Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.N-Acetyllactosamine Synthase: The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC 2.4.1.90.beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to a specific glycoprotein receptor, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl-glycopeptide, during glycopeptide synthesis. EC 2.4.1.38.Uridine Diphosphate Galactose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.Lactose Synthase: An enzyme complex that catalyzes the transfer of GALACTOSE from UDP GALACTOSE to GLUCOSE, forming LACTOSE. The enzyme complex is composed of a B subunit, ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN, which changes the substrate specificity of the A subunit, N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE SYNTHASE, from N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE to glucose making lactose synthesis the preferred reaction.Ganglioside Galactosyltransferase: Catalyzes the final step in the galactocerebroside biosynthesis pathway.N-Acylsphingosine Galactosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactose and N-acylsphingosine to D-galactosylceramide and UDP.Lactalbumin: A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Globosides: Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.PolysaccharidesAntigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lactosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Thiamine Pyrophosphatase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate plus inorganic phosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Ajuga: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains cyasterone, ajugasterone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 8-acetylharpagide (an iridoid glycoside).Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsProcollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Tropaeolum: A plant genus of the family TROPAEOLACEAE. The common nasturtium is a plant that grows 2.4-3.6 m (8-12 feet) tall and has funnel-shaped flowers that are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. Some species in this genus are called watercress which is also a common name for RORIPPA and NASTURTIUM.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Trigonella: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Praseodymium: Praseodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Pr, atomic number 59, and atomic weight 140.91.Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.GlucosamineEpitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)alpha-Galactosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Glycoside HydrolasesDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Teratocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.GalactosamineDNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.I Blood-Group System: A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Solanine: A mixture of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, found in SOLANACEAE plants.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.ClupeineLactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylgalactosamine: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.P Blood-Group System: A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

*B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase

B4GALT1, B4GALT2, B4GALT3, B4GALT4, B4GALT5, B4GALT6 beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase at ... B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase is a galactosyltransferase. It is classified under EC 2.4.1.38 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... n-acylsphingosine galactosyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.400.450 --- beta-n-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... dopamine beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392 --- fatty acid desaturases MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.312 --- beta- ... beta-amylase MeSH D08.811.277.450.114 --- beta-fructofuranosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.207 --- chitinase MeSH D08.811.277.450. ... Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.483.180 --- Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.483.765 --- ...

*Galactosyltransferase

... beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta1,3-galactosyltransferase genes". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.1.58. PMID ... An example is B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. The biosynthesis of disaccharides, ... Galactosyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Galactosyltransferase is a type of glycosyltransferase which catalyzes the transfer of galactose. ...

*N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase

... galactosyltransferase, beta-D-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide, and alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase. This enzyme ... 3-galactosyltransferase, UDP-galactose-acetyllactosamine alpha-D-galactosyltransferase, UDPgalactose:beta-D-galactosyl-beta-1,4 ... Other names in common use include alpha-galactosyltransferase, UDP-Gal:beta-D-Gal(1,4)-D-GlcNAc alpha(1,3)- ... beta-N- acetylglucosaminyl-R Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-galactose and [[beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-N- ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 2)

