, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay.[1] These emissions are considered ionizing radiation because they are powerful enough to liberate an electron from another atom. The radioactive decay can produce a stable nuclide or will sometimes produce a new unstable radionuclide which may undergo further decay. Radioactive decay is a random process at the level of single atoms: it is impossible to predict when one particular atom will decay.[2][3][4][5] However, for a collection of atoms of a single element the decay rate, and thus the half-life (t1/2) for that ...
Yes, energy is released in this reaction even though the total amount of nucleons in the two new atoms are still the same. Why? Well, the textbook says that when an element transmutates, energy is released in three forms: gamma radiation, the kinetic energy of the alpha or beta particle, and the kinetic energy of the new element. In addition, gamma radiation is massless energy. So if the radium particle emitted gamma rays, its mass would not be affected, even though energy was released ...
We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the diagnosis of chronic Achilles tendinosis (degenerative changes) with a long duration of symptoms despite conventional nonsurgical treatment. Calf muscle strength and the amount of pain during activity (recorded on a visual analog scale) were measured before onset of training and after 12 weeks of eccentric training. At week 0, all patients had Achilles tendon pain not allowing running activity, and there was significantly lower eccentric and concentric calf muscle strength on the injured compared with the noninjured side. After the 12-week training period, all 15 patients were back at their preinjury levels with full running activity. There was a significant decrease in pain during activity, and the calf muscle strength on the injured side had increased significantly and did not differ significantly from that of the noninjured ...
Well-type re-entrant ionization chamber calibrations are performed for High Dose Rate (HDR) 192Ir, Low Dose Rate (LDR) Sources (see Brachytherapy Manufacturers), Intravascular Brachytherapy (IVBT) (Novoste), and Electronic Brachytherapy Sources (EBT ...
John Mignano, MD, PhD, brings his expertise as a radiation oncologist to the Boston Gamma Knife Center team. A board-certified member of the American Board of Radiology, Dr. Mignano trained at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and at Tufts Medical Center. His special areas of interest include brain tumors and intravascular brachytherapy. Dr. Mignano is co-medical director of the Boston Gamma Knife Center ...
The Centers individualized, patient-focused care and expertise make it a unique regional resource for healthcare providers and their patients with complex cardiac diseases-and it has one of the lowest mortality rates in the country, at rates 71 percent lower than the national average. The Angioplasty Center is also the only hospital in the tri-state area and one of only 20 centers nationwide to offer a procedure called coronary brachytherapy.. Brachytherapy is an intervention for stent restenosis, which occurs in less than 10 percent of procedures with the newer medicated stents. In these rare cases, scar tissue forms in the artery after an angioplasty, creating a new blockage.. Jeffersons cardiologists were among the first in the world to perform brachytherapy. Jefferson was a participating center and the national core angiography laboratory for the Beta-Cath device, a temporary catheter inserted in the coronary artery that delivers short bursts of beta-radiation to an area only a few ...
Tritium paint has been utilized around the hands and numerals of watches because the 1930s. Initially fraxel treatments was Key and limited to experience military watches.. Tritium paint on watches is a combination of tritium and phospor. Tritium is of course radio-active and requires no exterior light or charge to operate. Tritium doesnt glow. Because it decays, tritium emits beta radiation, that are several excited electrons that consequently excite the electron within the phosphor atoms which makes them emit photons, or light. Because they go back to their ground (non-excited) condition, the phosphor glows. Phosphor may also be excited by Ultra violet sunlight or any other light sources. Thus, the tritium paint depends on tritium radioactivity to help make the phosphor glow at nighttime, no charge from exterior source of light.. Tritium, includes a half existence of 12.three years, one half-existence is just the time that it takes 1 / 2 of the tritium to decay. In order lengthy as theres ...
At three-year follow-up target lesion revascularisation was significantly less in the 192Ir group (15.4% vs 48.3%; P ,0.01). The dichotomous restenosis rate at 3 years was also significantly less in 192Ir patients (33% vs 64%; P ,0.05). No events occurred at either the 6 months or 3 year follow-up to suggest an adverse effect of vascular radiotherapy. ...
free download. RadiationHelper RadiationHelper is a data analysis tool for : 1. gross alpha and beta radiation measurement and...
ELECTRON CAPTURE DETECTOR 1.) A very sensitive detector for the presence of certain classes of molecules, most notably chlorine-containing molecules. It is based on a steady current produced by a long-lived beta-emitter and the measurable perturbations in that current caused by the presence of small quantities of molecules that scavenge or capture the electrons. 2.) A detector for electron capture decay ...
