Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
A cyclohexylamido analog of PENICILLANIC ACID.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
A species of gram-negative enterobacteria found in WATER; SEWAGE; SOIL; and FOOD. It can be present in any clinical specimen as an opportunistic pathogen.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.

pKa calculations for class A beta-lactamases: influence of substrate binding. (1/5548)

Beta-Lactamases are responsible for bacterial resistance to beta-lactams and are thus of major clinical importance. However, the identity of the general base involved in their mechanism of action is still unclear. Two candidate residues, Glu166 and Lys73, have been proposed to fulfill this role. Previous studies support the proposal that Glu166 acts during the deacylation, but there is no consensus on the possible role of this residue in the acylation step. Recent experimental data and theoretical considerations indicate that Lys73 is protonated in the free beta-lactamases, showing that this residue is unlikely to act as a proton abstractor. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the pKa of Lys73 would be dramatically reduced upon substrate binding and would thus be able to act as a base. To check this hypothesis, we performed continuum electrostatic calculations for five wild-type and three beta-lactamase mutants to estimate the pKa of Lys73 in the presence of substrates, both in the Henri-Michaelis complex and in the tetrahedral intermediate. In all cases, the pKa of Lys73 was computed to be above 10, showing that it is unlikely to act as a proton abstractor, even when a beta-lactam substrate is bound in the enzyme active site. The pKa of Lys234 is also raised in the tetrahedral intermediate, thus confirming a probable role of this residue in the stabilization of the tetrahedral intermediate. The influence of the beta-lactam carboxylate on the pKa values of the active-site lysines is also discussed.  (+info)

Structure-function studies of Ser-289 in the class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae P99. (2/5548)

Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser-289 of the class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae P99 was performed to investigate the role of this residue in beta-lactam hydrolysis. This amino acid lies near the active site of the enzyme, where it can interact with the C-3 substituent of cephalosporins. Kinetic analysis of six mutant beta-lactamases with five cephalosporins showed that Ser-289 can be substituted by amino acids with nonpolar or polar uncharged side chains without altering the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. These data suggest that Ser-289 is not essential in the binding or hydrolytic mechanism of AmpC beta-lactamase. However, replacement by Lys or Arg decreased by two- to threefold the kcat of four of the five beta-lactams tested, particularly cefoperazone, cephaloridine, and cephalothin. Three-dimensional models of the mutant beta-lactamases revealed that the length and positive charge of the side chain of Lys and Arg could create an electrostatic linkage to the C-4 carboxylic acid group of the dihydrothiazine ring of the acyl intermediate which could slow the deacylation step or hinder release of the product.  (+info)

Molecular and biochemical characterization of VEB-1, a novel class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase encoded by an Escherichia coli integron gene. (3/5548)

A clinical isolate, Escherichia coli MG-1, isolated from a 4-month-old Vietnamese orphan child, produced a beta-lactamase conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. In a disk diffusion test, a typical synergistic effect between ceftazidime or aztreonam and clavulanic acid was observed along with an unusual synergy between cefoxitin and cefuroxime. The gene for VEB-1 (Vietnamese extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) was cloned and expressed in E. coli JM109. The recombinant plasmid pRLT1 produced a beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.35 and conferred high-level resistance to extended-spectrum (or oxyimino) cephalosporins and to aztreonam. Vmax values for extended-spectrum cephalosporins were uncommonly high, while the affinity of the enzyme for ceftazidime and aztreonam was relatively low. blaVEB-1 showed significant homology at the DNA level with only blaPER-1 and blaPER-2. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence showed that VEB-1 is a class A penicillinase having very low levels of homology with any other known beta-lactamases. The highest percentage of amino acid identity was 38% with PER-1 or PER-2, two uncommon class A extended-spectrum enzymes. Exploration of the genetic environment of blaVEB-1 revealed the presence of gene cassette features, i.e., (i) a 59-base element associated with blaVEB-1; (ii) a second 59-base element just upstream of blaVEB-1, likely belonging to the aacA1-orfG gene cassette; (iii) two core sites (GTTRRRY) on both sides of blaVEB-1; and (iv) a second antibiotic resistance gene 3' of blaVEB-1, aadB. blaVEB-1 may therefore be the first class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that is part of a gene cassette, which itself is likely to be located on a class 1 integron, as sulfamide resistance may indicate. Furthermore, blaVEB-1 is encoded on a large (> 100-kb) transferable plasmid found in a Klebsiella pneumoniae MG-2 isolated at the same time from the same patient, indicating a horizontal gene transfer.  (+info)

Use of an isogenic Escherichia coli panel to design tests for discrimination of beta-lactamase functional groups of Enterobacteriaceae. (4/5548)

A study was designed to determine if an isogenic panel of Escherichia coli strains containing many different beta-lactamases could be used for the preliminary screening of a large number of beta-lactam agents to identify which might be most useful in the development of a definitive test for specific beta-lactamases found among the members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The susceptibilities of 46 strains, comprising the isogenic panel, to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, cephamycins, and aztreonam were determined in the presence and absence of beta-lactamase inhibitors in broth microdilution tests. The results indicated that strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) could be distinguished from strains producing other Bush-Jacoby-Medeiros functional group 2 or group 1 beta-lactamases. For strains producing group 1 beta-lactamases, cefpodoxime and ceftazidime MICs were > or = 4 micrograms/ml and addition of clavulanate did not reduce the MICs more than fourfold. For strains producing group 2 enzymes other than ESBLs, cefpodoxime and ceftazidime MICs were < or = 2 micrograms/ml. With a single exception (ceftazidime for the strain producing SHV-3), among strains producing ESBLs, cefpodoxime and ceftazidime MICs were > or = 4 micrograms/ml and addition of clavulanate reduced the MICs by more than eightfold. Cephamycins could also be used to discriminate between strains producing group 1 beta-lactamases and ESBLs, since only the former required cefotetan concentrations as high as 8 micrograms/ml or cefoxitin concentrations of > 16 micrograms/ml for inhibition. Other cephalosporins provided some discrimination between the various beta-lactamase producers, although they were not as reliable as either cefpodoxime or ceftazidime. These results indicate the utility of an isogenic panel for identification of candidate drugs among many for further testing with clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae to determine the best agents for detection of specific beta-lactamases in this family.  (+info)

Ketolide treatment of Haemophilus influenzae experimental pneumonia. (5/5548)

The MICs of HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 at which 90% of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae isolates were inhibited were 4 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Both HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 were active against beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae in a murine model of experimental pneumonia. As assessed by pulmonary clearance of H. influenzae, HMR 3004 was more effective (P < 0.05) than was azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, pristinamycin, or HMR 3647 in this model.  (+info)

Mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance amongst Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in an Italian survey. (6/5548)

The mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in 325 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined. These isolates were selected because of their resistance to meropenem and imipenem (breakpoint, >4 mg/L), carbenicillin (>128 mg/L), ceftazidime (>8 mg/L), piperacillin and ticarcillin/clavulanate (>64 mg/L). The most frequent mechanism of resistance was beta-lactamase-independent, so called 'intrinsic resistance', which was found in 183 isolates and was probably due to impermeability and/or efflux mechanisms. beta-Lactamase-mediated resistance was demonstrated in 111 strains (11.1%). Derepression of Ambler Class C chromosomal beta-lactamase was detected in 64 isolates, most of which were resistant to ceftazidime and piperacillin but susceptible to meropenem, whereas secondary plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases were found in 34 isolates, all of them resistant to carboxypenicillins and ureidopenicillins and susceptible to carbapenems. Twelve strains showed more than one plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase plus derepression of chromosomal Class C enzyme. Resistance to carbapenems was independent of resistance to other beta-lactam antibiotics, indicating a different mechanism of resistance, probably due to the loss of the D2 porin. In total, 32 strains were resistant to carbapenems: 24 only to imipenem and eight to both imipenem and meropenem.  (+info)

Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid and ethambutol. (7/5548)

Thirty clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 of which were multidrug-resistant (MDR), were tested for susceptibility to different combinations of amoxycillin, clavulanic acid and subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol. beta-Lactamase production was assessed semiquantitatively with the nitrocefin method and susceptibility testing was performed with the BACTEC method. All isolates were beta-lactamase positive and were resistant to 16 mg/L amoxycillin. The MIC of amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid was > or =2 mg/L for 27/30 (90%) isolates. Addition of subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol significantly reduced the MIC of amoxycillin for all tested isolates. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates had an MIC of amoxycillin of < or =0.5 mg/L when subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol were added; this is well below the concentrations achievable in serum and tissue.  (+info)

Resistance of artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem and tobramycin. (8/5548)

Viable cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were entrapped in alginate gel layers and incubated in a minimal glucose (15 g/L)-yeast extract (2 g/L)-salt medium to form artificial biofilm-like structures. After cultivation for 2 days, the biomass distribution inside the polymer was highly heterogeneous. The cell number reached approximately 1011 cells/g gel in the outer regions of the gel structures whereas the inner areas were less colonized (c. 10(8) cells g/gel). Killing of immobilized organisms by imipenem and tobramycin were compared with free-cell experiments (inoculum c. 10(9) cells/mL). Sessile-like bacteria displayed a higher resistance to the two antibiotics used alone or in combination than did suspended cells. Exposure for 10 h to 20 x MIC imipenem and 15 x MIC tobramycin reduced the number of viable immobilized bacteria to 0.3% and 3%, respectively, of the initial cell population, whereas these antibiotic concentrations were much more efficient (bactericidal) against free-cell cultures (5 log kill in 6 h). A synergic effect of tobramycin and imipenem was detected on bacterial suspensions but not on biofilm-like structures. Effective diffusivity measurements showed that the diffusion of imipenem in the alginate layer was not hindered. A slight but significant enhancement of beta-lactamase induction in immobilized cells as compared with their suspended counterparts was insufficient to explain the high resistance of sessile-like bacteria.  (+info)

