Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Technique of graphic representation of the movements of the body imparted by the ballistic forces (recoil and impact) associated with cardiac contraction and ejection of blood and with the deceleration of blood flow through the large blood vessels. These movements, quantitatively very minute, are translated by a pickup device (transducer) into an electrical potential which is suitably amplified and recorded on a conventional electrocardiograph or other recording machine.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Translation products of a fusion gene derived from CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION of C-ABL GENES to the genetic locus of the breakpoint cluster region gene on chromosome 22. Several different variants of the bcr-abl fusion proteins occur depending upon the precise location of the chromosomal breakpoint. These variants can be associated with distinct subtypes of leukemias such as PRECURSOR CELL LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE; and NEUTROPHILIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. EC
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.

Expression cloning of beta 1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase cDNAs that determine the expression of GM2 and GD2 gangliosides. (1/15)

GM2 and GD2 gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids expressed in some normal tissues such as brain and in various tumors such as neuroblastomas, astrocytomas, and malignant melanomas. We used a eukaryotic cell transient expression system to isolate cDNA clones that determine GM2 expression. We developed a new cell line from murine melanoma line B16 by transfecting with the polyoma T antigen gene that was suitable for this purpose. Two cDNA clones, both of which have a continuous open reading frame of 1683 base pairs, were isolated. Although the cloned cDNAs had no primary sequence similarity to reported glycosyltransferases, the deduced amino acid sequence predicted a type II transmembrane protein with an overall structure similar to other glycosyltransferases. The cDNA clones, when stably transfected, determined the expression of GM2 in B16 cells and GM2 and GD2 in the human melanoma line MeWo. Northern blot analysis revealed two transcripts in all cells that expressed either GM2 or GD2 or both. These findings indicate that the cDNAs catalyze the transfer of GalNAc onto GM3 and GD3 by a beta 1,4 linkage, resulting in the synthesis of GM2 and GD2, respectively. Namely they suggest that these cDNAs derive from the UDP-GalNAc: GM3/GD3 beta 1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC gene.  (+info)

Determination of glycosidase activity in porcine oviductal fluid at the different phases of the estrous cycle. (2/15)


Muropeptide rescue in Bacillus subtilis involves sequential hydrolysis by beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase. (3/15)


Molecular cloning and catalytic mechanism of a novel glycosphingolipid-degrading beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Paenibacillus sp. TS12. (4/15)


Urinary vanin-1 as a novel biomarker for early detection of drug-induced acute kidney injury. (5/15)


Microdiversity of extracellular enzyme genes among sequenced prokaryotic genomes. (6/15)


The pigeon heart 5'-nucleotidase responsible for ischaemia-induced adenosine formation. (7/15)

1. A 5'-nucleotidase with a strong preference for AMP over IMP was characterized in homogenates and subcellular fractions of pigeon heart by using concentrations of ATP, ADP and AMP which mimicked those present in the ischaemic tissue. 2. The AMP-5'-nucleotidase had a neutral pH optimum and an apparent Km in the range 4.6-5.2 mM. It was stimulated by ATP plus ADP, and was inhibited by other nucleoside monophosphates, Pi and p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by ribose 5-phosphate or beta-glycerophosphate. The enzyme was not inhibited by [alpha beta-methylene] ADP or by 5'-deoxy-5'-isobutylthioadenosine, an inhibitor of the previously purified IMP-preferring cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase. 3. Subcellular-fractionation studies indicated that the enzyme has access to cytosolic AMP, although it may be associated by weak ionic interactions with an organelle present in the low-speed particulate fraction. 4. A 5'-nucleotidase was detected under similar conditions in homogenates of rat heart. 5. The activity of the pigeon heart AMP-5'-nucleotidase was sufficient to account for previously measured rates of ischaemia-induced adenosine formation. The similar activity in rat heart could, however, account for only part of ischaemia-induced adenosine formation in this tissue.  (+info)

Parameters affecting the in vitro maturation of human monocytes to macrophages. (8/15)