Radiation can harm either the whole body (somatic damage) or eggs and sperm (genetic damage). Its effects are more pronounced in cells that reproduce rapidly, such as the stomach lining, hair follicles, bone marrow, and embryos. This is why patients undergoing radiation therapy often feel nauseous or sick to their stomach, lose hair, have bone aches, and so on, and why particular care must be taken when undergoing radiation therapy during pregnancy.. Different types of radiation have differing abilities to pass through material ([link]). A very thin barrier, such as a sheet or two of paper, or the top layer of skin cells, usually stops alpha particles. Because of this, alpha particle sources are usually not dangerous if outside the body, but are quite hazardous if ingested or inhaled (see the Chemistry in Everyday Life feature on Radon Exposure). Beta particles will pass through a hand, or a thin layer of material like paper or wood, but are stopped by a thin layer of metal. Gamma radiation is ...
Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. Radioluminescence is used as a low level light source for night illumination of instruments or signage or other applications where light must be produced for long periods without external energy sources. Radioluminescent paint used to be used for clock hands and instrument dials, enabling them to be read in the dark. Radioluminescence is also sometimes seen around high-power radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioisotopes. Radioluminescence occurs when an incoming particle of ionizing radiation collides with an atom or molecule, exciting an orbital electron to a higher energy level. The particle usually comes from the radioactive decay of an atom of a radioisotope, an isotope of an element which is radioactive. The electron then returns to its ground energy level by emitting the extra energy as a photon of light. ...
Radiocarbon refers to a radioactive isotope of carbon. Neutrons from sunrays collide with nitrogen in Earths upper atmosphere to form radiocarbon, which steadily emits beta particles until it all reverts to stable nitrogen. The calculated shelf life for radiocarbon atoms does not exceed 100,000 years. Thus, detectable radiocarbon within a given sample would become nitrogen before then.1. Scientists expect no radiocarbon in samples they deem older than 100,000 years. Most dating experts call these materials "carbon dead" regardless of their actual radiocarbon content. Then they use low (but not dead) radiocarbon materials as background blanks.2 Most results on this chart show fewer than 47,000 carbon years-the age of many labs background blanks. Thus, nearly 60 samples of fossils (mostly bone), wood, coal, and marble not only fail to fit their evolutionary ages, but they have more radiocarbon than the supposedly carbon- depleted background.. Scientists expect no radiocarbon in samples they deem ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Let me start with an explanation of the famous E = mc2 thing. It says that the total energy of a body at rest is equal to the product of its rest mass m and a suitable conversion factor to transform from units of mass to units of energy. In other words, this equation says that matter and energy are convertible. This conversion actually happens! Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into lighter nuclei often producing free neutrons and protons (in the form of gamma rays). Such splitting of an atom releases an incredible amount of heat and gamma radiation, or radiation made of high-energy photons. The two atoms that result from the fission later release beta radiation (super fast electrons) and gamma radiation of their own as well. The energy released by a single fission comes from the fact that the fission products and the neutrons, together, weigh less than the original U-235 atom. The difference in weight is converted directly to energy at a rate governed ...
The Quality Control Department consists of laboratories for radiometric measurements, chemical analysis and microbiological control. The laboratories are equipped with the necessary modern equipment, which allows to monitor separate production stages from input control of raw products, materials, additional substances, packaging, semi-finished products and on out to finished radiopharmaceuticals control. Such modern analysis methods as gamma-ray and beta-ray spectrometry, physicochemical analysis methods, e.g. atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometry, or liquid, gas, and thin layer chromatography and so on, as well as various methods of microbiological control, are used for end product testing.. Volumetric and total activity control, radionuclide identification, radionuclide purity check of radioactive raw materials, test of semi-finished and end products test on compliance with the regulatory documents are held in the radiometric measurements laboratory.. In the ...
With regards to the safeguards in place, they are cheap and required by law. If uranium was that unsafe they would completely discontinue use during training - as was done with lead ammunition. What do you think is cheaper, using a few simple precautionary measures - or defending a lawsuit, even a frivilous one? Also, Uranium-238 does not emit any beta radiation - only alpha and gamma. Some daughter products do - but given the extremely long half life (and hence low radioactivity) these are ucommon in "fresh" DU - which is what you are most likely to come into contact with. Any radiation meter can detect very small amounts of radiation (and very few can easily distinguish between alpha and beta) - and make that look like a very big deal. I dont know what kind of building you work in - but if it is made of stone/granite/marble I would suggest you take a good close up reading on the wall someday. Depending on its origin, it is likely to be much more radioactive than 100% U-238. It is a fact that ...
Excitation of the 1049.8keV isomeric state (t1/2=11.4s, spin difference between ground and isomeric states ΔJ=8) in (176)Yb using Bremsstrahlung radiation is observed for the first time. In contrast to the photoexcitation of isomeric states in other nuclei with lower spin differences, where effective integrated cross-sections are of order tens to hundreds of barneV, an integrated cross-section of just 0.0484±0.066barneV is observed for (176)Yb.