Background: Escherichia coli is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infection. Antibiotic resistance among uropathogens has become a prominent public health problem. Multidrug resistance bacteria have limited the therapeutic possibilities by producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL). Objective: Since routine monitoring of ESBL producers are not conducted in clinical laboratories their true prevalence is still unknown. So the objective of this research was to assess multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices and determine ESBL production among Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples. Methods: Standard microbiological techniques and antibiotic sensitivity test were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method to identify E. coli. ESBL screening was done by using Ceftriaxone, Aztreonam, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime and Cefpodoxime whereas confirmation by combined disc assay. SPSS 16 software was used to analyze data. Results: 86.95% E. coli isolates were MDR strains. 27 ...
Free Online Library: TEM & SHV genes in extended spectrum [beta]-lactamase producing Klebsiella species & their antimicrobial resistance pattern.(Temoneira, Sulphydryl variable, Report) by Indian Journal of Medical Research; Health, general Biological sciences Beta lactamases Genetic aspects Physiological aspects Drug resistance in microorganisms Genes Microbial drug resistance
Introduction: Community acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) are commonly caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp which are known extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers.. Objectives: To determine, the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL producing of E. coli and Klebsiella spp in the community, and the association of risk factors with ESBL CA-UTI.. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study with urine cultures performed from clinically suspected CA-UTI patients by CLSI standards. Conventional multiplex PCR was performed for gene analysis.. Results: Cultures were positive in 178 (38%) patients from 465. Majority were females (103, 58%). Most frequently isolated was E. coli (149, 84%) with 68(46%) ESBL producers followed by 16(9%) Klebsiella pneumoniae with 4 (25%) ESBL producers. Majority of patients with ESBL CA-UTI were ,50 yrs (35/72, 49%) and 13 (18%) children ,10 years were present. ABST of ESBL producers revealed high resistance rates for quinolones (41%) and ,80% ...
Resistance to cephalosprins due to the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases is increasingly found in infections in humans outside the hospital. The genes encoding for these beta-lactamases are located on mobile DNA (plasmids), which can be transferred between bacterial species. Although the source of ... read more these bacteria is unknown, a food-borne source cannot be excluded. From 2003 to 2007 cefotaxime resistance increases in bacteria from broilers, but not in isolates from calves, pigs and dairy cows. Cefotaxime resistance is indicative for the presence of ESBLs or plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamases. Molecular typing of the resistance genes and the plasmids of Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from broilers revealed the presence of a variety of ESBL/AmpC genes: blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaTEM-52, blaSHV-2, blaTEM20, blaACC-1 and blaCMY-2, located on plasmids: IncI1, IncHI2/P, IncK and some untypeable plasmids. A study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk Factors and Molecular Features of Sequence Type (ST) 131 Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Community-onset Bacteremia. AU - Kim, Hyunsoo. AU - Kim, Young Ah. AU - Park, Yoon Soo. AU - Choi, Min Hyuk. AU - Lee, Gyeong In. AU - Lee, Kyungwon. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 The Author(s). References:.. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Due to the spread of a single CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) clone of sequence type (ST) 131, community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli has increased dramatically. We evaluated the risk factors and molecular features of ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 clones isolated from Korean patients with community-onset bacteremia. We collected a total of 124 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from blood in patients with community-onset bacteremia over a 2 year-period. Among 124 patients, the number of community-associated bacteremia cases was 57 (46%). ST131 strains accounted for 49.1% ...
Production of AmpC and extended spectrum beta-lactamases among urinary isolates has created a serious problem to the successful management of the urinary tract infection. The main purpose of this study was to determine the rates of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production and AmpC beta-lactamase (ABL) production among urinary isolates. Among total 564 urinary isolates, 514 (91.1%) were gram negative bacilli and 50 (8.9%) were gram positive cocci. E. coli (76.1%) was the most common bacteria isolated. Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%) was the predominant gram positive bacteria isolated. 35 (6.8%) of the 514 gram negative bacilli were ESBL producers. Similarly, 14 (2.7%) of the gram negative bacilli were ABL producers. Only one isolate was ESBL and ABL co-producer. Highest rate of susceptibility of gram negative bacteria was seen toward amikacin (97.3%) followed by imipenem (94.4%). Similarly, highest rate of susceptibility among gram positive cocci was seen toward vancomycin (100%) followed by
Sixty isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics were collected over a period of 2 years in Switzerland and screened by hybridization for the carriage of SHV genes. Thirty-four positive strains were found, and their SHV genes were amplified and sequenced. SHV extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were found: 13 strains contained SHV-2a, 12 harbored SHV-2, and SHV-5 was found twice. Four strains were shown to contain SHV-1. In addition, we report two new SHV variants, termed SHV-11 (non-ESBL) and SHV-12 (ESBL). In spite of the carriage of SHV ESBLs, many strains showed only low resistance to one or more third-generation cephalosporins. In addition, 26 did not transfer the blaSHV gene in mating experiments. ...
A new extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was detected in a lactose-positive Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strain that caused a nosocomial outbreak involving eight patients in a pediatric cardiology unit. This strain showed high levels of resistance to ceftazidime and aztreonam and relatively low levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Resistance was associated with a conjugative plasmid of 59 kb, which encoded a new beta-lactamase with an isoelectric point of 5.9 that strongly hydrolyzed ceftazidime and to a much lesser extent hydrolyzed cefotaxime. The enzyme activity was inhibited by clavulanate. The corresponding bla gene was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed three significant amino acid replacements with respect to the TEM-1 sequence: Arg-164--,His, Glu-240--,Lys, and Thr-265--,Met. This combination is unique among extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and served to characterize the new enzyme, TEM-27. ...
Extended spectrum beta -lactamases [ESBLs] and AmpC beta -lactamases are enzymes produced by a variety of Gram-negative bacteria which confer an increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics and represent a substantial clinical threat. Several phenotypic tests have been recommended for screening and confirmation of ESBL- and AmpC-producing organisms. However, a comprehensive diagnostic algorithm integrating both screening and confirmation has not been established. This study aimed to detect ESBL and/or AmpC production by using MastD68C ESBL and AmpC detection set as a single phenotypic method and to study its sensitivity and specificity comparing to other methods. Evaluate the effect of novel antibiotics namely tigecycline and doripenem, as well as the efficacy of old reviving antibiotics as colistin and temocillin against ESBL- and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaecae. Hundred Enterobacteriaceae isolates were screened for ESBL production using disc diffusion method and confirmed by combination ...
Read Faecal colonization of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC in Mozambican university students, BMC Infectious Diseases on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. frequently cause bloodstream infections. There has been a worldwide increase in resistance in these species to antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins, largely driven by the acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase or plasmid-mediated AmpC enzymes. Carbapenems have been considered the most effective therapy for serious infections caused by such resistant bacteria; however, increased use creates selection pressure for carbapenem resistance, an emerging threat arising predominantly from the dissemination of genes encoding carbapenemases. Recent retrospective data suggest that beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, such as piperacillin-tazobactam, may be non-inferior to carbapenems for the treatment of bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producers, if susceptible in vitro. This study aims to test this hypothesis in an effort to define carbapenem-sparing alternatives for these
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Cobalt atom in PDB 1fof: Crystal Structure of the Class D Beta-Lactamase Oxa-10
The ICD10 code for the diagnosis Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) resistance is Z16.12. Z16.12 is a VALID/BILLABLE ICD10 code, i.e it is valid for submission for HIPAA-covered transactions.
Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen in clinical infections, which has different mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs) are a very important mechanism of antibiotic resistance in this bacterium. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing P. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Purpose. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in non-selected hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from the same geographic area of Madrid. Methodology. A total of 501 fecal samples were screened. Diluted samples in saline were cultured in MacConkey agar plates with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem and meropenem disks. Colonies growing within the inhibition zone of either disk were selected. Characterization of ESBLs and CPEs were performed by PCR and sequencing. The Wider system was used for the bacterial identification. In addition, clonal analysis was carried out for species predominant among the fecal carriage. Key Findings. Among the 501 patients enrolled, 43 (8.6 %) carried ESBL-E and 8 (1.6 %) patients exhibited CPE. The main intestinal colonizer among ESBL-E was CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli
Recently, extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli with a new genotype (blaCTX-M-1) emerged in the Norwegian broiler production pyramid. Occurrence of ESBL-producing bacteria such as E. coli is a global concern because they resist highly important antimicrobials known as third-generation cephalosporins used in human medicine. Development of ESBL-producing bacteria have resulted from the use and misuse of antimicrobials in humans and livestock production. However, Norway hardly use antimicrobials in its broiler production but still detected ESBL-producing E. coli with blaCTX-M-1. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine three questions regarding ESBL-producing E. coli emergence in the Norwegian broiler production pyramid. First, was this emergence a clonal spread of a specific ESBL-E. coli variant with one plasmid? Second, could it have been the clonal spread of several genetically unrelated E. coli variants with different plasmids and third, did a horizontal transfer of ...
Background & Aims: The production of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) is the main mechanism of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. The outbreak of isolates simultaneously possessing several resistance mechanisms to β-lactam antibiotics caused a decrease in sensitivity of the confirmatory tests for ESBL. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the β-lactamase disk test method in the detection of ESBLs in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: A total of 100 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from burn patients. The sensitivity of the isolates to different antibiotics was determined using the standard disk diffusion method. ESBL-producing isolates were detected through the combination disk test with clavulanic acid, double disk synergy test, and β-lactamase disk test. Carbapenemase-producing isolates were detected using the Modified Hodge Test (MHT). The ESBLs genes (blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPER, blaSHV, blaCTX-M and blaPSE) were
In the United States, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is the most common carbapenemase, followed by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM). OXA-48-like and VIM carbapenemases predominate in other parts of the globe, but do occur in the United States. The genes blaOXA-48-like and blaVIM encode OXA-48-like and VIM enzyme production, respectively. PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid means of identifying these genes.. This test detects the genes encoding OXA-48-like (oxacillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase) and VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase) types of beta-lactamases in stool and perirectal/rectal/perianal/anal swabs. It can be used as a tool to find colonized patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends surveillance to detect unrecognized colonized patients who may be a potential source for transmission of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli under certain circumstances. Such surveillance may be focused in certain high-risk settings or ...
Two different strains of Escherichia coli exhibiting unusual patterns of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics were isolated from patients at Cochin Hospital. Both isolates showed a low level of resistance to amoxycillin, ticarcillin and ureidopenicillins but were susceptible to cephalosporins, aztreonam and imipenem; beta-lactamase inhibitors potentiated the activities of the beta-lactams to only a limited extent. All resistance characteristics of the strains were transferable by conjugation to E. coli K12. Resistance was shown to be due to beta-lactamases of pI 5.20 and relative molecular masses of 24,000. The hydrolytic and inhibition profiles of these enzymes were similar to each other but differed from those of broad-spectrum beta-lactamases (TEM-1). The rates of hydrolysis (Vmax) of amoxycillin (c. 200%) were higher than that for TEM-1 (84%). Ticarcillin, ureidopenicillins and cephaloridine were hydrolyzed slowly. However, as for TEM-1, no hydrolysis was observed with cefoxitin, third generation
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This study aims to isolate, to identify, and to seek out fragments of encoding gene Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase on Escherichia coli isolated from swab surface of broiler chicken meat in a number of traditional markets in Surabaya. The result shows that 31 out of 50 samples positively contain Escherichia coli, shown through EMBA isolation media and identified using indole test. Sensitivity test shows that 100% of the isolates are resistant to Ampicilin, 48.4% are resistant to Cephazoline, 13% are resistant to Ceftazidime, 9.6% are resistant to Cefotaxime, 6.4% are resistant to Ceftriaxone and 87.2% are resistant to Tetracycline. 8 out of 8 (100%) samples of E. coli resistant show the presence of band towards blaTEM gene of 768 basepair (bp).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical characteristics and outcome of critically ill patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and non-producing Escherichia coli. AU - Haruki, Yuto. AU - Hagiya, Hideharu. AU - Haruki, Mai. AU - Sugiyama, Tetsuhiro. PY - 2018/11. Y1 - 2018/11. N2 - The number of patients infected with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms has increased dramatically worldwide, and high mortality rates are seen in severely ill patients. This study retrospectively compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) at the Tsuyama Chuo Hospital (Okayama, Japan) who were hospitalized for bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) or non-ESBL-producing E. coli (non-ESBL-EC) between January 2006 and December 2016 (11 years). We analyzed the patients age, sex, underlying disease(s), sequential organ failure assessment scores, primary focus of bacteremia, empiric ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Infections with organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase. AU - Paterson, David L.. AU - Doi, Yohei. PY - 2010/3/17. Y1 - 2010/3/17. N2 - Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced by a variety of Gram-negative bacilli, which confer reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam. Resistance to other antibiotic classes (such as aminoglycosides or fluoroquinolones) is also frequently observed in ESBL-producing organisms. Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection with ESBL-producing organisms were recognized more than 20 years ago. Acquisition in nursing homes and other health care facilities was also noted. In more recent times, community-onset infections, sometimes in patients without health care contact, have been widely observed. The origins of community-acquired infection with ESBL-producing organisms is an area deserving much future study.. AB - Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced by a variety of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The characteristics of metallo-β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacilli isolated from sputum and urine. T2 - A single center experience in Korea. AU - Chin, Bum Sik. AU - Han, Sang Hoon. AU - Choi, Suk Hoon. AU - Lee, Han Sung. AU - Jeong, Su Jin. AU - Choi, Hee Kyung. AU - Choi, Jun Yong. AU - Song, Young Goo. AU - Kim, Chang Ki. AU - Yong, Dongeun. AU - Lee, Kyungwon. AU - Kim, June Myung. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production usually results in high-level resistance to most β-lactams, and a rapid spread of MBL producing major gram-negative pathogens is a matter of particular concern worldwide. However, clinical data are scarce and most studies compared MBL producer (MP) with MBL non-producer (MNP) strains which included carbapenem susceptible isolates. Therefore, we collected clinical data of patients in whom imipenem-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) were isolated from sputum or urine, and ...
