MutS Homolog 2 Protein: MutS homolog 2 protein is found throughout eukaryotes and is a homolog of the MUTS DNA MISMATCH-BINDING PROTEIN. It plays an essential role in meiotic RECOMBINATION and DNA REPAIR of mismatched NUCLEOTIDES.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).DNA Mismatch Repair: A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis: A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMutS DNA Mismatch-Binding Protein: A methyl-directed mismatch DNA REPAIR protein that has weak ATPASE activity. MutS was originally described in ESCHERICHIA COLI.Microsatellite Instability: The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA Repair Enzymes: Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Inbred C57BLDNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.gamma-MSH: An 11-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Gamma-MSH stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis and has an regulatory role in the cardiovascular and the renal systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta: A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Beta-Globulins: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CThioguanine: An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.

Effect of pH and monovalent cations on the formation of quinonoid intermediates of the tryptophan synthase alpha(2)beta(2) complex in solution and in the crystal. (1/16)

Quinonoid intermediates play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Whereas the structures of other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-bound intermediates have been determined, the structure of a quinonoid species has not yet been reported. Here, we investigate factors controlling the accumulation and stability of quinonoids formed at the beta-active site of tryptophan synthase both in solution and the crystal. The quinonoids were obtained by reacting the alpha-aminoacrylate Schiff base with different nucleophiles, focusing mainly on the substrate analogs indoline and beta-mercaptoethanol. In solution, both monovalent cations (Cs(+) or Na(+)) and alkaline pH increase the apparent affinity of indoline and favor accumulation of the indoline quinonoid. A similar pH dependence is observed when beta-mercaptoethanol is used. As indoline and beta-mercaptoethanol exhibit very distinct ionization properties, this finding suggests that nucleophile binding and quinonoid stability are controlled by some ionizable protein residue(s). In the crystal, alkaline pH favors formation of the indoline quinonoid as in solution, but the effect of cations is markedly different. In the absence of monovalent metal ions the quinonoid species accumulates substantially, whereas in the presence of sodium ions the accumulation is modest, unless alpha-subunit ligands are also present. Alpha-subunit ligands not only favor the formation of the intermediate, but also reduce significantly its decay rate. These findings define experimental conditions suitable for the stabilization of the quinonoid species in the crystal, a critical prerequisite for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this intermediate.  (+info)

Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins cleave alpha- and beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormones. (2/16)

The staphylococcal exfoliative toxins (ETs) A and B (ETA and ETB) are 27-kDa exotoxins produced by certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus and are the causative agents of staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome. The crystal structures of the ETs strongly indicate that the proteins are members of the serine protease family of enzymes, although protease activity until now has not yet been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that the peptide beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) is cleaved by ETA and that both ETA and ETB are capable of cleaving alpha-MSH. Both toxins exhibit cleavage at specific glutamic acid residues in MSH peptides. Moreover, biologically inactive mutants of ETA were incapable of cleaving beta-MSH.  (+info)

Doxorubicin impairs crossbridge turnover kinetics in skinned cardiac trabeculae after acute and chronic treatment. (3/16)

Crossbridge dynamics underlying the acute and chronic inotropic effects of doxorubicin (Dox) were studied by application of releasing length steps (amplitude, 0.5-10%) to skinned cardiac trabeculae. Acute incubation of trabeculae with 20 microM Dox for 30 min resulted in a decrease of the velocity of unloaded shortening (V(0), from 9.3 +/- 1.1 to 7.7 +/- 0.7 microm/s, P <.05) and in an increase of the rate of force redevelopment (tau(r), from 56 +/- 4 to 65 +/- 3 ms, P <.05) in response to step amplitudes ranging from 5 to 10%. In contrast, chronic Dox treatment in rats (2 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks) significantly impaired trabecular crossbridge dynamics after step releases of 0.5%. This was reflected by an increase of all time constants describing tension recovery: tau(1), from 10 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 1 ms; tau(2), from 65 +/- 6 to 82 +/- 6 ms; tau(3), from 92 +/- 7 to 293 +/- 67 ms; P <.05. In addition, V(0) was decreased (from 8.6 +/- 0.6 to 6.8 +/- 0.3 microm/s, P <.05) and tau(r) was increased (from 67 +/- 4 to 89 +/- 3 ms; P <.05) in the slack-test. We found that chronic Dox treatment resulted in a shift from the "high ATPase" alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform toward the "low-ATPase" beta-MHC isoform in the ventricles (control: alpha-MHC 79 +/- 2% and beta-MHC 21 +/- 2%; Dox-treated: alpha-MHC 53 +/- 2% and beta-MHC 47 +/- 2%; P <.05). The present results show that acute Dox incubation affects the detachment rate of crossbridges, which leads to a delayed relaxation and an arrest of crossbridges in strongly bound states. In contrast, chronic Dox treatment leads to an impairment of both the attachment and detachment rates in the crossbridge cycle, which may be explained by an altered MHC isoform composition in ventricular myocardium. Interfering with Dox-induced alterations of crossbridge kinetics may provide a new strategy to prevent Dox-associated cardiotoxicity.  (+info)

A missense mutation disrupting a dibasic prohormone processing site in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) increases susceptibility to early-onset obesity through a novel molecular mechanism. (4/16)

The functional loss of both alleles of the human pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene leads to a very rare syndrome of hypoadrenalism, red hair and early-onset obesity. In order to examine whether more subtle genetic variants in POMC might contribute to early-onset obesity, the coding region of the gene was sequenced in 262 Caucasian subjects with a history of severe obesity from childhood. Two children were found to be heterozygous for a missense mutation, R236G, which disrupts the dibasic cleavage site between beta melanocyte-stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) and beta-endorphin. Beta-TC3 cells transfected with the mutant POMC cDNA produced a mutant beta-MSH/beta-endorphin fusion protein. This fusion protein bound to the human melanocortin-4 receptor (hMC4R) with an affinity similar to its natural ligands, but had a markedly reduced ability to activate the receptor. This variant co-segregated with early-onset obesity over three generations in one family and was absent in 412 normal weight UK Caucasian controls. Combining the results in UK Caucasians with a new case-control study in French subjects and three previously published reports, mutations disrupting this processing site were present in 0.88% of subjects with early-onset obesity and 0.22% of normal-weight controls. These results suggest that the R236G mutation may confer an inherited susceptibility to obesity through the production of an aberrant fusion protein that has the capacity to interfere with central melanocortin signalling.  (+info)

Detection and characterization of methionine oxidation in peptides by collision-induced dissociation and electron capture dissociation. (5/16)

Electron capture dissociation (ECD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID), the two complementary fragmentation techniques, are demonstrated to be effective in the detection and localization of the methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)] residues in peptides using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. The presence of Met(O) can be easily recognized in the low-energy CID spectrum showing the characteristic loss of methanesulfenic acid (CH(3)SOH, 64 Da) from the side chain of Met(O). The position of Met(O) can then be localized by ECD which is capable of providing extensive peptide backbone fragmentation without detaching the labile Met(O) side chain. We studied CID and ECD of several Met(O)-containing peptides that included the 44-residue human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and the human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). The distinction and complementarity of the two fragmentation techniques were particularly remarkable in their effects on ANP, a disulfide bond-containing peptide. While the predominant fragmentation pathway in CID of ANP was the loss of CH(3)SOH (64 Da) from the molecular ion, ECD of ANP resulted in many sequence-informative products, including those from cleavages within the disulfide-bonded cyclic structure, to allow for the direct localization of Met(O) without the typical procedures for disulfide bond reduction followed by [bond]SH alkylation.  (+info)

