Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta: A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Beta-Globulins: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Thymosin: Thymosin. A family of heat-stable, polypeptide hormones secreted by the thymus gland. Their biological activities include lymphocytopoiesis, restoration of immunological competence and enhancement of expression of T-cell characteristics and function. They have therapeutic potential in patients having primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases, cancer or diseases related to aging.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta: DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel beta Subunits: The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mice, Inbred BALB CNF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).DioxolesReceptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphotoxin beta Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (1/688)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Conversion of brain-specific complex type sugar chains by N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B. (2/688)

The N-linked sugar chains, GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(Manalpha1++ +-3)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcb eta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-1) and GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(GlcNAcbeta1 -2Manalpha1-3)Manb eta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-2), were recently found to be linked to membrane proteins of mouse brain in a development-dependent manner [S. Nakakita, S. Natsuka, K. Ikenaka, and S. Hase, J. Biochem. 123, 1164-1168 (1998)]. The GlcNAc residue linked to the Manalpha1-3 branch of BA-2 is lacking in BA-1 and the removal of this GlcNAc residue is not part of the usual biosynthetic pathway for N-linked sugar chains, suggesting the existence of an N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase. Using pyridylaminated BA-2 (BA-2-PA) as a substrate the activity of this enzyme was found in all four subcellular fractions obtained. The activity was much greater in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum. To further identify the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase, BA-1 and BA-2 in brain tissues of Hex gene-disrupted mutant mice were detected and quantified. PA-sugar chains were liberated from the cerebrum and cerebellum of the mutant mice by hydrazinolysis-N-acetylation followed by pyridylamination. PA-sugar chains were separated by anion-exchange HPLC, size-fractionation, and reversed-phase HPLC. Each peak was quantified by measuring the peaks at the elution positions of authentic BA-1-PA and BA-2-PA. BA-2-PA was detected in all the PA-sugar chain fractions prepared from Hexa, Hexb, and both Hexa and Hexb (double knockout) gene-disrupted mice, but BA-1 was not found in the fractions from Hexb gene-disrupted and double knockout mice. These results indicate that N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B encoded by the Hexb gene hydrolyzed BA-2 to BA-1.  (+info)

Changes in hyaluronidase, acrosin, and N-acetylhexosaminidase activities of dog sperm after incubation. (3/688)

Hyaluronidase, acrosin and N-acetylhexosaminidase activities were examined in sperm collected from 12 beagle dogs and in culture medium after 0.5 hr and 7 hr of sperm incubation. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher at 7 hr than at 0.5 hr (P < 0.05, 0.01), and the increases were associated with sperm capacitation. It was considered that the three enzymes in the dog sperm are related to fertilization by reason of the findings of the release of these enzymes from the sperm into the medium after 7 hr of incubation.  (+info)

Analysis of where and which types of proteinases participate in lysosomal proteinase processing using bafilomycin A1 and Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin. (4/688)

Lysosomal proteinases are translated as preproforms, transported through the Golgi apparatus as proforms, and localized in lysosomes as mature forms. In this study, we analyzed which subclass of proteinases participates in the processing of lysosomal proteinases using Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar ATPase inhibitor. Bafilomycin A1 raises lysosomal pH resulting in the degradation of lysosomal proteinases such as cathepsins B, D, and L. Twenty-four hours after the withdrawal of Bafilomycin A1, NIH3T3 cells possess these proteinases in amounts and activities similar to those in cells cultured in DMEM and 5% BCS. In the presence of various proteinase inhibitors, procathepsin processing is disturbed by E-64-d, resulting in abnormal processing of cathepsins D and L, but not by APMSF, Pepstatin A, or CA-074. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin, which prevents vesicular transport from late endosomes to lysosomes, the processing of procathepsins B and D occurs, while that of procathepsin L does not. Thus, procathepsins B and D are converted to their mature forms in late endosomes, while procathepsin L is processed to the mature form after its arrival in lysosomes by some cysteine proteinase other than cathepsin B.  (+info)

Structural basis for the resistance of Tay-Sachs ganglioside GM2 to enzymatic degradation. (5/688)

To understand the reason why, in the absence of GM2 activator protein, the GalNAc and the NeuAc in GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer) are refractory to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, we have recently synthesized a linkage analogue of GM2 named 6'GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->6(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer). While GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->4Gal linkage, 6'-GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->6Gal linkage (Ishida, H., Ito, Y., Tanahashi, E., Li, Y.-T., Kiso, M., and Hasegawa, A. (1997) Carbohydr. Res. 302, 223-227). We have studied the enzymatic susceptibilities of GM2 and 6'GM2, as well as that of the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4Galbeta1--> 4Glcbeta1-1'Cer) and 6'GM2. In addition, the conformational properties of both GM2 and 6'GM2 were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics computation. In sharp contrast to GM2, the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac of 6'GM2 were readily hydrolyzed by beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator. Among the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2, and 6'GM2, only the oligosaccharide from GM2 was resistant to beta-hexosaminidase A. Conformational analyses revealed that while GM2 has a compact and rigid oligosaccharide head group, 6'GM2 has an open spatial arrangement of the sugar units, with the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac freely accessible to external interactions. These results strongly indicate that the resistance of GM2 to enzymatic hydrolysis is because of the specific rigid conformation of the GM2 oligosaccharide.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene therapy of the Tay-Sachs disease in hexosaminidase A-deficient knock-out mice. (6/688)

The severe neurodegenerative disorder, Tays-Sachs disease, is caused by a beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit deficiency which prevents the formation of lysosomal heterodimeric alpha-beta enzyme, hexosaminidase A (HexA). No treatment is available for this fatal disease; however, gene therapy could represent a therapeutic approach. We previously have constructed and characterized, in vitro, adenoviral and retroviral vectors coding for alpha- and beta-subunits of the human beta-hexosaminidases. Here, we have determined the in vivo strategy which leads to the highest HexA activity in the maximum number of tissues in hexA -deficient knock-out mice. We demonstrated that intravenous co-administration of adenoviral vectors coding for both alpha- and beta-subunits, resulting in preferential liver transduction, was essential to obtain the most successful results. Only the supply of both subunits allowed for HexA overexpression leading to massive secretion of the enzyme in serum, and full or partial enzymatic activity restoration in all peripheral tissues tested. The enzymatic correction was likely to be due to direct cellular transduction by adenoviral vectors and/or uptake of secreted HexA by different organs. These results confirmed that the liver was the preferential target organ to deliver a large amount of secreted proteins. In addition, the need to overexpress both subunits of heterodimeric proteins in order to obtain a high level of secretion in animals defective in only one subunit is emphasized. The endogenous non-defective subunit is otherwise limiting.  (+info)

Distribution of chitinase in guinea pig tissues and increases in levels of this enzyme after systemic infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. (7/688)

