MutS homolog 2 protein is found throughout eukaryotes and is a homolog of the MUTS DNA MISMATCH-BINDING PROTEIN. It plays an essential role in meiotic RECOMBINATION and DNA REPAIR of mismatched NUCLEOTIDES.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
A DNA repair pathway involved in correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. Excinucleases recognize the BASE PAIR MISMATCH and cause a segment of polynucleotide chain to be excised from the daughter strand, thereby removing the mismatched base. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A methyl-directed mismatch DNA REPAIR protein that has weak ATPASE activity. MutS was originally described in ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An 11-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Gamma-MSH stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis and has an regulatory role in the cardiovascular and the renal systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.

Effect of pH and monovalent cations on the formation of quinonoid intermediates of the tryptophan synthase alpha(2)beta(2) complex in solution and in the crystal. (1/16)

Quinonoid intermediates play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Whereas the structures of other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-bound intermediates have been determined, the structure of a quinonoid species has not yet been reported. Here, we investigate factors controlling the accumulation and stability of quinonoids formed at the beta-active site of tryptophan synthase both in solution and the crystal. The quinonoids were obtained by reacting the alpha-aminoacrylate Schiff base with different nucleophiles, focusing mainly on the substrate analogs indoline and beta-mercaptoethanol. In solution, both monovalent cations (Cs(+) or Na(+)) and alkaline pH increase the apparent affinity of indoline and favor accumulation of the indoline quinonoid. A similar pH dependence is observed when beta-mercaptoethanol is used. As indoline and beta-mercaptoethanol exhibit very distinct ionization properties, this finding suggests that nucleophile binding and quinonoid stability are controlled by some ionizable protein residue(s). In the crystal, alkaline pH favors formation of the indoline quinonoid as in solution, but the effect of cations is markedly different. In the absence of monovalent metal ions the quinonoid species accumulates substantially, whereas in the presence of sodium ions the accumulation is modest, unless alpha-subunit ligands are also present. Alpha-subunit ligands not only favor the formation of the intermediate, but also reduce significantly its decay rate. These findings define experimental conditions suitable for the stabilization of the quinonoid species in the crystal, a critical prerequisite for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this intermediate.  (+info)

Staphylococcal exfoliative toxins cleave alpha- and beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormones. (2/16)

The staphylococcal exfoliative toxins (ETs) A and B (ETA and ETB) are 27-kDa exotoxins produced by certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus and are the causative agents of staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome. The crystal structures of the ETs strongly indicate that the proteins are members of the serine protease family of enzymes, although protease activity until now has not yet been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that the peptide beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) is cleaved by ETA and that both ETA and ETB are capable of cleaving alpha-MSH. Both toxins exhibit cleavage at specific glutamic acid residues in MSH peptides. Moreover, biologically inactive mutants of ETA were incapable of cleaving beta-MSH.  (+info)

Doxorubicin impairs crossbridge turnover kinetics in skinned cardiac trabeculae after acute and chronic treatment. (3/16)

Crossbridge dynamics underlying the acute and chronic inotropic effects of doxorubicin (Dox) were studied by application of releasing length steps (amplitude, 0.5-10%) to skinned cardiac trabeculae. Acute incubation of trabeculae with 20 microM Dox for 30 min resulted in a decrease of the velocity of unloaded shortening (V(0), from 9.3 +/- 1.1 to 7.7 +/- 0.7 microm/s, P <.05) and in an increase of the rate of force redevelopment (tau(r), from 56 +/- 4 to 65 +/- 3 ms, P <.05) in response to step amplitudes ranging from 5 to 10%. In contrast, chronic Dox treatment in rats (2 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks) significantly impaired trabecular crossbridge dynamics after step releases of 0.5%. This was reflected by an increase of all time constants describing tension recovery: tau(1), from 10 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 1 ms; tau(2), from 65 +/- 6 to 82 +/- 6 ms; tau(3), from 92 +/- 7 to 293 +/- 67 ms; P <.05. In addition, V(0) was decreased (from 8.6 +/- 0.6 to 6.8 +/- 0.3 microm/s, P <.05) and tau(r) was increased (from 67 +/- 4 to 89 +/- 3 ms; P <.05) in the slack-test. We found that chronic Dox treatment resulted in a shift from the "high ATPase" alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform toward the "low-ATPase" beta-MHC isoform in the ventricles (control: alpha-MHC 79 +/- 2% and beta-MHC 21 +/- 2%; Dox-treated: alpha-MHC 53 +/- 2% and beta-MHC 47 +/- 2%; P <.05). The present results show that acute Dox incubation affects the detachment rate of crossbridges, which leads to a delayed relaxation and an arrest of crossbridges in strongly bound states. In contrast, chronic Dox treatment leads to an impairment of both the attachment and detachment rates in the crossbridge cycle, which may be explained by an altered MHC isoform composition in ventricular myocardium. Interfering with Dox-induced alterations of crossbridge kinetics may provide a new strategy to prevent Dox-associated cardiotoxicity.  (+info)

A missense mutation disrupting a dibasic prohormone processing site in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) increases susceptibility to early-onset obesity through a novel molecular mechanism. (4/16)

The functional loss of both alleles of the human pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene leads to a very rare syndrome of hypoadrenalism, red hair and early-onset obesity. In order to examine whether more subtle genetic variants in POMC might contribute to early-onset obesity, the coding region of the gene was sequenced in 262 Caucasian subjects with a history of severe obesity from childhood. Two children were found to be heterozygous for a missense mutation, R236G, which disrupts the dibasic cleavage site between beta melanocyte-stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) and beta-endorphin. Beta-TC3 cells transfected with the mutant POMC cDNA produced a mutant beta-MSH/beta-endorphin fusion protein. This fusion protein bound to the human melanocortin-4 receptor (hMC4R) with an affinity similar to its natural ligands, but had a markedly reduced ability to activate the receptor. This variant co-segregated with early-onset obesity over three generations in one family and was absent in 412 normal weight UK Caucasian controls. Combining the results in UK Caucasians with a new case-control study in French subjects and three previously published reports, mutations disrupting this processing site were present in 0.88% of subjects with early-onset obesity and 0.22% of normal-weight controls. These results suggest that the R236G mutation may confer an inherited susceptibility to obesity through the production of an aberrant fusion protein that has the capacity to interfere with central melanocortin signalling.  (+info)