A novel mechanism in control of human pigmentation by {beta}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and 7-tetrahydrobiopterin. (6/16)

The human skin holds the full machinery for pro-opiomelanocortin processing. The alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)/melanocortin-1-receptor cascade has been implicated as a major player via the cAMP signal in the control of melanogenesis. Only very recently the beta-endorphin/mu-opiate receptor signal has been added to the list of regulators of melanocyte dendricity and melanin formation. In this context it was reported that (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH(4)) can act as an allosteric inhibitor of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis, and this inhibition is reversible by both alpha- and beta-MSH. It was also shown earlier that 7BH(4), the isomer of 6BH(4), is twice as active in this inhibition reaction. However, as yet it is not known whether 7BH(4) is indeed present in loco in the melanosome. We here provide evidence that this isomer is present in this organelle in a concentration range up to 50 x 10(-6) M. Determination of beta-MSH in melanosomal extracts yielded 10 pg/mg protein. Moreover, we demonstrate reactivation of the 7BH(4)/tyrosinase inhibitor complex by beta-MSH, whereas alpha-MSH failed to do so. Furthermore, we show intra-melanosomal l-dopa formation from dopachrome by 7BH(4) in a concentration range up to 134 x 10(-6) M. Based on these results, we propose a new receptor-independent mechanism in the control of tyrosinase/melanogenesis by beta-MSH and the pterin 7BH(4).  (+info)

The molecular genetics of the melanocortin pathway and energy homeostasis. (7/16)

The CNS melanocortin pathway plays an important role in the control of body weight. Two papers in this issue of Cell Metabolism, Lee et al., 2006 and Biebermann et al., 2006, suggest that beta MSH--a product of POMC processing--plays an unanticipated role in this pathway in humans.  (+info)

A POMC variant implicates beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the control of human energy balance. (8/16)

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a critical role in the control of energy balance. Of its two pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived ligands, alpha- and beta-MSH, the majority of attention has focused on alpha-MSH, partly reflecting the absence of beta-MSH in rodents. We screened the POMC gene in 538 patients with severe, early-onset obesity and identified five unrelated probands who were heterozygous for a rare missense variant in the region encoding beta-MSH, Tyr221Cys. This frequency was significantly increased (p < 0.001) compared to the general UK Caucasian population and the variant cosegregated with obesity/overweight in affected family members. Compared to wild-type beta-MSH, the variant peptide was impaired in its ability to bind to and activate signaling from the MC4R. Obese children carrying the Tyr221Cys variant were hyperphagic and showed increased linear growth, both of which are features of MC4R deficiency. These studies support a role for beta-MSH in the control of human energy homeostasis.  (+info)

*ACTH receptor

... rabbits respond to alpha and beta MSH's (therefore not using the ACTH receptor), and guinea pigs responding to both ACTH and ... α-MSH and ACTH are both peptides derived from processed POMC, and both activate the other MCR's, but ACTH is the only agonist ... by human MC2R accessory protein isoforms alpha and beta in isogenic human embryonic kidney 293 cells". Molecular Endocrinology ... other MSH's. In humans, ACTH has little lipolytic effect on adipose tissue. ACTH receptor activation also influences immune ...

*Nelson's syndrome

The common symptoms include: hyper-pigmentation of the skin visual disturbances headaches abnormal high levels of beta-MSH and ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.641)

... alpha-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.460.075 -- beta-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.460.115 -- gamma-msh MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.180 -- ... beta-endorphin MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.241.360 -- gamma-endorphin MeSH D12.776.641.650.575.281 -- enkephalins MeSH D12.776. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... alpha-msh MeSH D12.644.400.460.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D12.644.400.460.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D12.644.400.465 --- msh release- ... alpha-msh MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D12.644. ... msh release-inhibiting hormone MeSH D12.644.548.580 --- msh-releasing hormone MeSH D12.644.548.585 --- natriuretic peptide, c- ... gtp-binding protein beta subunits MeSH D12.644.360.375.730 --- gtp-binding protein gamma subunits MeSH D12.644.360.375.940 --- ...

*Skin whitening

MC1R ligands: alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (β-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic ... Once α-MSH binds to MC1R, up to a 100-fold increase in melanogenesis attends. In addition to α-MSH, other POMC-derived peptides ... Arbutin actually exists in two isomers, alpha and beta. The alpha isomer offers higher stability over the beta isomer and is ... such as β-MSH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also stimulate melanogenesis via the same pathway." "α-MSH binding to ...

*Addison's disease

... and beta-lipotropin. The subunit ACTH undergoes further cleavage to produce alpha-MSH, the most important MSH for skin ... This occurs because melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and ACTH share the same precursor molecule, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC ... After production in the anterior pituitary gland, POMC gets cleaved into gamma-MSH, ACTH, ...

*List of Microsoft codenames

MacKechnie, Nick (October 27, 2008). "msh: Microsoft Command Shell (Codename: Monad) Beta 2 Refresh". Nick MacKechnie's Blog. ... Rodriguez, Jaime (23 October 2009). "What is new in WPF and Cider on the .NET Framework 4 and VS2010 beta 2 release". MSDN ... "Media Alert: Microsoft Unveils Official Name for "Longhorn" and Sets Date for First Beta Targeted at Developers and IT ... Thurrott, Paul (February 13, 2007). "Q It Up: Windows Home Server Hits External Beta". Windows IT Pro. Montalbano, Elizabeth ( ...

*Beta-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

It is a melanocortin, specifically, one of the three types of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and is produced from ... β-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH) is an endogenous peptide hormone and neuropeptide. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D06)

... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.699.631.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472. ... alpha-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.075 --- beta-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.690.583.115 --- gamma-msh MeSH D06.472.734.525.883 ... msh release-inhibiting hormone MeSH D06.472.699.580 --- msh-releasing hormone MeSH D06.472.699.584 --- natriuretic peptides ... inhibin-beta subunits MeSH D06.472.334.734 --- corpus luteum hormones MeSH D06.472.334.734.623 --- progesterone MeSH D06.472. ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ... beta-2 microglobulin - beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta- ... transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor beta receptor - transient receptor potential - translation ( ... MSH - mu opioid receptor - mu-chain immunoglobulin - mucin - Muller's ratchet - multiresistance - muscarinic receptor - muscle ...

*MutS-1

Human MSH has been implicated in non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) and is a mismatch binding protein. Nag N, Rao BJ, ... The N-terminal domain of MutS is responsible for mismatch recognition and forms a 6-stranded mixed beta-sheet surrounded by ... Homologues of MutS have been found in many species including eukaryotes (MSH 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 proteins), archaea and ... the clamp domain has a beta-sheet structure. ATPase domain (connected to the core domain), which has a classical Walker A motif ...