In vitro maturation of human monocytes to macrophages was characterized by morphological criteria, cell size and lysosomal enzymes activity. Purified populations of monocytes were maintained in culture at either adherent or nonadherent conditions and their maturation to macrophages was observed in both cases. The addition of external factors such as hydrocortisone and vitamin D3 inhibited monocyte maturation. In the absence of external factors, nonadherent monocytes were inhibited in their maturation for up to 10 days when plated at crowded cell concentrations. In addition, the presence of human serum in the culture media had a higher inhibitory activity than similar concentrations of fetal calf serum. Supernates from crowded macrophages were also inhibitory for monocyte maturation. We suggest the possibility that cell crowding, as well as soluble factors found in the serum and probably secreted by macrophages, participate in the regulation of monocyte development by inhibiting their maturation. Once released from this inhibitory signal or environment, the monocytes mature to macrophages.  (+info)

Using high resolution molecular fingerprinting techniques like random amplification of polymorphic DNA, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, a high bacterial diversity below the species and subspecies level (microdiversity) is revealed. It became apparent that bacteria of a certain species living in close association with different plants either as associated rhizosphere bacteria or as plant pathogens or symbiotic organisms, typically reflect this relationship in their genetic relatedness. The strain composition within a population of soil bacterial species at a given field site, which can be identified by these high resolution fingerprinting techniques, was markedly influenced by soil management and soil features. The observed bacterial microdiversity reflected the conditions of the habitat, which select for better adapted forms. In addition, influences of spatial separation on specific groupings of bacteria were found, which argue for the occurrence of ...
PNNL researchers found a surprising diversity among genomes within a microbial community, proving that microdiversity plays an important role. This new understanding has important implications for using these communities as a clean energy source.
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Glycosidase activities in principal cells, basal cells, fibroblasts and spermatozoa isolated from the rat epididymis.: The activity levels of beta-N-acetylgluco
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1. Slámová K, Bojarová P, Petrásková L. et al. β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase: Whats in a name…?. Biotechnol Adv. 2010;28:682-93 2. Merzendorfer H, Zimoch L. Chitin metabolism in insects: structure, function and regulation of chitin synthases and chitinases. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:4393-412 3. Nagamatsu Y, Yanagisawa I, Kimoto M. et al. Purification of a chitooligosaccharidolytic β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from Bombyx mori larvae during metamorphosis and the nucleotide sequence of its cDNA. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1995;59:219-25 4. Yang Q, Liu T, Liu F. et al. A novel β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase from the insect Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). FEBS J. 2008;275:5690-702 5. Liu T, Zhang H, Liu F. et al. Structural determinants of an insect β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase specialized as a chitinolytic enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4049-58 6. Zheng YP, Krell PJ, Doucet D. et al. Cloning, expression, and localization of a molt-related β-N-acetylglucosaminidase in the Spruce budworm, Choristoneura ...
glycosidase Definition, glycosidase Best Plays of glycosidase in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in glycosidase, Word growth of glycosidase, Sequences of glycosidase
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Definition of macrophage-activating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macrophage-activating factor? Meaning of macrophage-activating factor as a legal term. What does macrophage-activating factor mean in law?
Read Effect of habitat conditions on proteinase and glycosidase activities in the gut microbiota of crucian carp in a wide range of pH, Russian Journal of Ecology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
1. Pigeon heart mitochondria produce H2O2 at a maximal rate of about 20nmol/min per mg of protein. 2. Succinate-glutamate and malate-glutamate are substrates which are able to support maximal H2O2 production rates. With malate-glutamate, H2O2 formation is sensitive to rotenone. Endogenous substrate, octanoate, stearoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-carnitine are by far less efficient substrates. 3. Antimycin A exerts a very pronounced effect in enhancing H2O2 production in pigeon heart mitochondria; 0.26nmol of antimycin A/mg of protein and the addition of an uncoupler are required for maximal H2O2 formation. 4. In the presence of endogenous substrate and of antimycin A, ATP decreases and uncoupler restores the rates of H2O2 formation. 5. Reincorporation of ubiquinone-10 and ubiquinone-3 to ubiquinone-depleted pigeon heart mitochondria gives a system in which H2O2 production is linearly related to the incorporated ubiquinone. 6. The generation of H2O2 by pigeon heart mitochondria in the presence of ...