Intravenous infection of guinea pigs with the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus resulted in increased levels of chitinase in serum and tissues of the animals. The molecular properties of the enzyme were demonstrated to be different from those of the fungal chitinase, but also from guinea pig lysozyme and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Bio-Gel P-100 gel filtration showed that in liver, spleen, heart and lung tissue of control animals there were two molecular mass forms present with apparent molecular masses of 35 kDa and 15 kDa. In brain and serum, only the 35 kDa form was detectable. Kidney showed only the 15 kDa form. Upon infection the 35 kDa form appeared in kidney and increased in the other tissues. When a less pathogenic form of the fungus was used the 35 kDa form remained absent in kidney. In contrast to human serum chitinase, the enzyme from guinea pig serum and tissues did bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose. This was the case for both molecular mass forms. The mode of cleavage of the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-tri-N-acetylchitotrioside (MU-[GlcNAc]3, where GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine) by the two forms of the enzyme was the same: both [GlcNAc]2 and [GlcNAc]3 were released. The chitinase activity levels in the control tissues showed a large variation in this order: spleen > lung, kidney > liver > heart > brain. The fact that spleen showed the highest chitinase level is in agreement with its major role as a lymphoid organ in cases of systemic infections. The relative increases upon infection were the highest for the tissues that showed low control values.  (+info)

Synaptotagmin II negatively regulates Ca2+-triggered exocytosis of lysosomes in mast cells. (8/688)

Synaptotagmins (Syts) I and II are believed to act as Ca2+ sensors in the control of neurotransmission. Here we demonstrate that mast cells express Syt II in their lysosomal fraction. We further show that activation of mast cells by either aggregation of FcepsilonRI or by Ca2+ ionophores results in exocytosis of lysosomes, in addition to the well documented exocytosis of their secretory granules. Syt II directly regulates lysosomal exocytosis, whereby overexpression of Syt II inhibited Ca2+-triggered release of the lysosomal processed form of cathepsin D, whereas suppression of Syt II expression markedly potentiated this release. These findings provide evidence for a novel function of Syt II in negatively regulating Ca2+-triggered exocytosis of lysosomes, and suggest that Syt II-regulated secretion from lysosomes may play an important role in mast cell biology.  (+info)

*Ernest Beutler

Studies on human beta-D-N-acetylhexosaminidases. III. Biochemical genetics of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff's diseases. J Biol Chem ... The diagnosis of the adult type of Gaucher's disease and its carrier state by demonstration of deficiency of beta-glucosidase ...

*Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase

"Electrophoretic separation of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases of human and bovine brain and liver and of Tay-Sachs brain tissue". ... Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.53, N-acetyl-beta-galactosaminidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase, beta- ... acetylgalactosaminidase, beta-D-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, N-acetylgalactosaminidase) is an enzyme with systematic name beta-N- ... Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...

*PUGNAc

... a beta-exo-N-acetylhexosaminidase which cleaves beta-O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine residues from glycoproteins. As a result of ... PUGNAc is a 1,5-hydroximolactone, acting as an inhibitor of a variety of N-acetylhexosaminidases. It was long thought that ...