*PowerShell

Microsoft published the first Monad public beta release on June 17, 2005, Beta 2 on September 11, 2005, and Beta 3 on January ... also known as Microsoft Shell or MSH). The ideas behind it were published in August 2002 in a white paper titled Monad ... A private beta program began a few months later which eventually led to a public beta program. ...

*Beta-Endorphin

However, POMC also gives rise to other peptide hormones, including α- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), resulting ... Loh HH, Tseng LF, Wei E, Li CH (August 1976). "beta-endorphin is a potent analgesic agent". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Dalayeun JF, Norès JM, Bergal S. "Physiology of beta-endorphins. A close-up view and a review of the literature". Biomedicine ... Foley KM, Kourides IA, Inturrisi CE, Kaiko RF, Zaroulis CG, Posner JB, Houde RW, Li CH (October 1979). "beta-Endorphin: ...

*Agouti-related peptide

Whereas α-MSH acts broadly on most members of the MCR family (with the exception of MC2-R), AGRP is highly specific for only ... It also enhances the ACTH response to IL-1-beta, suggesting it may play a role in the modulation of neuroendocrine response to ... It has been suggested that Agouti-related protein binds MSH receptors and acts as a competitive antagonist of ligand binding. ... The protein blocks α-MSH-induced secretion of corticosterone. Orthologs of AgRP, ASIP, MCIR, and MC4R have been found in ...

*Milter

MSH Autoresponder MIMEDefang j-chkmail milter-greylist Prefix WhoIs Milter milter-regex - Reject mail matching regular ... Milter was available in sendmail 8.11.x versions as an FFR (For Future Release/Beta code). Milter has undergone substantial ...

*Pituitary gland

Knepel W, Homolka L, Vlaskovska M, Nutto D. (1984). Stimulation of adrenocorticotropin/beta-endorphin release by synthetic ... The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed ... The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes the following important endocrine hormone: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH ... and beta-endorphin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone are released under the influence of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing ...

*Choriocarcinoma

Since choriocarcinomas include syncytiotrophoblasts (beta-HCG producing cells), they cause elevated blood levels of beta-human ... from excess chorionic gonadotropin cross reacting with the alpha MSH receptor), gynecomastia, and weight loss (from excess ...

*Lipotropin

In humans, γ-lipotropin, β-MSH, and β-endorphin, are all possible fragments of β-lipotropin. β-Lipotropin is the predominant ... beta-Lipotropin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) gamma-Lipotropin at the US National ... "beta-Lipotropin as a prohormone for the morphinomimetic peptides endorphins and enkephalins". Proceedings of the National ...

*Melanocyte-inhibiting factor

... (also known as Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2, Melanostatin, MSH release-inhibiting hormone or MIF-1) is an ... "Allosteric modulation of the dopamine receptor by conformationally constrained type VI beta-turn peptidomimetics of Pro-Leu-Gly ... McCullen RK, Peiffer RL, Jennes L, Hernandez DE (1988). "Inhibition by MIF-I of alpha-MSH induced increase of intraocular ... Kastin AJ, Ehrensing RH, Olson RD, Coy DH (1980). "Neurological effects of MIF-1, MSH, and opiate peptides in clinical studies ...

*Nonsense-mediated decay

For instance, the blood disorder Beta thalassemia is inherited and caused by mutations within the upstream of the β-globin gene ... MSH)(cite). These peptides then interact with different melanocortin receptors (MCRs) and are involved in a wide range of ...

*American Association for Respiratory Care

MSH, RRT, "Educating Health Professionals with Simulation Programs: Implications for Respiratory Therapists," 3 May 2012, in RT ... and Regulation Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Lambda Beta Society National Association for ...

*Microsatellite instability

Furthermore, MMR proteins MSH 1, MSH 2, MSH6, and PMS2 are instrumental in periocular sebaceous carcinoma, which is seen on the ... Examples include the transforming growth factor Beta receptor gene and the BAX gene. Each target leads to different phenotypes ... MSH 2, MSH 6, and PMS2. MSI has been evident in the cause of sebaceous carcinomas. Sebaceous carcinomas are a subset of a ...

*Oligopeptidase

Since the discovery of the neuropeptides and peptide hormones from the central nervous system (ACTH, β-MSH, endorphin, oxytocin ... Fülöp V, Böcskei Z, Polgár L (1998). "Prolyl oligopeptidase: an unusual beta propeller domain regulates proteolysis". Cell. 94 ...

*MSH5

Kelly KO, Dernburg AF, Stanfield GM, Villeneuve AM (Oct 2000). "Caenorhabditis elegans msh-5 is required for both normal and ... including the gene encoding the casein kinase II beta subunit (CSNK2B)". Genomics. 36 (2): 240-51. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0459. ...

*Arcuate nucleus

MSH), and somatostatin. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide that is cleaved into MSH and β-endorphin and ... The release of a POMC product, beta-endorphin is regulated by NPY. Centrally projecting neurons that make somatostatin; the ...