Variations in salinity also influenced occurrence and abundance of subspecies, and other environmental factors can do so as well.. It is also interesting why we see certain oligotypes co-occurring in the environment, Mackey says. Are they helping each other, and if so, how? These co-occurrence patterns tend to be consistent from one year to the next, so they probably arent random.. Understanding what drives these populations is very important, Mackey says. Climate change changes the parameters that determine what can grow, and how fast, and how abundant they can become.. Rising temperatures affect abundance, Mackey says. Changes in ocean circulation patterns can affect the availability of nutrients in different locations. Those changes can affect the food supply of fish and other oceanic inhabitants.. Different growth rates among phytoplankton like Synechococcus can alter nutrient cycling and availability, and change the speed rate and amount of carbon fixation. If the plankton fix ...
Fine-scale diversity of natural bacterial assemblages has been attributed to neutral radiation because correspondence between bacterial phylogenetic signals in the natural environment and environmental parameters had not been detected. Evidence that such correspondence occurs is provided for Vibrio cholerae, establishing a critical role for environmental parameters in bacterial diversity.. ...
Ginsenosidase type IV catalyses the sequential hydrolysis of the 6-O-β-D-(1→2)-glycosidic bond or the 6-O-α-D-(1→2)-glycosidic bond in protopanaxatriol-type ginseno
Macrophages play an important role in the antitumour activity of photodynamic therapy. Preclinical studies in mice demonstrated a significant enhancement in the
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 241 and 874, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D. Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1.
What is the difference between Intracellular and Extracellular Enzymes? Intracellular enzymes work inside cell while extracellular enzymes work outside cell...
Macrophage-Activating Factors: Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
Short treatments with sequencing-grade extracellular trypsin or endoproteinase Lys-C should result in the cleavage of the rabbit B2R sequence after Arg (trypsin) or Lys (both enzymes) residues. The number of these residues is small (4) in the extracellular domains of the receptor,13 and they are not well conserved in sequences from other mammalian species. None of the predicted primary C-terminal products (≥38.5 kDa) can be identified with certainty from the digested cells (Figure 1). Tissue kallikrein cleavage site(s) are less predictable from the amino acid sequence,14 but subtle differences in the digestion patterns suggest that the 3 tested enzymes trigger sequential hydrolysis events that are partly different between them. It also seems that B2R-GFP exhibits a certain pattern of spontaneous degradation in HEK 293 cells, with the presence of several immunoreactive faint bands, and that limited proteolysis by extracellular proteases accelerates this process, with GFP-sized metabolites as ...
A top 10 choice in the fish category is a pancake batfish that lives in waters either partially or fully encompassed by the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Named Halieutichthys intermedius, this bottom-dwelling species seems to hop on its thick, arm-like fins as it moves awkwardly in the water, resembling a walking bat. John Sparks, curator of ichthyology at the American Museum of Natural History, one of the scientists who reported the discovery, said: If we are still finding new species of fishes in the Gulf, imagine how much diversity, especially microdiversity, is out there that we do not know about.. Lighting up the top 10 is a luminescent fungus collected in São Paulo, Brazil, found on sticks in an Atlantic forest habitat. The teeny mushrooms, less than 8 millimeters in diameter with caps smaller than 2 centimeters across, have gel-coated stems that glow constantly, emitting a bright, yellowish-green light. San Francisco State University biology professor Dennis Desjardin and his ...
I was found to have an increased IgG protein level on a urinalysis my doctor recommended that I have an SPEP (Serum Protein Electrophoresis) done, maybe you should ask about having that test done and then go from there with your doctor regarding the results. Best wishes ...
Bechtel W, McGoohan S, Zeisberg EM, Müller GA, Kalbacher H, Salant DJ, Müller CA, Kalluri R, Zeisberg M. Methylation determines fibroblast activation and fibrogenesis in the kidney. Nat Med. 2010 May;16(5):544-50 Abstract. Liang L, Leng D, Burk C, Nakajima-Sasaki R, Kayala MA, Atluri VL, Pablo J, Unal B, Ficht TA, Gotuzzo E, Saito M, Morrow WJ, Liang X, Baldi P, Gilman RH, Vinetz JM, Tsolis RM, Felgner PL. Large scale immune profiling of infected humans and goats reveals differential recognition of Brucella melitensis antigens. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 May 4;4(5):e673 Full Text. Spindler SR, Ortiz I, Fung S, Takashima S, Hartenstein V Drosophila cortex and neuropile glia influence secondary axon tract growth, pathfinding, and fasciculation in the developing larval brain. Dev Biol. 2009 Oct 15;334(2):355-68 Abstract. El Annan J, Chauhan SK, Ecoiffier T, Zhang Q, Saban DR, D. Characterization of effector T cells in dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Aug;50(8):3802-7 Abstract. ...
Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure (H372) Ingredient disclosure. Comments: The toxicity of inorganic lead compounds is related to the presence of Pb2 + ion. Thus, the classification is based on the toxicity of this ion and takes account of the data available for all inorganic lead compounds.. ...
