Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to a specific glycoprotein receptor, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl-glycopeptide, during glycopeptide synthesis. EC
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
An enzyme complex that catalyzes the transfer of GALACTOSE from UDP GALACTOSE to GLUCOSE, forming LACTOSE. The enzyme complex is composed of a B subunit, ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN, which changes the substrate specificity of the A subunit, N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE SYNTHASE, from N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE to glucose making lactose synthesis the preferred reaction.
Catalyzes the final step in the galactocerebroside biosynthesis pathway.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactose and N-acylsphingosine to D-galactosylceramide and UDP.
A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate plus inorganic phosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains cyasterone, ajugasterone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 8-acetylharpagide (an iridoid glycoside).
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A plant genus of the family TROPAEOLACEAE. The common nasturtium is a plant that grows 2.4-3.6 m (8-12 feet) tall and has funnel-shaped flowers that are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. Some species in this genus are called watercress which is also a common name for RORIPPA and NASTURTIUM.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Praseodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Pr, atomic number 59, and atomic weight 140.91.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A mixture of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, found in SOLANACEAE plants.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
... n-acylsphingosine galactosyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.400.450 - beta-n-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... dopamine beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392 - fatty acid desaturases MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.312 - beta- ... beta-amylase MeSH D08.811.277.450.114 - beta-fructofuranosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.207 - chitinase MeSH D08.811.277.450.283 ... Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.483.765 - Mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase MeSH D08.811 ...
B4GALT1, B4GALT2, B4GALT3, B4GALT4, B4GALT5, B4GALT6 beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide+beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase at ... B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase is a galactosyltransferase. It is classified under EC ...
... beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta1,3-galactosyltransferase genes". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.1.58. PMID ... An example is B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. The biosynthesis of disaccharides, ... Galactosyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal This article ... Galactosyltransferase is a type of glycosyltransferase which catalyzes the transfer of galactose. ...
... galactosyltransferase, beta-D-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide, and alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase. This enzyme ... 3-galactosyltransferase, UDP-galactose-acetyllactosamine alpha-D-galactosyltransferase, UDPgalactose:beta-D-galactosyl-beta-1,4 ... Other names in common use include alpha-galactosyltransferase, UDP-Gal:beta-D-Gal(1,4)-D-GlcNAc alpha(1,3)- ... beta-N- acetylglucosaminyl-R Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-galactose and [[beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-N- ...
... fucosylgalactoside 3-a-galactosyltransferase EC b-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase EC ... beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II EC beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III EC ... raffinose-raffinose a-galactosyltransferase EC sucrose 6F-a-galactosyltransferase EC xyloglucan 4- ... glucosaminylgalactosylglucosylceramide b-galactosyltransferase EC N-acetyllactosaminide 3-a-galactosyltransferase EC ...
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide <=> UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D- ... Terminal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. ... High activity is shown toward such residues in branched-chain polysaccharides when these are linked by beta-1,6 links to ... All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 2.4.1.-. All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to ...
beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity Source: Ensembl. *cytoskeletal protein binding ... UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1, isoform CRA_bImported. ,p>Information which has been imported ... tr,Q3U478,Q3U478_MOUSE UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1, isoform CRA_b OS=Mus musculus GN= ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ...
beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity. lactose synthase activity. N-acetyllactosamine ... Masri KA, Appert HE, Fukuda MN: Identification of the full-length coding sequence for human galactosyltransferase (beta-N- ... UDP-Gal:beta-GlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1. *UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 ... Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ...
XGALT-1) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers. ... GO:0003831 [beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity]. GO:0005515 [protein binding]. GO: ... GO:0008378 [galactosyltransferase activity]. GO:0016020 [membrane]. GO:0016021 [integral component of membrane]. GO:0016740 [ ... Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7. Protein classi. Protein class the gene product belongs to according to selected gene lists. ...
Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity. IDA. 24052259. GO:0005515. protein binding. IPI ... Identification and characterization of two mutations in galactosyltransferase I gene. (PMID: 10506123) Okajima T … Urano T (The ... UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 (B4GT7_HUMAN) ...
B4GALT1, B4GALT2, B4GALT3, B4GALT4, B4GALT5, B4GALT6 beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide+beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase at ... B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase is a galactosyltransferase. It is classified under EC ...
Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 N-acetyllactosamine synthase Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... galactosyltransferase Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Aliases:. Not Available. ...
... n-acylsphingosine galactosyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.400.450 - beta-n-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... dopamine beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392 - fatty acid desaturases MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.312 - beta- ... beta-amylase MeSH D08.811.277.450.114 - beta-fructofuranosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.207 - chitinase MeSH D08.811.277.450.283 ... Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.483.765 - Mannosyl-glycoprotein endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase MeSH D08.811 ...
... beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide beta-1,4- galactosyltransferase ( EC ), and lactose synthase ( EC ). ... This is the C-terminal domain of a family of galactosyltransferases with three related galactosyltransferases activities, all ... Proteins containing this domain include beta-1,4-galactosyltransferases and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases. ...
B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 3-Beta-glucan synthase is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi. It serves as a ... 3-Beta-glucan synthase (EC also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer that ... "Cloning of the Candida albicans homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSC1/FKS1 and its involvement in beta-1,3-glucan synthesis" ...
beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase (MeSH) published in * The Federation of European ... The Golgi marker enzyme, UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine beta 1-4galactosyltransferase (beta 1-4GalT) was purified 44300-fold ...
EC:, N-acetyllactosamine synthase; EC:, Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide beta-1,4- galactosyltransferase ... N-terminal domain of galactosyltransferase. This is the N-terminal domain of a family of galactosyltransferases from a wide ... range of Metazoa with three related galactosyltransferases activities, all three of which are possessed by one sequence in some ...
N-acetylglucosamine beta-D-galactosyltransferase;. uridine diphosphogalactose-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase;. beta-1, ... beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase), and by an enzyme from the Golgi apparatus of animal ... UDP-galactose-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase;. UDP-galactose-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase;. UDP- ... galactosyltransferase;. beta-N-acetylglucosaminide beta1-4-galactosyltransferase;. UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-beta- ...
Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase antibody. *Beta4Gal-T1 antibody. *CDG2D antibody ... 1/10 - 1/20. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.. ... Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles. ... ab121325, at 1/10, staining B4GALT1 in paraffin embedded Human lateral ventricle tissue by Immunohistochemistry. ...
B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 74 (1): 134-8. Bibcode:1977PNAS...74..134P. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.1.134. PMC 393212. PMID 264667.. ... The active site of OST is located about 4 nm from the lumenal face of the ER membrane.[4] ... Beta-galactosidase. *Hexosaminidase. *mannosidase *alpha-Mannosidase. *beta-mannosidase. *Aspartylglucosaminidase. *Fucosidase ...
3-Galactosyltransferase from bovine E.C. No.: CAzy: Purity: 95% by SDS-PAGE ... beta-D-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase;UDP-galactose:N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha- ... 3-galactosyltransferase;UDP-galactose-acetyllactosamine alpha-D-galactosyltransferase;UDPgalactose:beta-D-galactosyl-beta-1,4-N ... N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase;alpha-galactosyltransferase;UDP-Gal:beta-D-Gal(1,4)-D-GlcNAc alpha(1,3)- ...
B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... Galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT3 gene.[1][2][3] ... 190 (1): 42-6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.1008. PMID 7916594.. *. Nishihara S, Narimatsu H, Iwasaki H, Yazawa S, Akamatsu S, Ando T ... 9 (4): 373-82. doi:10.1093/glycob/9.4.373. PMID 10089211.. *. Yazawa S, Tanaka S, Nishimura T, Miyanaga K, Kochibe N (1999). " ...
B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 280 (1): 2-27. doi:10.1111/febs.12059. PMID 23134486.. *↑ Roach PJ (2002). "Glycogen and its Metabolism". Curr Mol Med. 2 (2): ... It is a glycosyltransferase (EC that catalyses the reaction of UDP-glucose and (1,4-α-D-glucosyl)n to yield UDP and ( ... Site 4. Serine 727. For enzymes in the GT3 family, these regulatory kinases inactivate glycogen synthase by phosphorylating it ...
B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene.[1][2][3] ... 18 (1): 171-3. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1451. PMID 8276413.. *. Aono S, Yamada Y, Keino H, et al. (1994). "Identification of ... 1 (2): 143-61. doi:10.2174/1389200003339171. PMID 11465080.. *. Bosma PJ, Chowdhury JR, Huang TJ, et al. (1992). "Mechanisms of ...
Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC; Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1 ... 3-galactosyltransferase (Glycoprotein alpha-galactosyltransferase 1 pseudogene) [GGTA1] GKAP1 9q21.32 Q5VSY0 GKAP1_HUMAN 611356 ... TGF-beta type I receptor) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I) (TGF-beta receptor type I) (TbetaR-I) [ALK5] [SKR4 ... HUMAN 602660 Tubulin beta-4B chain (Tubulin beta-2 chain) (Tubulin beta-2C chain) [TUBB2C] TUSC1 9p21.2 Q2TAM9 TUSC1_HUMAN ... fucosylgalactoside 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... galactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-galactosyltransferase galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta- ... N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide beta-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha- ... dolichyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl phosphate 3-beta-D-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-glucuronosyltransferase ...
beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase. Hyperpituitarism. Iodide Peroxidase. Receptors, ...
Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase Activity. *Galactosyltransferase Activity. *Manganese Ion ... KRTAP12-1 KRTAP4-2 KRTAP5-6 KRTAP5-9 KRTAP9-2 LCE1B LCE2A LCE3E LCE4A LIMS2 LINC00242 LMNA LMO2 LRCH4 MAPKBP1 MCM5 MOBP MRGBP ...
1_family,_polypeptide_A1, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de UDP_glucuronosyltransferase_1_family,_polypeptide_A1, dictionnaire ... analogique de UDP_glucuronosyltransferase_1_family,_polypeptide_A1 (anglais) ... Lactose synthase · B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase · Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 3-beta-glucan synthase · Ceramide glucosyltransferase ... UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 also known as UGT-1A is an ...
reptile/snake venom: Bungarotoxin (Alpha-Bungarotoxin, Beta-Bungarotoxin) · Calciseptine · Taicatoxin · Calcicludine · ... Lactose synthase · B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase · Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... Aflatoxin · Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, gamma-amanitin, epsilon-amanitin) · Citrinin · Cytochalasin · Ergotamine · ... The N-terminal catalytic domain, known as the C domain, has an unusual beta+alpha fold.[5] The C domain blocks protein ...
MeSH Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide+beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *п. *р. *у. Transferaze: glikoziltransferaze (EC 2.4 ... 3-galactosyltransferase from calf thymus". J. Biol. Chem. 260: 12927-12934. PMID 3932335.. ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7,, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... UDP-alfa-D-galaktoza + N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. UDP + beta-D-galaktozil ...
B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. * Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 3 (1): 167-71. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.1.167. PMID 8162019.. * ^ Bridge JA, Nelson M, Orndal C, Bhatia P, Neff JR (May 1998). "Clonal ... 14 (1): 25-32. doi:10.1038/ng0996-25. PMID 8782816.. * Wuyts W, Van Hul W, Wauters J, et al. (1997). "Positional cloning of a ... 44 (4): 230-4. doi:10.1007/s100380050149. PMID 10429361.. * Xu L, Xia J, Jiang H, et al. (1999). "Mutation analysis of ...
... subunit 1 , , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most ... B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase * Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, * beta-Nitropropionic acid * gamma-amanitin, epsilon-amanitin) ... a 501c(4) Members Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department. ...
B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase * Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, * beta-Nitropropionic acid * gamma-amanitin, epsilon-amanitin) ... ISBN 978-1-904455-33-2 .. * ^ Zhang R, Scott D, Westbrook M, Nance S, Spangler B, Shipley G, Westbrook E (1995). "The three- ... Davis B, Waldor M (2003). "Filamentous phages linked to virulence of Vibrio cholerae". Curr Opin Microbiol 6 (1): 35-42. ...
Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1,4- ... galactosyltransferase. *Processed beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1. Enzyme 2 Gene Name. B4GALT1. ... UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1. *UDP-Gal:beta-GlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 ... 3-D-mannoside beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IVa. *N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N- ...