Characteristic of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae from Fecal Carriage Isolates of Intensive Care Unit Patients at Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia
The groups did not differ in number, gender and age, but ESBL positive group was of older age and had more cases with urosepsis than the ESBL-negative group. Regarding the comorbidities, most of the patients had diabetes mellitus type 2- in 16 patients (40%) and 15 of them (37%) had chronic kidney disease. In most of the patients, antibiotics were used empirically before urine culture was obtained, which accounts for the high number of cephalosporins and hinolones used - 9 patients (22%), and amikacyn in 11 (27%), imipenem 5 (8%). Univariate analysis of risk factors associated with ESBL+ infections, identified diabetes mellitus, sepsis and previous hospitalizations are predictors of ESBL positive infections. When the three variables were entered into a multivariate logistic regression, diabetes and sepsis were found to be predictors of ESBL positive patients. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extended-spectrum β-lactamases. AU - Patterson, Jan E.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins among Klebsiella pneumoniae has increased significantly, particularly in the intensive care unit setting, in the past decade. The problem has been noted not only in the United States, but around the world. A major mechanism responsible for this is the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). These plasmid-mediated β-lactamases confer resistance to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics, including third and fourth-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, and extended-spectrum penicillins. Other resistances, such as aminoglycoside and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance, are often cotransferred on the same plasmid. Fluoroquinolone resistance is also frequently associated, resulting in an organism resistant to most broad-spectrum options. The carbapenems are currently considered the drug of choice for these pathogens. Prevention and ...
Abstract: Susceptibility of nosocomial potential AmpC-beta-lactamases producers strains (n=128), isolated from patients admitted to 30 medical centers of 15 various regions of Russia has been investigated. The susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution method. The most active antibacterial agents acting to the investigated strains remained carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). PCR-based detection of beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) was investigated in 51 E. cloacae strains. Alone or in various combinations TEM type beta-lactamases have been found in 31 (60,8%) isolates, SHV - in 22 (43,1%), and CTX - in 22 (43,1%). There were negative results of TEM, SHV, CTX beta-lactamases genotyping in 13 (25,5%) E. cloacae suspect strains ...
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Extended-spectrum beta lactamase-producing bacteria are one of the fastest emerging resistance problems worldwide. ESBL-producing bacteria were observed in human medical practice, the observation of these bacteria in companion animals and the increase in livestock has initiated monitoring studies concentrating on livestock [13, 21].. Livestock may be an important vehicle for the community-wide dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, also P. aeruginosa especially ESBL-producing type isolates have been found in increasing numbers in food-producing animals [9, 10, 22].. Accordingly to the hypothesis that animals might become infection sources or even natural persistent sources acting as risky reservoirs of infection leading to the spread of these bacteria specifically multidrug resistant types in community [23]. There are essential needs for monitoring or surveillance studies incorporating veterinary medicine to identify transmissible pathogens to human and its risk ...
High prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens: results of a surveillance study in two hospitals in Ujjain, India Ashish Pathak1,2, Yogyata Marothi3, Vandana Kekre4, Kalpana Mahadik5, Ragini Macaden6, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Microbiology, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RD Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India; 6St Johns Research Institute, Bangalore, IndiaBackground: Recent reports of the rapid evolution of bacterial resistance in India require urgent antibiotic stewardship programs. This study aimed to define the magnitude and pattern of resistance of bacterial pathogens to guide empirical therapy.Methods: We prospectively collected consecutive, clinically significant, and nonduplicate bacterial isolates from each patient from two hospitals in Ujjain, India. The antibiotic susceptibility
AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C beta-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C beta-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C beta-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C ...
Aim and Background:Eradicating infections is difficult due to the presence of genes on the introns, especially the beta-lactamase enzymes and  The importance of their resistance is high.The purpose of this study was to determine the beta-lactamase genes (OXA-2 , OXA-10) , Integron class 1  and antibiotic resistance. Material and methods:In this cross ...
The number and proportion of CTX-M positive Escherichia coli organisms were determined in feces from cattle, chickens, and pigs in the United Kingdom to provide a better understanding of the risk of the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteria to humans from food animal sources. Samples of bovine (n = 35) and swine (n = 20) feces were collected from farms, and chicken cecal contents (n = 32) were collected from abattoirs. There was wide variation in the number of CTX-M-positive E. coli organisms detected; the median (range) CFU/g were 100 (100 × 10(6) to 1 × 10(6)), 5,350 (100 × 10(6) to 3.1 × 10(6)), and 2,800 (100 × 10(5) to 4.7 × 10(5)) for cattle, chickens, and pigs, respectively. The percentages of E. coli isolates that were CTX-M positive also varied widely; median (range) values were 0.013% (0.001 to 1%) for cattle, 0.0197% (0.00001 to 28.18%) for chickens, and 0.121% (0.0002 to 5.88%) for pigs. The proportion of animals designated high-density shedders (≥1 ...
The present study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of different combinations of gentamicin and floroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, perfloxacin and gatifloxacin) against extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) positive E. coli isolates using checkerboard method. One hundred and four clinical isolates of E. coli obtained from urine (26), blood (24), stool (20), sputum (19) and semen (14) were investigated for ESBL production. Fifteen (14.4%) were positive for ESBL production in the following order: 4(3.8%) from urine, 3(2.8%) from blood, 3(2.8%) from stool, 3(2.8%) from sputum and 2(1.9%) from semen. Five representative ESBL positive isolates, one from each specimen, were investigated for their susceptibility patterns to different gentamicin and floroquinolone combinations. The combinations of gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, perfloxacin and gatifloxacin, respectively at different ratios were predominantly synergistic in activity while gentamicin and ofloxacin combinations were primarily ...
Antimicrobial Susceptibility-Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
CARB-9 beta-lactamases: a carbenicillinase encoded in the VCR region of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 belongs to a family of cassette-encoded beta-lactamases
Beta-lactamases (β-lactamases, also known as penicillinase) are enzymes (EC produced by bacteria, that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecules antibacterial properties. Beta-lactam antibiotics are typically used to treat a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Beta-lactamases produced by Gram-negative organisms are usually secreted, especially when antibiotics are present in the environment. The structure of a Streptomyces β-lactamase is given by 1BSG. Penicillinase is a specific type of β-lactamase, showing ...
Objectives: During 2003, the Health Protection Agencys Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory began to receive isolates of Escherichia coli for confirmation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production with a phenotype implying a CTX-M-type β-lactamase, i.e. MICs of cefotaxime ≥8-fold higher than MICs of ceftazidime. Many were referred as being from community patients. We examined 291 CTX-M-producing isolates from the UK and investigated the genetic basis of their phenotype.. Methods: PCR was used to detect alleles encoding CTX-M enzymes and to assign these to their blaCTX-M phylogenetic groups. Selected alleles were sequenced. Producers were compared by analysis of banding patterns generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNA. MICs were determined by an agar dilution method or by Etest.. Results: Of 291 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates studied from 42 UK centres, 70 (24%) were reportedly from community patients, many of whom had only limited ...
Infections with extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing enterobacteriaceae are a serious serious concern in Pakistan. Carbapenems are treatment of choice for these infections. Unfortunately resistance to carbapenems in enterobacteriaceae is also emerging. This resistance is difficult to detect by routine disc diffusion method used by many laboratories in Pakistan. Most of the time this is due to carpapenemase production and detection of this enzyme could be confirmed by Modified Hodge test as recommended by CLSI 2009. This test is a phenotypic confirmatory test for enterobacteriaceae showing elevated MICs for carbapenems. Method:. ...
LABORATORY DETECTION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASES (ESBLS). Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms are a major problem in the area of infectious disease. ESBLs are enzymes that mediate resistance to extended-spectrum (third generation) cephalosporins (e.g., ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone) and monobactams (e.g., aztreonam) but do not affect cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin and cefotetan) or carbapenems (e.g., meropenem or imipenem). In addition, ESBL-producing organisms frequently show cross-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics; including aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones thus treatment of these infections is often a therapeutic challenge. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms differs significantly in accordance with geographic location. Published data from Pakistan supports an urgent need for regular screening and surveillance for these organisms in this region. Detection of ESBL is a major challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory as its ...
Learn more about Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Infection at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC-type beta-lactamases (ACBLs) and carbapenemases are among the most important resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae. This study investigated the presence of these resistance mechanisms in consecutive non-replicate isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 2,352), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 697), and Proteus mirabilis (n = 275) from an Italian nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out in October 2013. Overall, 15.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins but susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaS), while 4.3% were also non-susceptible to carbapenems (ESCR-carbaR). ESCR-carbaS isolates were contributed by all three species, with higher proportions among isolates from inpatients (20.3%) but remarkable proportions also among those from outpatients (11.1%). Most ESCR-carbaS isolates were ESBL-positive (90.5%), and most of them were contributed by E. coli carrying blaCTX-M group 1 genes. Acquired ACBLs were less common and mostly
Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia Coli Infections in Metro Detroit: Early Dominance of the ST-131 Clone
A 1536-nucleotide-long sequence that carries the ampC beta-lactamase gene of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome has been determined. This gene codes for a protein of 377 amino acids, of which the first 19 amino acids form a signal peptide. The molecular weight of the mature enzyme was determined to be 39,600. The ampC beta-lactamase with a substrate specificity for cephalosporins showed no significant sequence homologies with beta-lactamases of the penicillinase type or with D-alanine carboxypeptidases. However, because the region around serine-80 of the ampC beta-lactamase has extensive homology with an active-site fragment of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cephalosporinase, we suggest that the ampC cephalosporinase as well as related cephalosporinases form a distinct group of serine beta-lactamases that have an evolutionary origin different from that of the serine penicillinases and thus constitute a new class of beta-lactamases.. ...
Introduction. Infections caused by extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria continue to be a challenge for choosing the appropriate therapy since they may exhibit coresistance to many other classes of antibiotics. The aim of the study was to screen pregnant women for ESBL producing bacteria in Beirut, Lebanon, to examine their phenotypic and genotypic characterization and to study the association between ESBL colonization with adverse neonatal outcomes. Method. In this cross-sectional study, vaginal samples from 308 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation were studied during a one-year period. The samples were plated on MacConkey agar and selective MacConkey agar supplemented with ceftazidime. Phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production was performed by double-disc synergy test and all isolates were screened by PCR for the resistance genes blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M. Clonal relatedness of Escherichia coli isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. ...
Anonymous, 2012: Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing beta-Lactamase OXA-229 from Acinetobacter bereziniae
A total of 907 consecutive isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae recovered during a 20-week period were tested for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by the double-disk (DD) potentiation method. Of 84 DD-positive isolates, 83 (9.2%) produced ESBLs based on isoelectric focusing. SHV-derived ESBLs and several TEM-derived ESBLs were present in nine species, including the first isolate of Citrobacter koserii and Morganella morganii known to harbor an SHV-derived ESBL. Results of testing 58 nonrepeat isolates for ESBL production by several recommended methods were as follows (percent detected in parentheses): DD method with aztreonam (95), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (88), or cefpodoxime (90); broth microdilution method with ceftazidime (86) or cefotaxime (91) alone or in combination with clavulanate; and the standard disk diffusion method with new breakpoints and standard concentrations of aztreonam (78), ceftazidime (79), ceftriaxone (83), or cefpodoxime (98) ...
We report the very rare case of a huge appendical abscess with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the pathogen. There have been several reports of appendical infections such as appendicitis and appendical abscess caused by ESBL-producing bacteria in adults. The treatment of ESBL-producing E. coli infection is specific, and ESBL-producing bacteria have recently been reported as pathogens associated appendicitis in children. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of perforated appendicitis with abscess due to ESBL-producing E. coli. We discuss the diagnostic modalities and treatments for appendical abscess with ESBL-producing E. coli. and propose that the patients with perforated appendicitis and abscess formation due to ESBL-producing E. coli should be administered the antibiotic MEPM within 2 weeks to treat the abscess more effec-tively without producing other multidrug-resistant bacteria.
CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are infrequently reported in the United States. In this study, we analyzed nonduplicate ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates collected during 2005-2012 at a tertiary care medical center in suburban New York City, USA, for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaKPC genes. Despite a high prevalence of blaCTX-M genes in ESBL-producing E. coli since 2005, blaCTX-M genes were not detected in K. pneumoniae until 2009. The prevalence of CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae increased significantly over time from 1.7% during 2005-2009 to 26.4% during 2010-2012 ( ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occurrence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M β lactamases in clinical isolates of Proteus species in a tertiary care center. AU - Caubey, Mohit. AU - Suchitra M., Shenoy. PY - 2018/3/1. Y1 - 2018/3/1. N2 - Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) are responsible for increased resistance to third generation cephalosporins. Proteus species is an important cause of both community acquired and nosocomial infections. The Proteus species is usually susceptible to beta lactam drugs but there is progressive increase in beta lactam resistance and recently, ESBLs are also fast spreading to this species. Objective: This study was conducted to study ESBL production and occurrence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M beta lactamases in clinical isolates of Proteus species in a tertiary care center. Method: This prospective hospital based study was carried out in Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore over 9 months. All non-duplicate consecutive Proteus isolates were identified and antibiotic ...