... fucosylgalactoside 3-a-galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.38: b-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase EC ... beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II EC 2.3.1.180: beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III EC 2.3.1.181: ... raffinose-raffinose a-galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.167: sucrose 6F-a-galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.168: xyloglucan 4- ... glucosaminylgalactosylglucosylceramide b-galactosyltransferase EC 2.4.1.87: N-acetyllactosaminide 3-a-galactosyltransferase EC ...
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Lipopolysaccharyl-alpha-1,4-galactosyltransferase C (LgtC), a glycosyltransferase family 8 alpha-1,4-galactosyltransferase from Neisseria meningitidis, catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP galactose to terminal lactose-containing acceptor sugars with net retention of anomeric configuration. To investigate the potential role of discrete nucleophilic catalysis suggested by the double displacement mechanism generally proposed for retaining glycosyltransferases, the side chain amide of Gln-189, which is suitably positioned to act as the catalytic nucleophile of LgtC, was substituted with the more nucleophilic carboxylate-containing side chain of glutamate in the hope of accumulating a glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. The resulting mutant was subjected to kinetic, mass spectrometric, and x-ray crystallographic analysis. Although the K-m for UDP-galactose is not significantly altered, the k(cat) was reduced to 3% that of the wild type enzyme. Electrospray mass spectrometric ...
In the process of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) organ transplantation, removal of anti-A and/or B antibodies from blood plasma is a promising method to overcome hyperacute rejection and allograft loss caused by the immune response between anti-A and/or B antibodies and the A and/or B antigens in the recipient. Although there are commercial columns to do this work, the application is still limited because of the high production cost. In this study, the PglB glycosylation pathway from Campylobacter jejuni was exploited to produce glycoprotein conjugated with Escherichia coli O86:B7 O-antigen, which bears the blood group B antigen epitope to absorb blood group B antibody in blood. The titers of blood group B antibody were reduced to a safe level without changing the clotting function of plasma after glycoprotein absorption of B antibodies in the plasma. We developed a feasible strategy for the specific adsorption/removal of blood group antibodies. This method will be useful in ABOi organ transplantation and
1. The ability of phlorrhizin to inhibit the galactosylation of glucose was re-examined with Golgi membrane vesicles purified from rat mammary gland, and extended to the galactosylation of several glucose analogues and N-acylglucosamines. 2. The inhibition is ascribed, contrary to previous conclusions, to a general annealing of leaky membranes comprising a minority of the vesicles. 3. Three thiol reagents were able to inhibit the galactosylation of N-acylglucosamines with less, or no, inhibition of galactosylation of glucose. This demonstrates the existence of a Golgi membrane carrier that distinguishes between glucose and N-acylglucosamines. ...
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lactose synthase (EC 2.4.1.22); β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.38); N-acetyllactosamine synthase (EC 2.4.1.90); xylosylprotein β-4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.133); UDP-Gal: neolactotriaosylceramide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.275); β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
Definition of lactose synthase in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of lactose synthase. What does lactose synthase mean? Information and translations of lactose synthase in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
BioAssay record AID 310238 submitted by ChEMBL: Agonist activity at human beta-3 adrenergic receptor expressed in CHO cells assessed as cAMP level relative to isoproterenol.
BioAssay record AID 288801 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]CGP12177 from human beta-2 adrenergic receptor expressed in HEK293 cells.
Gamete interaction is a crucial event during fertilization when receptors on sperm bind to ligands on the extracellular coat of the egg, called the zona pellucida in mammals. Binding to the zona pellucida clusters the sperm receptor, activating intracellular signaling cascades that stimulate the exocytosis of the acrosome. The contents of the acrosome enable sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and subsequently bind to the egg plasma membrane where gamete fusion occurs (Talbot et al., 2003). Before ejaculated sperm can complete any of these steps, they must undergo a series of biochemical, morphological and behavioral changes, collectively called capacitation. Although capacitation is obligatory for successful fertilization, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood.. One of the sperm proteins thought to function during fertilization isβ 1,4-galactosyltransferase I (GalT I; B4galt1 - Mouse Genome Informatics). GalT I normally serves as a biosynthetic enzyme in the Golgi ...
Gamete interaction is a crucial event during fertilization when receptors on sperm bind to ligands on the extracellular coat of the egg, called the zona pellucida in mammals. Binding to the zona pellucida clusters the sperm receptor, activating intracellular signaling cascades that stimulate the exocytosis of the acrosome. The contents of the acrosome enable sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and subsequently bind to the egg plasma membrane where gamete fusion occurs (Talbot et al., 2003). Before ejaculated sperm can complete any of these steps, they must undergo a series of biochemical, morphological and behavioral changes, collectively called capacitation. Although capacitation is obligatory for successful fertilization, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood.. One of the sperm proteins thought to function during fertilization isβ 1,4-galactosyltransferase I (GalT I; B4galt1 - Mouse Genome Informatics). GalT I normally serves as a biosynthetic enzyme in the Golgi ...
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Ca2+ binding and concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids were compared in membrane fractions of rat small intestine. These fractions differed in density and were enriched for galactosyltransferase activity, a Golgi-membrane marker. Ca2+ binding was highest in the Golgi subfraction with the least density, as were the concentrations of both non-esterified fatty acids and phospholipids; galactosyltransferase activity was distributed differently. The large amount of non-esterified fatty acids was sufficient to account for a 2:1 complex of fatty acid-Ca2+. In vitamin D-deficient animals, the yield of protein in the lightest subfractions was decreased, but Ca2+ binding per mg of protein was further decreased to about 60%. In Golgi fractions from vitamin D-deficient animals, Ca2+ binding and the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids were decreased in parallel, but phospholipids were not significantly changed. There was a close correlation between Golgi ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Accepted name: sphingosine β-galactosyltransferase. Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + sphingosine = UDP + psychosine. Other name(s): psychosine UDP galactosyltransferase; galactosyl-sphingosine transferase; psychosine-uridine diphosphate galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:sphingosine O-galactosyl transferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-sphingosine β-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:sphingosine 1-β-galactotransferase; UDP-galactose:sphingosine 1-β-galactosyltransferase. Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:sphingosine 1-β-galactosyltransferase. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9032-90-0. References: 1. Cleland, W.W. and Kennedy, E.P. The enzymatic synthesis of psychosine. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 45-51.. ...
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Galactosyltransferase is a type of glycosyltransferase which catalyzes the transfer of galactose. An example is B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. The biosynthesis of disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides involves the action of hundreds of different glycosyltransferases. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming glycosidic bonds. A classification of glycosyltransferases using nucleotide diphospho-sugar, nucleotide monophospho-sugar and sugar phosphates (EC 2.4.1.-) and related proteins into distinct sequence based families has been described. This classification is available on the CAZy (Carbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site. The same three-dimensional fold is expected to occur within each of the families. Because 3-D structures are better conserved than sequences, several of the families defined on the basis of sequence similarities may have similar ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and ...