Detection and characterization of methionine oxidation in peptides by collision-induced dissociation and electron capture dissociation. (5/16)

Electron capture dissociation (ECD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID), the two complementary fragmentation techniques, are demonstrated to be effective in the detection and localization of the methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)] residues in peptides using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. The presence of Met(O) can be easily recognized in the low-energy CID spectrum showing the characteristic loss of methanesulfenic acid (CH(3)SOH, 64 Da) from the side chain of Met(O). The position of Met(O) can then be localized by ECD which is capable of providing extensive peptide backbone fragmentation without detaching the labile Met(O) side chain. We studied CID and ECD of several Met(O)-containing peptides that included the 44-residue human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and the human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). The distinction and complementarity of the two fragmentation techniques were particularly remarkable in their effects on ANP, a disulfide bond-containing peptide. While the predominant fragmentation pathway in CID of ANP was the loss of CH(3)SOH (64 Da) from the molecular ion, ECD of ANP resulted in many sequence-informative products, including those from cleavages within the disulfide-bonded cyclic structure, to allow for the direct localization of Met(O) without the typical procedures for disulfide bond reduction followed by [bond]SH alkylation.  (+info)

A novel mechanism in control of human pigmentation by {beta}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and 7-tetrahydrobiopterin. (6/16)

The human skin holds the full machinery for pro-opiomelanocortin processing. The alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)/melanocortin-1-receptor cascade has been implicated as a major player via the cAMP signal in the control of melanogenesis. Only very recently the beta-endorphin/mu-opiate receptor signal has been added to the list of regulators of melanocyte dendricity and melanin formation. In this context it was reported that (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH(4)) can act as an allosteric inhibitor of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis, and this inhibition is reversible by both alpha- and beta-MSH. It was also shown earlier that 7BH(4), the isomer of 6BH(4), is twice as active in this inhibition reaction. However, as yet it is not known whether 7BH(4) is indeed present in loco in the melanosome. We here provide evidence that this isomer is present in this organelle in a concentration range up to 50 x 10(-6) M. Determination of beta-MSH in melanosomal extracts yielded 10 pg/mg protein. Moreover, we demonstrate reactivation of the 7BH(4)/tyrosinase inhibitor complex by beta-MSH, whereas alpha-MSH failed to do so. Furthermore, we show intra-melanosomal l-dopa formation from dopachrome by 7BH(4) in a concentration range up to 134 x 10(-6) M. Based on these results, we propose a new receptor-independent mechanism in the control of tyrosinase/melanogenesis by beta-MSH and the pterin 7BH(4).  (+info)

The molecular genetics of the melanocortin pathway and energy homeostasis. (7/16)

The CNS melanocortin pathway plays an important role in the control of body weight. Two papers in this issue of Cell Metabolism, Lee et al., 2006 and Biebermann et al., 2006, suggest that beta MSH--a product of POMC processing--plays an unanticipated role in this pathway in humans.  (+info)

A POMC variant implicates beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the control of human energy balance. (8/16)

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a critical role in the control of energy balance. Of its two pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived ligands, alpha- and beta-MSH, the majority of attention has focused on alpha-MSH, partly reflecting the absence of beta-MSH in rodents. We screened the POMC gene in 538 patients with severe, early-onset obesity and identified five unrelated probands who were heterozygous for a rare missense variant in the region encoding beta-MSH, Tyr221Cys. This frequency was significantly increased (p < 0.001) compared to the general UK Caucasian population and the variant cosegregated with obesity/overweight in affected family members. Compared to wild-type beta-MSH, the variant peptide was impaired in its ability to bind to and activate signaling from the MC4R. Obese children carrying the Tyr221Cys variant were hyperphagic and showed increased linear growth, both of which are features of MC4R deficiency. These studies support a role for beta-MSH in the control of human energy homeostasis.  (+info)

