A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (1/688)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Conversion of brain-specific complex type sugar chains by N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B. (2/688)

The N-linked sugar chains, GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(Manalpha1++ +-3)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcb eta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-1) and GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-4)(GlcNAcbeta1 -2Manalpha1-3)Manb eta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAc (BA-2), were recently found to be linked to membrane proteins of mouse brain in a development-dependent manner [S. Nakakita, S. Natsuka, K. Ikenaka, and S. Hase, J. Biochem. 123, 1164-1168 (1998)]. The GlcNAc residue linked to the Manalpha1-3 branch of BA-2 is lacking in BA-1 and the removal of this GlcNAc residue is not part of the usual biosynthetic pathway for N-linked sugar chains, suggesting the existence of an N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase. Using pyridylaminated BA-2 (BA-2-PA) as a substrate the activity of this enzyme was found in all four subcellular fractions obtained. The activity was much greater in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum. To further identify the N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase, BA-1 and BA-2 in brain tissues of Hex gene-disrupted mutant mice were detected and quantified. PA-sugar chains were liberated from the cerebrum and cerebellum of the mutant mice by hydrazinolysis-N-acetylation followed by pyridylamination. PA-sugar chains were separated by anion-exchange HPLC, size-fractionation, and reversed-phase HPLC. Each peak was quantified by measuring the peaks at the elution positions of authentic BA-1-PA and BA-2-PA. BA-2-PA was detected in all the PA-sugar chain fractions prepared from Hexa, Hexb, and both Hexa and Hexb (double knockout) gene-disrupted mice, but BA-1 was not found in the fractions from Hexb gene-disrupted and double knockout mice. These results indicate that N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase B encoded by the Hexb gene hydrolyzed BA-2 to BA-1.  (+info)

Changes in hyaluronidase, acrosin, and N-acetylhexosaminidase activities of dog sperm after incubation. (3/688)

Hyaluronidase, acrosin and N-acetylhexosaminidase activities were examined in sperm collected from 12 beagle dogs and in culture medium after 0.5 hr and 7 hr of sperm incubation. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher at 7 hr than at 0.5 hr (P < 0.05, 0.01), and the increases were associated with sperm capacitation. It was considered that the three enzymes in the dog sperm are related to fertilization by reason of the findings of the release of these enzymes from the sperm into the medium after 7 hr of incubation.  (+info)

Analysis of where and which types of proteinases participate in lysosomal proteinase processing using bafilomycin A1 and Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin. (4/688)

Lysosomal proteinases are translated as preproforms, transported through the Golgi apparatus as proforms, and localized in lysosomes as mature forms. In this study, we analyzed which subclass of proteinases participates in the processing of lysosomal proteinases using Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar ATPase inhibitor. Bafilomycin A1 raises lysosomal pH resulting in the degradation of lysosomal proteinases such as cathepsins B, D, and L. Twenty-four hours after the withdrawal of Bafilomycin A1, NIH3T3 cells possess these proteinases in amounts and activities similar to those in cells cultured in DMEM and 5% BCS. In the presence of various proteinase inhibitors, procathepsin processing is disturbed by E-64-d, resulting in abnormal processing of cathepsins D and L, but not by APMSF, Pepstatin A, or CA-074. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin, which prevents vesicular transport from late endosomes to lysosomes, the processing of procathepsins B and D occurs, while that of procathepsin L does not. Thus, procathepsins B and D are converted to their mature forms in late endosomes, while procathepsin L is processed to the mature form after its arrival in lysosomes by some cysteine proteinase other than cathepsin B.  (+info)

Structural basis for the resistance of Tay-Sachs ganglioside GM2 to enzymatic degradation. (5/688)