This Criteria Document is contained in PDF files, for ease of handling. The following table of contents allows you to open or download the files containing the sections of the document you want to see.. ...
AbstractParasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. The parasitism was successful by suppressing host immune system however mechanism of immune suppression induced by E. bombycis is unknown which is unravelled here. The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. One of the markers of necrosis is cell permeabilization, which can be measured as released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH level showed significantly (P
Physiological characterization.Based on the substrates detected in natural lake water (29, 34) and the different pathways of substrate utilization, 59 different carbon substrates were chosen for growth tests. Synthetic freshwater medium was added to polystyrene microtiter plates, and each well was supplemented with a different substrate. The polymeric substrates used were peptone (0.05%, wt/vol), casein hydrolysate (0.05%), yeast extract (0.005%), cellulose (15 mm2 of filter paper), starch (0.1%), chitin (0.05%), xylene (0.05%), and laminarin (0.05%). The sugars and sugar derivatives used were glucose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, sucrose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose, mannitol, gluconate, and glucosamine (final concentration of each, 5 mM). The carboxy acids and other acids were formate (2.5 mM), acetate (5 mM), propionate (1 mM), butyrate (2.5 mM), valerate (0.5 mM), capronate (0.5 mM), caprylate (0.5 mM), crotonate (0.2 mM), malonate (5 mM), succinate (10 mM), fumarate (5 ...
Bechtel W, McGoohan S, Zeisberg EM, Müller GA, Kalbacher H, Salant DJ, Müller CA, Kalluri R, Zeisberg M. Methylation determines fibroblast activation and fibrogenesis in the kidney. Nat Med. 2010 May;16(5):544-50 Abstract. Liang L, Leng D, Burk C, Nakajima-Sasaki R, Kayala MA, Atluri VL, Pablo J, Unal B, Ficht TA, Gotuzzo E, Saito M, Morrow WJ, Liang X, Baldi P, Gilman RH, Vinetz JM, Tsolis RM, Felgner PL. Large scale immune profiling of infected humans and goats reveals differential recognition of Brucella melitensis antigens. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 May 4;4(5):e673 Full Text. Spindler SR, Ortiz I, Fung S, Takashima S, Hartenstein V Drosophila cortex and neuropile glia influence secondary axon tract growth, pathfinding, and fasciculation in the developing larval brain. Dev Biol. 2009 Oct 15;334(2):355-68 Abstract. El Annan J, Chauhan SK, Ecoiffier T, Zhang Q, Saban DR, D. Characterization of effector T cells in dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Aug;50(8):3802-7 Abstract. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-acetil-β-D-glicosaminidase como biomarcador precoce de disfunção renal para a exposição ocupacional ao chumbo inorgânico. AU - Gonçales, Leandro Nishikawa. AU - Paoliello, Mônica Maria Bastos. AU - Janeiro, Vanderly. AU - Machinski, Miguel. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to verify the enzymatic activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) as a possible early biomarker of renal dysfunction due to occupational exposure to inorganic lead. Materials and methods: We selected a group of 30 males that had been exposed to inorganic lead in a battery factory in the state of Paraná. This group comprised those employees whose blood lead levels were below 40 mg/dl. The control group consisted of 15 healthy adults of similar age and gender compared with the exposed group. Blood lead concentrations, d-aminolevulinic acid levels and urinary NAG activity were measured. Results and ...
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the current evidence that cumulative exposure to inorganic lead is associated with decreased performance in neurobehavioural tests in adults. METHODS--21 unique studies were reviewed from 28 published manuscripts. An algorithm was developed to determine the usefulness of each study on the basis of exposure assessment, control of confounding variables, methods of subject selection, test conditions, and data analysis. Highest emphasis was placed on the use of cumulative measures of exposure or absorption. RESULTS--Only three studies used a measure of cumulative exposure to or absorption of lead, and two others used duration of exposure as a surrogate for cumulative exposure. All other studies used a measure that did not adequately estimate cumulative exposure to lead, most often current blood lead concentration. 20 of the studies controlled for age as a confounding variable, although in several studies the possibility for residual confounding by age remained. 16 studies ...
This review is devoted to Klotho protein and recent evidences for its functions in the brain. Information on transcriptional regulation of the klotho gene and posttranslational modifications of the protein resulting in multiple forms of Klotho is reviewed. Evidence is summarized that Klotho regulates the activity of protein factors, enzymes, and receptors, including data suggesting the importance of its glycosidase activity. Effects of Klotho on components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system, signal cascades involving protein kinases and protein phosphorylation, as well as oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination are discussed. A possible contribution is proposed for Klotho levels in the development of central nervous system pathologies including mental disorders.. ...