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The two new atoms are called daughters. One typical daughter product is Xenon 135. Xenon is not the sister of a mythical warrior princess. Xenon is a colorless, heavy gas, that is chemically inactive. Xenon 135 is produced as a byproduct of nuclear fission in reactors and is notorious among nuclear scientist because it poisons nuclear chain reactions. Xenon 135 is very radioactive, but this also means that it has a short half life. In fact the half life of Xenon 135 is a little over 9 hours, and decays into Caesium 135. Caesium 135 is weakly radioactive. It has a half life, of 2.3 million years, and then it decays by releasing a weak beta particle, and is transformed into barium 135. Barium 135 is stable. Because other, more dangerous, isotopes of Caesium are produced in chain reactions, Caesium 135 comming out of nuclear fuel is a candidate for long term disposal ...
of the element. Thus thee flight of charged particles was often simply called alpha radiation. Radium emitted other forms of radiation but Martland calculated that more than 90 percent of the particles shooting out of radium came from alpha radiation. This wasnt all that bad: alpha particles were in their way rather wishy-washy bits of atomic energy. They could be stopped by a sheet of paper, a layer of clothing, even the upper layer of dead cells that overlay the skin. The other forms of radiation were actually more formidable. Beta radiation easily sliced through paper but could be stopped by a sheet of aluminum; the hurtle of gamma radiation could only be blocked by a dense material like lead.. But inside the body, as Martland would soon realize, alpha radiation created a precisely engineered internal poisoning. The radium dust noted by the Harvard team posed a definite hazard because it could be inhaled. But the reason that the hard-working dial painters were so much sicker than others in ...
We ensure the sterilization of the most common commercially available methods and can of course also arrange the necessary validations to achieve sterility as defined in the Medical Devices Directive. We work with several sterilization plants in Europe depending on the need of our customer. Various processes are suitable for different materials and packaging configurations. Please consult us at an early stage of product development to obtain the best result.. Beta Radiation. Beta rays are electronically generated electrons that are accelerated into high speed. The penetration of the material is restricted and that is why the method is mainly used for low density products. The process is fast and is therefore well suited for large volumes. It may however result in discoloration of glass and plastics. During the irradiation process there is some heating issues of the material to consider. The size of the outer packaging is limited by the radiation penetration capability.. Gamma irradiation. Gamma ...
Dr Christopher Parker, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, UK and colleagues did a study of 64 patients with HRPC. Radium 223 was chosen because it emits alpha radiation - which has higher energy and travels less distance than the beta radiation. Thus Parker and colleagues believe that alpha radiation will have a more pronounced localised effect on tumours.. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the first, 33 received external-beam radiotherapy and up to four injections of radium-223. The other group received the same radiotherapy and placebo. Levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP) - considered a marker for progression of HRPC - decreased by 66% in the group receiving radium-223. The length of time for patients HRPC to progress - as assessed by each prostate-specific-antigen concentration - was much longer for those receiving radium 223 (26 weeks) compared to placebo (eight weeks). The median survival time for radium-223 patients was 41% ...
A method has been developed to characterize large populations of individual respirable particles. With the use of custom data collection and data correlation computer software, the same set of particles can be analyzed in multiple instruments. The method is demonstrated by the analysis of a sample of hard-metal particles. A series of particles are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy, and then
0038] Designing or adjusting the characteristics of the drilling fluid will typically include the following steps: [0039] A desired amount of untreated drilling fluid is carried into the mixing tank 17 through the supply line 19; [0040] The need of additive(s) is determined from measured or known properties of the drilling fluid supplied and from desired properties. Samples may be taken, for example, from drilling fluid which is in the mixing tank 17 or from any point along the lines 5, 7, 15; [0041] The pumping device 13 sucks drilling fluid from the mixing tank 17 and through the mixing chamber 3 while, at the same time, relevant dosing devices 9, 9 are operated into delivering doses of additives; [0042] Drilling fluid with additive(s) added is carried downstream of the pumping device 13 through the return line 15 and back into the mixing tank 17. Samples are taken at set intervals from one or more points mentioned above; [0043] When the desired amount of drilling fluid has achieved the ...
meet the daughter product. "89Sr is an artificial radioisotope which is used in treatment of bone cancer. In circumstances where cancer patients have widespread and painful bony metastases, the administration of 89Sr results in the delivery of beta particles directly to the area of bony problem, where calcium turnover is greatest.". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_strontium. and it becomes. "Yttrium has no known biological role, though it is found in most, if not all, organisms and tends to concentrate in the liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and bones of humans.[39] There is normally as little as 0.5 milligrams found within the entire human body; human breast milk contains 4 ppm.[40] Yttrium can be found in edible plants in concentrations between 20 ppm and 100 ppm (fresh weight), with cabbage having the largest amount.[40] With up to 700 ppm, the seeds of woody plants have the highest known concentrations.[40]". and this. "Water soluble compounds of yttrium are considered mildly toxic, ...