Mora, A., Blanco, M., López, C., Mamani, R., Blanco, J.E., Alonso, M.P., García-Garrote, F., Dahbi, G. et al. (2011) Emergence of clonal groups O1:HNM-D-ST59, O15:H1-D-ST393, O20:H34/HNM-D-ST354, O25b:H4-B2-ST131 and ONT:H21,42-B1-ST101 among CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Galicia, northwest Spain. Int J Antimicrob Agents 37, 16-21 ...
The β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) does not induce ampC β -lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae Christine Miossec, Monique Claudon, Premavathy Levasseur, Michael T Black Novexel, Romainville, France Abstract: Induction of ampC β-lactamase expression can often compromise antibiotic treatment and is triggered by several β-lactams (such as cefoxitin and imipenem) and by the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. The novel β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) is a potent inhibitor of both class A and class C enzymes. The potential of avibactam for induction of ampC expression in Enterobacter cloacae was investigated by ampC messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation. Cefoxitin and clavulanic acid were confirmed as ampC inducers, whereas avibactam was found to exert no effect on ampC expression. Thus, avibactam is unlikely to diminish the activity of any partner β-lactam antibiotic against AmpC-producing organisms. Keywords: β-lactamase, ampC, induction, NXL104, avibactam
INFECTION CONTROL STAFF FACT SHEET Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms WHAT ARE THEY? • • • • • ESBLs (extended spectrum beta lactamases) are enzymes that may be produced by Gram negative bacteria. They were first reported in 1983. The bacteria have become resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, by their ability to produce an enzyme (beta-lactamase) which can break down the antibiotics (eg. penicillins and cephalosporins). ESBL producing organisms not only have the ability to break down beta-lactam antibiotics but they are also able to transfer these resistance enzymes to other microorganisms via plasmids. The bacteria may also be resistant to other antibiotics such as aminoglycosides (eg. gentamycin and tobramycin) and quinolones (eg. ciprofloxacin). The most common ESBL producing organisms include Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Acinetobacter spp and Escherichia coli. HOW ARE THEY SPREAD? • • • ESBL producing organisms usually colonise the bowel without ...
The emergence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae represents a major challenge to public and animal health in many countries including Lebanon. Carriage of ESBLs confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics and more than 200 different sub-types have been identified, all of which are primarily encoded by genes located on conjugative plasmids. Despite the high prevalence of ESBLs, there is still a paucity of information regarding the impact of ESBL plasmid carriage on the host bacterium and how the spread of antibiotic resistance relates to antibiotic use in hospital environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was, firstly, to characterise the genetic and phenotypic properties of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a hospital in Lebanon. Secondly, to assess the fitness of isolates harbouring different sub-types of ESBLs in order to better understand the influence of the plasmid on the host bacterium, and thirdly, to correlate ...
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a serious antibiotic management problem as resistance genes are easily transferred from one organism to another. Fifty-one strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from sporadic cases in various hospitals throughout Malaysia were analysed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR detection of ESBL-encoding genes and DNA fingerprinting. Although 27 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains were MDR (i.e. resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics), the majority of the strains (98 %) were sensitive to imipenem. PCR detection using ESBL gene-specific primers showed that 46 of the K. pneumoniae strains harboured bla SHV, 19 harboured bla CTX-M, 5 harboured bla OXA-1 and 4 harboured bla TEM-1. Class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase was detected in 21 of the 51 K. pneumoniae strains and amplification of the integron 5′CS region showed the presence of several known antibiotic resistance gene
IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase-producing bacteria have recently emerged worldwide. We conducted a case-control study in which 69 inpatients harboring blaIMP-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 247 control subjects with blaIMP-negative pathogens were investigated. Prolonged hospitalization, antineoplastic chemotherapy, corticosteroid therapy (P =.001), and indwelling urinary catheters (P =.04) were risk factors for isolation of blaIMP-positive pathogens. The predominant source was urine (P =.001). The duration of antibiotic treatment and the total dose (including of carbapenems) were significantly greater among case patients than among control subjects (P ,.01). blaIMP-positive P. aeruginosa isolates were more frequently resistant to multiple drugs (P =.001) and caused more infections (P =.001) than blaIMP-negative pathogens. There were no significant differences in bacteriological outcome (P =.94); however, infection-related death was more frequent among case patients than among control subjects ...
Klebsiella oxytoca is primarily a health care-associated pathogen acquired from environmental sources. During October 2006-March 2011, a total of 66 patients in a hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, acquired class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. oxytoca with 1 of 2 related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. New cases continued to occur despite reinforcement of infection control practices, prevalence screening, and contact precautions for colonized/infected patients. Cultures from handwashing sinks in the intensive care unit yielded K. oxytoca with identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to cultures from the clinical cases. No infections occurred after implementation of sink cleaning 3×/day, sink drain modifications, and an antimicrobial stewardship program. In contrast, a cluster of 4 patients infected with K. oxytoca in a geographically distant medical ward without contaminated sinks was contained with implementation of active screening and contact ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dominance of international high-risk clones among Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the United Kingdom. AU - Wright, Laura. AU - Turton, Jane F.. AU - Livermore, David. AU - Hopkins, Katie L. AU - Woodford, Neil. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are increasingly reported worldwide and often belong to particular high-risk clones. This study aimed to characterise a comprehensive collection of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates referred to the UK national reference laboratory from UK laboratories over a 10-year period.Methods: Isolates were referred to the UK national reference laboratory between 2003 and 2012 for investigation of resistance mechanisms and/or outbreaks. MBL genes were detected by PCR. Typing was carried out by nine-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST).Results: MBL-producing P. ...
Despite a fitness cost imposed on bacterial hosts, large conjugative plasmids play a key role in the diffusion of resistance determinants, such as CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Among the large conjugative plasmids, IncF plasmids are the most predominant group, and an F2A1B- IncF-type plasmid encoding a CTX-M-15 variant was recently described as being strongly associated with the emerging worldwide Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131)-O25bH4 H30Rx/C2 sublineage. In this context, we investigated the fitness cost of narrow-range F-type plasmids, including the F2A1B- IncF-type CTX-M-15 plasmid, and of broad-range C-type plasmids in the K-12-like J53-2 E. coli strain. Although all plasmids imposed a significant fitness cost to the bacterial host immediately after conjugation, we show, using an experimental-evolution approach, that a negative impact on the fitness of the host strain was maintained throughout 1,120 generations with the IncC-IncR plasmid, regardless of the presence or absence
ESCAPPM or ESCHAPPM is a mnemonic for the organisms with inducible beta-lactamase activity that is chromosomally mediated. E: Enterobacter spp. S: Serratia spp. C: Citrobacter freundii H: Hafnia spp. A: Aeromonas spp.[citation needed] P: Proteus spp. (P. vulgaris) P: Providencia spp. M: Morganella morganii In vitro sensitivities are not applicable in vivo. In general, treatment with cephalosporins results in inducible beta-lactamase activity. Treatment with an aminoglycoside or carbapenem is usually indicated. Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. They have a structure that renders them highly resistant to beta-lactamases. Examples of Carbapenems include meropenem and imipenem. Feedback for Practical 10: Antimicrobial Agents. Archived from the original on July 23, 2005. Retrieved 2010-01-26. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ...
Concluding remarks.The rising incidence of ESBL- and KPC-producing pathogens presents challenges in the empirical therapy for Gram-negative bacterial infections. Acknowledging the increased mortality rates with ineffective initial therapy (13, 16), the timely recognition of ESBL- and KPC-producing organisms may have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Nucleic acid microarrays can be important in achieving this end.. In this study, the nucleic acid microarray technology (Check-KPC/ESBL kits) demonstrated accurate and reproducible results with regard to the presence of ESBL and KPC genes within the Enterobacteriaceae (2, 3, 8, 9). Current practice requires 24 h of adequate growth prior to testing on the microarray system. Our study shows that the Check-KPC/ESBL kit could be employed with DNA extracted directly from blood cultures before species identification. This could reduce the notification time by as much as 18 to 20 h. Depending on the method used, the time savings, costs of materials, ...
We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklins gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklins gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and ...
Table 4: Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing|i| Klebsiella pneumoniae|/i| Compared to Nonproducing Isolates
The existence of multidrug-resistant organisms, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), is on rise across the globe and is becoming a severe problem. Knowledge of the prevalence and antibiogram profile of such isolates is essential to develop an appropriate treatment methodology. This study aimed to study the prevalence of Gram-negative isolates exhibiting ESBL at a tertiary care hospital and study their antibiogram profile. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal, from June 2018 to November 2018. A total of 770 clinical samples were collected and identified using the conventional biochemical tests following the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the standardized Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The screening test for ESBL producers was performed as recommended by the CLSI and the confirmatory test was performed phenotypically using the E-test.
en] The Bacillus licheniformis BS3 beta-lactamase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of penicillins, cephalosporins, and related compounds. The production of beta-lactamases is the most common and thoroughly studied cause of antibiotic resistance. Although they escape the hydrolytic activity of the prototypical Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase, many cephems are good substrates for a large number of beta-lactamases. However, the introduction of a 7alpha-methoxy substituent, as in cefoxitin, extends their antibacterial spectrum to many cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The 7alphamethoxy group selectively reduces the hydrolytic action of many beta-lactamases without having a significant effect on the affinity for the target enzymes, the membrane penicillin-binding proteins. We report here the crystallographic structures of the BS3 enzyme and its acyl-enzyme adduct with cefoxitin at 1.7 Angstrom resolution. The comparison of the two structures reveals a covalent ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacteraemia caused by Enterobacteriaceae (EB) producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL+) has been associated with higher mortality compared with non-ESBL-producing (ESBL-) EB bacteraemia in observational studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies to assess how adjusting for confounding in multivariate analyses affects the pooled estimate, and whether multivariate analyses that include intermediates in the causal pathway of outcome (sepsis severity and inadequate empirical therapy) have lower estimates of attributable mortality. DATA SOURCES: PubMed search on 23 November 2010 followed by manually searching reference lists of included studies. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Cohort studies published in English with separate mortality rates for ESBL+ and ESBL- EB bacteraemia. SYNTHESIS METHODS: Random-effects pooling of unadjusted and adjusted ORs followed by subgroup analyses to explore effects of adjustment procedures on adjusted ORs. ...
Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter-measures to traditional drug therapies. An enzyme called beta-lactamase is present in many different types of bacteria, which serves to break the beta lactam ring, which effectively nullifies the antibiotics effectiveness. An example such enzyme is the NDM-1 discovered in 2009.. As a response to bacterial resistance to beta-lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin/CLA, that are designed to disable the beta-lactamase enzyme. Augmentin/CLA (FGP) is made of amoxicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor. The clavulanic acid is designed to overwhelm all beta-lactamase enzymes, bind irreversibly to them, and effectively serve as an antagonist so that the amoxicillin is not affected by the beta-lactamase enzymes.. Full article ▸. ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of infections especially in patients with weakened immune systems. This pathogen is intrinsically resistant to many antibacterial agents.The aim of this study was to survey the antibiotic resistance pattern and frequency of bla OXA10 gene in Carbapenemase Producing P. aeruginosa isolated from patients in Isfahan hospitals.Total of 100 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from different samples were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility for antimicrobial agents was carried out according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines, and the frequency of the gene encoding bla OXA10 was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The resistance rate of the isolated strains to certain antibiotics wasas following: ciprofloxacin (56%), gentamicin (59%), tobramycin (61%), amikacin (65%), imipenem (55%), cefepime (55%), ceftazidime (57%), ceftriaxone (60%), cefotaxime (62%), oxacillin (100%), and piperacillin (48%), respectively. P. aeruginosa
There are currently a total of 6 beta-lactam + beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations in clinical trials. It will be a steep learning curve for the pharma reps (and physicians) to understand the resistance classifications, the confusing ESBL definitions, the CRE nomenclature, Continue reading What is the Niche for Ceftolozane / Tazobactam?→. ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram negative aerobic rod shaped bacterium and is an opportunistic pathogen that usually causes nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patient with various infections and affects normal healthy human as well. P. aeruginosa is also an omnipresent pathogen that can be inhabited in soil, water, vegetable, human and animal. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa are known to be resistant to almost the entire anti-pseudomonas agent via mechanism of low outer membrane permeability, β-lactamases synthesis and the efflux systems. This study was conducted to detect the potential of metallo-β-lactamases producing P. aeruginosa presence in water samples from various parts of Malaysia. In this study, 52 water samples were collected from various parts of Malaysia. These P. aeruginosa isolates were processed to these phenotypic methods, Hodge test which is used to detect the carbapenemase production, Imipenem- EDTA combined disc test (CDT). Imipenem-EDTA
In this study, the effects of oxygen transfer (OT) on beta-lactamase production and on intracellular reaction rates were investigated with Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 2597. In order to clarify the oxygen transfer effects on the production of beta-lactamase, firstly a glucose based defined medium was designed and using this medium, the effects of bioreactor operation parameters, i.e., pH and temperature, on beta-lactamase activity and cell formation were investigated in laboratory scale batch-bioreactors using shake bioreactors having V=33 ml working volumes. Among the investigated bioprocess conditions, the highest beta-lactamase activity was obtained as A=115 U cm-3, in the medium with 7.0 kg m-3 glucose, 7.1 kg m-3 (NH4)2HPO4 and the salt solution, at pH0=7.5, T=37C, N=200 min-1. At the optimum conditions found in laboratory scale the effects of OT on cell generation, substrate consumption, product (beta-lactamase) and by-products formations were investigated at three different air inlet (Q0/ ...
The emergence and global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to health services worldwide. These bacteria are often resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics and frequently co-resistant to most other antibiotics, leaving very few treatment options. The epidemiology is compounded by the diversity of carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes and the ability of their genes to spread between different bacterial species. Difficulties are also encountered by laboratories when trying to detect carbapenemase production during routine diagnostic procedures due to an often heterogeneous expression of resistance. Some of the resistance genes are associated with successful clonal lineages which have a selective advantage in those hospitals where antimicrobial use is high and opportunities for transmission exist; others are more often associated with transmissible plasmids. A genetically distinct strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 258 harbouring the K. pneumoniae