Looking for online definition of beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the Medical Dictionary? beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone explanation free. What is beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone? Meaning of beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone medical term. What does beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone mean?
The pituitary gland lies in between the two halves of the brain at the base of the third vertebrae. In scientific terms, it is known as the master gland because it regulates and controls the rate at which the other glands release their hormones and the timing of the release. Until the pineal gland tells the body to act, it doesnt act.. The pituitary gland is divided into three lobes. The anterior lobe is in charge of regulating the activity of the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and the gonads. It tells the body when to grow, how much to grow, and when to stop growing. It also regulates the production of breast milk by pregnant and nursing mothers so that they can nourish the growth of their young. The intermediate lobe dictates the pigmentation of skin, releasing more Beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone when theres been increased exposure to direct sunlight and more protection is needed and decreasing the levels when theres less sunlight so that more of sunlight can be taken in and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic and physiologic analysis of the role of uncoupling protein 3 in human energy homeostasis. AU - Chung, Wendy K.. AU - Luke, Amy. AU - Cooper, Richard S.. AU - Rotini, Charles. AU - Vidal-Puig, Antonio. AU - Rosenbaum, Michael. AU - Chua, Melvin. AU - Solanes, Gemma. AU - Zheng, Min. AU - Zhao, Long. AU - LeDuc, Charles. AU - Eisberg, Andrew. AU - Chu, Florence. AU - Murphy, Ellen. AU - Schreier, Mindy. AU - Aronne, Louis. AU - Caprio, Sonia. AU - Kahle, Bowie. AU - Gordon, Derek. AU - Leal, Suzanne M.. AU - Goldsmith, Rochelle. AU - Andreu, Antonio L.. AU - Bruno, Claudio. AU - DiMauro, Salvatore. AU - Heo, Moonseong. AU - Lowe, William L.. AU - Lowell, Bradford B.. AU - Allison, David B.. AU - Leibel, Rudolph L.. PY - 1999/9/11. Y1 - 1999/9/11. N2 - By virtue of its potential effects on rates of energy expenditure, uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is an obesity candidate gene. We identified nine sequence variants in UCP3, including Va19Met, Val102Ile, Arg282Cys, and a splice ...
The Science of Human Energy Expenditure - Part III In Part II of this series on energy expenditure, we turned our attention to the measurement of free
We used four separate algorithms to detect CNVs; Affymetrix Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS), iPattern, Nexus and Partek. Our primary analysis was performed based on ChAS CNV calls, which were then supported using the remaining three algorithms to construct a confidence set of CNVs. For all algorithms, we have used 8 probes and >1kb as a base line cutoff for CNV detection ...
We used four separate algorithms to detect CNVs; Affymetrix Chromosome Analysis Suite (ChAS), iPattern, Nexus and Partek. Our primary analysis was performed based on ChAS CNV calls, which were then supported using the remaining three algorithms to construct a confidence set of CNVs. For all algorithms, we have used 8 probes and >1kb as a base line cutoff for CNV detection ...
Rukia and Ichigo followed Urahara down the enormous ladder to the underground cavern where Tessai, Ururu and Jinta were waiting.. This process Urahara explained is somewhat similar to when you retrieved you Shinigami powers Kurosaki. At this statement Ichigo paled and shot a worried glance at Rukia who was standing calmly. This is a bit experimental because Kuchiki-san is not really a human, however I have found a way in which to infuse your soul with that of a still living human he produce a small pill from his pocket that was glowing slightly bluish silver. This pill has absorbed a maximum amount of human energy.. Where did you get this energy from? Rukia asked curiously.. Urahara smirked from Kurosaki-san of course, his reiatsu leaks all over the place and so does his human energy, it was the best source for this experiment.. What?! Who said you could do that?! Ichigo glowered only to be wacked in the face with a broom handle by Jinta.. Shut up and listen he said.. Anyway, ...
Why variants?==== A problem with boost and all this signal/slot stuff is if you want to send variables you have to know in advance what variables should be passed. We get around that by using Variant and VariantList. ====Variant==== Variant is a special kind of variable that can be a number, a string, a vector3, or a pointer to an entity or component. (Its pretty easy to add support for more data types btw) Example: ,code cpp, Variant v; //so far it doesnt know what it is LogMsg(V is %s, v.Print().c_str()); //output: V is Unknown v.Set(uint32(10)); LogMsg(V is %s. Or, in number form: %d, v.Print().c_str(), v.GetUINT32()); //output: V is 10. Or, in number form: 10 //what if we try to access it wrong? float f = v.GetFloat(); //it will assert and tell you its a uint32, not a float ,/code, So if you see a function that expects a Variant type, you can call it like this: ,code cpp, SomeFunc(Variant(Hello! Hope you wanted a string!)); //or SomeFunc(1.0f); ,/code, If the compiler isnt sure if ...
Meet Bo. Shes just your average, gorgeous, butt-kicking, life-force-sucking bartender on the run. Her inhuman hunger for human energy has plagued her for the past ten years and is a secret she keeps close, but when she uses her power to stop a rape, her dark identity is exposed. The girl, a pickpocket named Kenzi, wont let Bo slip away without an explanation for the glowing blue light that escaped the mans body when she kissed him. Left with no other choice, Bo takes Kenzi under her wing in order to protect Kenzi and her own secret.
The Bio-Well is technology known as the Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV). The device is a desktop camera which scans the human energy field
Disclaimer: As a layman in the field of medicine and health, Ive summed up some recent scientific research on the role of mitochondria in human energy and health. I hope you find some of the information useful for counteracting the slow-burning effects of ageing or, if you are young, for optimising the vitality of youth…. A Mitochondria-Based Approach to Metabolic andBrainHealth ...
In summary, we were not able to detect a consistent association with obesity or diabetes phenotypes for either the K121Q minor allele or the risk haplotype Q-delT-G in large cohorts. Our results, those in the accompanying article by Weedon et al. (20), a recent Japanese study (21), and the conflicting data in the previous literature (5-8) (with some evidence for both the Q-allele and the K-allele being risk alleles) suggest that the previously reported associations to ENPP1 may represent false positives or associations that are not easily generalizable. Our investigations are not an exact replication of the previously reported studies due to different ascertainment designs. However, we have successfully reproduced other associations with diabetes (KCNJ11 [22,23], PPARG [10], and TCF7L2 [24]) and obesity (INSIG2 [25]) using these samples. In contrast to Meyre et al. (6), we did not test for association in children, possibly missing an effect specific to severe or early-onset obesity.. Our failure ...
Looking for online definition of beta-MSH in the Medical Dictionary? beta-MSH explanation free. What is beta-MSH? Meaning of beta-MSH medical term. What does beta-MSH mean?
Montague CT, Farooqi IS, Whitehead JP, et al. Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature 1997; 387 903-8