Sentinel node biopsy utilizing Technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid is rapidly becoming a standard part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. Although this method is effective in identifying sentinel lymph node(s) in the axilla, the non-tumor-specific nature of colloids necessitates removal of the node(s) for subsequent analysis. Tumor-specific radiotracers, such as positron-emitting Fluorine-18-labeled Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), have been used with positron emission tomography (PET) to successfully stage breast cancer. Thus, the use of FDG with a handheld probe optimized for detection of beta particles could perhaps help identify cancer-infiltrated nodes during axillary dissection. In this study the ability of a new solid-state beta-sensitive probe to identify tumor- infiltrated lymph nodes was investigated in a phantom study. The axilla and tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes were simulated with gelatin phantoms containing FDG concentrations commonly reported from PET studies. FDG uptake in ...
X-ray equipment, we noted earlier, can be turned on and off, but the radioactive wastes that enter mans environment through nuclear weapons tests and the activity of nuclear reactors are essentially beyond human control. They contaminate air, water, and food, and they irradiate everyone, irrespective of age or health. Radioactive contaminants also create problems not encountered with conventional pollutants. Ordinary contaminants usually lose their toxic properties by undergoing chemical change, but there is no loss of radioactivity involved in the chemical reactions of radio-isotopes. When radiocarbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, the carbon in the compound continues to emit beta particles. The same is true for chemical compounds formed by strontium-90. Radioactivity persists in all radio-isotopes until unstable atoms decay into stable ones.. Until recently, the layman was given a highly misleading picture of the hazards created by nuclear weapons tests. This picture was largely ...
1. The patient has an in-stent restenosis of , 50% (by subjective angiographic determination of the minimal luminal diameter compared to the distal reference diameter) within a native coronary artery which has previously undergone stent placement ( 4 weeks). Lesions must meet ISR Classification I-III.. 2. The patient has a history, signs of, or laboratory studies that suggest coronary ischemia attributable to the target stenosis. The diagnosis of angina pectoris is defined by Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classification (CCS I, II, III, or IV) OR unstable angina pectoris (Braunwald Classification B&C, I-II) OR patients with documented silent ischemia;. 3. The study target lesion must be located in an in-stent restenotic native coronary artery measuring , 2.75mm and 3.5mm in diameter and , 15mm and 40mm in length to allow treatment with a maximum of three 18mm stents. The target lesion must have undergone coronary interventional treatment , 4 weeks previously. Patients with one or more prior ...
Gross alpha. Alpha particles are a type of ionizing radiation ejected by the nuclei of some unstable atoms. They are typically emitted from the elements uranium, radium, plutonium and thorium. The MCLG (federally recognized public health goal) for alpha particles is ZERO, however the legal limit (MCL) is set at 15 pCi/L (picocuries per liter). The EPA instructs water systems to "subtract" uranium from its "gross alpha" readings before they ae reported to you on an annual water quality report. This searchable database includes all results where Gross Alpha was reported in excess of 3.00 pCi/L. Gross beta. Beta particles are another form of ionizing radiation. They are smaller in size than alpha particles but can penetrate deeper into the body if consumed. The EPA says, "It is their excess energy, in the form of speed, that causes harm to living cells. When transferred, this energy can break chemical bonds and form ions." Some examples of the different types of elements that give off beta ...
The use of SES has been shown in randomised clinical trials to result in an in-stent lumen loss of −0.01 to 0.20 mm for de novo coronary lesions.6,7,8,9,10 Slightly higher lumen loss ranging from 0.12 (0.41) to 0.21 (0.62) mm has been reported in small registries with the use of SES for ISR lesions.21,22 In this study in-stent lumen loss in the SES group was 0.30 (0.49) mm if patients with failed IRT were included and 0.23 (0.41) mm if only patients with SES used for first time ISR were analysed. Thus, the results are comparable with those of previous studies on the use of SES for ISR.. It is important to note that not all ISR lesions have a similar risk of recurrence.13 This has to be considered if angiographic and clinical follow up results for different treatment modalities for ISR are compared. Most studies analysing the procedural and follow up results of different treatment strategies for ISR were not randomised or matched comparisons.23 In this study ISR lesions treated with SES were ...
The emitter unit projects UV light which is picked up by the receiver unit mounted across from it. When a ball rolls between the emitter and receiver units on your game, a break in the UV light beam translates to a switch signal in the games electronics. If you have an opto that isnt detecting when a ball rolls past it, chances are either your emitter or receiver opto unit is faulty ...