Authors: Ju, Tongzhong , Aryal, Rajindra P. , Kudelka, Matthew R. , Wang, Yingchun , Cummings, Richard D. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: The Tn antigen is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen that is not normally expressed in peripheral tissues or blood cells. Expression of this antigen, which is found in a majority of human carcinomas of all types, arises from a blockage in the normal O-glycosylation pathway in which glycans are extended from the common precursor GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen). This precursor is generated in the Golgi apparatus on newly synthesized glycoproteins by a family of polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAcTs) and then extended to the common core 1 O-glycan Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (T antigen) by a single enzyme termed the T-synthase (core 1 β3-galactosyltransferase or C1GalT). Formation …of the active form of the T-synthase requires a unique molecular chaperone termed Cosmc, encoded by Cosmc on the X-chromosome (Xq24 in humans, ...
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Lactose synthesis rate is an important factor in milk production and quality in mammals. Understanding the lactose synthesis mechanism is crucial for the improvement of milk quantity and quality. However, research on the temporal gene changes regarding lactose synthesis during the whole lactation is still limited. The objective of this study was to determine gene expression profiles related to lactose synthesis in sows during lactation, and further identify the critical steps or key factors in the lactose synthesis pathway. To determine the temporal change of factors related to lactose synthesis in sows, milk from eight multiparous Yorkshire sows (parity 3 to 6) was collected at 0 h, 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, day 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, and 21 after birth of the first piglet. Lactose content, prolactin and progesterone concentration, and gene or protein expression related to lactose synthesis were measured. The lactose yield increased gradually from D2 to D21 and reached a maximum at D14 (3-fold from D2) during
Please distribute: CLARIFICATION: OPEN TO USA AND NON-USA CITIZENS/RESIDENTS POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS IN MAMMALIAN FERTILIZATION NIH-funded postdoctoral positions are available immediately to study the biochemistry of mammalian gamete recognition. Recent studies show that sperm surface galactosyltransferase is a receptor for ZP3 oligosaccharides in the egg zona pellucida (,fontfamily,,param,Geneva,/param,Nature, 1992, 357:589-593,/fontfamily,). Aggregation of galactosyltransferase by multivalent ZP3 oligosaccharides leads to activation of a heterotrimeric G-protein cascade, which culminates in the acrosome reaction (Science, 1995,,fontfamily,,param,Geneva,/param, 269:1718-1721,/fontfamily,). Although galactosyltransferase-null sperm do not bind ZP3 oligosaccharides nor undergo an acrosome reaction, they still bind to the zona pellucida (Development, 1997,,fontfamily,,param,Geneva,/param, 124:4121-4131,/fontfamily,). This suggests that ...
Background: F1-V from Yersinia pestis has been shown to be a protective antigen against disease. We modified the F1-V antigen with α-galactose residues and immunized α galactosyl transferase (α-GT) KO mice in order to mimic the same defect in humans that results in circulating antibodies against α-gal epitopes enhancing immune responsiveness. Aim: To demonstrate that α-gal modified F1-V induces a more robust immune response than unmodified F1-V. Methods: α-GT KO mice were injected subcutaneously with different doses of α-gal-F1-V or F1-V. All mice were boosted with F1-V at 36 dpi and necropsied on day 40 in order to evaluate in vitro recall response of lymphocytes and to measure anti-F1-V antibody titers. Results: Mean IgG titer values were 50,000 and 10,000 for mice immunized with the α-gal-F1-V or F1-V, respectively. The relative avidity of the antibody response was also higher for the α-gal-F1-V immunized mice. Moreover, lymphocytes from α-gal-F1-V immunized mice demonstrated ...
β1,4-GalT1 is type II membrane-bound glycoprotein transferring galactose to acceptor sugars. This enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of lactose or transfers galactose to the terminal GlcNAc of complex-type N-glycans. Previous studies found that β1,4-GalT1 knock-out mouse showed semi-lethality after birth. We obtained a β1,4-GalT1 site-specific mutant mouse modelusing CRISPR/Cas9 in which tyrosine (Y286) were substituted by leucine (L286). This mutation makes β1,4-GalT1 an N-acetylgalactosaminetransferase instead of galactosyltransferase. No lethal deficiency was observed in both heterozygote (+/-) mice and homozygous (-/-) mice. However, homozygous (-/-) mice were unable to give birth and lactation. The further N-glycan profiling showed that homozygous (-/-) mouse serum have no sialylated N-glycans while heterozygote(+/-) mouse showed the similar pattern of N-glycosylation in serum compared with wild-type mouse. The results indicated that the functional changing of ...
The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5) antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the
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N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.149); Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-β-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.122); fucose-specific β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); globotriosylceramide β-1,3-GalNAc transferase (EC 2.4.1.79); chondroitin synthase (β-1,3-GlcUA and β-1,4-GalNAc transferase (EC 2.4.1.175); chondroitin β-1,3-glucuronyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.226); chondroitin β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); UDP-Gal: β-galactosylxylosylprotein β-1,3-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.134); UDP-GlcNAc: O-fucosylpeptide β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.222 ...
This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By ...
The synthesis of the plant cell wall is very complex, and understanding how this process occurs will lead to many benefits for future research and industries dependent upon cell walls for their products. The recent discovery of the functions of AtMUR3 and AtGT18 in Arabidopsis thaliana as xyloglucan galactosyltransferases has led to the identification of many more putative glycosyltransferases in the Arabidopsis genome. Due to the structural differences between the xyloglucans of Arabidopsis and solanaceous plants, we decided to search for putative arabinosyltransferases in the Solanaceae. Solanaceous xyloglucan is substituted by one to two arabinosyl residues at the second xylose position, and sometimes contains an arabinose at the first xylose position. In contrast, Arabidopsis xyloglucan does not contain arabinose, and is substituted by galactose at the second and third xylose position. Furthermore, the second galactose residue in Arabidopsis xyloglucan is usually fucosylated, a ...
Xyloglucan is the major hemicellulosic polymer found in the primary cell walls of dicots. Xyloglucan tethers cellulose microfibrils conferring rigidity and strength for maintenance of cell integrity, and it is thought that its metabolism contributes to cell elongation and thus plant growth. Here, we have cloned and characterized a Eucalyptus grandis gene ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana MUR3 gene (xyloglucan galactosyltransferase), thus termed EgMUR3. EgMUR3 represents an intronless sequence of 1,854 bp predicted to encode a protein of 617 amino acid residues. It exhibits 73% identity and 82% similarity to the A. thaliana MUR3 gene. To demonstrate that this gene encodes a functional enzyme, the putative ORF was cloned into a binary vector under the control of a constitutive promoter and transformed into the A. thaliana mur3 mutant. The effect of the genetic complementation was investigated by xyloglucan oligosaccharide fingerprinting of wall material. The results confirmed that EgMUR3 ...
Importantly, the high resolution inherent in CE allows complex mixtures and binding resulting in only small migration changes to be characterized quantitatively. One specific problem, however, that may be encountered when applying CE for the analysis of binding interactions of proteins is the need to avoid interactions other than those between the analyte and the ligand. Thus, protein-wall interactions in unmodified fused-silica capillaries used at neutral pH often invalidate analyses of protein binding. This problem is especially pronounced with basic proteins and proteins containing exposed patches of positive charge. In the development of suitable conditions for analysis at neutral pH of b2gpI we found the pH hysteresis behavior of fused silica surfaces useful since the protonated surface after an acid pre-wash counteracted protein adsorption efficiently in contrast to more laborious procedures including acrylamide/dimethylacrylamide coatings that did not permit analysis of this particular ...
InChI=1S/C94H152O47/c1-14-35(3)45(128-54(103)26-41(100)25-46(36(4)15-2)129-82-66(115)61(110)49(32-97)130-82)24-40(99)27-55(104)134-73-57(106)38(6)126-86(77(73)140-85-71(120)75(137-83-68(117)63(112)59(108)47(30-95)131-83)72(39(7)127-85)135-80-65(114)58(107)44(101)33-124-80)141-88(123)94-23-22-89(8,9)28-43(94)42-16-17-51-90(10)20-19-53(91(11,34-98)50(90)18-21-92(51,12)93(42,13)29-52(94)102)133-87-78(139-84-69(118)64(113)60(109)48(31-96)132-84)74(70(119)76(138-87)79(121)122)136-81-67(116)62(111)56(105)37(5)125-81/h16,34-41,43-53,56-78,80-87,95-97,99-102,105-120H,14-15,17-33H2,1-13H3,(H,121,122 ...