  • 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi . (wikipedia.org)
  • It serves as a pharmacological target for antifungal drugs such as caspofungin , anidulafungin , and micafungin , deemed 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase inhibitors . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the glycosyltransferase 48 family, which consists of various 1,3-beta-glucan synthase components including Gls1, Gls2, and Gls3 from yeast . (wikipedia.org)
  • also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer that is a major component of the fungal cell wall . (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction is catalysed by a component of EC (lactose synthase), which is identical with EC (beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase), and by an enzyme from the Golgi apparatus of animal tissues. (genome.jp)
  • [4] Nonetheless, a more recent characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) glycogen synthase crystal structure reveals that the dimers may actually interact to form a tetramer . (wikidoc.org)
  • Glycogen synthase catalyzes the conversion of the glucosyl (Glc) moiety of uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-Glc) into glucose to be incorporated into glycogen via an α(1→4) glycosidic bond . (wikidoc.org)
  • 1. ( MeSH ) An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. (leparisien.fr)
  • The increased level of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase required for lactose biosynthesis is achieved in part by translational control. (naver.com)
  • Uridine diphosphogalactose-acetyllactosamine alpha- 1->3-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • Uridine diphosphogalactose-galactosylacetylglucosaminylgalactosyl- glucosylceramide galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • Blanken WM, Van den Eijnden DH.Biosynthesis of terminal Gal alpha 1--3Gal beta 1--4GlcNAc-R oligosaccharide sequences on glycoconjugates. (chemilyglycoscience.com)
  • Biosynthesis and characterization of a trisaccharide (alpha-D-galactose-(1 goes to 3)-N-acetyllactosamine). (chemilyglycoscience.com)
  • Biosynthesis of terminal Gal α 1→3Gal β 1→4GlcNAc-R oligosaccharide sequences on glycoconjugates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • UDP-galactose--glycoprotein galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • Acts on beta-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl termini on asialo- alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and N-acetyllactosamine (beta-D- galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine), but not on 2'-fucosylated-N-acetyllactosamine. (expasy.org)
  • UDPgalactose:beta-D-galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl- glycopeptide alpha-1,3-D-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • Expression of human chromosome 19p alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase genes in normal tissues. (wikidoc.org)
  • Basu M, Basu S.Enzymatic synthesis of a blood group B-related pentaglycosylceramide by an alpha-galactosyltransferase from rabbit bone marrow.J. Biol. (chemilyglycoscience.com)
  • All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 2.4.1. (expasy.org)
  • The enzyme encoded by this gene attaches the first galactose in the common carbohydrate-protein linkage (GlcA-beta1,3-Gal-beta1,3-Gal-beta1,4-Xyl-beta1-O-Ser) found in proteoglycans. (genecards.org)
  • The Golgi marker enzyme, UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine beta 1-4galactosyltransferase (beta 1-4GalT) was purified 44300-fold in its intact, membrane-bound form from rat liver membranes. (edu.au)
  • One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 1 μmol of Galα1,3Lac from UDP-Gal and Lactose per minute at 37 °C. (chemilyglycoscience.com)
  • Galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT3 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • It encodes an enzyme with alpha(1,3)-fucosyltransferase and alpha(1,4)-fucosyltransferase activities. (wikidoc.org)
  • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 also known as UGT-1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A1 gene . (leparisien.fr)
  • A special phenobarbital -responsive enhancer module NR3 region (gtPBREM NR3) helps to increase UDPGT enzyme production, which would make it conceptually possible to medically control the bilirubin level, although this is rarely necessary, particularly in adults (usually the level of total serum bilirubin in Gilbert syndrome patients vary from 1 to 6 mg/dL). (leparisien.fr)
  • B4GALT7 (Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 7) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • [ 1 ] The toxin causes the disease diphtheria in humans by gaining entry into the cell cytoplasm and inhibiting protein synthesis. (leparisien.fr)
  • Pontin52, an interaction partner of beta-catenin, binds to the TATA box binding protein. (naver.com)
  • It is a glycosyltransferase ( EC ) that catalyses the reaction of UDP-glucose and (1,4- α -D-glucosyl) n to yield UDP and (1,4- α -D-glucosyl) n+1 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins containing this domain include beta-1,4-galactosyltransferases and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases. (embl.de)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • This gene is a member of the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) family. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups and galactosyltransferase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Isolation of a novel human alpha (1,3)fucosyltransferase gene and molecular comparison to the human Lewis blood group alpha (1,3/1,4)fucosyltransferase gene. (wikidoc.org)
  • This is the N-terminal domain of a family of galactosyltransferases from a wide range of Metazoa with three related galactosyltransferases activities, all three of which are possessed by one sequence in some cases. (umbc.edu)
  • 260 (1985) 12927-34.Blake DA, Goldstein IJ.An alpha-D-galactosyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. (chemilyglycoscience.com)
  • Purification and acceptor specificity of a UDP-Gal:N-acetyllactosaminide alpha 1--3-galactosyltransferase from calf thymus. (chemilyglycoscience.com)
  • The N-terminal catalytic domain, known as the C domain, has an unusual beta+alpha fold . (leparisien.fr)
  • N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • Alpha-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • Beta-D-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide alpha-1,3- galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • Glucosaminylglycopeptide alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • UDP-Gal:Gal-beta-1->4GlcNAc-R alpha-1->3-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • UDP-galactose-acetyllactosamine alpha-D-galactosyltransferase. (expasy.org)
  • lower activity toward residues linked to galactose by beta- 1,3 links. (expasy.org)
  • Terminal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. (expasy.org)
  • N-terminal domain of galactosyltransferase. (umbc.edu)
  • Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1 antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1 Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Production of beta-defensins by human airway epithelia. (naver.com)
  • UDP-glucose + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N) = UDP + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N+1). (wikipedia.org)