Shaymaa I Salem, S. S. A. Elgayed, W. M. El-Kelany, and A. A. abd EI-Baky, Diagnostic studies on acetaminophen toxicosis in Dogs, Global Veterinaria, vol. 5, issue 2, no. 2, pp. 72-83, 2010 ...
Plants use biological systems that harvest light energy from the sun to convert environmental water and carbon dioxide into tiny carbon/hydrogen energy units stored within them. When people eat those energy units, the extraordinary human digestive and metabolic systems convert the work of plants into energy that is useful to people and give back water and carbon dioxide to the environment that can be used by plants. How do these systems make that happen? Journey to the Stomach Ingested food encounters precisely-shaped teeth that cut and grind it into small pieces--which, surprisingly, is the second step of the digestion process. The first vital step involves the brain readying the digestive organs for an influx of food. When the brains association areas match smells, sights, and even sounds of food with imprinted memories of eating, the nervous system signals the process to start. Glands in the mouth respond by secreting saliva, which is mostly water, but also contains digestive enzymes, ...
Surgical treatment of obesity is as effective for individuals who developed the disorder early, by the age of 20, as for those who have developed obesity later in life, a study from the University of Gothenburg shows.
The process of releasing traumas through this exercise is interesting. It gently brings the mind to a peaceful place where you can view old incidents and traumas from a detached perspective, almost as if they happened to someone else. In this way, you can avoid much of the fear and anxiety that occur when old traumas are brought up to consciousness.. Also, old traumas, if they come up, will be brought up in a special order that is not your own. Instead, it is the body s own order of trauma release. This is also important because many people think they know the correct order in which traumas should surface. In fact, we do not know the correct order because the brain is complex and the proper order of trauma release can be very subtle.. For example, incidents that you don t even consider traumatic may have been quite so. Conversely, situation that you consider pivotal for you may really have been due to an earlier situation. You may have forgotten the earlier trauma that set you up for later ...
We stand at the threshold of a time of compelling change-a positive major shift is taking place, and that shift is having a dramatic impact on our lives. We are compelled to talk about it and to seek to understand it. It is awakening a new energy force within each of us that is causing dynamic change to occur within the physical body and the human energy system. We are changing to forms of light that are not as we have previously known them, and are becoming more vibrant, more radiant, and more empowered. This new energy force is changing our way of thinking and is illuminating a whole new dimension of our persona. It is creating the need for intense self-exploration and we are being nudged, pushed, and driven to learn more about who we really are. It is fueling the desire to better understand ourselves-its energy is assisting us in seeking to get in touch with our very souls. We are being guided to look beyond the obvious and that which our five senses understand. This new energy force is ...
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Objective i - The first phase of the proposed work (Phase I) will involve two laboratory-based examinations of the acute metabolic and behavioural responses to extended fasting relative to ingestion of a standardised breakfast. These trials will be applied in a randomised and counterbalanced order with 3-28 days interval except for eumenorrheic women, whose trials will be separated by 28 ± 2 days and only at least 3 and at most 10 days after the onset of menses (i.e. follicular phase) to ensure that the effects of menstrual cycle on the majority of hormones and therefore resting metabolic rate (RMR) and appetite will be both minimal and standardised between trials [69-71]. These acute trials will be conducted in our resting metabolism laboratory in accordance with current guidelines for best practice in measuring resting metabolic rate [72]. Most notably, ambient temperature in this laboratory is maintained between 20 and 25°C (with intra-individual trials standardised within 2°C) and ...
Hatched at the Human Computer Interaction Lab at the Hasso Plattner Institute (HPI) in Potsdam, Germany, Ad Infinitum is a parasitical machine that, quite literally, lives off of human-generated energy.
by Julia M. Grassinger,Sophie Merz,Heike Aupperle-Lellbach,Hanna Erhard and Robert Klopfleisch Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 31; Published: 19 March 2019 doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010031 www.mdpi.com/journal/vetsci/special_issues/comparative_oncology Abstract The presence of BRAF variant V595E, as well as an increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between breed (terrier versus non-terrier dogs), histological grade, COX-2 expression, and BRAF mutation in canine TCC. Therefore, transmural TCC biopsies from 65 dogs (15 terriers, 50 non-terriers) were graded histologically into low- and high-grade. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the intensity of COX-2 expression was performed using an immunoreactive score (IRS). Exon 15 of chromosome 16 was examined for the BRAF variant c.1799T,A by TaqMan® SNP assay. TCC was low-grade in 20 cases (one terrier, 19 ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 4qya.1. Crystal structure of human transthyretin variant V30M in complex with luteolin
Nine-tenths of our crimes an calamities are made possible by th automobile. It has unleashed all th pent-up criminal tendencies o th ages. Its th central figure in murders, hold-ups, burglaries, accidents, elopements, failures an abscondments. It has well nigh jimmed th American home.... No girl is missin that wuzn last seen steppin in a strange automobile.... An ther haint a day rolls by that somebuddy haint sellin ther sewin machine, or ther home, or somethin t pay on an automobile.... Maybe th jails an workhouses are empty, but thats not because th world is gittin better. Its because all th criminals escape in automobiles. ...
Overall I agree with your and Fintans assessments. There is not one organization or group ruling the world except for the coalescing interests of the haves against the have-nots. What the true issue always comes down to is the moral or ethical degree in which these individuals conduct themselves. We are obviously at a crossroads in human sensibility and these haves have brainwashed people into believing that if we grab and grab (Stab others in the back to get ahead) our way to success without caring about repercussions which are put upon our fellow human beings we will become a society in decline (I guess you may even consider this Mercantilist in nature). I do believe this is happening already but just like any universal content our human energy/ability/love will not be lost. I cannot believe that if energy is never lost then we as a part of this grand system will allow ourselves to be lost. We always hear about dying civilizations of the past but has anyone stopped and thought that these ...
Crime is naught but misdirected energy. So long as every institution of today, economic, political, social, and moral, conspires to misdirect human energy into wrong channels; so long as most people are out of place doing the things they hate to do, living a life they loathe to live, crime will be inevitable, and all the laws on the statutes can only in crease, but never do away with, crime. ...