*Leptin

Conversely, α-MSH is an important mediator of satiety, and differences in the gene for the α-MSH receptor are linked to obesity ... activator of beta islet cells, and growth factor. In vertebrates, the nervous system consists of two main parts, the central ... α-MSH). The NPY neurons are a key element in the regulation of hunger; small doses of NPY injected into the brains of ... leptin stimulates satiety by promoting the synthesis of α-MSH, a hunger suppressant Thus, a lesion in the lateral hypothalamus ...
The pituitary gland lies in between the two halves of the brain at the base of the third vertebrae. In scientific terms, it is known as the master gland because it regulates and controls the rate at which the other glands release their hormones and the timing of the release. Until the pineal gland tells the body to act, it doesnt act.. The pituitary gland is divided into three lobes. The anterior lobe is in charge of regulating the activity of the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and the gonads. It tells the body when to grow, how much to grow, and when to stop growing. It also regulates the production of breast milk by pregnant and nursing mothers so that they can nourish the growth of their young. The intermediate lobe dictates the pigmentation of skin, releasing more Beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone when theres been increased exposure to direct sunlight and more protection is needed and decreasing the levels when theres less sunlight so that more of sunlight can be taken in and ...
... In Part II of this series on energy expenditure, we turned our attention to the measurement of free
Rukia and Ichigo followed Urahara down the enormous ladder to the underground cavern where Tessai, Ururu and Jinta were waiting.. "This process" Urahara explained "is somewhat similar to when you retrieved you Shinigami powers Kurosaki." At this statement Ichigo paled and shot a worried glance at Rukia who was standing calmly. "This is a bit experimental because Kuchiki-san is not really a human, however I have found a way in which to infuse your soul with that of a still living human" he produce a small pill from his pocket that was glowing slightly bluish silver. "This pill has absorbed a maximum amount of human energy".. "Where did you get this energy from?" Rukia asked curiously.. Urahara smirked "from Kurosaki-san of course, his reiatsu leaks all over the place and so does his human energy, it was the best source for this experiment.". "What?! Who said you could do that?!" Ichigo glowered only to be wacked in the face with a broom handle by Jinta.. "Shut up and listen" he said.. "Anyway," ...
Why variants?==== A problem with boost and all this signal/slot stuff is if you want to send variables you have to know in advance what variables should be passed. We get around that by using Variant and VariantList. ====Variant==== Variant is a special kind of variable that can be a number, a string, a vector3, or a pointer to an entity or component. (Its pretty easy to add support for more data types btw) Example: ,code cpp, Variant v; //so far it doesnt know what it is LogMsg(V is %s, v.Print().c_str()); //output: V is Unknown v.Set(uint32(10)); LogMsg(V is %s. Or, in number form: %d, v.Print().c_str(), v.GetUINT32()); //output: V is 10. Or, in number form: 10 //what if we try to access it wrong? float f = v.GetFloat(); //it will assert and tell you its a uint32, not a float ,/code, So if you see a function that expects a Variant type, you can call it like this: ,code cpp, SomeFunc(Variant(Hello! Hope you wanted a string!)); //or SomeFunc(1.0f); ,/code, If the compiler isnt sure if ...
Meet Bo. Shes just your average, gorgeous, butt-kicking, life-force-sucking bartender on the run. Her inhuman hunger for human energy has plagued her for the past ten years and is a secret she keeps close, but when she uses her power to stop a rape, her dark identity is exposed. The girl, a pickpocket named Kenzi, wont let Bo slip away without an explanation for the glowing blue light that escaped the mans body when she kissed him. Left with no other choice, Bo takes Kenzi under her wing in order to protect Kenzi and her own secret.
Looking for online definition of beta-MSH in the Medical Dictionary? beta-MSH explanation free. What is beta-MSH? Meaning of beta-MSH medical term. What does beta-MSH mean?
Montague CT, Farooqi IS, Whitehead JP, et al. Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature 1997; 387 903-8
Plants use biological systems that harvest light energy from the sun to convert environmental water and carbon dioxide into tiny carbon/hydrogen energy units stored within them. When people eat those energy units, the extraordinary human digestive and metabolic systems convert the work of plants into energy that is useful to people and give back water and carbon dioxide to the environment that can be used by plants. How do these systems make that happen? Journey to the Stomach Ingested food encounters precisely-shaped teeth that cut and grind it into small pieces--which, surprisingly, is the second step of the digestion process. The first vital step involves the brain readying the digestive organs for an influx of food. When the brains association areas match smells, sights, and even sounds of food with imprinted memories of eating, the nervous system signals the process to start. Glands in the mouth respond by secreting saliva, which is mostly water, but also contains digestive enzymes, ...
The process of releasing traumas through this exercise is interesting. It gently brings the mind to a peaceful place where you can view old incidents and traumas from a detached perspective, almost as if they happened to someone else. In this way, you can avoid much of the fear and anxiety that occur when old traumas are brought up to consciousness.. Also, old traumas, if they come up, will be brought up in a special order that is not your own. Instead, it is the body s own order of trauma release. This is also important because many people think they know the correct order in which traumas should surface. In fact, we do not know the correct order because the brain is complex and the proper order of trauma release can be very subtle.. For example, incidents that you don t even consider traumatic may have been quite so. Conversely, situation that you consider pivotal for you may really have been due to an earlier situation. You may have forgotten the earlier trauma that set you up for later ...
We stand at the threshold of a time of compelling change-a positive major shift is taking place, and that shift is having a dramatic impact on our lives. We are compelled to talk about it and to seek to understand it. It is awakening a new energy force within each of us that is causing dynamic change to occur within the physical body and the human energy system. We are changing to forms of light that are not as we have previously known them, and are becoming more vibrant, more radiant, and more empowered. This new energy force is changing our way of thinking and is illuminating a whole new dimension of our persona. It is creating the need for intense self-exploration and we are being nudged, pushed, and driven to learn more about who we really are. It is fueling the desire to better understand ourselves-its energy is assisting us in seeking to get in touch with our very souls. We are being guided to look beyond the obvious and that which our five senses understand. This new energy force is ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
Objective i - The first phase of the proposed work (Phase I) will involve two laboratory-based examinations of the acute metabolic and behavioural responses to extended fasting relative to ingestion of a standardised breakfast. These trials will be applied in a randomised and counterbalanced order with 3-28 days interval except for eumenorrheic women, whose trials will be separated by 28 ± 2 days and only at least 3 and at most 10 days after the onset of menses (i.e. follicular phase) to ensure that the effects of menstrual cycle on the majority of hormones and therefore resting metabolic rate (RMR) and appetite will be both minimal and standardised between trials [69-71]. These acute trials will be conducted in our resting metabolism laboratory in accordance with current guidelines for best practice in measuring resting metabolic rate [72]. Most notably, ambient temperature in this laboratory is maintained between 20 and 25°C (with intra-individual trials standardised within 2°C) and ...
Hatched at the Human Computer Interaction Lab at the Hasso Plattner Institute (HPI) in Potsdam, Germany, Ad Infinitum is a parasitical machine that, quite literally, lives off of human-generated energy.
Nine-tenths of our crimes an calamities are made possible by th automobile. It has unleashed all th pent-up criminal tendencies o th ages. Its th central figure in murders, hold-ups, burglaries, accidents, elopements, failures an abscondments. It has well nigh jimmed th American home.... No girl is missin that wuzn last seen steppin in a strange automobile.... An ther haint a day rolls by that somebuddy haint sellin ther sewin machine, or ther home, or somethin t pay on an automobile.... Maybe th jails an workhouses are empty, but thats not because th world is gittin better. Its because all th criminals escape in automobiles. ...
Crime is naught but misdirected energy. So long as every institution of today, economic, political, social, and moral, conspires to misdirect human energy into wrong channels; so long as most people are out of place doing the things they hate to do, living a life they loathe to live, crime will be inevitable, and all the laws on the statutes can only in crease, but never do away with, crime. ...
Overall I agree with your and Fintans assessments. There is not one organization or group ruling the world except for the coalescing interests of the haves against the have-nots. What the true issue always comes down to is the moral or ethical degree in which these individuals conduct themselves. We are obviously at a crossroads in human sensibility and these haves have brainwashed people into believing that if we grab and grab (Stab others in the back to get ahead) our way to success without caring about repercussions which are put upon our fellow human beings we will become a society in decline (I guess you may even consider this Mercantilist in nature). I do believe this is happening already but just like any universal content our human energy/ability/love will not be lost. I cannot believe that if energy is never lost then we as a part of this grand system will allow ourselves to be lost. We always hear about dying civilizations of the past but has anyone stopped and thought that these ...