Last updated: 19 September 2017. N.A. Matsuoka, A. et al. Pan-Arctic optical characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter: Tracing dissolved organic carbon in changing Arctic waters using satellite ocean color data. Remote Sensing of Environment 200, 89-101, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2017.08.009 (2017).. 58 López-Escardó, D. et al. Evaluation of single-cell genomics to address evolutionary questions using three SAGs of the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. Sci Rep-Uk 7, 11025, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-11466-9 (2017).. 57 Royo-Llonch, M. et al. Exploring Microdiversity in Novel Kordia sp (Bacteroidetes) with Proteorhodopsin from the Tropical Indian Ocean via Single Amplified Genomes. Front Microbiol 8, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01317 (2017).. 56 Madoui, M. A. et al. New insights into global biogeography, population structure and natural selection from the genome of the epipelagic copepod Oithona. Mol Ecol 26, 4467-4482, doi:10.1111/mec.14214 (2017).. 55 Benoiston, A. S. et al. The evolution of ...
Compare the utility of different models and approaches 2- Describe and explain the rationale behind the current pharmacological treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, Also, based on what is known about the pathophysiology of this condition, propose two additional mechanisms, not currently exploited, which might be targeted in order to treat it.. Type of service-Academic paper ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Metabolic disorders of glycoproteins in congenital glycosidase deficiencies]. by K Yamashita
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and visceral organs and vascular alterations. SSc pathophysiology involves systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Because the vanin-1 gene (vnn1) encodes an enzyme with pantetheinase activity that converts vasculoprotective pantethine into profibrotic pantothenic acid and pro-oxidant cystamine, we tested this pathway in the pathophysiology of SSc. Activation of the vanin-1/pantetheinase pathway was investigated in wild-type BALB/c mice with hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced SSc by ELISA and Western blotting. We then evaluated the effects of the inactivation of vnn1 on the development of fibrosis, endothelial alterations, and immunological activation in mice with HOCl- and bleomycin-induced SSc. We then explored the vanin-1/pantetheinase pathway in a cohort of patients with SSc and in controls. In wild-type mice with HOCl-induced SSc, the vanin-1/pantetheinase pathway was dysregulated, with elevation of ...
Inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells with mixed halides have achieved reasonable power conversion efficiency with the advantage of an enhanced stability. In this work, we report the fabrication of an all inorganic ...
A method is provided for converting therapeutic glycosidase inhibitors to novel prodrugs by phosphorylation of a free hydroxyl group on the molecule to substantially reduce the glycosidase inhibitory activity without thereby substantially reducing the therapeutic activity.
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N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine and H2O, whereas its two products are D-galactosyl-3-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine and ... Other names in common use include endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, and endo-alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminidase. ... N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-galactosyl-3-N-acetyl-beta-D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-galactosyl-3-(N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine mucinaminohydrolase. ...
Den Tandt WR, Scharpé S (1997). "Micromethod for the fluorimetric determination of plasma N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminidase ... Warner TG, Louie A, Potier M (1991). "Photolabeling of the alpha-neuraminidase/beta-galactosidase complex from human placenta ... Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAGA gene. NAGA encodes the lysosomal enzyme ... Mohamad SB, Nagasawa H, Uto Y, Hori H (2003). "Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF ...
... (EC, N-acetyl-beta-galactosaminidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase, beta- ... beta-D-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, N-acetylgalactosaminidase) is an enzyme with systematic name beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide ... "Isolation of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from calf brain". ... Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides Frohwein YZ, Gatt S ( ...
Endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC, endo-α-acetylgalactosaminidase, endo-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminidase, ... 3-O-beta-D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine + L-serine-[protein] The enzyme catalyses the release of Gal-(1->3)-beta- ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 3-O-beta-D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-L-serine-[protein ... D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-galactosaminohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name ...
beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. • N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase activity. • protein binding. ... and a beta subunit. The alpha subunit polypeptide is encoded by the HEXA gene while the beta subunit is encoded by the HEXB ... The loop is absent in the beta subunit, but it serves as an ideal structure for the binding of the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP ... Extensive homology between the alpha- and beta-subunits and studies on Tay-Sachs disease". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