*Glycoside hydrolase

One of the important occurrences of glycoside hydrolases in bacteria is the enzyme beta-galactosidase (LacZ), which is involved ... Such mechanisms are common for certain N-acetylhexosaminidases, which have an acetamido group capable of neighboring group ...
Beta-hexosaminidase subunit beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HEXB gene. Hexosaminidase B is the beta subunit of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase that, together with the cofactor GM2 activator protein, catalyzes the degradation of the ganglioside GM2, and other molecules containing terminal N-acetyl hexosamines. Beta-hexosaminidase is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which are encoded by separate genes. Both beta-hexosaminidase alpha and beta subunits are members of family 20 of glycosyl hydrolases. Mutations in the alpha or beta subunit genes lead to an accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neurons and neurodegenerative disorders termed the GM2 gangliosidoses. Beta subunit gene mutations lead to Sandhoff disease (GM2-gangliosidosis type II). The HEXB gene lies on the chromosome location of 5q13.3 and consists of 15 exons, spanning 35-40Kb. HEXB consists of 556 amino acid residues and weighs 63111Da. HEXB is one of the two subunits forming β-hexosaminidase which ...
G(M2) Ganglioside: A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase A was purified 1000-fold from human urine by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex followed by concanavalin A--Sepharose affinity chromatography. The optimal pH range was 4.4--4.5 for both the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine derivatives. The Km values were 0.51 mM and 0.28 mM respectively for the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine derivatives. The glycoprotein nature of the urinary enzyme was established by its affinity towards concanavalin A as well as by the presence of sialic acid, galactose, glucose, mannose and hexosamines in the molecule. ...
Mice homozygous for the recessive buff (|i|Vps33a|sup|bf|/sup||/i|) mutation on a non-agouti (|i|a|/i|/|i|a|/i|) background have a lightened coat color that has been described as khaki. On an agouti background, |i|Vps33a|sup|bf|/sup||/i| homozygotes have dark ears, opaque eyes, and the belly is lighter in color than is the rest of the coat. Although no change in eye color is outwardly evident, electron microscopy shows fewer and smaller melanosomes than normal in the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. These mutants have a platelet-storage pool defect evidenced by an increased bleeding time of 9.7 minutes on average, a reduction in the number of platelet dense granules, and slightly decreased collagen-mediated platelet aggregation, secretion of dense-granule ATP and secretion of seratonin. Hakansson and Lundin found increased activity of the lysosomal glycosidases beta- galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase in kidney cell lysates. Suzuki |i|et al.|/i| found no
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The HEXA gene is a protein encoding gene that codes for the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. This enzyme, combined with the GM2 activator protein, is responsible for the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 within the lysosome. Defects in the HEXA gene, however, prevent this degradation, leading to a buildup of toxins in brain and spinal cord cells. This fatal genetic disorder is called Tay-Sachs disease. Because the Tay-Sachs gene defect mainly affects neural cells, a patient with the HEXA mutation will experience a quick deterioration of motor and mental function before dying around the age of three or four. [8] A "knockout" model, which is a mouse that has been genetically modified to observe the effects of inactivation of or damage to certain genes, found that the mice that were administered the HEXA gene experienced many of the same symptoms of Tay-Sachs, with one exception: GM2 buildup was distributed differently in the brains of the mice than in those of a typical human Tay-Sachs patient. ...
c-kit ligand (KL) activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) for the dose- and time-dependent release of arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids, with generation of leukotriene (LT) C4 in preference to prostaglandin (PG)D2. KL at concentrations of 10 ng/ml elicited half-maximal eicosanoid generation and at concentrations of , 50 ng/ml elicited a maximal generation of approximately 15 ng LTC4 and 1 ng PGD2 per 10(6) cells, with 20% net beta-hexosaminidase release 10 min after stimulation. Of the other cytokines tested, none, either alone or in combination with KL, elicited or modulated the immediate phase of mediator release by BMMC, indicating strict specificity for KL. Activation of BMMC in response to KL was accompanied by transient phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and reversible translocation of 5-lipoxygenase to a cell membrane fraction 2-5 min after stimulation, when the rate of arachidonic acid release and LTC4 production were maximal. BMMC continuously ...
We investigated the expression of the alpha- and beta-subunits of the lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase in the BV-2 microglial cell line under different culture conditions. Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase from BV-2 microglia cells was separated into its constituent isoenzymes on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose, and its activity was monitored with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylglucosamine and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulphate substrates. Forms corresponding to the mouse isoenzymes A and B were present in the cells incubated in serum-supplemented medium as well as in serum-free medium. Lipopolysaccharide, a well-known activator of microglia in vitro, added to the BV-2 cells in serum-supplemented medium induced a decrease in the specific enzymatic activity determined with the 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylglucosamine substrate. Lipopolysaccharide had no effect on hexosaminidase isoenzyme pattern of BV-2 cells in serum-supplemented medium. The level of ...
Serum beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase levels in 49 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 23 patients with ulcerative colitis, 10 with Crohns disease, and 16 with ileostomy after total proctocolectomy) as well as in healthy normal controls were
Active site of hexosaminidases with dockedpNP-GlcNAc-sulfate 6. Active site of hexosaminidases with docked pNP-GlcNAc-sulfate 6 after molecular dynamics simulat
Many neuronal cytosolic and nuclear proteins are post-translationally modified by the reversible addition of O-linked = 176), demonstrating that cotransfection is a reliable approach in our system. of culturing. Comparison of the staining intensity in neurons expressing dsRED alone (= 23) to that in nontransfected neurons from cultures transfected with either dsRED (= 23) or dsRED + O-GlcNAcase (= 25) did not reveal a difference (> 0.32 and > 0.21 respectively, 2-tailed Welch > 0.25, 2-tailed Welch = 23) to dsRED transfected neurons revealed a 61% decrease in O-GlcNAc staining intensity (< 0.00001, 2-tailed Welch = 140) of O-GlcNAcase over-expressing neurons exhibited one LY310762 supplier or more branches relative to 20% (= 60) of dsRED alone expressing control neurons [Fig. 2(E)]. Thus, decreases in O-GlcNAc levels induced by overexpression of O-GlcNAcase resulted in a 1.85-fold increase in the percentage of neurons that exhibited axon branching. O-GlcNAcase over-expression resulted in a 50% ...
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Tay-Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type, known as infantile Tay-Sachs disease, becomes apparent around three to six months of age with the baby losing the ability to turn over, sit, or crawl. This is then followed by seizures, hearing loss, and inability to move. Death usually occurs in early childhood. Less commonly the disease may occur in later childhood or adulthood. These forms are generally milder in nature. Tay-Sachs disease is caused by a genetic mutation in the HEXA genes on chromosome 15. It is inherited from a persons parents in an autosomal recessive manner. The mutation results in problems with an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A which results in the buildup of the molecule GM2 ganglioside within cells, leading to toxicity. Diagnosis is by measuring the blood hexosaminidase A level or genetic testing. It is a type of sphingolipidosis. The treatment of Tay-Sachs disease is supportive ...
Also known as: Hexbtm1Rlp, Hexb KO mouse. Hexb KO mice develop motor defects beginning at about 3 months of age. The defects progressively worsen and homozygous mice die by 4.5 months of age. Mice display gangliosidosis; mice abnormally accumulate GM2 and GA2 ganglioside and serve as a model of Sandhoff disease. Learn more on PubMed.. Mice can be obtained from Jackson Labs.. ...
Source. 1. How common is Tay-Sachs disease? As already mentioned, this is a rare inherited disorder which progresses to destroy nerve cells. There are various forms of Tay-Sachs disease. The most common one occurs in infancy, at 3 to 6 months. Until that moment, the child seems to be perfectly healthy. The other forms of the condition are even more rarely developed. In such cases, signs and symptoms of the disease appear in childhood or adulthood. They are milder and can vary a lot from one patient to another. Specialists claim that Tay-Sachs disease is most common among eastern and central Europeans. 2. Why is the disease developed?. Specialists claim that Tay-Sachs disease is developed by children who lack a protein that is necessary to dissolve a fatty deposit formed in healthy neurons. The baby, inherits two copies of genes, one from each parent. When both of these are defective genes, they lead to the mutation which causes Tay-Sachs disease. So, mutations in the HEXA gene cause Tay-Sachs ...