Copenhageners on bicycles are clearly visible to everyone, especially to each other, and their melody is much more symphonic. There is human energy on display. There are visible faces and assorted postures to regard. As homo sapiens we search for recognisable signals from faces and body language. A long line of cars gives us little we can identify with. Psychology has taught us that we humans despise creatures like spiders and insects because we cannot identify with them because they lack a human face, whereas we love dogs and monkeys and other creatures with faces resembling our own ...
The failure of obesity treatments to sustain weight reduction is widely recognized. The central hypotheses of these studies are that: 1.) Energy and neuroendocrine homeostastic systems are altered during the maintenance of a reduced body weight in a manner that favors weight regain; 2.) These changes occur because weight-reduced individuals are in a state of relative leptin deficiency due to loss of body fat; and 3.) Therefore these changes accompanying the maintenance of a reduced body weight will be reversed if circulating leptin concentrations are restored to those that were present prior to weight reduction.. Maintenance of a reduced body weight is associated with integrated autonomic and neuroendocrine changes that reduce energy expenditure and increase food intake in a manner that is similar to that seen in rodents and humans who are deficient in, or resistant to, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Systemic leptin administration to leptin-deficient rodents and humans reverses the ...
Until the understanding of the principle of weight loss you must first know the concept of obesity and overweight; where it is known that overweight condition in which the body weight above a certain scale for height, Obesity is defined: as the accumulation of fat in the body to the point of conflict with health.. To maintain a healthy weight, must be on the human energy intake balance in The 2 Week Diet Plan with energy by the body to consume daily for life, there are many reasons for obesity and weight gain, but the bug gets in the body of a healthy person weight when they disrupted this equation, when more than the amount of energy ( calorie) intake in the diet for energy (calories) consumed, or when the energy consumed goes down for the intake you get an increase in the weight gradually, according to the extent of the difference between them. A common way to assess weight using the body mass index, which is calculated from the following equation: body weight in kilograms / height in meters ...
Food for thought - The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. From Scientific America. The word energy usually brings to mind barrels of oil, an electrical outlet, or perhaps a wind turbine. But take a look in your fridge; it is full of energy sources! Although our energy source (plant derived biological molecules) has not changed much since… we started eating, there have been revolutionary changes in how we procure food. While human energy was initially what drove the procurement of food (hunting and gathering, early agriculture and husbandry), we are now increasingly dependent on fossil energy sources to do the grueling labor of growing, harvesting, and distributing our food. This shift to more energy intensive agriculture implies a series of tradeoffs, which are best, characterized as The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. The Good is the many benefits we as a society have reaped from the modern food system including cheaper food in terms of time, economic, and resource inputs. The negative environmental ...
The Benefits of Longjack Attention All Athletes: Longjacks Physical Advantage. As if increasing testosterone werent enough, using Longjack extract also greatly increases ATP production. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the basic unit of energy in the body, responsible for keeping us alive and going. By increasing ATP, overall energy and vitality are increased. Most people want more energy, and Longjack provides it, without hyperstimulation, jittery nerves, or insomnia. This is the holy grail of human energy production, and is a valuable enough health benefit by itself to make Longjack an enduring Ayurvedic superstar regarding natural plant extracts. Athletes and body builders will employ any agent which boosts performance or muscle mass. In both animals and humans, Longjack extract increases muscle mass. In a study of men [1], half of the subjects ingested Longjack extract and half did not. In an eight week physical training program, the men who consumed Longjack extract experienced greater ...
I educated myself last night by watching some videos, one was on the hidden energy work built in to the layout of Long Beach architecture/city planning by the masons. Apparently it collects energy, and not just earthly but human energy, and focuses it for an adept to be able to use. This person who is making the video seems nice. Kind of curious and interested in the occult and the use of unseen power that the descendants from Egypt knew--such as found with the masonic order. He also aligns strongly with music and JZ. I watched the whole hour plus...because he pointed out the structures, I saw he was right, and I wondered what the conclusion was going to be? There was a part where an entity asked him to create a time portal with sound and his computer and a flashlight. He didnt want to be interrupted. He locked himself in his room, and the whole building started to shake. His roommate started cursing and asked him to stop and banged on the door. He didnt. He passed out (went to sleep at ten ...
Human biofield. Nocardia Otitidis Antimicrobial Susceptibility Analysis. Human Energy Treatment & Phylogenetic Analysis of Nocardia Otitidis. Nocardia Otitidis
I agree. Trumps heart is in the right place on this (rare, I know), but his brains (what little he has) are not. We dont need "cognitive elitists." We dont need any (non-European) immigrants at all. ZERO. I agree: better dumb peons than immigrants who will be at the top of the human energy pyramid, elites displacing Whites from professional/technical positions, aliens who will become the "new Jews" using their high IQs to manipulate American politics to their own selfish racial benefit. We dont need to wreck the middle class, and Trump doesnt need to placate groups that didnt vote for him. And despite the sweaty fantasies of my detractors, I also agree with Spencer that the 1924 Reed-Johnson Act was a good thing (albeit flawed in that it didnt optimally control immigration from the Western hemisphere). I think Spencer is wrong in assuming the "massaged" IQ data from China, reflecting coastal elites, is reflective of the nation as a whole, including the masses of teeming peasants, but ...
A new study in Pediatrics suggested higher rates of attention deficit disorder in children whose parents take acetaminophen for long periods. 
Vibrio alebo vibrión[1] je rod patriaci do čeľade Vibrionaceae. Najdôležitejšími druhmi sú Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor (dnes považované skôr za variant v rámci druhu V. cholerae), pôvodcovia cholery. Okrem nich existujú ďalšie patogénne druhy, ktoré môžu vyvolať ochorenia tráviaceho traktu i celkové ochorenia človeka. Typickým znakom rodu je rast tejto skupiny vo vode a citlivosť na koncentrácie solí v nej.. ...
Following the emergence of swine influenza A(H3N2) variant (v) viruses with sporadic human infections in North America, the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) and the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency completed an exercise to assess the CNRLs capability to detect novel reassortant and circulating triple reassortant swine viruses (TRA) in humans. ...
Until the understanding of the principle of weight loss you must first know the concept of obesity and overweight; where it is known that overweight condition in which the body weight above a certain scale for height, Obesity is defined: as the accumulation of fat in the body to the point of conflict with health.. To maintain a healthy weight, must be on the human energy intake balance in The 2 Week Diet Plan with energy by the body to consume daily for life, there are many reasons for obesity and weight gain, but the bug gets in the body of a healthy person weight when they disrupted this equation, when more than the amount of energy ( calorie) intake in the diet for energy (calories) consumed, or when the energy consumed goes down for the intake you get an increase in the weight gradually, according to the extent of the difference between them. A common way to assess weight using the body mass index, which is calculated from the following equation: body weight in kilograms / height in meters ...
Chakra is the word used to describe energy centers in the human body. This term is traditionally associated with philosophies, religions and systems of medicine in the Orient, but is increasingly a term used in conjunction with the scientific study of the aura and of the other human energy functions. Often, the concept of the chakra is as a manifestation of the aura. Many times in such research, the eastern terms for energy functions are used without association with a particular belief system, since Western science does not have usable terms. This can make such energy systems seem quite mystical. the energy system known as Reiki does not refer to chakras in its teachings directly, however, I use the term as a landmark on the body. The energy centers, usually seen as 7 in number, have been traditionally associated with certain human qualities or functions. Briefly, the chakras are: ...
Much as the atomic theory, with its revelations of the vast treasure house of radiant energy that lies all about us, offers new hope in the material world, so the new psychology throws a new light upon human energies and possibilities of individual expression. Social reformers, like those scientists of a bygone era who were sweeping the skies with their telescopes, have likewise been seeking far and wide for the solution of our social problems in remote and wholesale panaceas, whereas the true solution is close at hand,--in the human individual. Buried within each human being lies concealed a vast store of energy, which awaits release, expression and sublimation. The individual may profitably be considered as the «atom» of society. And the solution of the problems of society and of civilization will be brought about when we release the energies now latent and undeveloped in the individual. Professor Edwin Grant Conklin expresses the problem in another form; though his analogy, it seems to me, ...
About this Course:. How to use Chakras to heal - physically emotionally physiologically and psychologically. Many times we are sick from inside without knowing or acknowledging it. Many times we manifest physical or mental illness only when it has crossed a limit. Many times we resort to medication only to suppress symptoms while root causes remain. Many times we pass over to hospitalization suddenly for eminently preventable problems. For all of us susceptible to any of the above this knowledge or course is invaluable. The Microcosmic Orbit is an energy passage that feeds vital life force energy - Qi - to all the channels - meridians - of the body.. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine -TCM- and Vedic practices from India this Orbit is composed of the Governing and Conception Vessels which operate as holding reservoirs of Qi or Prana or Ki. The Orbit passes over each energy receptor of the human energy anatomy which means by energizing this Orbit we feed positive abundant beneficial ...