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are an emerging concern in public health. Antimicrobial use, hospitalization and foreign travel are associated with human carriage of ESBL-PE. Duration of carriage with ESBL-PE can vary. The main objective of this thesis is to provide an overview of the current scientific knowledge on persistence ... read more of ESBL carriage in humans. In addition, risk factors for duration of ESBL carriage will be described. After a literature search, 14 studies met the criterion that duration of ESBL-PE was assessed. Eight studies were conducted in patients, two in NICU patients, and four in non-patients (travelers, adopted children, medical students). Approximately half of adult (hospitalized) patients carried ESBL-PE after 6 months (range 33-53%). After 12 months, this percentage was around 25%. Median carriage time was reported from 98 days till more than 9 months. For a minority of patients carriage time was more than three years. ...
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae are often susceptible in vitro to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combination antibiotics, but their use has been limited by concerns of clinical inefficacy. We aimed to compare outcomes between patients treated with BLBLIs and carbapenems for bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by cefotaxime non-susceptible (likely ESBL- or AmpC β-lactamase-producing) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.All adult patients with a BSI caused by cefotaxime non-susceptible E. coli or K. pneumoniae were included from May 2012-May 2013. We compared outcomes between patients who had definitive monotherapy with a carbapenem to those who had definitive monotherapy with a BLBLI.There were 92 BSIs that fulfilled the microbiological inclusion criteria. 79 (85.9%) were caused by E. coli and 13 (14.1%) by K. pneumoniae. Four out of 23 (17.4%) patients treated with carbapenem monotherapy and 2 out of 24 (8.3%) patients treated with BLBLI monotherapy
The purpose of the study was to evaluate how use of antibiotics precedes the presence of ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice. The authors performed a triple-case-control study where three case groups were individually compared to a single control group of uninfected individuals. Urine samples were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples. Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p , 0.0001). The ESBL group had significantly more hospital admissions than the other case groups (p , 0.05). Hospital admission was an independent risk factor for community onset UTI by ESBL-producing E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Omani children. T2 - Study of prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, sultanate of Oman. AU - Muharrmi, Zakariya Al. AU - Rafay, Akbar M.. AU - Balkhair, Abdullah. AU - Tamemi, Salem Al. AU - Mawali, Ali Al. AU - Sadiri, Hilal Al. PY - 2008/7/1. Y1 - 2008/7/1. N2 - Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem worldwide, which imposes difficulties in the selection of appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. This study evaluated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) isolates in 2005 in The Department of Child Health at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. Methods: During the 12 month period from January 2005 to December 2005, ESBL isolates from paediatrics inpatients were identified and analysed. Risk factors for the patients who grew ESBLs were analysed. Results: 13.3% of E. coli and 16.6% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated were ESBL producers. Most of the ESBLs were ...
The range of antibiotics available to combat bacterial infectious diseases is diminishing due to the development of resistance to all classes of antibiotics. The emergence of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is one of the most significant and urgent threats to global human health. CRE strains that have acquired and expressed genes encoding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity have now been reported across the globe. One strategy for prolonging the use of existing antibiotics has been to develop adjuvants that inhibit the function of β-lactamases and thus restore the bacterias sensitivity to the β-lactam antibiotic (e.g. clavulanic acid and tazobactam). However, for carbapenemase enzymes which are class B β-lactamases (i.e. the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs)), such inhibition strategies have, so far, been ineffective.. Consequently, there is a market need for effective inhibitors of class B MBLs as adjuvants for carbapenems. These MBL inhibitors have the ...
Simplified Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination for the prevention of ICU infections in a setting of high-level antibiotic resistance. Scientific Background:. Aerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB), Gram-positive bacteria and fungi are responsible for hospital acquired infections. This problem is especially typical in intensive care units (ICUs) due to the complexity of disease and wide use of invasive procedures. The common use of empiric wide-range antibiotic therapy had lead to the development significant resistance of these pathogens and this group of bacteria was defined as Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms (MDRO). Among these bacteria the most important and virulent are: Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) as well as Fluconazol resistant Candida.. The main reservoir of these organisms is the intestinal tract, which raises the possibility that their ...
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) focus on improving the utilization of broad spectrum antibiotics to decrease the incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Hospital admission for both medical and surgical intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) commonly results in the empiric use of broad spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitors, and carbapenems that can select for resistant organisms. This review will discuss the management of uncomplicated and complicated IAIs as well as highlight stewardship initiatives focusing on the proper use of broad spectrum antibiotics.
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There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDR GN), which cause increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, recent studies have focused on risk factors of acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. However, there is limited data on risk factors for BSI caused by AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (AmpC EC), especially in low prevalence settings such as Australia. This study was performed to identify risk factors for acquisition of AmpC E. coli, using a retrospective matched case control design over a 3-year period. Patients with BSI caused by AmpC E. coli were matched with controls (third generation cephalosporin susceptible E. coli) by age and site of infection (n = 21). There was no significant difference in age, sex, clinical outcome, time to onset of BSI, recent antibiotic use (last 3 months), comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus,
Author: MEHRUNNISA J., , THYGARAJAN RAVINDER, RADHIKA KATRAGADDA. Category: Microbiology. [Download PDF]. Abstract:. The purpose of the study is to detect Metallobetalatamase (MBL) producing GNB (Gram Negative Bacilli) isolated from various clinical samples received in the Department of Microbiology, Kilpauk Medical College & Hospital, Chennai. All the isolates that were resistant to ceftazidime collected and MBL production was demonstrated by combined disc test with EDTA and double disc synergy test. Among the GNBs isolated from clinical samples, 41 % showed resistance to ceftazidime. These GNBs which were resistant to ceftazidme were tested for MBL production, 29% were found to be MBL producers. These 29% of MBL producers showed resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Thus, MBL producers are seen not only among non fermenters like pseudomonas aeruginosa but also produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing problems in treating patients with infections.. Keywords: Ceftazidime (CAZ) ...
Background:Problematic bacteria in the community include enterobacteria which produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. As yet there is no description of the prevalence of these bacteria in persons in the community in the Czech Republic. Therefore the main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL-positive enterobacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of subjects in the community in the Czech Republic. Material and Method:Rectal swabs from the investigated subjects were inoculated onto chromID ESBL selective medium and enterobacteria were identified by the Vitek2 automated system. ESBL were detected using a modified DDST test. The results were confirmed by PCR and direct sequencing of CTX-M-positive amplicons. Results:A total of 579 rectal swabs from subjects in the community were analyzed and ESBL production was both phenotypically and genotypically confirmed in 7 isolates. Thus the prevalence of ESBL-positive bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of the persons in the community was
NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase) gene encodes a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) with high carbapenemase activity, which makes the host bacterial strain easily dispatch the last-resort antibiotics
Beta-lactamase. Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
Beta-lactamase. Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
Beta-lactamase. Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
"Protein prenylation in glucose-induced insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet beta cell: a perspective". Journal of ...
Beta-lactamase. Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
Beta-lactamase. Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
Beta-lactamase. Lyase (EC 4). *4.1 Dopa decarboxylase. *4.2 Carbonic anhydrase. Miscellaneous. *Steroidogenesis inhibitor ...
Queenan AM, Bush K (July 2007). "Carbapenemases: the versatile beta-lactamases". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (3): 440-58 ... Vaborbactam is a boronic acid β-lactamase inhibitor with a high affinity for serine β-lactamases, including Klebsiella ... "The structures and catalytic mechanisms of active-site serine beta-lactamases". Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews. 12 ... Vaborbactam (INN) is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor discovered by Rempex Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of The Medicines ...
Beta-lactamases are characterized on CBMAR using the Ambler Classification system. CBMAR organizes beta-lactamases according to ... beta$. -Lactamases". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 289 (1036): 321-331. doi:10.1098/ ... β-lactamase Molecular Annotation Resource is a database focused on the annotation and discovery of novel beta-lactamase genes ... a comprehensive β-lactamase molecular annotation resource". Database. 2014: bau111. doi:10.1093/database/bau111. ISSN 1758-0463 ...
The CSP-1 beta- lactamaseEdit. In 2005, Handal et al. (2005b) identified a novel Ambler class A beta-lactamase called CSP-1 ... Following the characterization of CfxA beta- lactamase in B. vulgatus and CfxA2 beta-lactamase in P. intermedia (nucleotide ... This resistance is often linked to the production of beta- lactamases. Most beta-lactamases identified in Bacteroides, ... The high frequency of strains producing beta-lactamase limit the use of single beta-lactam antibiotics as first-line treatment ...
... as strains of bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases have become more common. These beta-lactamase enzymes ... Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli (ESBL E. coli) are highly resistant to an array of antibiotics, and ... In 2009, a gene called New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (shortened NDM-1) that even gives resistance to intravenous antibiotic ... Paterson DL, Bonomo RA (2005). "Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18 (4): 657-86. ...
... s are not resistant to beta-lactamases. They are used parenterally, and are particularly indicated in ...
They secrete their beta-lactamases into the periplasmic space between the inner and outer membrane so they can't easily escape ... There are many beta lactamases which vary in substrate specificity and host range. The enzymes active site is easily ... This gave an increased resistance to β-lactamases due to stereochemical blocking of the beta-lactam ring. Cefuroxime was the ... Gram-positive bacteria, such as a staphylococci, have a high release of beta-lactamases into their extracellular space, where ...
Beta-lactamases (such as penicillinases) formed by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria can stabilize doripenem to ... However, carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases are an exception. On average, about 8.1% of plasma proteins attached to ... It is stable against beta-lactamases including those with extended spectrum, but it is susceptible to the action of ... It is a beta-lactam antibiotic drug able to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Doripenem can be used for bacterial infections such as ...
"Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase (MIR-1) conferring resistance to oxyimino- and alpha-methoxy beta-lactams in clinical ... Jacoby GA, Tran J (July 1999). "Sequence of the MIR-1 beta-lactamase gene". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 43 (7): 1759 ...
The metallo beta-lactamases were first identified in bacteria; they give some strains antibiotic resistance by degrading beta- ... Lactamase, beta 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LACTB2 gene. LACTB2 is located on the 8th chromosome, with its ... "Entrez Gene: Lactamase, beta 2". Retrieved 2015-07-07. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Dominski Z (2007-03-01). " ... "Nucleases of the metallo-beta-lactamase family and their role in DNA and RNA metabolism". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and ...
Serine beta-lactamase-like protein LACTB, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LACTB gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: LACTB lactamase, beta". Peitsaro N, Polianskyte Z, Tuimala J, Pörn-Ares I, Liobikas J, Speer O, Lindholm D, ... LACTB shares sequence similarity to the beta-lactamase/penicillin-binding protein family of serine proteases that are involved ... encoding a serine beta-lactamase-like protein with an amino-terminal transmembrane domain". Genomics. 78 (1-2): 12-4. doi: ...
Meyer, M; Hochrein, L.; Arnold, F (2006). "Structure-guided SCHEMA recombination of distantly related beta-lactamases". Protein ... SCHEMA algorithm has been applied in the recombinant libraries of distantly related β-lactamases. Voigt, CA; Martinez, C; Wang ...
Ceftolozane Sulbactam Clavulanate Yang Y, Rasmussen BA, Shlaes DM (1999). "Class A beta-lactamases-enzyme-inhibitor ... Tazobactam is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits the action of bacterial β-lactamases, especially those belonging to the SHV-1 ... Tazobactam broadens the spectrum of piperacillin by making it effective against organisms that express β-lactamase and would ...
Ghuysen JM (October 1994). "Molecular structures of penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactamases". Trends in Microbiology. 2 ... "Molecular structures of penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactamases". Trends in Microbiology. 2 (10): 372-80. doi:10.1016/ ... Kinetically, the interaction between the DD-peptidase and beta-lactams is a three-step reaction: E + I ⇌ E ⋅ I → E − I ∗ → E + ... Spratt BG (May 1983). "Penicillin-binding proteins and the future of beta-lactam antibiotics. The Seventh Fleming Lecture". ...
However, some bacterial cells have the enzyme β-lactamase, which hydrolyzes the beta-lactam ring, rendering the drug inactive. ... Drawz SM, Bonomo RA (Jan 2010). "Three decades of beta-lactamase inhibitors". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 23 (1): 160-201. ... Cefalexin is a beta-lactam antibiotic of the cephalosporin family. It is bactericidal and acts by inhibiting synthesis of the ... Cefalexin is a beta-lactam antibiotic within the class of first-generation cephalosporins. It works similarly to other agents ...
ISBN 978-1-4511-1221-4. Akova M (January 2008). "Sulbactam-containing beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations". Clinical ... a drug that inhibits beta lactamase, an enzyme produced by bacteria to inactivate ampicillin and related antibiotics. It is ... Ampicillin is in the penicillin group of beta-lactam antibiotics and is part of the aminopenicillin family. It is roughly ... Petri (2011). "Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Other Beta-Lactam Antibiotics". In Brunton L, Chabner B, Knollman B (eds.). ...
The carboxypenicillins are beta-lactamase sensitive. Aminopenicillin "Mayo Clinic Proceedings". Retrieved 2015-12-08. v t e. ... The carboxypenicillins feature the beta-lactam backbone of all penicillins but also feature a carboxylic acid or carboxylic ...
... is resistant to beta-lactamase. Chemically, its zwitterionic structure can facilitate rapid penetration across ... by selecting bacteria which have acquired beta-lactamases. The use may cause resistance in Salmonella present in the intestinal ... The reactive site is a beta-lactam nucleus, while the main peripheral functional groups are a quaternary quinolinium, an ... they are active against bacteria carrying the AmpC-type β-lactamase resistance mechanism. Since the late 1990s, the US and EU ...
Acetylcholine releasing agents: Alpha-Latrotoxin • Beta-Bungarotoxin; Acetylcholine release inhibitors: سم بوتولینوم (Botox); ... Dihydro-beta-erythroidine • Dimethyltubocurarine (Metocurine) • Dipyrandium • Dizocilpine (MK-801) • Doxacurium • Duador • ... beta-Methylphenethylamine • Benzodioxolylbutanamine • Benzphetamine • Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine • Buphedrone • Butylone • ...
"Structural and kinetic characterization of a beta-lactamase-inhibitor protein". Nature. 368 (6472): 657-60. Bibcode:1994Natur. ... "Molecular structure of the acyl-enzyme intermediate in beta-lactam hydrolysis at 1.7 a resolution". Nature. 359 (6397): 700-5. ... "Aspergillomarasmine a overcomes metallo-β-lactamase antibiotic resistance". Nature. 510 (7506): 503-6. Bibcode:2014Natur.510.. ...