Emvita-8 by Rubimed Remedies-The forty (40) Rubimed homeopathic remedies have been designed to treat different energy blocks within the human energy s
Copenhageners on bicycles are clearly visible to everyone, especially to each other, and their melody is much more symphonic. There is human energy on display. There are visible faces and assorted postures to regard. As homo sapiens we search for recognisable signals from faces and body language. A long line of cars gives us little we can identify with. Psychology has taught us that we humans despise creatures like spiders and insects because we cannot identify with them because they lack a human face, whereas we love dogs and monkeys and other creatures with faces resembling our own ...
In the private sector, platforms like Yelp, Amazon.com, and Kickstarter are giving increasing power to consumers. These tools create an ongoing process of suggestion and response-a feedback loop-- that motivates companies to listen to consumers and to create new and better products.. But why havent feedback loops given people more power in how they are governed, how donor money is spent, and how social services are delivered? People best understand the issues that affect them and what support they need to solve those problems, but many institutions struggle to understand and respond to their perspective. In many places, power imbalances and cultural practices discourage people from giving feedback at all. As a result, trillions of donor dollars and incredible human energy have been spent with good intentions on social projects, while many of the worlds most dire problems remain unsolved.. We want to promote what works and learn from what doesnt. We want to learn more about how feedback ...
The failure of obesity treatments to sustain weight reduction is widely recognized. The central hypotheses of these studies are that: 1.) Energy and neuroendocrine homeostastic systems are altered during the maintenance of a reduced body weight in a manner that favors weight regain; 2.) These changes occur because weight-reduced individuals are in a state of relative leptin deficiency due to loss of body fat; and 3.) Therefore these changes accompanying the maintenance of a reduced body weight will be reversed if circulating leptin concentrations are restored to those that were present prior to weight reduction.. Maintenance of a reduced body weight is associated with integrated autonomic and neuroendocrine changes that reduce energy expenditure and increase food intake in a manner that is similar to that seen in rodents and humans who are deficient in, or resistant to, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Systemic leptin administration to leptin-deficient rodents and humans reverses the ...
I went to my neurologist today. Ive been having some trouble with my injections, getting an immediate post injection reaction, my heart races, my face flushes, my chest feels tight, and I get nauseous. This lasts at least an hour, and it happens every time I give myself an injection of my MS medication. I brought this up to my doctor today. He suggested taking some Tylenol 30 minutes prior to giving myself the injection.. So, when I got home I had something to eat, and took 2 acetaminophen arthritis, because it was the only kind I could find other than PM. I did not read the label, and I should have. Had I read it, I would have seen that each pill was 650mg of acetaminophen. Essentially I took 1300mg of acetaminophen. Well, the doctor was right, it helped the IPI, but a couple hours later, I laid down to take a nap, and I started feeling a cramping, like I had my period. But I had just finished a week ago, so I knew it wasnt that. I wound up with awful diarrhea and vomiting (TMI, sorry), and I ...
Following the emergence of swine influenza A(H3N2) variant (v) viruses with sporadic human infections in North America, ECDC and the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) disseminated a questionnaire to explore the RT-PCR capability of influenza reference laboratories in EU/EEA countries to detect A(H3N2)v viruses in their day-to-day diagnostics and to subtype them as swine-origin variant viruses. ...
Until the understanding of the principle of weight loss you must first know the concept of obesity and overweight; where it is known that overweight condition in which the body weight above a certain scale for height, Obesity is defined: as the accumulation of fat in the body to the point of conflict with health.. To maintain a healthy weight, must be on the human energy intake balance in The 2 Week Diet Plan with energy by the body to consume daily for life, there are many reasons for obesity and weight gain, but the bug gets in the body of a healthy person weight when they disrupted this equation, when more than the amount of energy ( calorie) intake in the diet for energy (calories) consumed, or when the energy consumed goes down for the intake you get an increase in the weight gradually, according to the extent of the difference between them. A common way to assess weight using the body mass index, which is calculated from the following equation: body weight in kilograms / height in meters ...
Atomically, everything in the Universe is made up of energy and has an aura. An aura is a subtle energy field around any inanimate object or living thing that is made up of atoms. Humans are more complex then inanimate objects therefore our energy field is larger and more complex. The aura of a human body is also referred to as the Human Energy Field (HEF) or biofield in scientific communities. The energy field encompasses our body in an oval or orb like shape, can extend 4 feet or more from our physical body, and is made up of layers. The layers of this field move in and out from the physical body receiving, assimilating, and transmitting information just as our 7 major chakras do. Each layer of the biofield has successively less density and vibrational frequency. Each of the 7 major chakras are connected to each of the layers of our energy field creating an interconnected matrix of energy. The chakras drive the expansion or contraction of our energy field. When our life force energy feels low ...
Food for thought - The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. From Scientific America. The word energy usually brings to mind barrels of oil, an electrical outlet, or perhaps a wind turbine. But take a look in your fridge; it is full of energy sources! Although our energy source (plant derived biological molecules) has not changed much since… we started eating, there have been revolutionary changes in how we procure food. While human energy was initially what drove the procurement of food (hunting and gathering, early agriculture and husbandry), we are now increasingly dependent on fossil energy sources to do the grueling labor of growing, harvesting, and distributing our food. This shift to more energy intensive agriculture implies a series of tradeoffs, which are best, characterized as The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. The Good is the many benefits we as a society have reaped from the modern food system including cheaper food in terms of time, economic, and resource inputs. The negative environmental ...