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states. The excited nucleus often decays immediately by emitting gamma rays, or particles such as beta particles, alpha particles, fission products, and neutrons (in nuclear fission). Thus, the process of neutron capture, even after any intermediate decay, often results in the formation of an unstable activation product. Such radioactive nuclei can exhibit half-lives ranging from small fractions of a second to many years.. Neutron activation is the only common way that a stable material can be induced into becoming intrinsically radioactive. All naturally occurring materials, including air, water, and soil, can be induced (activated) by neutron capture into some amount of radioactivity in varying degrees, as a result of production of neutron-rich radioisotopes. Some atoms require more than one neutron to become ...
IVUS recordings were performed on high-resolution S-VHS tape for offline analysis. All the images were interpreted by experienced technicians supervised by a cardiologist (J.C.T.) blinded to radiation dose. The IVUS studies were analyzed side by side. Great care was taken to ensure that the same and correct anatomic slice was measured in all IVUS studies. The fluoroscopic and angiographic images and audio commentary were used to determine the axial location of the ultrasound transducer and of IVUS landmarks relative to the angioplasty site and to side branches. The use of reproducible landmarks such as the aorto-ostial junction and a known pullback speed facilitated matching of the cross-sectional image. In addition, other IVUS landmarks (side branches, veins, calcifications, fibrotic deposits) were used to confirm matching of the anatomic slice in both studies by use of frame-by-frame review of the images. The cross section selected for serial analysis was the one at the angioplasty site with ...
ELI5: Whats actually happening when you miss someone so much you can physically feel it?Have you ever missed someone so much that it hu...
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said at a press conference Friday evening that the situation at the Fukushima nuclear plant, where leaks of radioactive materials and other serious problems are still emerging "still does not warrant optimism.". Heres a short summary of the most serious problems: Highly radioactive water in the basements of reactor 1, 2 and 3 suggests damage to the reactor pressure vessel. Yesterday three workers were exposed to water containing radioactive materials 10,000 times the normal level in the basement of the turbine building connected to the No. 3 reactor building. They were exposed to high levels of beta radiation after stepping in a puddle of water, which resulted in their being transported to the hospital with beta-burns. Two of them are likely to have suffered internal contamination. Today, highly radioactive water was also found in the basement of the No. 1 and No. 2 reactors turbine buildings.. The presence of highly radioactive water in the basement suggests ...
2000) Line structure in photoelectron and Auger electron of CuOx/Cu and Cu by Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS). In: 11th International Conference on Quantitative Surface Analysis, 3 - 7 July, Guildford, Surrey, UK. ...
From: Eric Auger ,[email protected], To: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Cc: [email protected], [email protected] Subject: [kvm-unit-tests PATCH v2 05/16] arm/arm64: ITS: Introspection tests Date: Fri, 10 Jan 2020 15:54:01 +0100 Message-ID: ,[email protected], (raw) In-Reply-To: ,[email protected], Detect the presence of an ITS as part of the GICv3 init routine, initialize its base address and read few registers the IIDR, the TYPER to store its dimensioning parameters. This is our first ITS test, belonging to a new its group. Signed-off-by: Eric Auger ,[email protected], --- v1 -, v2: - clean GITS_TYPER macros and unused fields in typer struct - remove memory attribute related macros --- arm/Makefile.common , 1 + arm/gic.c , 34 ++++++++++++++++ arm/unittests.cfg , 6 +++ lib/arm/asm/gic-v3-its.h , 81 ...
First, it is apparent that the expression is negative and therefore meaningless unless v > c/n, the phase velocity of the medium. Second, it is interesting to note that Cerenkov radiation is readily differentiated from Bremsstrahlung radiation because the intensity does not depend on the mass of the charged particle, whereas Bremsstrahlung radiation does. [2] Finally, given that the index of refraction of water does not vary much over the visible spectrum, the intensity goes linearly with frequency, explaining why Cerenkov radiation appears blue. [3] Later experimental studies corroborated agreement with the Frank and Tamm theory, apart from understood deviations such as ultraviolet absorption in water and second order effects. [4]. It is interesting to consider what the energy of an electron would need to be in order to observe Cerenkov radiation in air. Assuming a constant index of refraction of 1.0003 over the visible spectrum, the threshold velocity would be roughly 0.9997c. In this case, a ...
Imagine that the emitter supply voltage is turned down to zero. Then the intrinsic stand-off voltage reverse-biases the emitter diode, as mentioned above. If VB is the barrier voltage of the emitter diode, then the total reverse bias voltage is VA + VB = Ƞ VBB + VB. For silicon VB = 0.7 V.. Now let the emitter supply voltage VE be slowly increased. When VE becomes equal to Ƞ VBB, IEo will be reduced to zero. With equal voltage levels on each side of the diode, neither reverse nor forward current will flow. When emitter supply voltage is further increased, the diode becomes forward-biased as soon as it exceeds the total reverse bias voltage (Ƞ VBB + VB). This value of emitter voltage VE is called the peak-point voltage and is denoted by VP. When VE = VP, emitter current IE starts to flow through RB1 to ground, that is B1. This is the minimum current that is required to trigger the UJT. This is called the peak-point emitter current and denoted by IP. Ip is inversely proportional to the ...
Hendrik Deschout. Sep. 06, 2017Science Quantifying the Localization Precision of Single Fluorescent Emitters Knowing the precision with which single fluorescent emitters are localized is essential