The O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) modification is a dynamic and reversible form of protein glycosylation occurring on specific serine and threonine residues of intracellular proteins [1,2]. Since the initial discovery of O-GlcNAc [3], technological advances have greatly facilitated its detection, and proteomics studies [4-6] have shown that a significant proportion of cellular proteins are O-GlcNAcylated. However, the functional importance of O-GlcNAc is only just emerging, with evidence to suggest that it may regulate protein activity in a manner analogous (and complementary) to phosphorylation [7]. O-GlcNAc levels are known to respond dynamically to nutrient availability [1] and stress [8], and to undergo changes during the cell cycle [9] and development [10]. O-GlcNAc has been shown to be associated with a range of human diseases [2]. Strikingly, only two enzymes orchestrate the O-GlcNAc modification. Both the OGT (O-GlcNAc transferase) and its antagonistic OGA (O-GlcNAcase or ...
Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance called ganglioside GM2 accumulate in the nerve cells in the brain. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few months of life. Then, as nerve cells become distended with fatty material, a relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities occurs. The child becomes blind, deaf, and unable to swallow. Muscles begin to atrophy and paralysis sets in. A much rarer form of the disorder which occurs in patients in their twenties and early thirties is characterized by unsteadiness of gait and progressive neurological deterioration. Patients with Tay-Sachs have a cherry-red spot in the back of their eyes. The condition is caused by insufficient activity of an enzyme called hexosaminidase A that catalyzes the biodegradation of acidic fatty materials known as gangliosides. Gangliosides are made and biodegraded rapidly in early life as the brain develops. Patients and carriers of
A baby with Tay-Sachs disease is born without an important enzyme, so fatty proteins build up in the brain, hurting the babys sight, hearing, movement, and mental development.
Tay-Sachs disease results from a loss of activity of hexosaminidase A (HEXA) in body tissues and fluids. Heterozygotes for the disease are usually identified by their relatively low ratio of heat-labile HEX A to total hexosaminidase. During pregnancy
The availability of JScreen is a promising step in building upon the initial success of Tay-Sachs screening. Traditionally, Tay Sachs carrier screening required blood enzyme testing, but todays sequencing method allows highly accurate testing to be performed on saliva. (In a small percentage of cases, blood enzyme testing will be needed in addition to saliva testing. A JScreen genetic counselor will notify you if that is the case, and help you arrange to have this performed.) See the chart below for a comparison of the two methods.. ...
Harvesting lab-raised zebrafish based on their size led to differences in the activity of more than 4,000 genes, as well as changes in allele frequencies of those genes, in the fish that remained.. 0 Comments. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Wild & Woolly is a quarterly newsletter for sheep and goat producers and anyone else interested in small ruminants. Subscribe to the newsletter listserv if you want to receive an email when a new issue of the newsletter has been posted to the web. To subscribe, send an email to [email protected] In the body of the message, write subscribe sheepandgoatnews. Mailed copies of the newsletter are available for $10/year. ...
Cecioni, S., Vocadlo, D.J. Carbohydrate Bis-acetal-Based Substrates as Tunable Fluorescence-Quenched Probes for Monitoring exo-Glycosidase Activity. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017, 139, 8392-8395. Liu T.-W., Myschyshyn M., Sinclair D.A., Cecioni S., Beja K., Honda B.M., Morin R.D., Vocadlo D.J. Genome-wide chemical mapping of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in Drosophila. Nature Chemical Biology 2017, 13, 161-7.. Perley-Robertson GE, Yadav AK, Winogrodzki JL, Stubbs KA, Mark BL, Vocadlo DJ.* A Fluorescent Transport Assay Enables Studying AmpG Permeases Involved in Peptidoglycan Recycling and Antibiotic Resistance. ACS Chem. Biol., 2016, 11, 2626-35.. Cekic N, Heinonen JE, Stubbs KA, Roth C, He Y, Bennet AJ, McEachern EJ, Davies GJ, Vocadlo DJ. Analysis of transition state mimicry by tight binding aminothiazoline inhibitors provides insight into catalysis by human O-GlcNAcase. Chem. Sci. 2016, 7, 3742-3750.. Zhu, Y., Liu, T., Eskandari, R., Zandberg, W., Cecioni, S., Vocadlo, D.J.* ...
A particularly poignant exchange between us occurred after I had attended a Rabbinic Alumni convention and heard a very prominent rabbinic scholar discuss the issue of Tay-Sachs testing. That scholar advised against any kind of testing for reasons which he explained. Furthermore, he said, once a woman was pregnant there is certainly no reason to test because even if the fetus were found to have Tay-Sachs disease there is nothing that can be done about it. One may not abort. I was concerned about that approach and, as luck had it, I had been invited to have dinner that evening at the home of a member of the Ravs family at which the Rav was going to be present. He was scarcely in the door when I described to him the view that had been expressed earlier that day and I asked him what his opinion was. He said very firmly: "You can abort a Tay-Sachs fetus through the sixth month." I said nothing but he must have noticed a quizzical look on my face as if to say - which, of course, I would not - what ...
1M03: Aspartate 313 in the Streptomyces plicatus hexosaminidase plays a critical role in substrate-assisted catalysis by orienting the 2-acetamido group and stabilizing the transition state.
1M03: Aspartate 313 in the Streptomyces plicatus hexosaminidase plays a critical role in substrate-assisted catalysis by orienting the 2-acetamido group and stabilizing the transition state.
Project Shui is a Bar Mitzvah project, a boys race to find a cure for his sister with Tay-Sachs disease, and an internet marketing endeavor. All money raised by the website will go to the Cure Tay-Sachs Foundation to help accelerate a gene therapy cure for this fatal, inherited disease.
Project Shui is a Bar Mitzvah project, a boys race to find a cure for his sister with Tay-Sachs disease, and an internet marketing endeavor. All money raised by the website will go to the Cure Tay-Sachs Foundation to help accelerate a gene therapy cure for this fatal, inherited disease.
O-GlcNAc transferase antibody [GT2037] (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase) for WB. Anti-O-GlcNAc transferase mAb (GTX629813) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Li, Y.T.; Mazzotta, M.Y.; Wan, C.C.; Orth, R.; Li, S.C., 1973: Hydrolysis of Tay-Sachs ganglioside by beta-hexosaminidase A of human liver and urine
15. When both parents carry the defective Tay-Sachs gene, a child has a 25% chance of developing the disease. The child must receive two copies of the defective gene - one from each parent - in order to become sick. If only one parent passes the defective gene to the child, the child is called a carrier. He or she wont be sick, but will have the potential to pass the disease to his or her own children.. Anyone can be a carrier of Tay-Sachs, but the disease is most common among the Ashkenazi Jewish population. About 1 in every 27 members of the Ashkenazi Jewish population carries the Tay-Sachs gene.. Tay-Sachs has been classified into infantile, juvenile, and adult forms, depending on the symptoms and when they first appear. Most people with Tay-Sachs have the infantile form. In this form, the nerve damage usually begins while the baby is still in the womb. Symptoms usually appear when the child is 3 to 6 months old. The disease tends to get worse very quickly, and the child usually dies by age ...
Crosslinking of Fc epsilon RI on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL 2H3) cells leads to an increase in Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity. This increase in Ptdlns 4-kinase activity is strongly correlated with its tyrosyl phosphorylation state. Characterization of the enzyme activity in anti phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates suggests it as a type II Ptdlns 4-kinase. Membrane cholesterol depletion studies showed a reduction in type II Ptdlns 4-kinase activity suggesting that lipid rafts play an important role in activation of the enzyme. The enzyme activity was inhibited by resveratrol. In situ inhibition of type II Ptdlns 4-kinase activity showed a reduction in beta-hexosaminidase release upon Fc epsilon RI cross-linking. These studies suggest that a type II Ptdlns 4-kinase is an integral component of Fc epsilon RI mediated signal transduction mechanisms. (c) ...
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998 Winter;10(1):10-9. MacQueen GM, Rosebush PI, Mazurek MF. Source Department of Psychiatry, McMaster University Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Abstract: Tay-Sachs disease (a GM2 gangliosidosis) is an inherited neuronal storage disease that can affect individuals across the age spectrum. Psychosis is reported in 30% to 50% of adult-onset patients, and many…
Fulvic acid is an important naturally-occurring organic acid found in nutrition-rich humus-the decomposed matter that forms a layer in the earths crust. It can be difficult to obtain from a healthy diet, short of eating dirt itself, and is most commonly gathered from a mineral pitch that seeps out of the rocks in the high altitudes of the Himalayan Mountains.. Fulvic acid serves as an indispensable vehicle for carrying vitamins and other nutrients to the proper places in our bodies. One single fulvic acid molecule is capable of transporting 60 or more minerals and trace elements directly into our cells.. Over the last few decades, weve learned a lot more about how humic materials found in the earths soil, including fulvic acid, can offer a host of benefits in the human body.. Fulvic Acid Benefits. 1. Improves Endurance. Due to the trace minerals, electrolytes, and other essential nutrients it contains, many individuals report improved energy levels when taking fulvic acid.. Studies have found ...