1992). "Beta-lactamase TEM1 of E. coli. Crystal structure determination at 2.5 A resolution". FEBS Lett. 299 (2): 135-42. doi: ... 1996). "The catalytic mechanism of beta-lactamases: NMR titration of an active-site lysine residue of the TEM-1 enzyme". Proc. ... β-lactamases such as TEM-1 use a lysine residue as the base. Because lysine's pKa is so high (pKa=11), a glutamate and several ... 2017). "Alpha/beta-hydrolases: A unique structural motif coordinates catalytic acid residue in 40 protein fold families". ...
The AmpR gene is penicillin beta-lactamase. Promoters P1 and P3 are for the beta-lactamase gene. P3 is the natural promoter, ...
Bush K (January 1988). "Beta-lactamase inhibitors from laboratory to clinic". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1 (1): 109-23. doi ... Beta-lactam bacterial resistance can also be dealt with by administering beta-lactam antibiotics with drugs that block beta- ... can be circumvented by using antibiotics such as nafcillin that are not susceptible to destruction by certain beta-lactamases ( ... For example, bacterial resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillin and cephalosporins) ...
The enzymes are similar to beta-lactamase. The EII' (NylB', P07062) protein is about 100x times less efficient compared to EII ...
NDM-1, New Delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase 1-producerende enterobakterier (Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Vibrio colerae og ... www.ugeskriftet.dk/LF/UFL/2012/12/pdf/VP61398.pdf New Delhi-metallo-beta-laktamase 1 - en uønsket souvenir. Ugeskrift for Læger ...
Hall, Alan; Knowles, Jeremy (23 December 1976). "Directed selective pressure on a beta-lactamase to analyse molecular changes ... Hall's PhD was on the enzymology of B-lactamase, which led to his first paper being published in Nature in 1976. He used ... Direct selection on these mutants allowed catalytic properties of B-lactamase to be identified and allowed structure-function ... strains of E. Coli with mutated B-lactamase, an antibiotic resistance enzyme, and assayed their activity in the presence of ...
"Thiol-beta-lactamase: replacement of the active-site serine of RTEM beta-lactamase by a cysteine residue". Proceedings of the ... a variant of TEM1 β-lactamase with 5 mutations is able to cleave cefotaxime (a third generation antibiotic).[36] However, of ...
"Molecular basis of beta-lactamase induction in bacteria". 》Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.》 37 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1128/aac.37.2. ... Okada S, O'Brien JS (August 1969). "Tay-Sachs disease: generalized absence of a beta-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase component". 》 ... Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (February 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ...
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase), MBL (Metallo Beta-Lactamase), AmpC Beta-Lactamase and VISA/h VISA]. Etest has been FDA ...
Presumably penicillin G could be given with a beta-lactamase inhibitor combination, such as Unasyn, for patients with a beta- ... Antibiotics that contain beta-lactamase inhibitors (i.e., oral Augmentin or parenteral Unasyn) cover C. canimorsus as well as ... After diagnosis, provided the strain is not beta-lactamase producing, medication should be switched to penicilin G. ... lactamase producing strain. Mortality of meningitis-related infections is much lower than mortality associated with septicemia ...
"Synthesis of captopril starting from an optically active .BETA.-hydroxy acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 30 (9): 3139-3146. doi ... "Structural Basis of Metallo-β-Lactamase Inhibition by Captopril Stereoisomers". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 60 (1 ...
Beta-lactamase. 3.5.3: Linear amidines/. Ureohydrolases. *Arginase. *Agmatinase. *Protein-arginine deiminase ...
Beta-lactamase. *Dihydroorotase. 3.5.3: Linear amidines/. Ureohydrolases. *Arginase. *Agmatinase. *Protein-arginine deiminase ...
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) and Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM-2), and make those ... "Aspergillomarasmine A overcomes metallo-β-lactamase antibiotic resistance". Nature. 510 (7506): 503-506. Bibcode:2014Natur.510 ...
Penicillin and penicillin-derived antibiotics can thus be combined with a beta-lactamase inhibitor such as clavulanic acid or ... Fusobacterium necrophorum is generally highly susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, metronidazole, clindamycin and third ... generation cephalosporins while the other fusobacteria have varying degrees of resistance to beta-lactams and clindamycin.[12] ...
In 2016, a synthetic peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO) was found to inhibit the expression of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, an ... In contrast to other beta-lactams, it is highly resistant to degradation by β-lactamases or cephalosporinases. In general, ... It works against extended-spectrum β-lactamases, but may be more susceptible to metallo-β-lactamases.[6] Meropenem is ... resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or resistance to ...
32 comp CD (P.T., 2002) Lactamase Bonus Compilation Charalambides at Wholly Other Charalambides at Kranky Interview with the ... "/"Sun or Wind" 7" (Timelag, 2002) Ana/Kata 10" EP (Beta-lactam Ring Records, 2002) 'Charalambides / Pocahaunted - Split (7", ...
AMPICILLIN:(BETA LACTAMASE) = Zîndedijek ji penîsîlîn lêwergirtî ye. Ew zorbuna bektîrya berbend dike bi têhelkeşa bi pêkînanê ...
... sodium is a narrow-spectrum[1] beta-lactam antibiotic[2] of the penicillin class. As a beta-lactamase-resistant ... a reversible suicide inhibitor of beta-lactamase". Biochem. J. 281 (1): 191-6. doi:10.1042/bj2810191. PMC 1130660. PMID 1731755 ...
Three decades of beta-lactamase inhibitors»։ Clinical Microbiology Reviews 23 (1): 160-201։ January 2010։ PMC 2806661։ PMID ...
... strains such as beta-lactamase producing E coli.[9] MALDI-TOF is rapid and automated.[9] There are limitations to testing in ... such as the presence of an extended-spectrum beta lactamase.[5] The sensitive, resistant or intermediate resistance to ... on bacterial characteristics that are associated with known methods of resistance such as the potential for beta-lactamase ... Since the discovery of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin, the rates of antimicrobial resistance have increased. Over time, ...
Both narrow spectrum beta-lactamases (e.g. penicillinases) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are common for ... Often multiple beta-lactamase genes are found on the same plasmid hydrolyzing a wide spectrum of beta-lactam antibiotics. ESBL ... The first clinically observed ESBL enzymes were mutated versions of the narrow spectrum beta-lactamases, like TEM and SHV. ... Oktem IM, Gulay Z, Bicmen M, Gur D (January 2008). "qnrA prevalence in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive ...
Beta-lactamase test. *Disk diffusion test. *Etest. *McFarland standards. *Minimum inhibitory concentration ...
Two different bonds in beta-lactams can be cleaved (1 by penicillin acylase and 2 by beta-lactamase). ... 1992). "Beta-lactamase TEM1 of E. coli. Crystal structure determination at 2.5 A resolution". FEBS Lett. 299 (2): 135-42. doi: ... "The catalytic mechanism of beta-lactamases: NMR titration of an active-site lysine residue of the TEM-1 enzyme". Proc. Natl. ... Archaean proteasome, beta component (Thermoplasma acidophilum) PE clan. T5. Ornithine acetyltransferase (Saccharomyces ...
A resistencia mediada por penicilinase implica a adquisición dunha beta-lactamase portada nun plásmido.[163] N. gonorrheoea ten ... bacterias produtoras de beta-lactamase de espectro ampliado (ESBL), Enterococcus resistente á vancomicina, Acinetobacter ... Os antibióticos beta-lactámicos inactivan permamnentemente os encimas PBP, que son esenciais para a vida da bacteria, ao ... A resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae á penicilina e outros beta-lactámicos estase incrementando en todo o mundo. O ...
Beta-lactamase test. *Disk diffusion test. *Etest. *McFarland standards. *Minimum inhibitory concentration ...
It is not active against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, which include many strains of Staphylococci.[11] ... It is in the penicillin and beta lactam family of medications.[3] It usually results in bacterial death.[3] ...
... with the MIC90 for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) expressing Klebsiella pneumonia being ,32 μg/mL. ... Ceftolozane is combined with the β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam, which protects ceftolozane from degradation.[2][3][4][5][6] ... including strains with extended-spectrum β-lactamases, in the thighs of neutropenic mice". Antimicrobial Agents and ... A novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli". Drugs ...
Clindamycin, or a combination of metronidazole and a macrolide, or a penicillin combined with a beta-lactamase inhibitor is ... or a combination of a penicillin and a beta-lactamase inhibitor.[4] However, in patients with a penicillin allergy, clindamycin ... are exhibiting an increased resistance based on the production of beta-lactamase.[4] Patients who have undergone recent ... penicillin therapy have demonstrated an increase in beta-lactamase-producing (anaerobic and aerobic) bacteria. ...
β-Lactamase-resistant semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin (and its successors, nafcillin and cloxacillin) were ... For treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms in patients with serious allergies to beta-lactam ...
... Kevin R Forward Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health ... Kevin R Forward, "Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, vol. 17 ...
... Kevin R Forward Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health ... The definition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has expanded rapidly, in terms of both the number and the variety ...
Klebsiella and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.. Urban C1, Rahal JJ.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine, The New ... hydrolyzing enzymes has broadened the spectrum of primitive beta-lactamases allowing inactivation of a wide variety of beta- ... A growing number of newly identified plasmid encoded beta-lactam ...
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are specific enzymes released by a bacteria that neutralizes the effects of antibiotics. ... Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases ... Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, or ESBLs, are enzymes produced by certain types of bacteria. These enzymes can break down ... "What are extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)?." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 26 Sep. 2017. Web.. 22 Apr. 2019 ...
beta-Lactamases: protein evolution in real time.. Petrosino J1, Cantu C 3rd, Palzkill T. ... One ongoing example of these mechanisms is the evolution of new variants of the TEM and SHV beta-lactamases with altered ... The evolution and spread of bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics has progressed at an alarming rate. Bacteria may ...
Beta-lactamases are ancient bacterial enzymes. The class B beta-lactamases (the metallo-beta-lactamases) are divided into three ... The OXA beta-lactamase family was originally created as a phenotypic rather than a genotypic group for a few beta-lactamases ... OXA beta-lactamases were long recognized as a less common but also plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase variety that could hydrolyze ... although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the ...
Beta-Lactamase Database may refer to: Beta-Lactamase Database (BLAD) Beta-Lactamase Database (BLDB) This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title Beta-Lactamase Database. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the ...
Species: Beta-lactamase-related (IPR001466). Key Species. Key species. Number of proteins. FASTA. Protein IDs. ...
... the expansion of beta-lactam derivatives and β-lactamase inhibitors to antibiotic resistance in β-lactams.. (Imprint: Nova) ... The most concerning ones being the β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity, i.e, Ambler class-D serine oxacillinases and ... Chapter 1. The Emergence and Evolution of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC in Food-Producing Animals, Farm ... Chapter 2. Resistance Mechanisms in Acinetobacter with an Emphasis on β-Lactamases: An Update. (Ritika Chauhan and Jayanthi ...
Belongs to the class-D beta-lactamase family.UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... IPR012338, Beta-lactam/transpept-like. IPR002137, Beta-lactam_class-D_AS. IPR001460, PCN-bd_Tpept. ... IPR012338, Beta-lactam/transpept-like. IPR002137, Beta-lactam_class-D_AS. IPR001460, PCN-bd_Tpept. ... tr,A0A1C9C4P5,A0A1C9C4P5_9PAST Beta-lactamase OS=Gallibacterium anatis OX=750 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Crystal structure and kinetic analysis of beta-lactamase inhibitor protein-II in complex with TEM-1 beta-lactamase.. Nat. ... The beta-lactamase-inhibitor protein (BLIP) is produced by Streptomyces species. BLIP acts as a potent inhibitor of beta- ... the beta-hairpin loop from domain 1 inserting into the active site of beta-lactamase [PMID: 8605632]. BLIP shows no sequence ... A potent new mode of beta-lactamase inhibition revealed by the 1.7 A X-ray crystallographic structure of the TEM-1-BLIP complex ...
This is the first report of NDM-1 in the United States, and the first report of metallo-beta-lactamase carriage among ... Detection of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Carrying Metallo-Beta-Lactamase --- United States, 2010. During January--June 2010, ... the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) (1), were identified from three U.S. states at the CDC antimicrobial ... Characterization of a new metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM-1, and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique ...
Compare cephalosporins/beta-lactamase inhibitors. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and more ... Beta-lactamase inhibitors block the activity of beta-lactamase enzymes. Some species of bacteria produce beta-lactamase enzymes ... beta-lactamase inhibitors are administered with the beta-lactam antibiotics so the action of beta-lactamase is inhibited. This ... Cephalosporins/beta-lactamase inhibitors. What are Cephalosporins/beta-lactamase inhibitors?. Cephalosporins are a group of ...
The NDM-1 enzyme is one of the class B metallo-beta-lactamase; other types of carbapenemase are class A or class D beta- ... The gene for NDM-1 is one member of a large gene family that encodes beta-lactamase enzymes called carbapenemases. Bacteria ... ISBN 978-953-176-637-1.[page needed] Muir A, Weinbren MJ (July 2010). "New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase: a cautionary tale". J ... However, the blaNDM-1 gene produces NDM-1, which is a carbapenemase beta-lactamase - an enzyme that hydrolyzes and inactivates ...
Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have ... Laboratory detection of bacteria with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases * A Johnson, N Woodford, D Livermore ... Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have ... Laboratory detection of bacteria with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Euro Surveill. 2004;8(28):pii=2502. https://doi.org/ ...
A beta-lactam + H2O = a substituted beta-amino acid. UniProt ...
Beta-lactamase SHV-1. A. 286. Klebsiella pneumoniae. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: bla, shv1. EC: ... Ligand-dependent disorder of the Omega loop observed in extended-spectrum SHV-type beta-lactamase.. Sampson, J.M., Ke, W., ... CYCLOHEXYL-HEXYL-BETA-D-MALTOSIDE. C24 H44 O11. WUCWJXGMSXTDAV-QKMCSOCLSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... We also studied the inactivation of the R164H and R164S mutants with tazobactam and SA2-13, a unique β-lactamase inhibitor that ...
Beta-lactamase. Kind. protein. Organism. Bacillus licheniformis. Polypeptides. Name. UniProt ID. Beta-lactamase. P00808. ...
Beta-lactamases explanation free. What is Beta-lactamases? Meaning of Beta-lactamases medical term. What does Beta-lactamases ... Looking for online definition of Beta-lactamases in the Medical Dictionary? ... beta-lactamase. (redirected from Beta-lactamases). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to Beta- ... FREQUENCY OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM [beta]-LACTAMASES (ESBLS) AND AMP C [beta]-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI AND KLEBSIELLA ...
BLPB stands for Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria. BLPB is defined as Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria rarely. ... Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria can express their pathogenicity directly as a result of their ability to cause infections and ... 2020 https://www.acronymfinder.com/Beta_Lactamase_Producing-Bacteria-(BLPB).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "BLPB." ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). Retrieved November 29 2020 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Beta_Lactamase_Producing-Bacteria-( ...
This method was validated with ten reference TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The mutations involved in TEM- … ... To rapidly characterise TEM-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamases a fast and easy method using polymerase chain reaction- ... beta-lactamase conferring low resistance to ceftazidime (TEM-29), was described. TEM-29 derived from TEM-1, with an amino acid ... Molecular characterisation by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of TEM beta-lactamases FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995 Dec ...
The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli TEM1 beta-lactamase has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 16.4% for 22,510 ... Crystal structure of Escherichia coli TEM1 beta-lactamase at 1.8 A resolution Proteins. 1993 Aug;16(4):364-83. doi: 10.1002/ ... The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli TEM1 beta-lactamase has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 16.4% for 22,510 ... It was found that the E. coli TEM1 and Staphylococcus aureus PC1 beta-lactamases crystal structures differ in the relative ...