Beta particle - WikipediaBeta particle - Wikipedia

A beta particle, sometimes called beta ray, denoted by the lower-case Greek letter beta (β), is a high-energy, high-speed ... Although the beta particles given off by different radioactive materials vary in energy, most beta particles can be stopped by ... He found that e/m for a beta particle is the same as for Thomsons electron, and therefore suggested that the beta particle is ... Strontium-90 is the material most commonly used to produce beta particles. Beta particles are also used in quality control to ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_particle

The Official Marathon 4 Beta Particle Feedback Loop - Mac Action & Shooters - Inside Mac Games ForumThe Official Marathon 4 Beta Particle Feedback Loop - Mac Action & Shooters - Inside Mac Games Forum

The Official Marathon 4 Beta Particle Feedback Loop - posted in Mac Action & Shooters: Mini-Update: Due to the time-traveling ... The Official Marathon 4 Beta Particle Feedback Loop. Started by Bernie, Jun 12 2005 04:41 AM ...
more infohttp://www.insidemacgames.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=20547&st=0

Beta (beta) particle | definition of beta (beta) particle by Medical dictionaryBeta (beta) particle | definition of beta (beta) particle by Medical dictionary

What is beta (beta) particle? Meaning of beta (beta) particle medical term. What does beta (beta) particle mean? ... beta) particle in the Medical Dictionary? beta (beta) particle explanation free. ... Beta (beta) particle , definition of beta (beta) particle by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/beta+(beta)+particle,beta (beta) particle,/a,. *Facebook ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/beta+

What is Beta Particle?What is Beta Particle?

These particles are negatively charged and largely deflected by magnetic and electric field. The speed of it is 50% of the ... beta particle in Science Expand. beta particle. A high-speed electron or positron, usually emitted by an atomic nucleus ... The motion of these particles can be stopped by a 3mm thick aluminum sheet. Beta particles can produce enough ionization in a ... These particles can produce fluorescence. Their penetrating power is more than that of the Alpha particles. ...
more infohttp://www.qsstudy.com/physics/what-is-beta-particle

Re: 3.0.1 beta E : particle IllusionRe: 3.0.1 beta E : particle Illusion

Join in the discussions at Creative COW where particle Illusion users exchange ideas in their online home. - particle Illusion ... The particle Illusion Community of the World (COW) is designed as a place where particle Illusion users can exchange ideas and ... 3.0.1 beta E by Alan Lorence on Dec 10, 2003 at 8:27:44 pm*Re: 3.0.1 beta E by tachylon on Dec 10, 2003 at 9:32:13 pm*Re: 3.0.1 ... Re: 3.0.1 beta E by Alan Lorence on Dec 11, 2003 at 2:17:46 pm*Re: 3.0.1 beta E by Roger Wilshaw on Dec 11, 2003 at 3:03:38 pm* ...
more infohttps://forums.creativecow.net/archivepost/23/466357

Effect of Beta Particles Spectrum on Absorbed Fraction in Internal RadiotherapyEffect of Beta Particles Spectrum on Absorbed Fraction in Internal Radiotherapy

The maximum difference between the absorbed fractions for beta particles accounting for the whole beta spectrum of all the ... In order to obtain the beta particle absorbed fraction, Monte Carlo simulations were performed by using the MCNPX code. The ... The absorbed fractions were calculated and compared by using an actual beta energy spectrum with those obtained through the ... The purpose of this research is to study the effect of beta spectrum on absorbed fraction ( ) and to find suitable analytical ...
more infohttp://aojnmb.mums.ac.ir/article_11610_1509.html

Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles - Document in All Levels PhysicsAlpha, Beta and Gamma Particles - Document in All Levels Physics

Home > All Levels > Physics > Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles. Detailes Document about the rays ... Beta particles ionise atoms that they pass, but not as strongly as alpha particles do. Alpha particles are made of 2 protons ... Beta particles have a medium penetrating power they are stopped by a sheet of aluminium or plastics such as perspex. ... beta rays ... consist of electrons of different speed between 108m/s and 0.999c0. Because of their negative charge, they are ...
more infohttps://getrevising.co.uk/resources/alpha_beta_and_gamma_particles

Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS from AMS...Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS from AMS...

... lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS from AMS Biotechnology (Archived ... Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS by AMS ... Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS. ... Ready-to-use lentivirus / lentiviral particles expressing beta-Lactamase gene (Blasticidin marker) concentrated in PBS ...
more infohttp://www.selectscience.net/products/ready-to-use-lentivirus-+-lentiviral-particles-expressing-beta-lactamase-gene-

Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability are modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients...Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability are modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients...

Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability are modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients ... Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability are modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients ...
more infohttp://www.rivm.nl/Documenten_en_publicaties/Wetenschappelijk/Wetenschappelijke_artikelen/2009/november/Associations_between_PM2_5_and_heart_rate_variability_are_modified_by_particle_composition_and_beta_blocker_use_in_patients_with_coronary_heart_disease

Radiation astronomy/Minerals - WikiversityRadiation astronomy/Minerals - Wikiversity

Beta particles[edit]. Main articles: Radiation astronomy/Beta particles, Beta particle astronomy, and Beta particles ... Beta-particles astronomy/Quiz · Blue astronomy/Quiz · Cloud astronomy quiz · Color astronomy quiz · Cometary astronomy quiz · ... Beta-particles astronomy · Blue astronomy · Cloud astronomy · Color astronomy · Cosmic radiation astronomy · Cryometeor ... Absorption astronomy · Acoustic astronomy · Aerometeor astronomy · Alpha-particle astronomy · Asteroid astronomy · Astronomy · ...
more infohttps://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Radiation_astronomy/Minerals

Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability area modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients...Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability area modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients...

Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability area modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients ...
more infohttp://www.julkari.fi/handle/10024/104739

Chemistry & Environmental Dictionary: BACT - Boiling Point (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)Chemistry & Environmental Dictionary: BACT - Boiling Point (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)

Positively charged beta particles are positrons and negatively charged beta particles are electrons. Beta particles can cause ... Beta Particle. a charged particle emitted from the nucleus of some atoms as part of those atoms radioactive decay. ...
more infohttps://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemistry/dictionary/B02.html

Beta rays | Article about Beta rays by The Free DictionaryBeta rays | Article about Beta rays by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Beta rays. one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivity radioactivity, ... spontaneous disintegration or decay of the nucleus of an atom by... Explanation of Beta rays ... the ordinary beta particle is β−).. beta particle. An energetic electron or positron ejected by beta decay.. beta particle. [′ ... beta particle. (redirected from Beta rays). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to Beta rays: Alpha rays ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Beta+rays

How many atoms are in Ca(NO3)2? | Reference.comHow many atoms are in Ca(NO3)2? | Reference.com

What is particle theory?. * Q: What is the definition of "beta particle"?. ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/many-atoms-ca-no3-2-951a687acd53fbf6

What is the wavelength of the photon emitted when a hydrogen atom goes from the second energy level to the first energy level? ...What is the wavelength of the photon emitted when a hydrogen atom goes from the second energy level to the first energy level? ...

... "beta particle"?. A: A beta particle is an electron emitted from the nucleus of an atom that has undergone beta decay. The ... electron is called a beta particle as a way of distin... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Particle Physics ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/wavelength-photon-emitted-hydrogen-atom-goes-second-energy-level-first-energy-level-70060b69be706f6c

HLA-DO beta siRNA (m), shRNA and Lentiviral Particle Gene Silencers | SCBT - Santa Cruz BiotechnologyHLA-DO beta siRNA (m), shRNA and Lentiviral Particle Gene Silencers | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology

... shRNA and Lentiviral Particle Gene Silencers are designed to knockdown gene expression of mouse HLA-DO beta ... HLA-DO beta siRNA and shRNA Plasmids (m)mouse HLA-DOβ-specific siRNA, shRNA Plasmid and Lentiviral Particle gene silencers. * ... Lentiviral Particles are provided as transduction-ready viral particles for gene silencing ... Lentiviral Particles generally contain three to five expression constructs each encoding target-specific 19-25 nt (plus hairpin ...
more infohttps://www.scbt.com/p/hla-dobeta-sirna-m-shrna-and-lentiviral-particle-gene-silencers/

GlossaryGlossary

beta particle: A beta particle is an energetic electron given off by atoms when the atoms have too much energy. Beta particles ... Beta particles are typically stopped by a few millimeters or about an eighth (1/8) of an inch of tissue; higher-energy beta ... alpha particle: An alpha particle is a particle with weight (it is made up of two protons and two neutrons) and charge (it is ... or subatomic particles (e.g., alpha or beta particles). ... Beta particles do have a charge-those that are negatively ...
more infohttps://www.radiationanswers.org/radiation-resources/glossary.html

CDC Radiation Emergencies | Glossary of Radiological TermsCDC Radiation Emergencies | Glossary of Radiological Terms

Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays affect tissue in different ways. Alpha particles disrupt more molecules ... Certain radioactive nuclei emit alpha particles. Alpha particles generally carry more energy than gamma or beta particles, and ... See also alpha particle, beta particle, gamma ray, nucleon, x-ray.. Non-ionizing radiation: radiation that has lower energy ... However, alpha particles and all but extremely high-energy beta particles are not considered penetrating radiation. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/emergencies/glossary.htm

Search Results -   - 1,276 Results - Digital LibrarySearch Results - - 1,276 Results - Digital Library

The Half-Life of Am²⁴²m for Negative Beta-Particle Emission Description: This report analyzes the americium-242m isotope and ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/search/?q5=%22Americium%22&

TITLE 42 THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARETITLE 42 THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