The Benefits of Longjack Attention All Athletes: Longjacks Physical Advantage. As if increasing testosterone werent enough, using Longjack extract also greatly increases ATP production. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the basic unit of energy in the body, responsible for keeping us alive and going. By increasing ATP, overall energy and vitality are increased. Most people want more energy, and Longjack provides it, without hyperstimulation, jittery nerves, or insomnia. This is the holy grail of human energy production, and is a valuable enough health benefit by itself to make Longjack an enduring Ayurvedic superstar regarding natural plant extracts. Athletes and body builders will employ any agent which boosts performance or muscle mass. In both animals and humans, Longjack extract increases muscle mass. In a study of men [1], half of the subjects ingested Longjack extract and half did not. In an eight week physical training program, the men who consumed Longjack extract experienced greater ...
Using touch to influence the human energy system balancing the energy field and energy centres, positively affecting the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of the person and his/her healing potential.
I educated myself last night by watching some videos, one was on the hidden energy work built in to the layout of Long Beach architecture/city planning by the masons. Apparently it collects energy, and not just earthly but human energy, and focuses it for an adept to be able to use. This person who is making the video seems nice. Kind of curious and interested in the occult and the use of unseen power that the descendants from Egypt knew--such as found with the masonic order. He also aligns strongly with music and JZ. I watched the whole hour plus...because he pointed out the structures, I saw he was right, and I wondered what the conclusion was going to be? There was a part where an entity asked him to create a time portal with sound and his computer and a flashlight. He didnt want to be interrupted. He locked himself in his room, and the whole building started to shake. His roommate started cursing and asked him to stop and banged on the door. He didnt. He passed out (went to sleep at ten ...
Using touch to influence the human energy system balancing the energy field and energy centres, positively affecting the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual aspects of the person and his/her healing potential.
Human biofield. Nocardia Otitidis Antimicrobial Susceptibility Analysis. Human Energy Treatment & Phylogenetic Analysis of Nocardia Otitidis. Nocardia Otitidis
Extra resources for Corporate Success and Transformational Leadership. Example text. 9. 2, p. 123-140, 1988. 34. Davies C and A Francis: There is more to performance than profits or growth. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 3, p. 51-65, 1975. 35. De, N R: Alternative designs of human organizations. New Delhi, Sage, 1984. 36. Deal T and A Kennedy: Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley, 1982. 37. Dess G G: Consensus on strategy, formulation and organizational performance: Competitors in a fragmented industry, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. This has been done 10 order to explore whether there is compatibility between the profile of the transformational leader and the expected profile of the idealised leader. The rationale behind this paradigm is the basic assumption that compatibility between the two helps the process of organisational change and culture building, besides channellising human energies for high performance; and Studying the role of ...
I agree. Trumps heart is in the right place on this (rare, I know), but his brains (what little he has) are not. We dont need cognitive elitists. We dont need any (non-European) immigrants at all. ZERO. I agree: better dumb peons than immigrants who will be at the top of the human energy pyramid, elites displacing Whites from professional/technical positions, aliens who will become the new Jews using their high IQs to manipulate American politics to their own selfish racial benefit. We dont need to wreck the middle class, and Trump doesnt need to placate groups that didnt vote for him. And despite the sweaty fantasies of my detractors, I also agree with Spencer that the 1924 Reed-Johnson Act was a good thing (albeit flawed in that it didnt optimally control immigration from the Western hemisphere). I think Spencer is wrong in assuming the massaged IQ data from China, reflecting coastal elites, is reflective of the nation as a whole, including the masses of teeming peasants, but ...
This study aimed to further investigate the recently synthesized morphine analog, 14-O-MeM6SU (Lacko et al., 2012) compared with M6SU (Brown et al., 1985; Zuckerman et al., 1999; Crooks et al., 2006; Holtman et al., 2010) in a rat model of inflammatory pain and a mouse model of visceral pain based on our previous work (Al-Khrasani et al., 2007; Khalefa et al., 2013). Our data clearly show that 14-O-MeM6SU and M6SU produced peripheral antinociceptive effects in a CFA-induced inflammatory pain model or acetic acid-evoked visceral pain over a specific dose/concentration range of their systemic (subcutaneous) administration. The antinociceptive action on the former test in certain doses was localized to the inflamed paw.. Thus, beyond the antinociceptive effect elicited by the local administration of 14-O-MeM6SU (Khalefa et al., 2013), peripherally mediated antinociception of this compound and its parent molecule, M6SU, could also be established by its systemic application. It is important to ...
A new study in Pediatrics suggested higher rates of attention deficit disorder in children whose parents take acetaminophen for long periods. 
Vibrio alebo vibrión[1] je rod patriaci do čeľade Vibrionaceae. Najdôležitejšími druhmi sú Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor (dnes považované skôr za variant v rámci druhu V. cholerae), pôvodcovia cholery. Okrem nich existujú ďalšie patogénne druhy, ktoré môžu vyvolať ochorenia tráviaceho traktu i celkové ochorenia človeka. Typickým znakom rodu je rast tejto skupiny vo vode a citlivosť na koncentrácie solí v nej.. ...
Following the emergence of swine influenza A(H3N2) variant (v) viruses with sporadic human infections in North America, the Community Network of Reference Laboratories (CNRL) and the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency completed an exercise to assess the CNRLs capability to detect novel reassortant and circulating triple reassortant swine viruses (TRA) in humans. ...
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, affecting the health of more than one-third of U.S. adults and 17% of children and adolescents. Prior studies suggest that chronic obesity may trigger compensatory physiological responses that promote the state of constant positive energy balance. Although these observations may explain why sustained weight management is a challenge for so many obese patients, the precise mechanisms that underlie recidivism after dieting and obesity treatment remain unknown.. Now, Bumaschny et al. generate a new reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of a single gene, proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Pomc is highly expressed in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus of all vertebrates. In both humans and rodents, mutations in the Pomc gene lead to severe hyperphagia (increased appetite), early-onset obesity, and adrenal insufficiency-a shortage of hormones that regulate adrenal function, which ...
Until the understanding of the principle of weight loss you must first know the concept of obesity and overweight; where it is known that overweight condition in which the body weight above a certain scale for height, Obesity is defined: as the accumulation of fat in the body to the point of conflict with health.. To maintain a healthy weight, must be on the human energy intake balance in The 2 Week Diet Plan with energy by the body to consume daily for life, there are many reasons for obesity and weight gain, but the bug gets in the body of a healthy person weight when they disrupted this equation, when more than the amount of energy ( calorie) intake in the diet for energy (calories) consumed, or when the energy consumed goes down for the intake you get an increase in the weight gradually, according to the extent of the difference between them. A common way to assess weight using the body mass index, which is calculated from the following equation: body weight in kilograms / height in meters ...