Plants invest a lot of their resources into the production of an extracellular matrix built of polysaccharides. While the composition of the cell wall is relatively well characterized, the functions of the individual polymers and the enzymes that catalyze their biosynthesis remain poorly understood. We exploited the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed coat epidermis (SCE) to study cell wall synthesis. SCE cells produce mucilage, a specialized secondary wall that is rich in pectin, at a precise stage of development. A coexpression search for MUCILAGE-RELATED (MUCI) genes identified MUCI10 as a key determinant of mucilage properties. MUCI10 is closely related to a fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) enzyme that has in vitro galactomannan α-1,6-galactosyltransferase activity. Our detailed analysis of the muci10 mutants demonstrates that mucilage contains highly branched galactoglucomannan (GGM) rather than unbranched glucomannan. MUCI10 likely decorates glucomannan, synthesized by ...
A gene, cpaA, with similarity to calcium proton antiporters has been identified adjacent to lpcAB in Rhizobium leguminosarum. LpcA is a galactosyl transferase while LpcB is a 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate transferase, both of which are required to form the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core in R. leguminosarum. Mutations in lpcAB result in a rough LPS phenotype with a requirement for elevated calcium concentrations to allow growth, suggesting that truncation of the LPS core exposes a highly negatively charged molecule. This is consistent with the LPS core being one of the main sites for binding calcium in the Gram-negative outer membrane. Strain RU1109 (cpaA::Tn5-lacZ) has a normal LPS layer, as measured by silver staining and Western blotting. This indicates that cpaA mutants are not grossly affected in their LPS layer. LacZ fusion analysis indicates that cpaA is constitutively expressed and is not directly regulated by the calcium concentration. Over-expression of cpaA increased the concentration of calcium
Human (Parental) Colon Cancer Stem Cell (Plated cells are also available). 120 Population doublings up to 12 passages. One million viable cells upon thawing of frozen cells, frozen vial of cells shipped in dry-ice. Cell Cultures from single donors, 1000 different cell cultures available, please indicate which lots you require from the 1000 donors. Source: Human (Parental) Colon Cancer tissue. Positive Markers: Vimentin, Variable S100, CEA, Galactosyl Transferase II, CK-7, CK-20, Smooth Muscle Actin (polyp), Bcl2, Ki-67, P504S, Mucin (MUC-1 & MUC-3) For non-academic use please inquire for pricing. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Creative Bioarray Media and Creative Bioarray Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment ...
Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl
Information regarding the different downstream target genes of WRKY TFs that regulate abiotic stress-induced responses is limited. Advances have, however, been made in a dehydration tolerance signaling pathway in the resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica (Wang et al. 2009). An important downstream target gene, Galactinol synthase 1 (BhGolS1), which plays a role in drought and cold tolerance (Teruaki et al. 2002) was found to be dehydration and ABA inducible. The BhGolS1 promoter contains four W boxes and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that it is bound in vivo by the early dehydration and ABA-inducible BhWRKY1 TF (Wang et al. 2009). These observations provide direct insights into the role of a dehydration-inducible WRKY TF that interacts with a downstream target gene that plays an important role in drought responses. Recently, convincing evidence has been presented to show that AtWRKY8 functions antagonistically with its interacting partner VQ9 to modulate salinity tolerance (Hu et al. ...
Learn About Lysosomal Storage Disorders and How A Glycosyltransferase Activity Assay Can Be Used to Find Novel Therapeutics for These Diseases.
The glycosyltransferase enzymes (Lgts) responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipooligosaccharide-derived oligosaccharide structures from Moraxella catarrhalis have been investigated. This upper respiratory tract pathogen is responsible for a spectrum of illnesses, including otitis media (middle ear infection) in children, and contributes to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly patients. To investigate the function of the glycosyltransferase enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lipooligosaccharide of M. catarrhalis and to gain some insight into the mechanism of serotype specificity for this microorganism, mutant strains of M. catarrhalis were produced. Examination by NMR and MS of the oligosaccharide structures produced by double-mutant strains (2951lgt1/4? and 2951lgt5/4?) and a single-mutant strain (2951lgt2?) of the bacterium has allowed us to propose a model for the serotype-specific expression of lipooligosaccharide in M. catarrhalis. According to this ...
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Histo-blood group ABO system, blood group ABO system, ABO system, AB0 system, ABO blood groups, AB0 blood groups, ABO blood types, AB0 blood types, ABO genetic locus, ABO genes, ABO, AB0, A glycosyltransferases, B glycosyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex carbohydrate antigens, complex carbohydrates, A antigen, B antigen, H antigen, red blood cell antigens, A/B antigens, ABH antigens, glycolipid, glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, oligo sugars, red blood cells, RBC, blood transfusion, transfusion medicine, cell/tissue/organ transplantation, transplantation medicine, immunohematology, immunohaematology, immuno-hematology, immunology, ABO genotyping, forensic sciences, legal medicine, human genetics, population genetics, evolution, enzymology, glycobiology, glycosciences, human genes, primate genes, mouse gene, pig genes, alpha 1,3-Gal(NAc) transferases, a1,3-galactosyl
GLYCOSYLATED PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PROKARYOTES - The present invention relates to a prokaryotic host cell comprising eukaryotic glycosyltransferase activity, where the eukaryotic glycosyltransferase activity is eukaryotic dolichyl-linked UDP-GlcNAc transferase activity and eukaryotic mannosyl-transferase activity. Also disclosed is a method of producing a glycosylated protein by providing a prokaryotic host cell comprising the eukaryotic glycosyltransferase activity and culturing the prokaryotic host cell under conditions effective to produce a glycosylated protein. Another aspect of the present invention pertains to a method for screening bacteria or bacteriophages by expressing one or more glycans on the surface of a bacteria, attaching a label on the one or more glycans on the surface of the bacteria or on the surface of a bacteriophage derived from the bacteria, and analyzing the label in a high-throughput format. A glycosylated antibody comprising an Fv portion which recognizes and binds to ...
LALBA Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_002280), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes alpha-lactalbumin, a principal protein of milk. Alpha-lactalbumin forms the regulatory subunit of the lactose synthase (LS) heterodimer and beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4Gal-T1) forms the catalytic component. Together, these proteins enable LS to produce lactose by transfering galactose moieties to glucose. As a monomer, alpha-lactalbumin strongly binds calcium and zinc ions and may possess bactericidal or antitumor activity. A folding variant of alpha-lactalbumin, called HAMLET, likely induces apoptosis in tumor and immature cells.
The distribution of beta 1,2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (NAGT I), alpha 1,3-1,6 mannosidase II (Mann II), beta 1,4 galactosyltransferase (GalT), alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase (SialylT) was determined by immuno-labelling of cryo-sections from HeLa cell lines. Antibody labelling in the HeLa cell line was made possible by stable expression of epitope-tagged forms of these proteins or forms from species to which specific antibodies were available. NAGT I and Mann II had the same distribution occupying the medial and trans cisternae of the stack. GalT and SialylT also had the same distribution but they occupied the trans cisterna and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). These results generalise our earlier observations on the overlapping distribution of Golgi enzymes and show that each of the trans compartments of the Golgi apparatus in HeLa cells contains unique mixtures of those Golgi enzymes involved in the construction of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disruption of axo-glial junctions causes cytoskeletal disorganization and degeneration of Purkinje neuron axons. AU - Garcia-Fresco, German P.. AU - Sousa, Aurea D.. AU - Pillai, Anilkumar M.. AU - Moy, Sheryl S.. AU - Crawley, Jacqueline. AU - Tessarollo, Lino. AU - Dupree, Jeffrey L.. AU - Bhat, Manzoor A.. PY - 2006/3/28. Y1 - 2006/3/28. N2 - Axo-glial junctions (AGJs) play a critical role in the organization and maintenance of molecular domains in myelinated axons. Neurexin IV/Caspr1/paranodin (NCP1) is an important player in the formation of AGJs because it recruits a paranodal complex implicated in the tethering of glial proteins to the axonal membrane and cytoskeleton. Mice deficient in either the axonal protein NCP1 or the glial ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGT) display disruptions in AGJs and severe ataxia. In this article, we correlate these two phenotypes and show that both NCP1 and CGT mutants develop large swellings accompanied by cytoskeletal disorganization ...