Two chromosome-encoded beta-lactamases have been purified from Citrobacter diversus ULA-27. They exhibited slightly different ... Citrobacter diversus ULA-27 beta-lactamases. Improved purification and general properties.. [G Amicosante, A Oratore, N ...
OXA beta-lactamases (class D). OXA beta-lactamases were long recognized as a less common but also plasmid-mediated beta- ... TEM beta-lactamases (class A). TEM-1 is the most commonly encountered beta-lactamase in gram-negative bacteria. Up to 90% of ... The OXA beta-lactamase family was originally created as a phenotypic rather than a genotypic group for a few beta-lactamases ... Beta-lactamases produced by gram-positive organisms are usually secreted. Beta-lactamase may be clinically beneficial when ...
IPR012338, Beta-lactam/transpept-like. IPR000871, Beta-lactam_class-A. IPR023650, Beta-lactam_class-A_AS. ... IPR012338, Beta-lactam/transpept-like. IPR000871, Beta-lactam_class-A. IPR023650, Beta-lactam_class-A_AS. ... Beta-lactamase SHV-1Add BLAST. 265. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Beta-lactamase SHV-1 (EC:*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ...
New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase, or, NDM-1, is the name given to an enzyme discovered in 2009 that is able to be produced ... The majority of the beta-lactamase enzymes are effective on some, or most, of the older antibiotics like cephalosporins and ... New Delhi Metallo-Beta Lactamase (NDM-1) a SuperBug - Information regarding NDM-1 an enzyme that renders bacteria resistant to ... The enzyme belongs to a group of enzymes that are capable of breaking the chemical bonds of a beta-lactam ring, which composes ...
Recombinant Beta-Lactamase Inhibitory Protein (His tag) is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 37 to 201 aa range, , 90% ...
... non-O139 belongs to a family of cassette-encoded beta-lactamases ... CARB-9 beta-lactamases: a carbenicillinase encoded in the VCR ... CARB-9 beta-lactamases. Subscribe to New Research on CARB-9 beta-lactamases ... non-O139 belongs to a family of cassette-encoded beta-lactamases ...
  • What are extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Substitutions at critical amino acid positions in the class A β-lactamase families result in enzymes that can hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins, thus demonstrating an "extended-spectrum" β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. (rcsb.org)
  • To the Editor: Extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms have become a common problem for patients in hospitals and other healthcare facilities (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Both ESBLs and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases are typically associated with broad multidrug resistance (usually a consequence of genes for other antibiotic resistance mechanisms residing on the same plasmids as the ESBL and AmpC genes). (cdc.gov)
  • This study investigates the zoonotic aspects of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive commensal E. coli strains and their mobile genetic elements in food-producing animals, and animal products as a source for introduction of these enzymes into food-borne pathogens, commensals and pathogens in the community and healthcare settings in Europe. (usda.gov)
  • Prevalence of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia col. (bva.co.uk)
  • These data indicate that ESBLs occur in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and at a relatively high incidence at our institution and that the standard disk diffusion method with cefpodoxime and the DD method with several beta-lactams are practical and cost-effective methods for detecting ESBL-producing isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms among clinical isolates vary greatly worldwide and is rapidly changing over time. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Extended-spectrum Β-lactamases (ESBL) and class C serine Β-lactamases (pAmpC) able to hydrolyse third-generation cephalosporins are a recognised threat to the efficacy of these drugs in treating serious infections, according to Lasse Nuotio from the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira) and co-authors from Orion Corporation in Finland and the Swedish National Veterinary Institute in a paper published recently in Poultry Science . (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Two hundred and thirty-one samples from different environmental sources in 12 villages were screened for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae, and 14 (6%) samples were positive. (diva-portal.org)
  • Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli is a global cause of life threatening infections. (scirp.org)
  • We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the present report, we evaluated the decontamination measures taken on a farm contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL-E). The decontamination process preceded the conversion from piglet breeding to gilt production. (asm.org)
  • Numerous studies have highlighted the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ( 1 - 4 ) and Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL-E) ( 5 - 7 ) in livestock production, particularly in pigs. (asm.org)
  • Carbapenems were the last line of treatment for most Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing resistant organisms, however after the emergence of New Delhi Metallo-beta lactamase 1 (NDM-1) a recently evolved MBL has shown resistance to most classes of antibiotics including carbapenem except tigecycline, and colistin [ 10 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Phenotypic Confirmation of Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamases (ESBL) in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at the San Juan Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, Sep. (patentgenius.com)
  • BACKGROUND The prevalence of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta -lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing worldwide. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These otics attributed to the production of extended-spectrum putative ESBL- and/or pAmpC-producers constituted the beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and/or plasmid-mediated study sample and were subjected to antimicrobial suscep- AmpC (pAmpC) enzymes [1, 2]. (deepdyve.com)
  • Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of beta- Data on the epidemiology of ESBL- and pAmpC-- lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa are still limited. (deepdyve.com)
  • Multidrug resistance bacteria have limited the therapeutic possibilities by producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL). (nepjol.info)
  • The prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL) among uropathogenic bacteria have increased over time raising a global concern in the therapeutic management of infections caused by these organisms. (scialert.net)
  • Production of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL) was detected among E . coli and Klesiella species following the methods recommended by the CLSI including the double disc diffusion test and phenotypic confirmatory test. (scialert.net)
  • Laboratory detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated cephalosporinase (pAmpC) and carbapenemase producers remains a challenge for microbiology laboratories and is important to avoid clinical failure due to inappropriate antimicrobial therapy and to prevent nosocomial outbreaks. (eurekamag.com)
  • The trend of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasing in Nepal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, all carbapenemase producers were isolated form ICU and co-existence of bla CTX-M , bla SHV , bla TEM , bla IMP , bla VIM and bla NDM-1 beta-lactamases was documented in one ESBL-EC (EC104). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The definition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has expanded rapidly, in terms of both the number and the variety of enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, or ESBLs, are enzymes produced by certain types of bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • P. mirabilis) due to the production of TEM- or SHV-type ESBLs (extended spectrum beta lactamases). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mid-1980s, this new group of enzymes, the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), was detected (first detected in 1979). (wikipedia.org)
  • ESBLs are beta-lactamases that hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins with an oxyimino side chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus ESBLs confer multi-resistance to these antibiotics and related oxyimino-beta lactams. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using SHV ESBLs with substitutions in the Ω loop (R164H and R164S) as target enzymes to understand this enhanced biochemical capability and to serve as a basis for novel β-lactamase inhibitor development, we determined the spectra of activity and crystal structures of these variants. (rcsb.org)
  • The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases among isolates of A. baumannii collected from different clinical sources in Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt. (springer.com)
  • Co-expression of both ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases was detected in 78% of the isolates. (springer.com)
  • The study demonstrates high prevalence of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics through ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases production among A. baumannii clinical isolates. (springer.com)
  • Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) hydrolyze most penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and aztreonam. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Shortly after these antibiotics were introduced, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were first identified. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Notably, ESBLs can be inhibited-albeit to various degrees-by beta-lactamase inhibitors. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Over the past 30 years, several beta-lactamase inhibitors have been introduced to combat resistance to these beta-lactamases, including ESBLs. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Many clinical laboratories have problems detecting extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases. (cdc.gov)
  • no recommendations exist for detecting ESBLs in other organisms or for detecting plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in any organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were first reported in 1983 ( 1 ), and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases were reported in 1988 ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Typically, ESBLs are mutant, plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases derived from older, broad-spectrum beta-lactamases (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes that can be produced by bacteria. (usda.gov)
  • A total of 907 consecutive isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae recovered during a 20-week period were tested for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) by the double-disk (DD) potentiation method. (asm.org)
  • Extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase (ESBLs) enzymes are plasmid-mediated enzymes with capacity to hydrolyse and thus inactivate broad-spectrum [beta]-lactam antibiotics, which in turn confer a decreased susceptibility against commonly used antibiotic drugs, such as penicillins and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A wide range of Enterobacteriaceae family members express Extended-spectrum [beta]lactamase (ESBLs) enzyme. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Resistance by the production of beta lactamase enzymes (ESBLs and Carbapenemases) has now become a threat around the world and WHO lists such bacteria in a critical priority category for the discovery of new drugs [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Simonsen, G. 2018-05-30 00:00:00 Background: In recent years, the world has seen a surge in Enterobacteriaceae resistant to broad-spectrum beta- lactam antibiotics due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) enzymes. (deepdyve.com)
  • The closing study will walk readers through the discovery and golden age of β-lactam, its mechanism of action as broad-spectrum antibiotic, the expansion of beta-lactam derivatives and β-lactamase inhibitors to antibiotic resistance in β-lactams. (novapublishers.com)
  • Chromosomal-mediated AmpC β-lactamases represent a new threat, since they confer resistance to 7-alpha-methoxy-cephalosporins (cephamycins) such as cefoxitin or cefotetan but are not affected by commercially available β-lactamase inhibitors, and can, in strains with loss of outer membrane porins, provide resistance to carbapenems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-lactamase inhibitors block the activity of beta-lactamase enzymes. (drugs.com)
  • To avoid development of resistance, beta-lactamase inhibitors are administered with the beta-lactam antibiotics so the action of beta-lactamase is inhibited. (drugs.com)
  • 9 MBLs have not only become a source of increased morbidity and mortality but also represent a clinical threat due to their unrivalled spectrum of activity and their resistance to therapeutic serine beta-lactamase inhibitors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-lactamase inhibitors in clinical use include clavulanic acid and its potassium salt (usually combined with amoxicillin or ticarcillin ), sulbactam and tazobactam . (wikidoc.org)
  • Inhibitors of .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • Rahil, J. and Pratt, RF, "Characterization of Covalently Bound Enzyme Inhibitors as Transition-State Analogs by Protein Stability Measurements: Phosphate Monoester Inhibitors of a .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • This discovery holds the promise of a new general class of beta-lactamase inhibitors and, perhaps, antibiotics. (sciencemag.org)
  • Beta Lactamase Inhibitors in Research: Anti-Seizure 2016-10-24 16:00:22 Beta-lactam antibiotics contain a cyclic amide ring of which mimics the structure of the terminal amino acid residues comprising the peptidoglycan matrix. (agscientific.com)
  • Disclosed are small molecule inhibitors of .alpha.v.beta.6 integrin, and methods of using them to treat a number of diseases and conditions. (patents.com)
  • Cui-Gai Bai, Yin-Tong Xu, Ning-Ning Li, Jing-Han Wang, Cheng Yang, Yue Chen and Hong-Gang Zhou, "Cysteine and Its Derivatives as New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 Inhibitors", Current Enzyme Inhibition (2015) 11: 46. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cavalieri, Influence of Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors on the Potency of Their Companion Drug with Organisms Possessing Class I Enzymes, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1991, p. 1343-1347, vol. 35, No. 7, American Society for Microbiology, USA.cited by other. (patentgenius.com)
  • In Vitro Activity of Beta-Lactam Agents and Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia, Jun. (patentgenius.com)
  • Kevin R Forward, "Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology , vol. 17, no. (hindawi.com)
  • A growing number of newly identified plasmid encoded beta-lactam hydrolyzing enzymes has broadened the spectrum of primitive beta-lactamases allowing inactivation of a wide variety of beta-lactam agents. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-lactam antibiotics are typically used to treat a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephalosporins are a group of broad spectrum, semi-synthetic beta-lactam antibiotics derived from the mould Cephalosporium. (drugs.com)
  • Johnson A , Woodford N , Livermore D M . Laboratory detection of bacteria with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Saudi Arabian tertiary hospital. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transcontinental importation into the UK of Escherichia coli expressing a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type betalactamase exposed during an outbreak of SHV-5 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in a Leeds hospital. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To rapidly characterise TEM-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamases a fast and easy method using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was developed. (nih.gov)
  • This method was validated with ten reference TEM-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. (nih.gov)
  • 2b Opposite to 2a , 2b are broad spectrum {beta} lactamases, meaning that they are capable of inactivating penicillins and cephalosporins at the same rate. (wikidoc.org)
  • The transferable class C beta-lactamases and what we know as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. (hstalks.com)
  • Carter MW, Oakton KJ, Warner M, Livermore DM (2000) Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in klebsiellae with the Oxoid combination disk method. (springer.com)
  • The initiation of clinical studies for ETX0282, what we believe is the first broad-spectrum oral beta-lactamase inhibitor to enter the clinic, marks an important milestone for Entasis and a meaningful step toward the development of an effective oral therapy for patients suffering from drug-resistant bacterial infections," said Manos Perros, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of Entasis. (businesswire.com)
  • ETX0282 is an orally available, broad spectrum inhibitor of Class A and C beta-lactamases. (businesswire.com)
  • Background: 5TMetallo-ß-lactamase (MBLs) can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of beta-lactams, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. (ebscohost.com)