Chakra is the word used to describe energy centers in the human body. This term is traditionally associated with philosophies, religions and systems of medicine in the Orient, but is increasingly a term used in conjunction with the scientific study of the aura and of the other human energy functions. Often, the concept of the chakra is as a manifestation of the aura. Many times in such research, the eastern terms for energy functions are used without association with a particular belief system, since Western science does not have usable terms. This can make such energy systems seem quite mystical. the energy system known as Reiki does not refer to chakras in its teachings directly, however, I use the term as a landmark on the body. The energy centers, usually seen as 7 in number, have been traditionally associated with certain human qualities or functions. Briefly, the chakras are: ...
A heterosexual couple, a man and woman in an intimate relationship, form the core of a nuclear family.[54] Many societies throughout history have insisted that a marriage take place before the couple settle down, but enforcement of this rule or compliance with it has varied considerably. In some jurisdictions, when an unmarried man and woman live together long enough, they are deemed to have established a common-law marriage. There was no real need to coin a term such as heterosexual until there was something else to contrast and compare it with. Jonathan Ned Katz dates the definition of heterosexuality, as it is used today, to the late 19th century.[55] According to Katz, in the Victorian era, sex was seen as a means to achieve reproduction, and relations between the sexes were not believed to be overtly sexual. The body was thought of as a tool for procreation, human energy, though of as a closed and severely limited system, was to be used in producing children and in work, not wasted in ...
Many products to treat cold, flu, and pain contain acetaminophen. It can be easy to overdose on acetaminophen which can be dangerously toxic to the liver.
In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a birth defect. This is called her background risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to tramadol might increase the risk for birth defects over that background risk. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your health care provider.. What is tramadol?. Tramadol is a narcotic prescribed to treat pain. It is in a group of medications called opioids. Ultram® and Conzip® are some brand names for tramadol. Some forms of tramadol can also contain another medication, such as acetaminophen. An example is Ultracet®. For information on acetaminophen, please see https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/acetaminophen-pregnancy/pdf/. These medications are taken by mouth.. I am taking tramadol, but I would like to stop taking it before becoming pregnant. How long does this medication stay in my body?. Always talk with your healthcare provider before making any changes to your medications. ...
You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of BETA-MSH, HUMAN(17908-57-5). At last,BETA-MSH, HUMAN( ... Visit ChemicalBook To find more BETA-MSH, HUMAN(17908-57-5) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point, ... BETA-MSH, HUMAN. Synonyms. Β-MSH, HUMAN;a-MSH,-human;BETA-MSN, HUMAN;BETA-MSH, HUMAN;BETA-MSH, HUMAN TFA;β-melanotropin human; ... ALPHA-MSH MET-GLU-HIS-PHE-ARG-TRP-GLY ANTI-BETA-MSH (HUMAN) H-GLY-ALA-ASP-OH H-ARG-MET-NH2 ACETATE SALT BETA-MSH (MONKEY) H-LYS ...
Differentiation of cells producing poly peptide hormones acth msh lipotropic hormone alpha endorphin beta endorphin growth ... ACTH, .beta.-MSH, .beta.-LPH, .alpha.- and .beta.-endorphin appeared at 34 days in the same regular, round or ovoid cells; no ... beta.-MSH, ACTH, .beta.-LPH [lipotropic hormone], .alpha.- and .beta.-endorphin, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL); to ... Differentiation of cells producing polypeptide hormones (ACTH, MSH, LPH, alpha- and beta-endorphin, GH and PRL) in the fetal ...
... beta-MSH explanation free. What is beta-MSH? Meaning of beta-MSH medical term. What does beta-MSH mean? ... Looking for online definition of beta-MSH in the Medical Dictionary? ... Beta-MSH , definition of beta-MSH by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/beta-MSH ... redirected from beta-MSH) POMC. Abbreviation for proopiomelanocortin.. POMC. A gene on chromosome 2p23 that encodes ...
Opioid beta-endorphin differentially modulated the actions of CRH, as NAc beta-end, but not alpha-MSH, release was inhibited. ... Pituitary melanotropes release alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and acetylated beta-endorphin (NAc beta-end) ... and this correlates with the variability in alpha-MSH and NAc beta-end responses in vivo. Relative rates of alpha-MSH and NAc ... Plasma alpha-MSH and acetylated beta-endorphin levels following stress vary according to CRH sensitivity of the pituitary ...
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Beta. Resultable. N. 1950-5. For questions regarding the Interface Map, please contact ... Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Beta. 1950-5. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided ...
... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit » Porcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta ... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta- ... beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone) ELISA Kit. Porcine MSH (beta- ...
melanotropin beta. β-MSH. 217-234 beta-endorphin. 237-267 met-enkephalin. 237-241 ... α-MSH that stimulates the production of melanin. A family of related receptors mediates the actions of these hormones, the MCR ... α-MSH). (This common structure is responsible for excessively tanned skin in Addisons disease.) After a short period of time, ... ACTH is cleaved into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and CLIP, a peptide with unknown activity in humans. ...
... , Inhaled Beta Adrenergic Agonist, Inhaled Beta Agonist, Inhaled Bronchodilator, Bronchodilator, ... Ontology: Adrenergic beta-Agonists. (C0001644) Definition (MSH) Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic ... ADREN BETA AG, ADREN BETA RECEPT AGON, BETA ADREN AG, BETA ADREN AGON, ADREN BETA RECEPT AG, RECEPT AGON BETA ADREN, RECEPT ... AGON ADREN BETA, BETA ADREN RECEPT AG, ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS BETA, ADRENERGIC AGONISTS BETA, ADREN BETA AGON, BETA ADREN ...
... , Inhaled Beta Adrenergic Agonist, Inhaled Beta Agonist, Inhaled Bronchodilator, Bronchodilator, ... Definition (MSH). A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. ... ADREN BETA AG, ADREN BETA RECEPT AGON, BETA ADREN AG, BETA ADREN AGON, ADREN BETA RECEPT AG, RECEPT AGON BETA ADREN, RECEPT ... AGON ADREN BETA, BETA ADREN RECEPT AG, ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS BETA, ADRENERGIC AGONISTS BETA, ADREN BETA AGON, BETA ADREN ...
2008) Co-localization of amyloid beta and tau pathology in Alzheimers disease synaptosomes. Am J Pathol 172(6):1683-1692. ... Modulation by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Brain Behav Immun 34:141-150. ... 2008) Interleukin-1 beta impairs brain derived neurotrophic factor-induced signal transduction. Neurobiol Aging 29(9):1380-1393 ... 1998) Age-related impairment in long-term potentiation in hippocampus: A role for the cytokine, interleukin-1 beta? Prog ...