To understand the reason why, in the absence of GM2 activator protein, the GalNAc and the NeuAc in GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer) are refractory to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, we have recently synthesized a linkage analogue of GM2 named 6'GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->6(NeuAcalpha2-->3)Galbeta1-->4Glcbet a1-1'Cer). While GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->4Gal linkage, 6'-GM2 has GalNAcbeta1-->6Gal linkage (Ishida, H., Ito, Y., Tanahashi, E., Li, Y.-T., Kiso, M., and Hasegawa, A. (1997) Carbohydr. Res. 302, 223-227). We have studied the enzymatic susceptibilities of GM2 and 6'GM2, as well as that of the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2 (GalNAcbeta1-->4Galbeta1--> 4Glcbeta1-1'Cer) and 6'GM2. In addition, the conformational properties of both GM2 and 6'GM2 were analyzed using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics computation. In sharp contrast to GM2, the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac of 6'GM2 were readily hydrolyzed by beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator. Among the oligosaccharides derived from GM2, asialo-GM2, and 6'GM2, only the oligosaccharide from GM2 was resistant to beta-hexosaminidase A. Conformational analyses revealed that while GM2 has a compact and rigid oligosaccharide head group, 6'GM2 has an open spatial arrangement of the sugar units, with the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac freely accessible to external interactions. These results strongly indicate that the resistance of GM2 to enzymatic hydrolysis is because of the specific rigid conformation of the GM2 oligosaccharide.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene therapy of the Tay-Sachs disease in hexosaminidase A-deficient knock-out mice. (6/688)

The severe neurodegenerative disorder, Tays-Sachs disease, is caused by a beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit deficiency which prevents the formation of lysosomal heterodimeric alpha-beta enzyme, hexosaminidase A (HexA). No treatment is available for this fatal disease; however, gene therapy could represent a therapeutic approach. We previously have constructed and characterized, in vitro, adenoviral and retroviral vectors coding for alpha- and beta-subunits of the human beta-hexosaminidases. Here, we have determined the in vivo strategy which leads to the highest HexA activity in the maximum number of tissues in hexA -deficient knock-out mice. We demonstrated that intravenous co-administration of adenoviral vectors coding for both alpha- and beta-subunits, resulting in preferential liver transduction, was essential to obtain the most successful results. Only the supply of both subunits allowed for HexA overexpression leading to massive secretion of the enzyme in serum, and full or partial enzymatic activity restoration in all peripheral tissues tested. The enzymatic correction was likely to be due to direct cellular transduction by adenoviral vectors and/or uptake of secreted HexA by different organs. These results confirmed that the liver was the preferential target organ to deliver a large amount of secreted proteins. In addition, the need to overexpress both subunits of heterodimeric proteins in order to obtain a high level of secretion in animals defective in only one subunit is emphasized. The endogenous non-defective subunit is otherwise limiting.  (+info)

Distribution of chitinase in guinea pig tissues and increases in levels of this enzyme after systemic infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. (7/688)

Intravenous infection of guinea pigs with the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus resulted in increased levels of chitinase in serum and tissues of the animals. The molecular properties of the enzyme were demonstrated to be different from those of the fungal chitinase, but also from guinea pig lysozyme and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Bio-Gel P-100 gel filtration showed that in liver, spleen, heart and lung tissue of control animals there were two molecular mass forms present with apparent molecular masses of 35 kDa and 15 kDa. In brain and serum, only the 35 kDa form was detectable. Kidney showed only the 15 kDa form. Upon infection the 35 kDa form appeared in kidney and increased in the other tissues. When a less pathogenic form of the fungus was used the 35 kDa form remained absent in kidney. In contrast to human serum chitinase, the enzyme from guinea pig serum and tissues did bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose. This was the case for both molecular mass forms. The mode of cleavage of the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-tri-N-acetylchitotrioside (MU-[GlcNAc]3, where GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosamine) by the two forms of the enzyme was the same: both [GlcNAc]2 and [GlcNAc]3 were released. The chitinase activity levels in the control tissues showed a large variation in this order: spleen > lung, kidney > liver > heart > brain. The fact that spleen showed the highest chitinase level is in agreement with its major role as a lymphoid organ in cases of systemic infections. The relative increases upon infection were the highest for the tissues that showed low control values.  (+info)

Synaptotagmin II negatively regulates Ca2+-triggered exocytosis of lysosomes in mast cells. (8/688)

Synaptotagmins (Syts) I and II are believed to act as Ca2+ sensors in the control of neurotransmission. Here we demonstrate that mast cells express Syt II in their lysosomal fraction. We further show that activation of mast cells by either aggregation of FcepsilonRI or by Ca2+ ionophores results in exocytosis of lysosomes, in addition to the well documented exocytosis of their secretory granules. Syt II directly regulates lysosomal exocytosis, whereby overexpression of Syt II inhibited Ca2+-triggered release of the lysosomal processed form of cathepsin D, whereas suppression of Syt II expression markedly potentiated this release. These findings provide evidence for a novel function of Syt II in negatively regulating Ca2+-triggered exocytosis of lysosomes, and suggest that Syt II-regulated secretion from lysosomes may play an important role in mast cell biology.  (+info)