You may not have heard much about fulvic acid in the mainstream media, but to put it very simply… life as we know it would not exist without it!. It is directly relevant for a healthy body because it makes nutrients in the foods we consume (such as vitamins and minerals and other herbal supplements) more readily available for use by our bodys cells.. Fulvic acid is critical for nutrient absorption because it is highly "bioavailable." In other words, it is easily absorbed into our blood when we consume it. And while being absorbed itself, it also improves the absorption of various nutrients via our digestive system.. In fact, mineral absorption without prior chelation (a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions) by fulvic acid is only about 10% effective. Fulvic acid also allows minerals to regenerate and interact with one another, enhancing their availability.. Finally, because of its very low molecular weight, fulvic acid is able to pass easily through the protective membranes ...
Fulvic acid is a nutritional supplement derived from humic substance naturally found in soil, coal, and aquatic environment. Fulvic acid benefits healthy energy levels in the cells, responsible for its revitalising effects to the mind and body.
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Plays a role in peptidoglycan recycling by cleaving the terminal beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from peptide-linked peptidoglycan fragments, giving rise to free GlcNAc, anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid and anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid-linked peptides.
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In the early 2000s, Sabata Martino and a team of researchers in Italy and Germany showed that they could reduce the symptoms of Tay-Sachs in afflicted mice by injecting them with a virus that infected their cells with a gene they lacked. Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal degenerative disorder that occurs in infants and causes rapid motor and mental impairment, leading to death at the ages of three to five. In gene therapy, researchers insert normal genes into cells that have missing or defective genes in order to correct genetic disorders.. Format: Articles Subject: Experiments ...
In the early 2000s, Sabata Martino and a team of researchers in Italy and Germany showed that they could reduce the symptoms of Tay-Sachs in afflicted mice by injecting them with a virus that infected their cells with a gene they lacked. Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal degenerative disorder that occurs in infants and causes rapid motor and mental impairment, leading to death at the ages of three to five. In gene therapy, researchers insert normal genes into cells that have missing or defective genes in order to correct genetic disorders.. Format: Articles Subject: Experiments ...
HEXB antibody (hexosaminidase B (beta polypeptide)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-HEXB pAb (GTX55224) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Tay-Sachs Disease is a rare genetic disorder that causes waste to build up in the cells of the brain due to a lack of Hex-A enzyme attacking the neurological ...
Rick Karl, left, and Bruce Steiger take their daughter Krystie for a walk outside Ronald McDonald House in Minneapolis in August. Krystie is being treated for Tay-Sachs disease at the University of Minnesota Children s Hospital, Fairview. She has lost most of her sight, speech and movement.
1999 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 38, no 4, 783-794 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
All of the THREE METHODS shall be prepared carefully in the laboratory and use a chemical lab technique called "measuring pH", it measures the acid/base ratio.. If the value of. ...
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Patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease will be given increasing doses of Pyr, up to but not exceeding doses used to treat malaria, over a 5-month period. We will follow the effect of the treatment on the levels of Hex A enzyme activity in white blood cells, which are considered to be a reflection of the likely enzyme activity in the brain. We will also follow some other lysosomal enzyme activities to determine if the effect is specific for Hex A. Furthermore, we will examine the effect of the treatment on the levels of GM2-ganglioside in the white blood cells. On the basis of the studies done on cultured skin cells, we expect that treatment with Pyr will increase the levels of Hex A and decrease the accumulation of GM2-ganglioside in the white blood cells ...
Patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease will be given increasing doses of Pyr, up to but not exceeding doses used to treat malaria, over a 5-month period. We will follow the effect of the treatment on the levels of Hex A enzyme activity in white blood cells, which are considered to be a reflection of the likely enzyme activity in the brain. We will also follow some other lysosomal enzyme activities to determine if the effect is specific for Hex A. Furthermore, we will examine the effect of the treatment on the levels of GM2-ganglioside in the white blood cells. On the basis of the studies done on cultured skin cells, we expect that treatment with Pyr will increase the levels of Hex A and decrease the accumulation of GM2-ganglioside in the white blood cells ...
Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting. To assess the effectiveness of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment to improve reproductive outcomes in women and their partners who are identified as carriers of thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease in healthcare settings when compared to usual care. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Groups Trials Registers. In addition, we searched for all relevant trials from 1970 (or the date at which the ...
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The test for Tay-Sachs disease measures the amount of an enzyme called hexosaminidase A (hex A) in the blood.. The normal values listed here-called a reference range-are just a guide. These ranges vary from lab to lab, and your lab may have a different range for whats normal. Your lab report should contain the range your lab uses. Also, your doctor will evaluate your results based on your health and other factors. This means that a value that falls outside the normal values listed here may still be normal for you or your lab.. ...
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Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis are two examples of disorders caused by frameshift mutations. These mutations occur when a nucleotide is inserted or deleted, which changes how the DNA sequence...
We know that vitamins are complex chemical substances which are indispensable to nutrition, and that each of them is of importance fro the normal function of some special structure in the body. Disorder and disease result from any vitamin deficiency.
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The hexosamine signaling pathway terminating in O-GlcNAc cycling has been implicated in cellular signaling cascades and regulation of transcription and translat...
The long-term objectives of this proposal are to generate and commercialize a new class of high-specificity, high-affinity proteins called Lectenz?, as research...
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Here we have the top 100 1 Viljans Oga - Anglagard 361 2 English Electric Part One - Big Big Train 308 3 Echolyn 277 4 Banks of Eden The Flower Kings 235
We have generated mouse models of human Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases by targeted disruption of the Hexa (α subunit) or Hexb (β subunit) genes, respectively, encoding lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A (structure, α) and B (structure, ββ). Both mutant mice accumulate GM2 ganglioside in brain, much more so in Hexb −/− mice, and the latter also accumulate glycolipid GA2. Hexa −/− mice suffer no obvious behavioral or neurological deficit, while Hexb −/− mice develop a fatal neurodegenerative disease, with spasticity, muscle weakness, rigidity, tremor and ataxia. The Hexb −/− but not the Hexa −/− mice have massive depletion of spinal cord axons as an apparent consequence of neuronal storage of GM2. We propose that Hexa −/− mice escape disease through partial catabolism of accumulated GM2 via GA2 (asialo-GM2) through the combined action of sialidase and β-hexosaminidase B.. ...
The month of May is designated as Tay-Sachs and Canavan Diseases Awareness Month. Newborns with Tay-Sachs disease appear healthy at birth, but then symptoms start to occur at 6 months. The infant will start to lose motor skills and mental functions. Soon after, they become blind, deaf, mentally retarded, paralyzed, non-responsive to their environment and will eventually die by the age of 5. Tay-Sachs disease is caused by a lack of an enzyme called Hexosaminidase A (Hex A), which is needed for the body to break down the fatty waste substances that are found in the brain cells. Without Hex A, this substance accumulates abnormally and causes gradual damage until the nervous system shuts down completely and can no longer sustain life.. Newborns with Canavan disease also appear healthy at birth. However, at the ages of 3 and 9 months, subtle changes will start to occur. These changes include visual inattentiveness, inability to grasp objects, roll over, or like Tay-Sachs disease, perform motor tasks. ...
Franklin for consultation services on the neuropathology and for making plates from his forthcoming A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Mouse Brain (K. Franklin and G. Paxinos, eds, Academic Press) accessible prior to publication, Mirielle. Shevell for help with the particular phenotype, L. Old for helping make the ganglioside analysis possible, B.. T, testis; E, epididymis; Lu, chest; Li, liver; K, renal; H, heart; B, mind; S, spleen. ES tissues in 800 µl associated with cold PBS using a Bio-Rad GenePulser (240V, five-hundred µF).. (C) plus (F) are from outdoors type, (A), (D) plus (G) from Hexa −/− and (B), (E) and (H) from Hexb −/− mice. (A) and (B) Electron micrographs of cortical neurons showing large clusters of MCB. Some lysosomes have membrane whorls.. In the particular kidney, the cytoplasm associated with epithelial cells lining the particular proximal tubules showed considerable vacuolation (Fig. 7H). Renal corpuscles, distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts came out normal. ...