Alprazolam - Cheap Prices - Order Now Free Online Consultation, over 100+ meds, UPS Shipping, highly discounted meds. Weight Loss, Anxiety, Pain Relief. Phentermine, Ambien, Xanax, Valium, + more. US. Information on Acetaminophen and antibiotic
Free online tool which performs in silico digestion of proteins and reports peptide precursor and product ions as well as natural variants and PTMs.
Free online tool which performs in silico digestion of proteins and reports peptide precursor and product ions as well as natural variants and PTMs.
As if increasing testosterone werent enough, using Longjack extract also greatly increases ATP production. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the basic unit of energy in the body, responsible for keeping us alive and going. By increasing ATP, overall energy and vitality are increased. Most people want more energy, and Longjack provides it, without hyperstimulation, jittery nerves, or insomnia. This is the holy grail of human energy production, and is a valuable enough health benefit by itself to make Longjack an enduring Ayurvedic superstar regarding natural plant extracts.. Athletes and body builders will employ any agent which boosts performance or muscle mass. In both animals and humans, Longjack extract increases muscle mass. In a study of men [1], half of the subjects ingested Longjack extract and half did not. In an eight week physical training program, the men who consumed Longjack extract experienced greater gains in muscle mass and strength than those who did not. This demonstrates the ...
Human activity is causing climate change. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, human energy use, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, has caused concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to rise substantially. The evidence shows it is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the Earths warming over the past 50 years.
It is now established that the hypothalamus is essential in coordinating endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to changes in energy availability. However, the interaction between key neuropeptides and neurotransmitters systems within the hypothalamus has yet to be delineated. Recently, we investigated the mechanisms through which central serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems recruit leptin-responsive hypothalamic pathways, such as the melanocortin systems, to affect energy balance. Through a combination of functional neuroanatomy, feeding, and electrophysiology studies in rodents, we found that 5-HT drugs require functional melanocortin pathways to exert their effects on food intake.. ...
1. Anonymous (1967): Energy cost of simulated space activities. Nutr.Rev. 25, 301-304. Simulation of space conditions indicates that human energy requirements are decreased by reduced G-force but increased by suit pressurization. Heat removal may be inadequate for extravehicular activities in present suits. This paper presents the findings from studies which have attempted to simulate various features of space activities, such as reduced gravitational forces and features related to life support systems. 2. Anonymous (1971): Ergonomics guide to assessment of metabolic and cardiac costs of physical work. Am.lnd.Hyg.Assoc.J. 32, 560-564. This paper discusses the significance of and ways to determine the energy costs and heart rates associated with the performance of physical tasks. Such information may be of use in achieving adjustments between the physical capacities of workers and job demands. Some data from the literature on the energy cost of various occupational activities are presented [not ...
Weight can be regained quickly once you begin to eat normally again. Lets make a deal - misdarriage work on your fluid intake, and Ill work on calcium and magnesium, and hopefully we will both be without leg cramps ever more. Without actual intercourse the pregnzncy are very slim and also if your cycle is on average grying days affter it is more likely that you miscarriate around day 21 of your cycle as the 2nd trting of your cycle (luteal phase) is not usually longer than 14 days. Human Energy Requirements. In other families it makes more sense for the children to spend trying to conceive after miscarriage pregnancy overnights with one parent conceve with trying to conceive after miscarriage pregnancy other. Nails definitely trying to conceive after miscarriage pregnancy trimming. You cannot know. In reality, though, few women give birth on their exact due trying to conceive after miscarriage pregnancy. Other than trhing, I reserve judgment. Instructors provide education on child development, ...
Change. The human mind seeks the worst possible cause that has helped since the days predictors of more easily understood and immediate chased our species. Hard to put that aside. However, a model that also fits this data is that people had nothing to do with it, you know, sun spots, and attack on the ice shell by debris. I think this needs more homework, before we propose readjusting human energy approach. All I notice hear in Kansas is my Buffalo grass is doing well, wasnt that the indigenous grass? Why yes it was! Wonder why it was indigenous if it took people to change my climate? Oops just another skeptical scientist ...
The mechanism by which acetaminophen causes analgesia and antipyretic effect is not entirely clear. Recently a new COX isoenzyme was identified and termed COX 3. In humans this isoenzyme is most abundant in cerebral cortex and heart. Inhibition of COX-3 could represent a primary central mechanism by which acetaminophen decrease pain and possibly fever (10). An effect on of acetaminophen on presynaptic 5-HT(2) receptors in the hypocampus has been demonstrated (11) suggesting again that the primary effect of acetaminophen is in the CNS.. Many studies (12-16) described the pharmacokinetics of oral and rectal acetaminophen in infants and neonates. Yet, the data on acetaminophen concentrations in the CSF is very limited. Two studies in adults (17;18) used intravenous propacetamol and described concentrations of acetaminophen in the plasma and CSF. Acetaminophen was detected as early as 15 minutes after the administration and reached peak concentrations in the CSF at the 4th hour. A small study (19) ...
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has announced funding of an Indiana University collaborative study to develop a computational model of acetaminophen-induced liver failure-the leading cause of liver failure in the United States-by using advanced microscopic and computational technologies that allow researchers to see into the liver of a living animal. The research is viewed as a first step in the development of new technologies capable of predicting the toxicity of therapeutic agents and environmental toxins while simultaneously reducing the use of animals in toxicity studies.. The research, including computer simulations calibrated using microscopic imaging in the liver of a living mouse, will be conducted at IU laboratories in both Bloomington and Indianapolis. The study teams are focusing on the liver because it is a key organ in many toxicological, pharmacological, normal and disease processes; and on acetaminophen as the organs toxic challenge as it is the most widely used ...
Background: In patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection, telaprevir (TVR) in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin (PR) significantly increased sustained virologic response (SVR) rates compared with PR alone. However, genotypic changes could be observed in TVR-treated patients who did not achieve an SVR. Methods: Population sequence analysis of the NS3•4A region was performed in patients who did not achieve SVR with TVR-based treatment. Results: Resistant variants were observed after treatment with a telaprevir-based regimen in 12% of treatment-naïve patients (ADVANCE; T12PR arm), 6% of prior relapsers, 24% of prior partial responders, and 51% of prior null responder patients (REALIZE, T12PR48 arms). NS3 protease variants V36M, R155K, and V36M+R155K emerged frequently in patients with genotype 1a and V36A, T54A, and A156S/T in patients with genotype 1b. Lower-level resistance to telaprevir was conferred by V36A/M, T54A/S, R155K/T, and A156S variants; and higher-level ...
A number of reasons you should start with an upper GI gallbladder pain and scarring of the tube which contain caffeine, fatty food substances by bile duct from the intestines, and then a 2nd. what causes a fat liver Only medical practitioners combined the risks are lower than week 1. Herbs are being used since ancient times to your usual activity level in about removing of the gallbladder. This can get dandelion root tea; it concentrates bile production, which can damage and feverish. Therefore, people arent work unless you are overdosing on acetaminophen. Every year, in stage 2 chronic kidney disease symptoms his parenting, to have the procedure. These basic measures that cause severe pain association with gallstones and goes, but it can be flushed in case gallbladder flush says that following gallbladder Flush by Andreas Moritz, author of" intense pain that is why most D3 supplements Having your gallbladder area. Swelling a doctors" worldwide to adopt six smaller meals liver disease symptoms ...
Blood London provides blood testing services and phlebotomy to patients wishing to self-refer for a blood test. The service is designed for:. - Healthy people wishing to check specific biomarkers. - Those under the care of a clinician to undergo their directed blood tests. This service is not designed to replace a diagnostic medical consultation, if you are suffering from health problems you MUST see a clinician.. The results of the blood test that you request will be reviewed by our doctor for any abnormalities, which will be noted on your results. Please note that our doctors are not responsible for providing a clinical diagnosis, and cannot comment on your wider health in general except as to the result of the test you have requested. Our doctors comments are not intended as a replacement for a medical consultation with a registered practitioner. If you have any concerns at all, it is highly recommended that you undergo a consultation with a clinician registered to practice medicine in the ...
The vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve. It contains motor and sensory fibers and, because it passes through the neck and thorax to the abdomen, has the widest distribution in the body.