Anterior pituitary (from Rathkes pouch): prolactin, growth hormone, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and beta endorphin ... Intermediate lobe (from Rathkes pouch): MSH. *Posterior pituitary (from 3rd ventricle): oxytocin, ADH ...
beta-MSH. *THIQ. Antagonisti i inverzni agonisti. MC1 selektivan. *Agouti signalni peptid ... Balse-Srinivasan P, Grieco P, Cai M, Trivedi D, Hruby VJ (2003). „Structure-activity relationships of gamma-MSH analogues at ... Cragnolini AB, Schiöth HB, Scimonelli TN (2006). „Anxiety-like behavior induced by IL-1beta is modulated by alpha-MSH through ... Gonzalez PV, Schiöth HB, Lasaga M, Scimonelli TN (2009). „Memory impairment induced by IL-1beta is reversed by alpha-MSH ...
I am a beta tester for Monad. it is nothing special - wmic + cmd + more scripting abilities. msh is not ready for prime time. I ... Its a beta, and we do not recommend or support the use of beta software in a production environment. Microsoft continues to ... MSH wasnt ready for release by the time Vista will be. One has nothing to do with the other. Monads insecurity was to be ... But most important, "Monad" is not included in the beta release of Windows Vista or in Windows Server 2003 R2.. Monad will not ...
Sunlight……POMC……..alpha MSH and beta endorphin. Sure, Im guessing the UCA-GLU metabolic pathway is also involved with all ... There was a report in 2014 from an MGH/Harvard team that UV exposure increases beta-endorphin levels in the skin, and that ... Youd have to think that beta-endorphin and glutamate are not going to be the end of it (although those two are powerful enough ...
beta melanocyte stimulating hormone antibody. *Beta MSH antibody. *Beta-LPH antibody. *Beta-MSH antibody ...
1. Beta-lipotropin. 2. Gamma-lipotropin. 3. Beta-endorphin. 4. Beta-MSH. 5. ACTH. 6. Alpha-MSH. 7. CLIP ... 2. Breakdown of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) (to create ACTH) also produces α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). 3. α-MSH ... Beta receptors: relaxation and dilatation of blood vessels, heart rate increase, reduction of gut motility, dilation of lungs, ... alpha-MSH, so can bind to its receptors when in excess and cause tanning of skin ...
Beta endorphin and Met enkephalin are endogenous opiates. MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) increases the pigmentation of ...
2012). Beta-endorphin antagonizes the effects of alpha-MSH on food intake and body weight. Endocrinology, 153(9), 4246-4255. ... Synthesis of beta-endorphin, ACTH, and alpha-MSH. Existence of POMC-related sequences. Annals of the New York Academy of ... 1993). Altered ratios of beta-endorphin: Beta-lipotropin released from anterior lobe corticotropes with increased secretory ... Alpha-MSH peptides inhibit production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by microglial cells activated with beta- ...
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1), which Dr. Shoemaker says is "a huge player in this illness." TGF beta 1 is ... "With MSH, this is a master hormone-it regulates other hormones, especially antidiuretic hormone-youll see people that are ... "MSH also has effect on gonadotrophins. Men and women both have gonadotrophins that affect estrogen and testosterone primarily. ... Whenever autoimmunity is identified (elevated TGF beta 1 with low CD4+CD25+ cells drives production of antibodies to gliadin ...
... the neuropeptides beta-MSH and beta-Endorphin. The mutation appears to be specific to Labradors and Flat Coat Retrievers, and ...
Keith - MSH Brain2 Beta Team. LOGO 480 XXtreme , Synergy N556 (WIP) , Blade Nano S2. FrSky Horus X10S Github Repository. https ... Goblin 380 / 500 / 700C / 700KSE / ZMR250/ QAV180/ VAS Banshee/ VAS Wraith Micro/ MSH Brain FBLs/ HW ESCs/ XNOVA Motors/ Jeti ...
Three similar peptides called alpha-, beta-, and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormones (α-, β-, and γ-MSH) are also cut from ... As a result, there is an absence of the peptides made from POMC, including ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, β-endorphin, and sometimes γ-MSH ... Loss of signaling in the brain stimulated by α-MSH and β-MSH dysregulates the bodys energy balance, leading to overeating and ... Decreased α-MSH in the skin reduces pigment production in melanocytes, which results in the red hair and pale skin often seen ...
MacKechnie, Nick (October 27, 2008). "msh: Microsoft Command Shell (Codename: Monad) Beta 2 Refresh". Nick MacKechnies Blog. ... Rodriguez, Jaime (23 October 2009). "What is new in WPF and Cider on the .NET Framework 4 and VS2010 beta 2 release". MSDN ... "Media Alert: Microsoft Unveils Official Name for "Longhorn" and Sets Date for First Beta Targeted at Developers and IT ... Thurrott, Paul (February 13, 2007). "Q It Up: Windows Home Server Hits External Beta". Windows IT Pro. Archived from the ...
1989) Acetylation alters the feeding response to MSH and beta-endorphin. Brain Res Bull 23:165-169. ... Binding of [125I] [Nle4, d-Phe7]7-MSH (NDP-MSH) (labeled via chloramines T method, 2000 Ci/nmol specific activity) (catalog # ... Nonspecific binding was determined by adding an excess of unlabeled NDP-MSH (2 μm). The final concentration of labeled NDP-MSH ... α-MSH), synthesized within ARC POMC neurons, is an agonist of MC3R and MC4R (Adan et al., 1994) that, after exogenous central ...
Browse our Melanotropin beta product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... PTMs for Melanotropin beta. Learn more about PTMs related to Melanotropin beta.. Cleavage. Phosphorylation. Acetylation. ... Diseases related to Melanotropin beta. Discover more about diseases related to Melanotropin beta.. Pituitary Diseases. Obesity ... MSH beta. *beta Melanotropin. *bMSH. *beta-endorphin. *Corticotropin-lipotropin. *beta-MSH. *proopiomelanocortin preproprotein ...
... beta and gamma) and ACTH. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase. ... Receptor for MSH (alpha, beta and gamma) and ACTH. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ...
... beta-endorphin; beta-LPH; beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; beta-MSH; corticotropin-like intermediary peptide; Corticotropin ... gamma-LPH; gamma-MSH; lipotropin beta; lipotropin gamma; melanotropin alpha; melanotropin beta; melanotropin gamma; met- ... Protein Aliases: adrenocorticotropic hormone; adrenocorticotropin; alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; alpha-MSH; ... and lipotropin beta are the major end products. In other tissues, including the hypothalamus, placenta, and epithelium, all ...
... beta-endorphin; beta-LPH; beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; beta-MSH; corticotropin-like intermediary peptide; Corticotropin ... beta-endorphin); proopiomelanocortin preproprotein; proopiomelanocortin, beta (endorphin, beta); proopoimelanocortin, beta ( ... gamma-LPH; gamma-MSH; lipotropin beta; lipotropin gamma; melanotropin alpha; melanotropin beta; melanotropin gamma; met- ... beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ ...
Melanotropin beta. β-MSH. 217-234 Beta-endorfin. 237-267 Met-enkefalin. 237-241 ... Ostali polipeptidi dobiveni iz POMC uključuju hormon koji stimulira melanocite (alfa- i beta-melanotropin), koji povećava ... α-MSH). (Ova uobičajena struktura odgovorna je za pretjerano preplanuće kože u Addisonovoj bolesti.) Nakon kratkog vremenskog ... α-MSH, a stimulira proizvodnju melanina. Porodica povezanih receptora posreduje delovanje ovih hormona, porodica MCR ili ...
It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Descriptor ID ...

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