Nucleases play important roles in DNA synthesis, recombination and repair. We have previously shown that human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is phosphorylated in response to agents stalling DNA replication and that hEXO1 consequently undergoes ubiquitination and degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In the present study, we have addressed the identity of the pathway transducing stalled-replication signals to hEXO1. Using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, ATM- and ATR-deficient cell lines we have concluded that hEXO1 phosphorylation is ATR-dependent. By means of mass spectrometry, we have identified the sites of phosphorylation in hEXO1 in undamaged cells and in cells treated with hydroxyurea (HU). hEXO1 is phosphorylated at nine basal sites and three additional sites are induced by HU treatment. Analysis of single- and multiple-point mutants revealed that mutation to Ala of the three HU-induced sites of phosphorylation partially rescued HU-dependent degradation of hEXO1 and additionally ...
August 11, 2013. For three days in April, about 70 families whose lives have been upended by Tay-Sachs disease gathered in San Diego for the annual National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases conference. The event - which attracted families caring for children with Tay-Sachs, as well as those who have lost loved ones to the degenerative disease that claims most of its victims by age 4 - included forums on symptom management and new research frontiers. There were also support group sessions and a candle-lighting ceremony honoring those who had died.. Tay-Sachs is probably the best known "Jewish" disease. As many as one in 25 Ashkenazi Jews is a carrier of the defective recessive gene. Yet, among the conference attendees, who came from as far away as Poland and Guatemala, only a handful were Jewish. "When I speak with newly diagnosed families, they often say, But were not Jewish," said Kimberly Kubilus, NTSADs director of family services. read more. ...
Tay-Sachs, an inherited neurological disorder, is unusually common among French Canadians from eastern Quebec. Two alleles are responsible, one being specific to the north shore of the St. Lawrence and the other to the south shore. This pattern of convergent evolution suggests the presence of a selection pressure limited to eastern Quebec. Both alleles probably arose after the British conquest of Quebec in 1759 or at least were uncommon previously. To explain the high incidence of Tay-Sachs among Ashkenazi Jews, some authors have invoked heterozygote advantage, i.e., heterozygous individuals enjoy a higher rate of neuronal growth, and thus greater learning capacity, without the neurological deterioration of homozygous individuals. Such an advantage would have helped Ashkenazim perform the mental effort required for work in trade and crafts. A similar situation may have developed in eastern Quebec, where the relative scarcity of British and American merchants made it easier for French Canadians to enter
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Programs for education, screening, and counseling of senior-high-school students, in populations at high risk for Tay-Sachs and beta-thalassemia diseases, have existed for ,20 years in Montreal. Four process and outcome ...
What are Humic and Fulvic minerals?. Humic and Fulvic minerals are crucial to the maintenance of good health and contain some of the most valuable naturally occurring nutrients known to science. Humic minerals may counteract malignant cell growth and aide in reversing serious disease. Humic extracts can be thought of as defenders of all biological mechanisms. Humic protects the bodys cells, accelerates the healing processes, fights malignant cells, and disrupts oxidative stress. Humics structural complexity makes it one of the most powerful detoxifying agents known to man.. What are the benefits of RegenaLifes Humic and Fulvic mineral products?. RegenaLifes Humic and Fulvic mineral range of products is a concentrated and balanced form of more than 72 life-giving ionic minerals. It includes all 17 essential minerals that the human body needs to thrive but cannot manufacture on its own. The Humic Acid content relieves the following symptoms: Acid Reflux, Heartburn, Crohns disease,(aka ...
Part of urn:nbn:se:su:diva-968Available from: 2006-04-06 Created: 2006-04-06 Last updated: 2010-01-13Bibliographically approved ...
Protein glycosylation is usually relegated to the cell surface and intracellular compartments. In a fascinating exception to this rule that was first observed in the 1980s, A GlcNAc monosaccharide can be added to serine and threonine residues of cytosolic proteins. Many labs are trying to understand the dynamic regulation of the addition and removal of this sugar that seemingly has a hand in every cellular process and disease state known to man. More and more examples are being found to suggest that this modification and phosphorylation regulate each other, as if they werent already complicated enough on their own.. There are a handful of ways to detect O-GlcNAc, which have helped build the laundry list by telling us which proteins are modified. Now, in a recent Nature Chemical Biology paper from Linda Hsieh-Wilsons lab at CalTech, they show us a useful new method that reveals what proportion of any particular protein is modified (2%? 80%), and of those that are modified, exactly how many ...
Isoform 1: Cleaves GlcNAc but not GalNAc from O-glycosylated proteins. Can use p-nitrophenyl-beta-GlcNAc and 4-methylumbelliferone-GlcNAc as substrates but not p-nitrophenyl-beta-GalNAc or p-nitrophenyl-alpha-GlcNAc (in vitro) (PubMed:8034696). Does not bind acetyl-CoA and does not have histone acetyltransferase activity.
As CRISPR helps us edit genes, new technology floods us with reams of new information instantly, and immortality seemingly within our grasp, is science replacing God? What happens as our ethical and religious structures struggle to keep up ...
X-MOL提供的期刊论文更新,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America--Spatiotemporal gating of SIRT1 functions by O-GlcNAcylation is essential for liver metabolic switching and prevents hyperglycemia [Physiology],Tandrika Chattopadhyay, Babukrishna Maniyadath, Hema P. Bagul, Arindam Chakraborty, Namrata Shukla, Srikanth Budnar, Abinaya Rajendran, Arushi Shukla, Siddhesh S. Kamat, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam
Body Biotics Body Genesis Liquid Minerals and trace elements. The facts are 99% of all Americans are mineral deficient and sadly many degenerative diseases are tied to this condition
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 52705-52-9, Hexa(acetato)m3-oxo-tris(aquo)triiridium acetate, molecular formula: C12H18Ir3O13.C2H3O2.3(H2O).
Growing healthcare awareness and changing lifestyles are key factors that fuel the global Gynecological Devices Market. The industry is poised to surpass U
Growing healthcare awareness and changing lifestyles are key factors that fuel the global Gynecological Devices Market. The industry is poised to surpass U
Background The GM2 gangliosidoses are a group of lysosomal lipid storage disorders caused by mutations in at least 1 of 3 recessive genes: HEXA, HEXB, and GM2A. Normal products of all 3 genes are required for normal catabolism of the GM2 ganglioside substrate.
O-linked â-N-acetylglucosamine is a regulatory post translational modification. This modification occurs on nearly all functional classes of proteins, in the nucleus and cytoplasm. O-GlcNAc is added to serine or threonine by O-GlcNAc transferase and removed by O-GlcNAcase. Previous attempts to study O-GlcNAc-modified proteins have resulted in low yields, making 3-dimensional structure determination impossible. In this dissertation O-GlcNAc transferase will be co-expressed with domains of human cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB1) and Abelson tyrosine-kinase 2 (ABL2) in E. coli, to produce O-GlcNAc-modified protein. The O-GlcNAc-modified protein was expressed in a variety of E. coli cell lines at a variety of conditions, but only small quantities of insoluble protein were produced. A glycosidase was suspected due to the disappearance of the O-GlcNAc modification from the protein. O-(2-acetamido-2-dexoy-dglucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc), a â-N-acetylglucosaminidase
The effects of an aquatic fulvic acid on the pH-dependent adsorption of Hg(II) and Cd(II) to particulate goethite (a-FeOOH) were studied in batch systems. The ionic medium consisted of 0.01 M HClO and the total concentrations 4 of mercury and cadmium were maintained at 10y8 M with 203Hg and 109Cd as tracers. pH In the systems was varied in the range 3-10 by addition of HClO and NaOH.All commercial chemicals were of analytical grade or better. An 4 aquatic fulvic acid (20 ppm), previously isolated and characterised in detail, was used as a model for humic substances and its adsorption to goethite is included in this study. The adsorption of the fulvic acid (20 ppm) onto goethite decreased slowly from 90% at pH 3-7.5 to 10% at pH 10. In systems without fulvic acid the adsorption of mercury increased in a linear fashion from 10% at pH 3 to 70% at pH 10.In the presence of fulvic acid (20 ppm), the adsorption was almost quantitative in the intermediate pH range (pH 5-7), and exceeded 92% over the ...
The cardioprotective capacity and the influence on myocardial O-GlcNAc levels of plasma dialysate from eight healthy volunteers and eight type 2 diabetic patients drawn before and after subjection to an rIPC stimulus were tested on human isolated atrial trabeculae subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Dialysate from healthy volunteers exposed to rIPC improved post-ischaemic haemodynamic recovery (40 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 2%; P , 0.01) and increased myocardial O-GlcNAc levels. Similar observations were made with dialysate from diabetic patients before exposure to rIPC (43 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 2%; P , 0.001) but no additional cardioprotection or further increase in O-GlcNAc levels was achieved by perfusion with dialysate after exposure to rIPC (44 ± 4 and 42 ± 5 vs. 43 ± 3%; P = 0.7). The glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) inhibitor azaserine abolished the cardioprotective effects and the increment in myocardial O-GlcNAc levels afforded by plasma from diabetic patients and healthy ...