DNA mismatch repair protein MutS, connector domain (IPR007860) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIDNA mismatch repair protein MutS, connector domain (IPR007860) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Human MSH has been implicated in non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) and is a mismatch binding protein [PMID: 8036718]. ... The structure of the MutS connector domain consists of a parallel beta-sheet surrounded by four alpha helices, which is similar ... Homologues of MutS have been found in many species including eukaryotes (MSH 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 proteins), archaea and ... the clamp domain has a beta-sheet structure. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR007860

α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), amide | Adenylate Cyclase Activator | MedChemExpressα-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), amide | Adenylate Cyclase Activator | MedChemExpress

"α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), amide stimulates melanocortin 1 receptor that results in the activation of adenylyl ... α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), amide (α-MSH) has an essential role to play in melanin production in animals. α-MSH ... α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH), amide Cat. No.: HY-P0252 Purity: 98.55% Data Sheet SDS Handling Instructions ... α−MSH inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent gene transcription and NF-κB pathway induced by TNF and other inflammatory ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/_alpha_-Melanocyte-Stimulating_Hormone__MSH_,_amide.html

DNA repair protein MutS, domain II superfamilyDNA repair protein MutS, domain II superfamily

Human MSH has been implicated in non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) and is a mismatch binding protein [. 8036718]. This ... Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [. 51349] (147) Fold: Ribonuclease H-like motif [. 53066] (7) ... MutS protein involved in mismatch repair; other members of the family included the eukaryotic MSH 1,2,3, 4,5 and 6 proteins. ...
more infohttp://supfam.cs.bris.ac.uk/SUPERFAMILY/cgi-bin/scop.cgi?ipid=SSF53150

BETA-MSH, HUMAN | 17908-57-5BETA-MSH, HUMAN | 17908-57-5

You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of BETA-MSH, HUMAN(17908-57-5). At last,BETA-MSH, HUMAN( ... Visit ChemicalBook To find more BETA-MSH, HUMAN(17908-57-5) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point, ... BETA-MSH, HUMAN. Synonyms. Β-MSH, HUMAN;a-MSH,-human;BETA-MSN, HUMAN;BETA-MSH, HUMAN;BETA-MSH, HUMAN TFA;β-melanotropin human; ... ALPHA-MSH MET-GLU-HIS-PHE-ARG-TRP-GLY ANTI-BETA-MSH (HUMAN) H-GLY-ALA-ASP-OH H-ARG-MET-NH2 ACETATE SALT BETA-MSH (MONKEY) H-LYS ...
more infohttps://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB0736695.htm

Beta-MSH | definition of beta-MSH by Medical dictionaryBeta-MSH | definition of beta-MSH by Medical dictionary

... beta-MSH explanation free. What is beta-MSH? Meaning of beta-MSH medical term. What does beta-MSH mean? ... Looking for online definition of beta-MSH in the Medical Dictionary? ... Beta-MSH , definition of beta-MSH by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/beta-MSH ... redirected from beta-MSH) POMC. Abbreviation for proopiomelanocortin.. POMC. A gene on chromosome 2p23 that encodes ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/beta-MSH

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Beta (b-MSH)Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Beta (b-MSH)

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Beta. Resultable. N. 1950-5. For questions regarding the Interface Map, please contact ... Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Beta. 1950-5. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided ...
more infohttp://ltd.aruplab.com/Tests/Pub/0098818

Porcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in DelhiPorcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in Delhi

... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit » Porcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta ... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta- ... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta- ...
more infohttps://www.odspl.com/sub-product/Porcine+MSH+%28beta-Melanocyte+Stimulating+Hormone%29+ELISA+Kit.php

Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary...Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary...

Opioid beta-endorphin differentially modulated the actions of CRH, as NAc beta-end, but not alpha-MSH, release was inhibited. ... Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) ... and this correlates with the variability in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end responses in vivo. Relative rates of alpha-MSH and NAc ... Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary ...
more infohttp://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/32849

Lecture 5: Hormonal Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex Flashcards by Emma Djabali | BrainscapeLecture 5: Hormonal Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex Flashcards by Emma Djabali | Brainscape

1. Beta-lipotropin. 2. Gamma-lipotropin. 3. Beta-endorphin. 4. Beta-MSH. 5. ACTH. 6. Alpha-MSH. 7. CLIP ... 2. Breakdown of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) (to create ACTH) also produces α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). 3. α-MSH ... Beta receptors: relaxation and dilatation of blood vessels, heart rate increase, reduction of gut motility, dilation of lungs, ... alpha-MSH, so can bind to its receptors when in excess and cause tanning of skin ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/lecture-5-hormonal-regulation-of-the-adre-5360557/packs/8053412

The Health & Wellness Show: Connecting the Happy Dots -- Health & Wellness -- Sott.netThe Health & Wellness Show: Connecting the Happy Dots -- Health & Wellness -- Sott.net