N acetyltransferase deficiency N syndrome N-Acetylglutamate synthase deficiency N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminidase N-acetyl- ... folate-sensitive Neural tube defects X linked Neuraminidase beta-galactosidase deficiency Neuraminidase deficiency Neurasthenia ...
Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC, N-acetyl-beta-galactosaminidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase, beta- ... beta-D-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, N-acetylgalactosaminidase) is an enzyme with systematic name beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide ... "Isolation of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from calf brain". ... Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides Frohwein YZ, Gatt S ( ...
Hydrolyzes the non-reducing end N-acetyl-D-hexosamine and/or sulfated N-acetyl-D-hexosamine of glycoconjugates, such as the ... N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *protein-containing complex binding Source: RGDInferred from ... Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides.By similarity. Manual ... N-acetyl-β-D-6-sulfogalactosaminyl-(1→4)-α-L-iduronyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-D-6-sulfogalactosamine*Search proteins in UniProtKB for ...
N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine and H2O, whereas its two products are D-galactosyl-3-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine and ... Other names in common use include endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, and endo-alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminidase. ... N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-galactosyl-3-N-acetyl-beta-D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-galactosyl-3-(N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine mucinaminohydrolase. ...
... a beta-D-galactosaminidase assay using firefly luciferin-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide as the substrate for detection of beta ... Other substrates and their applications include a beta-galactosaminidase substrate (e.g., firefly luciferin-N-acetyl-beta-D- ... the chemical structure of firefly luciferin-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide conjugate for detection of Beta-D-galactosaminidase ... Many of the yeast Candida species, particularly Candida albican, contain a unique enzyme, beta-galactosaminidase. The Candida ...
4-beta linkages. The human disease occurs through autosomal recessive inheritance and manifests itself with variety of symptoms ... An inborn error of metabolism marked by a defect in the lysosomal isoform of BETA-MANNOSIDASE that results in lysosomal ... alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase (N-Acetyl-alpha-D-Galactosaminidase)IBA 10/08/1999 - "This review provides details on clinical ... beta-Mannosidase Deficiency; Deficiency, beta-Mannosidase; beta Mannosidase Deficiency; beta Mannosidosis; beta-Mannosidase ...
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Endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, EC,) or SEQ ID NO: 15, an N-acetyl galactosaminidase, or a glycosidase having at ... 12, a PNGase A ((Peptide- N(4)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase, EC, SEQ ID NO: 13, a PNGase F, SEQ ...
beta-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase Current Synonym true false 3737089018 Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase Current Synonym true false ... Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (substance). ...
alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase. *beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase. *beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases. *Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo- ... A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D- ... "alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase" by people in Harvard Catalyst ...
N-acetyl-beta-. galactosaminidase. Alpha-D-. glucuronidase. Beta-D-. glucosidase. S. anginosus subsp. anginosus. ... Negative for hippurate hydrolysis, urease, beta-D-fucosidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-N- ... Most strains give partial hemolysis (alpha), some may give beta-hemolysis or none.. All S. anginosus subsp. whiley strains are ... Positive results for acetoin production, alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, leucine arylamidase, arginine hydrolysis, ...
5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranoside; 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminide; ...
enables N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminidase activity IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ... beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase Ym1. eosinophil chemotactic cytokine. eosinophil chemotactic factor-L. secreted protein Ym1. NP_ ... enables beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ...
Learn about beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase at ... beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase. Synonyms. N Acetyl beta Galactosaminidase. N-Acetyl-beta-Galactosaminidase. beta N Acetyl ... A hexosiminidase that specifically hydrolyzes terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D- ...

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