Inflammatory bowel disease and serum beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase.Inflammatory bowel disease and serum beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase.

Serum beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase levels in 49 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 23 patients with ulcerative ... EC 3.2.1.52/beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Serum beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase levels in 49 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 23 patients with ulcerative ... Next Document: beta-Hexosaminidase activity in the acute phase of CCl4 poisoning in the rat.. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Inflammatory-bowel-disease-serum-beta/2151316.html

keratanase II
     Summary Report | CureHunterkeratanase II Summary Report | CureHunter

... cleaves the beta(1-3)-glycosidic bond of a fucosylated 6-O-sulfated N-acetylglucosamine ... an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase; cleaves the beta(1-3)-glycosidic bond of a fucosylated 6-O-sulfated N-acetylglucosamine ... were eliminated by digestion with endo-beta-galactosidase and N-glycosidase F, but were resistant to keratanase and keratanase ... "The reactivity of 5-D-4 with papillary carcinomas was markedly reduced or abolished by prior digestion with endo-beta- ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC086950-keratanase-II.do

Schoberer J[au] - PubMed - NCBISchoberer J[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Enzymatic properties and subcellular localization of Arabidopsis beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases.. Strasser R, Bondili JS, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Schoberer+J%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Neuropeptide Y release from PI3K-C2α-knockdown cells.( | Open-iNeuropeptide Y release from PI3K-C2α-knockdown cells.( | Open-i

Neuropeptide Y release from PI3K-C2α-knockdown cells.(A) Effect of PI3K-C2α overexpression. The control or PI3K-C2α-knockdown (seq2) cells were transfected w
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4214793_pone.0111698.g003&req=4

Structures of ligands docked in the active sites of β- | Open-iStructures of ligands docked in the active sites of β- | Open-i

Structures of ligands docked in the active sites of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. Ligands are: 1 - chitobiose; 2 - pNP-GlcNAc; 3 ... Fig6: Structures of ligands docked in the active sites of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. Ligands are: 1 - chitobiose; 2 - pNP- ... Fig6: Structures of ligands docked in the active sites of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. Ligands are: 1 - chitobiose; 2 - pNP- ... Conclusions: The main variable regions in β-N-acetylhexosaminidases determining difference in modified substrate affinity are ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4384365_12859_2015_465_Fig6_HTML&req=4

Ernest Beutler - WikipediaErnest Beutler - Wikipedia

Studies on human beta-D-N-acetylhexosaminidases. III. Biochemical genetics of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoffs diseases. J Biol Chem ... The diagnosis of the adult type of Gauchers disease and its carrier state by demonstration of deficiency of beta-glucosidase ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Beutler

화학공학소재연구정보센터(CHERIC) | 연구정보 | 문헌DB | 학술지 검색화학공학소재연구정보센터(CHERIC) | 연구정보 | 문헌DB | 학술지 검색

beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases-the wizards of glycosylation. Bojarova P, Bruthans J, Kren V. ... Biochemical characterization and low-resolution SAXS shape of a novel GH11 exo-1,4-beta-xylanase identified in a microbial ...
more infohttps://www.cheric.org/research/tech/periodicals/toc.php?jourid=34&vol=103&num=19

Plant Platform for Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Production | Springer for Research & DevelopmentPlant Platform for Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Production | Springer for Research & Development

Enzymatic properties and subcellular localization of Arabidopsis beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases. Plant Physiology, 145, 5-16. ... Frey, A. D., Karg, S. R., & Kallio, P. T. (2009). Expression of rat beta(1,4)-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III in Nicotiana ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-981-13-8499-8_24

ben tumor of salivary gland 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineben tumor of salivary gland 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

... beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases ... N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) is a lysosomal ... Borzym-Kluczyk M, Olszewska E, Radziejewska I, Lewszuk A, Zwierz K: Isoenzymes of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase in human ... Title] Isoenzymes of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase in human pleomorphic adenoma and healthy salivary glands: a preliminary study ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=ben+tumor+of+salivary+gland+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Pompach P[au] - PubMed - NCBIPompach P[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Large propeptides of fungal beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases are novel enzyme regulators that must be intracellularly processed to ... Structure of the dimeric N-glycosylated form of fungal beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase revealed by computer modeling, vibrational ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Pompach+P%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Single-Cell Measurements of IgE-Mediated FcεRI Signaling Using an Inte by Yanli Liu, Dipak Barua et al."Single-Cell Measurements of IgE-Mediated FcεRI Signaling Using an Inte" by Yanli Liu, Dipak Barua et al.

Beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases; Calcium; Cell Degranulation; Humans; Immunoglobulin E; Intracellular Signaling Peptides And ... Autacoid; Beta N Acetylhexosaminidase; Fc Epsilon Receptor; Fc Receptor; Immunoglobulin E Receptor; Protein Kinase Lyn; Protein ...
more infohttp://scholarsmine.mst.edu/che_bioeng_facwork/466/

Protein paucimannosylation is an enriched N-glycosylation signature of human cancers<...Protein paucimannosylation is an enriched N-glycosylation signature of human cancers<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein paucimannosylation is an enriched N-glycosylation signature of human cancers. AU - Chatterjee,Sayantani. AU - Lee,Ling Y.. AU - Kawahara,Rebeca. AU - Abrahams,Jodie L.. AU - Adamczyk,Barbara. AU - Anugraham,Merrina. AU - Ashwood,Christopher. AU - Sumer-Bayraktar,Zeynep. AU - Briggs,Matthew T.. AU - Chik,Jenny H. L.. AU - Everest-Dass,Arun. AU - Förster,Sarah. AU - Hinneburg,Hannes. AU - Leite,Katia R. M.. AU - Loke,Ian. AU - Möginger,Uwe. AU - Moh,Edward S. X.. AU - Nakano,Miyako. AU - Recuero,Saulo. AU - Sethi,Manveen K.. AU - Srougi,Miguel. AU - Stavenhagen,Kathrin. AU - Venkatakrishnan,Vignesh. AU - Wongtrakul-Kish,Katherine. AU - Diestel,Simone. AU - Hoffmann,Peter. AU - Karlsson,Niclas G.. AU - Kolarich,Daniel. AU - Molloy,Mark P.. AU - Muders,Michael H.. AU - Oehler,Martin K.. AU - Packer,Nicolle H.. AU - Palmisano,Giuseppe. AU - Thaysen-Andersen,Morten. PY - 2019/8/16. Y1 - 2019/8/16. N2 - While aberrant protein glycosylation is a recognised characteristic of ...
more infohttps://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/protein-paucimannosylation-is-an-enriched-n-glycosylation-signatu

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

... beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases - biosynthesis , Rotation , Mice, Knockout , beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases - deficiency , Gene ... beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases - genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gangliosidosis , Animal models , Disease , Gene transfer , ... In G(M2) gangliosidosis variant 0, a defect in the beta-subunit of lysosomal beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) causes ... beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases - adverse effects , Gangliosidoses, GM2 - metabolism , Genetic Therapy - methods , Neuroimaging , ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:FELINE%20SANDHOFF%20DISEASE

Glycoside hydrolase superfamily (IPR017853) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIGlycoside hydrolase superfamily (IPR017853) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

4-beta-N-acetylmuraminidases [PMID: 11427528], and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases [PMID: 12171933]. ... beta-glycanases [PMID: 14668328], family 1 glycosyl hydrolases (such as beta-glucosidase) [PMID: 10978344], type II chitinases ... This entry represents the catalytic TIM beta/alpha barrel common to many different families of glycosyl hydrolases found in all ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR017853

2018 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code E75.0: GM2 gangliosidosis2018 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code E75.0: GM2 gangliosidosis

Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the beta-n-acetylhexosaminidases system or g(m2) activator protein leading to ...
more infohttps://www.icd10data.com/ICD10CM/Codes/E00-E89/E70-E88/E75-/E75.0

G(M2) Ganglioside
      - Ganglioside GM2
     Summary Report | CureHunterG(M2) Ganglioside - Ganglioside GM2 Summary Report | CureHunter

BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include ... A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 ... 06/11/1996 - "Thus, mutations in either gene encoding its alpha or beta subunits can result in GM2 ganglioside storage and Tay- ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD005678-G-M2--Ganglioside-Ganglioside-GM2.do

Эрнест Бётлер - ЦиклопедияЭрнест Бётлер - Циклопедия

Studies on human beta-D-N-acetylhexosaminidases. III. Biochemical genetics of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoffs diseases. J Biol Chem ... The diagnosis of the adult type of Gauchers disease and its carrier state by demonstration of deficiency of beta-glucosidase ...
more infohttp://cyclowiki.org/wiki/%D0%AD%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82_%D0%91%D1%91%D1%82%D0%BB%D0%B5%D1%80

Indian Patents. 233626:A PURIFIED GLYCOPROTEINIndian Patents. 233626:'A PURIFIED GLYCOPROTEIN'

They are endo-beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases that operate by a beta elimination reaction that yields primarily disaccharide end ... 0010] I. Mammalian-type hyaluronidases, (EC 3.2.1.35) which are endo-beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases with tetrasaccharides and ... beta.), the ring bond, the. ring position of the reducing saccharide involved in the bond, and then the name or abbreviation of ... beta.), the ring bond, the ring position of the reducing saccharide involved in the bond, and then the name or abbreviation of ...
more infohttp://www.allindianpatents.com/patents/233626-a-purified-glycoprotein

Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase - WikipediaBeta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase - Wikipedia

"Electrophoretic separation of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases of human and bovine brain and liver and of Tay-Sachs brain tissue". ... Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.53, N-acetyl-beta-galactosaminidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase, beta- ... acetylgalactosaminidase, beta-D-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, N-acetylgalactosaminidase) is an enzyme with systematic name beta-N- ... Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase

Tay-Sachs screening in the Jewish Ashkenazi population: DNA testing is the preferred procedure.  - PubMed - NCBITay-Sachs screening in the Jewish Ashkenazi population: DNA testing is the preferred procedure. - PubMed - NCBI

beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Wiley. Medical. *Tay-Sachs Disease - MedlinePlus ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=587
  • Despite of high sequence identity to previously reported Aspergillus oryzae and Penicilluim oxalicum β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, this enzyme tolerates significantly better substrate modification. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.53, N-acetyl-beta-galactosaminidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase, beta-acetylgalactosaminidase, beta-D-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, N-acetylgalactosaminidase) is an enzyme with systematic name beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide N-acetylgalactosaminohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides Frohwein, Y.S. (wikipedia.org)