B) beta particles;. (C) neutrons;. (D) gamma rays; or. (E) accelerated ions or subatomic particles from accelerator machines. ... during a period when beryllium dust, particles, or vapor may have been present at such facility. ... scientific evidence supports the conclusion that occupational exposure to dust particles or vapor of beryllium can cause ...
more infohttps://www.dol.gov/owcp/energy/regs/compliance/law/EEOICPAALL.htm

Chernobyl GlossaryChernobyl Glossary

Beta particle High-energy electron emitted by radionuclide. Blanket Fuel elements surrounding the core in a fast-breeder ... Alpha particle Nucleus of the helium atom, consisting of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles are emitted from the ... Positively charged particle that is a constituent of a nucleus. Potassium iodide Is a chemical that when, ingested, readily ... Negatively charged particles that travel around the nucleus of an atom. Elephants Foot Formation of radioactive fuel inside of ...
more infohttp://www.angelfire.com/extreme4/kiddofspeed/journal/glossary.html

Beta ray | definition of beta ray by Medical dictionaryBeta ray | definition of beta ray by Medical dictionary

... beta ray explanation free. What is beta ray? Meaning of beta ray medical term. What does beta ray mean? ... Looking for online definition of beta ray in the Medical Dictionary? ... beta particle. An ionising electron or positron which is emitted from decaying radioactive nuclei during beta decay or beta ... Beta particles are equal in mass and charge to electrons.. β Abbreviation for beta. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/beta+ray
  • Biosafety - Lentiviral Particles are replication-incompetent and are designed to self-inactivate after transduction and integration of shRNA constructs into genomic DNA of target cells. (scbt.com)
  • 6) While linking exposure to occupational hazards with the development of occupational disease is sometimes difficult, scientific evidence supports the conclusion that occupational exposure to dust particles or vapor of beryllium can cause beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease. (dol.gov)
  • Notice that positrons are not considered here since as we noted in chapter 2 these particles do not last for very long in matter before they are annihilated. (wikibooks.org)
  • Effect of Beta Particles Spectrum on Absorbed Fraction in Internal Radiotherapy', Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Biology , 7(1), pp. 71-83. (ac.ir)
  • Objective(s): The purpose of this research is to study the effect of beta spectrum on absorbed fraction ( ) and to find suitable analytical functions for beta spectrum absorbed fractions in spherical and ellipsoidal volumes with a uniform distribution for several radionuclides that are commonly used in nuclear medicine. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusion: The results allowed the calculation of the absorbed fractions from the above stated beta sources uniformly distributed in spherical and ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in a wide range of practical volumes that are not only used for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, but also in radiological protection estimates of doses from internal contamination. (ac.ir)
  • The mass lost by nuclear particles when they come together to form a nucleus. (learner.org)
  • Although the beta particles given off by different radioactive materials vary in energy, most beta particles can be stopped by a few millimeters of aluminium. (wikipedia.org)
  • a quantum angular momentum associated with subatomic particles, which also creates a magnetic moment is called a spin . (wikiversity.org)
  • a subatomic particle corresponding to another particle with the same mass, spin and mean lifetime but with charge, parity, strangeness and other quantum numbers flipped in sign is called an antiparticle . (wikiversity.org)
  • The water discharged contained a maximum 24 becquerels per liter of radioactive substances emitting beta rays , lower than the allowable level of 30 becquerels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • TEPCO detected in the leaked water 80 million becquerels per liter of radioactive substances emitting beta rays , such as strontium-90, and admitted that it has not yet identified from which area of the tank the polluted water is escaping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tokyo, June 30 ( ANI ): High levels of radioactive substances, including strontium, emitting beta rays have been detected in groundwater taken from a well at the port of the Fukushima No. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The motion of these particles can be stopped by a 3mm thick aluminum sheet. (qsstudy.com)
  • Although they can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum, beta particles can penetrate the dead skin layer, potentially causing burns. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: The maximum difference between the absorbed fractions for beta particles accounting for the whole beta spectrum of all the considered nuclides was 29.62% with respect to the mean beta energy case. (ac.ir)
  • Suitable analytical relationships were found between the absorbed fraction and the generalized radius, and the dependence of the fitting parameters from beta spectrum energy was discussed and fitted by appropriate parametric functions. (ac.ir)
  • higher-energy beta particles will be stopped by approximately a centimeter or about a third (1/3) of an inch of tissue. (radiationanswers.org)
  • When a particle and its antiparticle collide, both are annihilated and energy is released. (learner.org)
  • Beta particles can cause burns and are harmful to living tissues, however, protection is afforded by a thin sheet of metal. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Strontium-90 is the material most commonly used to produce beta particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of strontium-90 Beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma. (ac.ir)
  • Beta particles have a medium penetrating power they are stopped by a sheet of aluminium or plastics such as perspex. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The path of beta-particles in matter is often described as being tortuous, since they tend to ricochet from atom to atom. (wikibooks.org)
  • These chambers often have an end window made of material thin enough, such as mylar, so that beta particles can enter the gas volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • the smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction. (cdc.gov)