α-Galactosidases are enzymes that act on galactosides present in many vegetables, mainly legumes and cereals, have growing importance with respect to our diet. For this reason, the use of their catalytic activity is of great interest in numerous biotechnological applications, especially those in the food industry directed to the degradation of oligosaccharides derived from raffinose. The aim of this work has been to optimize the recombinant production and further characterization of α-galactosidase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MEL1 gene coding for the α-galactosidase of S. cerevisiae (ScAGal) was cloned and expressed in the S. cerevisiae strain BJ3505. Different constructions were designed to obtain the degree of purification necessary for enzymatic characterization and to improve the productive process of the enzyme. ScAGal has greater specificity for the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside than for natural substrates, followed by the natural glycosides, melibiose, raffinose
lipid transfer protein: accelerates glycolipid exchange; catalyzes net transfer of glycosphingolipids from brush border membrane vesicles; also facilitates transfer of glucosyl-, galactosyl- & lactosylceramide from liposomal vesicles to red ghost cells; see also record for phospholipid exchange protein
Buy our Recombinant Human Blood Group Antigen Precursor protein. Ab113153 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in…
Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain.
Chemo-enzymatic modification of poly-N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) oligomers and N,N-diacetyllactosamine (LacDiNAc) based on galactose oxidase treatment
Proteodermatan sulfate (PDS), defective biosynthesis of symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Proteodermatan sulfate (PDS), defective biosynthesis of (Xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase (XGPT) deficiency) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
The role of natural anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal antibodies in hyperacute rejection of pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplants.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
2-hydroxyacylsphingosine 1-beta-galactosyltransferase (541 aa, ~61 kDa) is encoded by the human UGT8 gene. This protein is involved in the transfer of galactose to ceramide.
Background: Treatments that generate T cell-mediated immunity to a patients unique neoantigens are the current holy grail of cancer immunotherapy. In particular, treatments that do not require cumbersome and individualized ex vivo processing or manufacturing processes are especially sought after. Here we report that AGI-134, a glycolipid-like small molecule, can be used for coating tumor cells with the xenoantigen Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (alpha-Gal) in situ leading to opsonization with pre-existing natural anti-alpha-Gal antibodies (in short anti-Gal), which triggers immune cascades resulting in T cell mediated anti-tumor immunity. Methods: Various immunological effects of coating tumor cells with alpha-Gal via AGI-134 in vitro were measured by flow cytometry: (1) opsonization with anti-Gal and complement, (2) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells, and (3) phagocytosis and antigen cross-presentation by antigen presenting cells (APCs). A ...
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Besides the treatment, what interest me the most of the concept of Skin Shape Club. It is a boutique wellness club, where members can learn more about beauty and wellness, besides receiving clinically proven skin and slimming treatments. Besides the lounge area where members can enjoy healthy snacks and skincare books and magazine, they also provide free Wi-Fi for members when they need to do their work there. They also organise works and talks for members. The club concept is like gym membership concept, base on the package youve purchase, you can actually head down for treatment as many days as you like (depending on the therapists schedules too). I think thats quite interesting, but for customers who are not keen in joining the membership, they have package x sessions for them too. A very all-rounded concept ...
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This gene encodes a member of the UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T) family of enzymes. GalNAc-Ts initiate mucin-type O-linked glycosylation in the Golgi apparatus by catalyzing the transfer of GalNAc to serine and threonine residues on target proteins. They are characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a stem region, a lumenal catalytic domain containing a GT1 motif and Gal/GalNAc transferase motif, and a C-terminal ricin/lectin-like domain. GalNAc-Ts have different, but overlapping, substrate specificities and patterns of expression. The encoded protein is capable of glycosylating fibronectin peptide in vitro and is expressed in a fibroblast cell line, indicating that it may be involved in the synthesis of oncofetal fibronectin ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The design and synthesis of several beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase inhibitors are reported. Mimics of the pyrophosphate-Mn2+ complex were the focus of the design. Malonic, tartaric, and monosaccharide moieties were used as replacements of the pyrophosphate moiety, and galactose or azasugars with potent galactosidase inhibitory activity were used as the donor component. Compound 6, in which glucose was used as the pyrophosphate-Mn2+ complex mimic and galactose as the donor component, showed the best inhibitory activity towards the transferase with a Ki of 119.6 microM ...
For many years, some members of the scientific community have been absolutely engrossed in trying to solve one of the biggest health conundrums in the United States: how to get more people to donate their organs. And if that cant happen on a grand scale, well, scientists are turning to cloned pigs for organs.. In 2016, there were just 33,600 organ transplants, while there were 116,800 patients on transplant waiting lists. Since you cant force people to become organ donors, scientists figure the only other option is to look elsewhere for organs. Now, through gene-editing and cloned some pigs, scientists have come a step closer to solving the problem, but the process is risky. [1]. You cant transplant pig organs into humans because the body would assuredly reject them. There is also a concern that pig retroviruses could spread to human cells. With the help of pig cloning and CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology, researchers have been able to solve the latter problem. [2]. ...
GMH railway station Is a former station that spurred off the Gawler line. The station was located within the General Motors Holden car manufacturing factory in the northern Adelaide suburb of Elizabeth South.. The start of the spur was approximately halfway between the Elizabeth South and Nurlutta stations. It closed in 1992, and the station demolished, but some of the track that leads to the station is still intact. As of 20 January 2011, the line itself has now been covered over leaving only bits of the line intact near GMH and towards the Gawler line.. Primarily an industrial station, it was only served by trains during shift change times at Holden. There were two platforms of step-down construction. Most trains ran express between Adelaide and Salisbury before terminating here.. Coordinates: 34°44′38″S 138°39′10″E / 34.744°S 138.6527°E / -34.744; 138.6527. ...
Book Chapters are listed at the bottom of this page.. S.M. Thakurdas, M.F. Lopez, S. Kakuda, R. Fernandez-Valdivia, N. Zarrin-Khameh, R.S. Haltiwanger, H. Jafar-Nejad. 2016. Jagged1 heterozygosity in mice results in a congenital cholangiopathy which is reversed by concomitant deletion of one copy of Poglut1 (Rumi). Hepatology 63: 550-565. PMID:26235536. E Servian-Morilla, H Takeuchi, TV Lee, J Clarimon, F Mavillard, E Area-Gomez, E Rivas, JL Nieto-Gonzalez, MC Rivero, M Cabrera-Serrano, L Gomez-Sanchez, JA Martinez-Lopez, B Estrada, C Marquez, Y Morgado, X Suarez-Calvet, G JPita, A Bigot, E Gallardo, R Fernandez-Chachon, M Hirano, RS Haltiwanger, H Jara-Nejad, C Parada. 2016. A POGLUT1 mutation causes a muscular dystrophy with reduced Notch signaling and satellite cell loss. EMBO Mol Med 8: 1289-1309. PMID:27807076. J Dubail, D Vasudevan, SE Earp, MW Jenkins, RS Haltiwanger, SS Apte. 2016. Impaired ADAMTS9 secretion: A potential mechanism for eye defects in Peters Plus Syndrome. Sci Rep 6: ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
1GX4: Structural Basis of Ordered Binding of Donor and Acceptor Substrates to the Retaining Glycosyltransferase, Alpha -1,3 Galactosyltransferase
CP001743.PE380 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS_pept 365530..366618 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag="Mrub_0385" FT /product="glycosyl transferase family 2" FT /note="PFAM: glycosyl transferase family 2; SPTR: A4CTP8 FT Putative glycosyltransferase family 2; InterPro IPR001173; FT COGs: COG1215 Glycosyltransferase probably involved in cell FT wall biogenesis; KEGG: met:M446_3158 glycosyl transferase FT family protein; PFAM: Glycosyl transferase family 2" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Mrub_0385" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ADD27162" FT /protein_id="ADD27162.1" FT /translation="MVSILEVLWYGVLAWLGLKLLVLLLNMLFFPVLKREKLRGPRPTV FT SLLVPARNEAHNLRETLPGLLLQGVQEILVLNDHSTDATAQVVEEFSRQDARVRLLAGL FT PKPEGWMGKTWACYQLAQAAQGEVLIFTDADVHWHKRGVRAVLARMERERAGLVSVYPR FT QMTHSLAERVILPLIDDVLLCYLPYPLLRTPFPSASAANGQVMAFTRPAYLASGGHAAV FT RGEVLEDVRLAQKTKGAGQRLALALGGGLVAVRMYRGFAEIVEGLGKNLIEFHGRSRVV FT LALSYMGHLLAYTLCWPLALFNPLWLWVGVLGLLERLLLGLKTGRAWWELVLVPLAPLL FT STPIYWRSAQRKYTWKGREYSR" atggtatcta tcctcgaggt ...