... the neuropeptides beta-MSH and beta-Endorphin. The mutation appears to be specific to Labradors and Flat Coat Retrievers, and ...
more infohttps://www.sott.net/article/318714

Phospho anti-ACTH (S168) antibody (ab110880) | AbcamPhospho anti-ACTH (S168) antibody (ab110880) | Abcam

Beta endorphin and Met enkephalin are endogenous opiates. MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) increases the pigmentation of ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/acth-phospho-s168-antibody-ab110880.html

The Genetics of Pooched-Out Pooches - The New York TimesThe Genetics of Pooched-Out Pooches - The New York Times

Beta-MSH has been proved to bind to the same cell receptor as alpha-MSH. But it has been hard to study beta-MSH because rats ... which produces the cell receptor that binds to alpha-MSH and beta-MSH, that might be associated with heightened body weight in ... "Beta-MSH just really hasnt been the focus," he says. "When that Labrador paper came out we all said, Whoa. " ... The research into the possible role of beta-MSH in obesity is still very much in its infancy, but some of the first evidence ...
more infohttps://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/16/magazine/the-genetics-of-pooched-out-pooches.html?partner=rss&emc=rss

POMC Antibody (Monoclonal, 6Y8)
		        
	POMC Antibody (Monoclonal, 6Y8)

... beta-endorphin; beta-LPH; beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; beta-MSH; corticotropin-like intermediary peptide; Corticotropin ... gamma-LPH; gamma-MSH; lipotropin beta; lipotropin gamma; melanotropin alpha; melanotropin beta; melanotropin gamma; met- ... Protein Aliases: adrenocorticotropic hormone; adrenocorticotropin; alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; alpha-MSH; ... and lipotropin beta are the major end products. In other tissues, including the hypothalamus, placenta, and epithelium, all ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/ACTH-Antibody-6Y8-Monoclonal/MA5-18042

Peptides | AbbiotecPeptides | Abbiotec

Beta MSH Peptide Hormones 1 mg $118.00 350043 Alpha-MSH Peptide Hormones 5 mg $195.00 ...
more infohttps://www.abbiotec.com/peptides?populate=Corticotropin&field_protein_family_tid=All

Melanocyte stimulating hormone | definition of melanocyte stimulating hormone by Medical dictionaryMelanocyte stimulating hormone | definition of melanocyte stimulating hormone by Medical dictionary

Alpha MSH-Shares the 13 amino acids of the N-terminal of ACTH; has some corticotropic activity.. • Beta MSH-Shares the 17 amino ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/melanocyte+stimulating+hormone

Nelson Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)Nelson Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

Blood levels of the pituitary hormones adrenocorticotrope hormone (ACTH) and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) are ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/nelson-syndrome/

dmarie725dmarie725

All of my blood levels (C4a, TGF beta, msh, etc) showed this,... ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/community/profile.aspx?f=32&m=2912836&p=184086

High Prevalence of Rare Monogenic Forms of Obesity in Obese Guadeloupean Afro-Caribbean Children, Journal of Clinical...High Prevalence of Rare Monogenic Forms of Obesity in Obese Guadeloupean Afro-Caribbean Children, Journal of Clinical...

Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 7. Harrold JA, Williams G. Melanocortin-4 receptors, beta-MSH and leptin: key ... Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 7. Harrold JA, Williams G. Melanocortin-4 receptors, beta-MSH and leptin: key ... A rare mutation in ABCC8/SUR1 leading to altered ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity and beta-cell glucose sensing is associated ... A rare mutation in ABCC8/SUR1 leading to altered ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity and beta-cell glucose sensing is associated ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ou_press/high-prevalence-of-rare-monogenic-forms-of-obesity-in-obese-bRAvY1m1N0

Addison Disease Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, CausesAddison Disease Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes

... beta-MSH, and gamma-MSH. When stimulated, the melanocyte changes the color of pigment to a dark brown or black. ... Abnormalities of beta oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. *. These patients (usually men) present with adrenocortical ... In 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency, female infants appear virilized, whereas male infants may have ... 33] or 20,22-desmolase enzyme deficiency, 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency, and the severe form of the 21- ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-clinical

Find Research Outputs
             - University of Miamis Research ProfilesFind Research Outputs - University of Miami's Research Profiles

Isolation and chemical characterization of a beta-CRF from pig posterior pituitary glands.. Schally, A. V. & GUILLEMIN, R., Apr ... On the presence in hog hypothalamus of 3-corticotropin releasing factor, alpha- and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormones, ...
more infohttps://miami.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?format=&page=5&ordering=publicationYearThenTitle&descending=false

Sunlight And the Brain  |  In the PipelineSunlight And the Brain | In the Pipeline

Sunlight……POMC……..alpha MSH and beta endorphin. Sure, Im guessing the UCA-GLU metabolic pathway is also involved with all ... There was a report in 2014 from an MGH/Harvard team that UV exposure increases beta-endorphin levels in the skin, and that ... Youd have to think that beta-endorphin and glutamate are not going to be the end of it (although those two are powerful enough ...
more infohttps://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2018/10/12/sunlight-and-the-brain?replytocom=296710

Kaplan - Endocrinology - Part I Flashcards - Cram.comKaplan - Endocrinology - Part I Flashcards - Cram.com

Beta-MSH and ACTH are important because they can cause darkening of the skin. ... What is one disorder where you will find darking of the skin due to ACTH and beta-MSH? ... pro-opiomelanocortin breaks into ACTH and Beta-lipotropin which is important because this molecule is breaken down to form Beta ...
more infohttp://www.cram.com/flashcards/kaplan-endocrinology-part-i-315902

Browse our POMC ELISA KitsBrowse our POMC ELISA Kits

ACTH, alpha-MSH, alphaMSH, BE, Beta-LPH, beta-MSH, CLIP, Gamma-LPH, gamma-MSH, LPH, MSH, NPP, POC, pomc, Pomc-1, Pomc1, Pomc2, ... beta-LPH , beta-MSH , beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone , gamma-LPH , gamma-MSH , lipotropin beta , lipotropin gamma , ... beta (endorphin, beta) , proopoimelanocortin, beta (endorphin, beta) , Corticotropin-lipotropin , beta-lipotropin , beta- ... Zebrafish proopiomelanocortin (zfPOMC) contains the consensus sequences for ACTH, gamma-LPH, beta-MSH and beta-endorphin (beta- ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/metabolism-of-steroid-hormones-and-vitamin-d-pathway-32/pomc-elisa-kit-353/
  • The origin of this variable response was investigated by (1) studying the effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end release in vitro, (2) establishing where in the second messenger pathway coupled to CRH receptors melanotrope responsiveness is determined, and (3) testing modulatory actions of other hypothalamic factors (here opioid beta-endorphin). (ru.nl)
  • There was a report in 2014 from an MGH/Harvard team that UV exposure increases beta-endorphin levels in the skin, and that group showed that rodents can apparently become addicted to sunbathing through this effect. (sciencemag.org)
  • You'd have to think that beta-endorphin and glutamate are not going to be the end of it (although those two are powerful enough for plenty of effects). (sciencemag.org)