B4GALNT2 catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the human Sd(a) antigen through the addition of an N-acetylgalactosamine residue via a beta-1,4 linkage to a subterminal galactose residue substituted with an alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid. B4GALNT2 also catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the Cad antigen (Montiel et al., 2003 [PubMed 12678917]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
This gene encodes a member of the nucleotide-sugar transporter family. The encoded protein is a multi-pass membrane protein. It transports UDP-galactose from the cytosol into Golgi vesicles, where it serves as a glycosyl donor for the generation of glycans. Mutations in this gene cause congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIm (CDG2M). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014 ...
Transcribed sequence with strong similarity to protein ref:NP_001778.1 (H.sapiens) cell division cycle 2-like 1, isoform 1; Cell division cycle 2-like 1; PITSLRE protein kinase alpha; p58/GTA protein kinase; galactosyltransferase associated protein kinase; CDC-related protein kinase p58; PITSLRE B [Homo sapiens ...
A detailed explanation of the catalytic mechanism employed by these enzymes can be found on the Glycosyltransferases lexicon page. Note: Transglycosylases are distinct from glycosyltransferases. Although both formally catalyze glycosyl transfer, i.e. transfer of a glycosyl residue from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate,transglycosylases are mechanistically and structurally related to the glycoside hydrolases. Specifically, transglycosylases catalyze the intra- or intermolecular substitution of the anomeric position of glycosides. ...
Jun 12, 2005 - GTAGaming.com: now with GTA 4 walkthrough, GTA 4 maps, GTA 4 It is currently the ultimate editor for San Andreas as the name states. Dec 19, 2013 - You can access it @ http://chewmieser.github.io/GTA-SA-CheatUI/ This morning, I fired up the ol hex editor and did a brief comparison of iOS Hex Editor help - posted in Programming: Im new to binary files and I want to know how to use hex editors. I trying to modify GTA SA(EXEIntroduction to SA Chain Game Style Save Editing - Mobile/PC 28 Jun 2014Hex edit san andreas savegame? - Programming26 Jan 2014Hex Editing Saves - Guides & Strategies4 Jun 2011Hex Codes,Decimals the whole lot VB, ReadProcess.. - Guides 14 Mar 2006More results from gtaforums.comSaves (GTA SA) - GTA Wiki - Wikiagta.wikia.com/Saves_(GTA_SA)CachedSimilarThis article deals with the format of a save game file for GTA San Andreas. the use of a hex editor and special registry key in a process outlined at GTAForums Dec 12, 2013 - [HACK] Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (All ...
GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase, GDP mannose polyisoprenylphosphate mannosyltransferase, GDP, GD2 beta1,3-galactosyltransferase, Online Electronic Medical Dictionary Terminology, Articles, Glossary
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This work discusses the use of matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) as an efficient and cost-effective beam shaper for applications such as in biophotonics, optical micromanipulation, microscopy and two-photon polymerization. The theoretical foundation of mGPC is described as a combination of Generalized Phase Contrast and phase-only correlation. Such an analysis makes it convenient to optimize an mGPC system for different setup conditions. Results showing binary-only phase generation of dynamic spot arrays and line patterns are presented.. ©2013 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Homo sapiens UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 4 (B4GALT4), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (H00008702-R02) - Products - Abnova
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A few months prior to ordering the board, I checked in with my shaper, Matt Parker of Album Surfboards, to see if he could make an EcoBoard for me. Turns out he uses Marko blanks all the time, including many Enviro Foam ones. So he was totally on board! Id been eyeing his Polyphonic design for a while. Its one of his most popular shapes, and it just looked perfect to me. Voluminous enough to float/paddle well, short enough to whip around, rockered enough to get into steep, barreling waves. And I figured an EPS core would make it extra-floaty and light.. For shapers, there isnt any difference between virgin EPS and recycled EPS. But there is a difference between EPS and PU. PU tends to be a little easier to shape. It is by far the dominant type of blank. For surfers, many profess to notice a difference between the two. EPS tends to have a little less flex (a slight amount of flex is desirable), and its super light (some people think its too light!). But there isnt an eco-friendly version of ...
Low-Heat lightbanks are designed for LED and Plasma fixtures that do not output as much heat compared to Tungsten or HMI. The key advantage of a Low-heat lightbank is that the are dimensionally the same as their traditional Video Pro, Daylite Jr. or Quartz lightbanks.. Low-Heat banks included 1/8 Grid diffusion screens and inner baffles, instead of Full Diffusion. This lighter weight diffusion material is designed to compliment the output power of many LED and Plasma fixtures as well.. Low-Heat lightbanks offer lighting professionals a familiarity of light shaper, but with materials that are optimized for Low-Heat luminaires.. ...
I dont know if I would have that in me. "I feel the difference, like I am using everything that I am eating versus things just living in there!". Last season, the Eagles blitzed on 21.1 percent of opponent pass plays, which was one of the lower blitz percentages in the league.. "When you see them going for it on fourth down, you get a little nervous, but our defense blitzed them, pressured them and got the stop," Manning said. The NFL has suffered some dings to its popularity, but the damage is football game jerseys minor thus far, barely noticeable, which means the league will go on abusing responsibility and creating an awful example for how to maintain the game.. They face the Arizona Cardinals, another team making their bow in England. Defensively, they are great because of that defensive line, which is the best in the league. Benson once told Cieslik to let her know if her son ever stepped out of line. Tomlin nfl jersey differences expects Bell to be shaper against the Vikings after ...
GETTY IMAGESJUSTIN LAMBERT. WH bought you the ultimate guide of how to use retinol, so youll know that using too high a percentage can actually damage your skin. Next up, were sharing a very real story about one woman who suffered quite severe waxing side effects as a result.. Keep reading for her story, plus how she avoided facial scarring.. I am very, very particular about my eyebrows. I never let anyone touch them. Not makeup artists (I always ask to do my own). Not threaders. Not waxers. I tweeze them myself with a light hand. When a renowned celebrity brow shaper from LA was coming to New York recently, however, I decided to break my rule because her Instagram photos showed off incredibly thick, precise, arches and deeply satisfying befores and afters.. All was going well until we did the area between my brows and a thin layer of skin ripped off, causing stinging, swelling, and redness. It was my fault, not hers-my guess was that it happened because I was using retinol (more on that ...
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First off, thanks Jen SO MUCH for posting this and all the other TMI posts, you help spread really helpful info and spark great discussions. For example, I had never considered that tampons could make my cramps worse- Id never heard that before. From the time I started my period and for most of the following 2 decades, my periods were agony: excruciating cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, fainting, you name it- basically, my body was emptying itself from every orifice except my ears (because I was usually crying, too). Very gradually, things started getting better,and now I hardly notice my periods most of the time. I was on the Pill nearly all that time-started in 8th grade- and it never helped me at all. How I wish I could go back in time & try some of these ideas, the magnesium & the corset/shaper, to see if they would help. One suggestion I havent seen here, for anyone with terrible periods- have you considered reducing the number of periods you have per year? I now take my birth control pill ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Page 1 of 3 - Cop System - posted in GTA V: Ok i made this forum so everyone can have there say on how they want the next gta police system to be like.Here is what i want:Units:-Roit Cops(incase the next gta is about big brawls and gangs)-FBI-General Cops-Security Guards-SWATBehavior:-DONT arrest you if you fight 1v1 they can occasionally break it up-they give fines-Speeding can be an issue-Dont get involved in shootouts until its over-They will use the stun gun or what ever its called-Wi...
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B4galt1 - UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1, isoform CRA b - Mus musculus (Mouse) - B4galt1 gene...B4galt1 - UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1, isoform CRA b - Mus musculus (Mouse) - B4galt1 gene...

beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity Source: Ensembl. *cytoskeletal protein binding ... UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1, isoform CRA_bImported. ,p>Information which has been imported ... tr,Q3U478,Q3U478_MOUSE UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1, isoform CRA_b OS=Mus musculus GN= ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q3U478

Expression of B4GALT7 in cancer - Summary - The Human Protein AtlasExpression of B4GALT7 in cancer - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas

XGALT-1) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers. ... GO:0003831 [beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity]. GO:0005515 [protein binding]. GO: ... GO:0008378 [galactosyltransferase activity]. GO:0016020 [membrane]. GO:0016021 [integral component of membrane]. GO:0016740 [ ... Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7. Protein classi. Protein class the gene product belongs to according to selected gene lists. ...
more infohttp://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000027847-B4GALT7/pathology

B4GALT7 Gene - GeneCards | B4GT7 Protein | B4GT7 AntibodyB4GALT7 Gene - GeneCards | B4GT7 Protein | B4GT7 Antibody

Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity. IDA. 24052259. GO:0005515. protein binding. IPI ... Identification and characterization of two mutations in galactosyltransferase I gene. (PMID: 10506123) Okajima T … Urano T (The ... UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 (B4GT7_HUMAN) ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=B4GALT7

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase - WikipediaB-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase - Wikipedia

B4GALT1, B4GALT2, B4GALT3, B4GALT4, B4GALT5, B4GALT6 beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase at ... B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase is a galactosyltransferase. It is classified under EC 2.4.1.38 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide_b-1,4-galactosyltransferase

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (HMDBP00377)Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (HMDBP00377)

beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity. lactose synthase activity. N-acetyllactosamine ... Masri KA, Appert HE, Fukuda MN: Identification of the full-length coding sequence for human galactosyltransferase (beta-N- ... UDP-Gal:beta-GlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1. *UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 ... Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP00377

B4galt3 - ddPCR Probe - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-RadB4galt3 - ddPCR Probe - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad

Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 3 N-acetyllactosamine synthase Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... galactosyltransferase Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Aliases:. Not Available. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/assay/drnocpe5150533-primepcr-ddpcr-expression-probe-assay-b4galt3-rat

List of MeSH codes (D08) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D08) - Wikipedia

... n-acylsphingosine galactosyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.400.450.400.450 --- beta-n-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... dopamine beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392 --- fatty acid desaturases MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.312 --- beta- ... beta-amylase MeSH D08.811.277.450.114 --- beta-fructofuranosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.207 --- chitinase MeSH D08.811.277.450. ... Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.483.180 --- Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.483.765 --- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D08)

B4GALT1抗体(ab121325)| Abcam中国B4GALT1抗体(ab121325)| Abcam中国

Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase antibody. *Beta4Gal-T1 antibody. *CDG2D antibody ... 1/10 - 1/20. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.. ... Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles. ... ab121325, at 1/10, staining B4GALT1 in paraffin embedded Human lateral ventricle tissue by Immunohistochemistry. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/b4galt1-antibody-ab121325.html

humchr09.txthumchr09.txt

Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.38); Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1 ... 3-galactosyltransferase (Glycoprotein alpha-galactosyltransferase 1 pseudogene) [GGTA1] GKAP1 9q21.32 Q5VSY0 GKAP1_HUMAN 611356 ... TGF-beta type I receptor) (Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I) (TGF-beta receptor type I) (TbetaR-I) [ALK5] [SKR4 ... HUMAN 602660 Tubulin beta-4B chain (Tubulin beta-2 chain) (Tubulin beta-2C chain) [TUBB2C] TUSC1 9p21.2 Q2TAM9 TUSC1_HUMAN ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/docs/humchr09

KEGG BRITE: EnzymesKEGG BRITE: Enzymes

2.4.1.37 fucosylgalactoside 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.38 beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... 2.4.1.134 galactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.135 galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta- ... 2.4.1.86 N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide beta-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.87 N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha- ... 2.4.1.335 dolichyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl phosphate 3-beta-D-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-glucuronosyltransferase ...
more infohttps://www.kegg.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?ko01000+K10967

KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Mycobacterium marinum MKEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Mycobacterium marinum M

2.4.1.37 fucosylgalactoside 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.38 beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... 2.4.1.134 galactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.135 galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta- ... 2.4.1.86 N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide beta-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.87 N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha- ... 2.4.1.335 dolichyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl phosphate 3-beta-D-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-glucuronosyltransferase ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?mmi01000+MMAR_1681

KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Amycolicicoccus subflavusKEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Amycolicicoccus subflavus

2.4.1.37 fucosylgalactoside 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.38 beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4- ... 2.4.1.134 galactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.135 galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta- ... 2.4.1.86 N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide beta-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase 2.4.1.87 N-acetyllactosaminide 3-alpha- ... 2.4.1.335 dolichyl N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl phosphate 3-beta-D-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-glucuronosyltransferase ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?asd01000+AS9A_3225

1,3-Beta-glucan synthase - Wikipedia1,3-Beta-glucan synthase - Wikipedia

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 3-Beta-glucan synthase is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi. It serves as a ... 3-Beta-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34.) also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer that ... "Cloning of the Candida albicans homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSC1/FKS1 and its involvement in beta-1,3-glucan synthesis" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1,3-Beta-glucan_synthase

B-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid b-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza - Википедија, слободна енциклопедијаB-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid b-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

MeSH Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide+beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *п. *р. *у. Transferaze: glikoziltransferaze (EC 2.4 ... 3-galactosyltransferase from calf thymus". J. Biol. Chem. 260: 12927-12934. PMID 3932335.. ... B enzm: 1.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/10/11/13/14/15-18, 2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8, 2.7.10, 2.7.11-12, 3.1/2/3/4/5/6/7, 3.1.3.48, 3.4.21/22/23/24, ... UDP-alfa-D-galaktoza + N-acetil-beta-D-glukozaminilglikopeptid ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. UDP + beta-D-galaktozil ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-N-acetilglukozaminil-glikopeptid_b-1,4-galaktoziltransferaza

Thyroid Diseases - Expertscape.comThyroid Diseases - Expertscape.com

beta-N-Acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase. Hyperpituitarism. Iodide Peroxidase. Receptors, ...
more infohttp://www.expertscape.com/go/thyroid+diseases/Lexicals

Oligosaccharyltransferase - WikipediaOligosaccharyltransferase - Wikipedia

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 74 (1): 134-8. Bibcode:1977PNAS...74..134P. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.1.134. PMC 393212. PMID 264667.. ... The active site of OST is located about 4 nm from the lumenal face of the ER membrane.[4] ... Beta-galactosidase. *Hexosaminidase. *mannosidase *alpha-Mannosidase. *beta-mannosidase. *Aspartylglucosaminidase. *Fucosidase ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligosaccharyltransferase

Fucosyltransferase 3 - wikidocFucosyltransferase 3 - wikidoc

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... Galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT3 gene.[1][2][3] ... 190 (1): 42-6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.1008. PMID 7916594.. *. Nishihara S, Narimatsu H, Iwasaki H, Yazawa S, Akamatsu S, Ando T ... 9 (4): 373-82. doi:10.1093/glycob/9.4.373. PMID 10089211.. *. Yazawa S, Tanaka S, Nishimura T, Miyanaga K, Kochibe N (1999). " ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Fucosyltransferase_3

Glycogen synthase - wikidocGlycogen synthase - wikidoc

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 280 (1): 2-27. doi:10.1111/febs.12059. PMID 23134486.. *↑ Roach PJ (2002). "Glycogen and its Metabolism". Curr Mol Med. 2 (2): ... It is a glycosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.11) that catalyses the reaction of UDP-glucose and (1,4-α-D-glucosyl)n to yield UDP and ( ... Site 4. Serine 727. For enzymes in the GT3 family, these regulatory kinases inactivate glycogen synthase by phosphorylating it ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Glycogen_synthase

UGT1A4 - wikidocUGT1A4 - wikidoc

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene.[1][2][3] ... 18 (1): 171-3. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1451. PMID 8276413.. *. Aono S, Yamada Y, Keino H, et al. (1994). "Identification of ... 1 (2): 143-61. doi:10.2174/1389200003339171. PMID 11465080.. *. Bosma PJ, Chowdhury JR, Huang TJ, et al. (1992). "Mechanisms of ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/UGT1A4

MoonProtMoonProt

0003831 beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity GO:0003945 N-acetyllactosamine synthase ... UDP-galactose: N-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase, enzyme UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine => UDP + N- ... beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 Lactose synthase A protein N-acetyllactosamine synthase Nal synthase ... Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase Gene Name: B4GALT1. UniProt ID. P08037 (B4GT1_BOVIN), ...
more infohttp://www.moonlightingproteins.org/protein_detail/?mpid=276

Diphtheria Toxin : définition de Diphtheria Toxin et synonymes de Diphtheria Toxin (anglais)Diphtheria Toxin : définition de Diphtheria Toxin et synonymes de Diphtheria Toxin (anglais)

reptile/snake venom: Bungarotoxin (Alpha-Bungarotoxin, Beta-Bungarotoxin) · Calciseptine · Taicatoxin · Calcicludine · ... Lactose synthase · B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase · Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... Aflatoxin · Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, gamma-amanitin, epsilon-amanitin) · Citrinin · Cytochalasin · Ergotamine · ... The N-terminal catalytic domain, known as the C domain, has an unusual beta+alpha fold.[5] The C domain blocks protein ...
more infohttp://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Diphtheria%20Toxin/en-en/

Gentaur Molecular :Alpha Dia \ Monoclonal Anti dsDNA IgG  1, aff pure \ DNA11-MGentaur Molecular :Alpha Dia \ Monoclonal Anti dsDNA IgG 1, aff pure \ DNA11-M

... dsDNA IgG 1, aff pure \ DNA11-M for more molecular products just contact us ... Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.38); Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1 ... Fau] Ubiquitin-like protein FUBI (Monoclonal non-specific suppressor factor beta) (MNSF-beta). [CD4] T-cell surface ... beta-GlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1) (UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1) [ ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=58338&supplier=search&name=Monoclonal%20Anti_dsDNA%20IgG%20%201,%20aff%20pure

Gentaur Molecular :Alpha Dia \ Monoclonal Anti Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody  1 \ DNPE12-MGentaur Molecular :Alpha Dia \ Monoclonal Anti Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1 \ DNPE12-M

Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1 \ DNPE12-M for more molecular products just contact us ... Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.38); Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1 ... Fau] Ubiquitin-like protein FUBI (Monoclonal non-specific suppressor factor beta) (MNSF-beta). [CD4] T-cell surface ... beta-GlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1) (UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1) [ ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=58367&supplier=search&name=Monoclonal%20Anti_Human%20DNA%20Polymerase%20epsilon%20antibody%20%201

Fucosyltransferase 3 - wikidocFucosyltransferase 3 - wikidoc

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. *Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... Galactoside 3(4)-L-fucosyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FUT3 gene.[1][2][3] ... 190 (1): 42-6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.1008. PMID 7916594.. *. Nishihara S, Narimatsu H, Iwasaki H, Yazawa S, Akamatsu S, Ando T ... 9 (4): 373-82. doi:10.1093/glycob/9.4.373. PMID 10089211.. *. Yazawa S, Tanaka S, Nishimura T, Miyanaga K, Kochibe N (1999). " ...
more infohttp://es.wikidoc.org/index.php/Fucosyltransferase_3

Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy  on EXT2 (gene)Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on EXT2 (gene)

B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b-1,4-galactosyltransferase. * Glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta- ... 3 (1): 167-71. doi:10.1093/hmg/3.1.167. PMID 8162019.. * ^ Bridge JA, Nelson M, Orndal C, Bhatia P, Neff JR (May 1998). "Clonal ... 14 (1): 25-32. doi:10.1038/ng0996-25. PMID 8782816.. * Wuyts W, Van Hul W, Wauters J, et al. (1997). "Positional cloning of a ... 44 (4): 230-4. doi:10.1007/s100380050149. PMID 10429361.. * Xu L, Xia J, Jiang H, et al. (1999). "Mutation analysis of ...
more infohttp://hitchhikersgui.de/EXT2_
  • 1. ( MeSH ) An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. (leparisien.fr)
  • Acts on beta-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl termini on asialo- alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and N-acetyllactosamine (beta-D- galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine), but not on 2'-fucosylated-N-acetyllactosamine. (expasy.org)
  • It is a glycosyltransferase ( EC 2.4.1.11 ) that catalyses the reaction of UDP-glucose and (1,4- α -D-glucosyl) n to yield UDP and (1,4- α -D-glucosyl) n+1 . (wikidoc.org)
  • Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1 antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1 Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Monoclonal Anti_Human DNA Polymerase epsilon antibody 1. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Production of beta-defensins by human airway epithelia. (naver.com)
  • [1] CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. (worldheritage.org)