  • Community-acquired extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase producers, United States. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • MIC breakpoints were lowered for many beta-lactam antibiotics, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins, to improve the detection of known resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing bacteria are usually associated with outbreaks, but endemic infections are common in intensive care units. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To determine the frequency of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in newborns. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Extended-spectrum b-lactamase production was confirmed in enterobacteria by the Etest. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 63/102 (61.7%) were colonized by extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae on day 7, 17/21 (81%) on day 14, and 6/8 (75%) on day 21 of hospitalization. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A predominant clone (95%) was found in hospital B, and a major clone (75%) in Hospital A. Other extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were Enterobacter spp. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • High rates of colonization and horizontal transmission of extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in the newborn care units of two general hospitals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns may vary between geographic areas. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Occurrence and detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae at a veterans medical center: seek and you may find. (asm.org)
  • Beta-Lactamase Hybrid Proteins 2018-11-06 12:38:35 Introduction Beta-lactam antibiotics are used to treat a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (agscientific.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented, which presents a discussion on differentiation of CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-28 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Risk Factors for Colonization With Extended-Spectrum Î'-Lactamases-Producing Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit Admission," by A. D. Harris, J. C. McGregor, J. A. Johnson, S. M. Strauss, A. C. Moore, H. C. Standiford et al. (ebscohost.com)
  • A response by Anthony D. Harris, Kerri Thom and Jessina McGregor to a letter to the editor about their article "Risk Factors for Colonization With Extended-Spectrum Î'-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit Admission," in the August 2007 issue is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • With the emergence of New Delhi Metallo-beta lactamase-1 and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing bacteria the clinicians are left with a very limited choice of treating the common infections. (omicsonline.org)
  • Correlation of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Production with Cephalosporin Resistance in Gram Negative Bacilli, Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology, 2004, p. 82-84, vol. 47, No. 1, Indian Journal of Pathologists andMicrobiologists, India. (patentgenius.com)
  • Influx of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae into the hospital. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal sepsis in India in rural and urban settings. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A multinational survey of risk factors for infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae in nonhospitalized patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Continuing Plague of Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae Infections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Epidemiology and risk factors for isolation of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase in a large U.S. Medical Center. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nationwide survey of extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the French community setting. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A change in the epidemiology of infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Epidemiology and clinical features of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in nonhospitalized patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. (deepdyve.com)
  • teriaceae resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibi- Two isolates were recovered from the same sample. (deepdyve.com)
  • Broad-spectrum beta-lactamase production is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both high- and low/middle-income countries [9, 10]. (deepdyve.com)
  • Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties.Beta-lactam antibiotics are typically used to treat a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (agscientific.com)
  • β-LACTAMASE-BS has a broad spectrum activity of complete inactivation over a broad range of cephalosporins and penicillins. (agscientific.com)
  • Extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics-third generation cephalosporins- are commonly used for treating infections caused by Escherichia coli in Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital (KMCTH), Nepal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isolates resistant to ceftazidime, cefotaxime and cefoxitin were screened positive for AmpC beta-lactamases and further confirmed by inhibitor based method using boronic acid disc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Barwa R, Abdelmegeed E, Abd El Galil K (2012) Occurrence and detection of AmpC-lactamases among some clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt. (springer.com)
  • A 1536-nucleotide-long sequence that carries the ampC beta-lactamase gene of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome has been determined. (pnas.org)
  • The ampC beta-lactamase with a substrate specificity for cephalosporins showed no significant sequence homologies with beta-lactamases of the penicillinase type or with D-alanine carboxypeptidases. (pnas.org)
  • However, because the region around serine-80 of the ampC beta-lactamase has extensive homology with an active-site fragment of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cephalosporinase, we suggest that the ampC cephalosporinase as well as related cephalosporinases form a distinct group of serine beta-lactamases that have an evolutionary origin different from that of the serine penicillinases and thus constitute a new class of beta-lactamases. (pnas.org)
  • Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases have arisen through the transfer of chromosomal genes for the inducible AmpC beta-lactamase onto plasmids. (cdc.gov)
  • This transfer has resulted in plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, all plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases have similar substrate profiles to the parental enzymes from which they appear to be derived. (cdc.gov)
  • AmpC, also known as Beta-lactamase, is the most widespread resistance mechanism to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Beta-lactamases are enzymes (EC produced by bacteria that provide multi- resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species of bacteria produce beta-lactamase enzymes, which cleave the beta-lactam group in antibiotics, such as cephalosporins, that have a beta-lactam ring in their structure. (drugs.com)
  • Among Gram-negative bacteria, resistance to β-lactams is mediated primarily by β-lactamases (EC, periplasmic enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics. (rcsb.org)
  • Any of various enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin, found in many antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The gene for NDM-1 is one member of a large gene family that encodes beta-lactamase enzymes called carbapenemases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that the E. coli TEM1 and Staphylococcus aureus PC1 beta-lactamases crystal structures differ in the relative orientations of the two domains composing the enzymes, which result in a narrowed substrate binding cavity in the TEM1 enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-lactamases are enzymes ( EC ) produced by some bacteria and are responsible for their resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins , cephalosporins , cephamycins and carbapenems . (wikidoc.org)
  • Group 3 are the zinc based or metallo {beta} lactamases, corresponding to the molecular class B, which are the only enzymes acting by the metal ion zinc as discussed above. (wikidoc.org)
  • The enzyme belongs to a group of enzymes that are capable of breaking the chemical bonds of a beta-lactam ring, which composes an important part of many antibiotics such as drugs of the cephalosporin, penicillin, and carbapenem groups. (disabled-world.com)
  • The majority of the beta-lactamase enzymes are effective on some, or most, of the older antibiotics like cephalosporins and penicillins. (disabled-world.com)
  • Beta-lactam resistance to Escherichia coli was identified prior to the release of penicillin for clinical use, foreshadowing the importance of understanding the role of beta-lactamases-bacterial enzymes that cause resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics-in relation to drug selection. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The enzymes make the bacteria resistant to the beta-lactam class of antibiotics known as cephalosporins, which are widely used in hospitals. (usda.gov)
  • VIENNA, Austria, June 4 /PRNewswire/ -- EUCODIS Bioscience, a company developing enzymes for the chemical, the pharmaceutical, and other industries, announced today that it has successfully launched its first commercial enzyme, a beta-lactamase. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These five new enzymes bring the number of plasmid-determined beta-lactamases known in gram-negative organisms to more than 20. (asm.org)
  • Whereas Km values of the four beta-lactamases were comparable for penicillin G, cephalothin, and cefamandole, the type A and D enzymes exhibited greater affinity than the type B and C beta-lactamases for nitrocefin, cefazolin, and cephapirin. (asm.org)
  • Conversely, the type B and C beta-lactamases exhibited greater kcat values than the type A and D enzymes against most of the cephalosporin agents, excluding nitrocefin. (asm.org)
  • Presents a letter to the editor about carbapenemhydrolyzing enzymes, a molecular class of B metallo-Î'-lactamases. (ebscohost.com)
  • Evaluation of phenotypic tests for the detection of Amp C beta-lactamase in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An Aeromonas hydrophila gene, named cphA, coding for a carbapenem-hydrolyzing metallo-beta-lactamase, was cloned in Escherichia coli by screening an Aeromonas genomic library for clones able to grow on imipenem-containing medium. (asm.org)
  • Eleven isolates including Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Shigella sonnei, obtained in Brazil, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Thailand, and the United States, were found to produce beta-lactamase of the PSE-1 type, which was previously considered to be Pseudomonas specific. (asm.org)
  • Five novel plasmid-determined beta-lactamases named TLE-1, OXA-4, OXA-5, OXA-6, and OXA-7 were detected in ampicillin-resistant isolates of Escherichia coli and carbenicillin-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (asm.org)
  • Activity of Sulbactum in combination with ceftriaxone in-vitro and in Experimental Endocarditis Caused by Escherichia coli Producing SHV-2-Like B-Lactamase, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Apr. (patentgenius.com)
  • The evolution and spread of bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics has progressed at an alarming rate. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics' structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-lactamases produced by Gram-negative organisms are usually secreted, especially when antibiotics are present in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • BLIP acts as a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases such as TEM-1, which is the most widespread resistance enzyme to penicillin antibiotics. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • NDM-1 is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of killing most bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of one of their cell wall layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the blaNDM-1 gene produces NDM-1, which is a carbapenemase beta-lactamase - an enzyme that hydrolyzes and inactivates these carbapenem antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antibiotics have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a beta-lactam . (wikidoc.org)
  • New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase,' or, 'NDM-1,' is the name given to an enzyme discovered in 2009 that is able to be produced by a number of genera of bacteria that render the bacteria resistant to several antibiotics in use around the world today. (disabled-world.com)
  • however, is effective on both newer and older antibiotics that contain a beta-lactam ring. (disabled-world.com)
  • Prevalence of β-lactamases should be detected routinely and reported in hospitals to avoid inappropriate use of antibiotics and therapeutic failure. (springer.com)
  • The beta lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) are the most frequently used antimicrobial agents. (thermofisher.com)
  • beta-Lactamases are the commonest single cause of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • ABSTRACT: The production of a beta-lactamase-a type of bacterial enzyme-is the most common mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The launch of a beta-lactamase for the antibiotics industry and o. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Company will market its beta-lactamase to antibiotics manufacturers to improve quality control, to the diagnostics industry, and to research organizations. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The launch of a beta-lactamase for the antibiotics industry and other uses opens a new phase in the development of our organization," said Rudy Pandjaitan, PhD, CEO of EUCODIS Bioscience. (bio-medicine.org)
  • NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase) gene encodes a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) with high carbapenemase activity, which makes the host bacterial strain easily dispatch the last-resort antibiotics known as carbapenems and cause global concern. (springer.com)
  • An enzyme made by particular bacteria, in charge of their opposition to beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin. (azdictionary.com)
  • The Ultimate Guide to Beta Lactamase 2018-11-20 11:30:59 Beta Lactamase Mechanism Beta lactam antibiotics, like cephams and penicillin derivatives, have a four-member cyclic amide ring that inhibits the peptidoglycan layer synthesis in bacteria. (agscientific.com)
  • Top 7 FAQs for Beta Lactamase enzyme 2016-08-19 16:00:38 As a core structure in many antibiotics, beta lactam ring is a cyclic amide. (agscientific.com)
  • Beta lactam antibiotics almost universally inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and thus induces the destruction of the bacteria cell. (agscientific.com)
  • Production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) is one of the main mechanisms for resistance in carbapenem antibiotics. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fatal infections were observed despite treatment with beta-lactamase-stable antibiotics. (annals.org)
  • Beta-Lactamases are major defenses of gram-negative bacteria against antibiotics. (sid.ir)
  • Nearly all antibiotics are ineffective to the antibiotic-resistant bacteria New Delhi metallo-beta -lactamase-1(NDM-1), one of the most important reasons is that antibiotics can be hydrolyzed by NDM-1 in these bacteria. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Bacterial Resistance to Beta-Lactam Antibiotics, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Mar. 1995, p. (patentgenius.com)
  • Medeiros, Evolution and Dissemination of Beta-Lactamases Accelerated by Generations of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1997, p. (patentgenius.com)
  • Any of the antibiotics resistant to the action of beta lactamase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This property makes these antibiotics effective against microbial organisms that produce beta lactamase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During January--June 2010, three Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying a newly described resistance mechanism, the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) ( 1 ), were identified from three U.S. states at the CDC antimicrobial susceptibility laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the first report of NDM-1 in the United States, and the first report of metallo-beta-lactamase carriage among Enterobacteriaceae in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Alarming β-lactamase-mediated resistance in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. (springer.com)
  • We recently published the first known report of a Verona integrin-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (VIM-1) in a member of the Enterobacteriaceae (in this case Klebsiella pneumoniae , KPSA01) outside Europe. (scielo.org.za)
  • During the 20-month study period, 124 of 1506 isolates (8.2%) of E. faecalis from 70 patients were found to produce beta-lactamase. (annals.org)
  • Restriction enzyme digests of total chromosomal DNA showed nearly identical patterns for selected isolates of beta-lactamase-producing, high-level gentamicin-resistant E. faecalis , suggesting dissemination through the hospital of a single strain of E. faecalis . (annals.org)
  • Comparative evaluation of phenotypic tests for identification of metallo β-lactamases producing clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor about the methods for detection of the Ambler class B metallo β-lactamase (MBL) producing clinical isolates of the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • Study of metallo-β-lactamase production in nosocomial nil fermenter gram-negative bacterial isolates from clinical samples in a tertiary hospital. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented about metallo-β-lactamase production in nosocomial nil fermenter gram-negative bacterial isolates from clinical samples in a tertiary hospital. (ebscohost.com)
  • Results showed that 8 isolates (13/33%) had the TEM beta-lactamase gene. (magiran.com)
  • Nine isolates possessed more than one type of beta-lactamases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] TEM-1 is the most commonly encountered beta-lactamase in Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although TEM-type beta-lactamases are most often found in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, they are also found in other species of Gram-negative bacteria with increasing frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-lactamase-producing bacteria can express their pathogenicity directly as a result of their ability to cause infections and indirectly by producing beta lactamase, thus protecting penicillin-susceptible pathogens from penicillin. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Penicillinase was the first β-lactamase to be identified: it was first isolated by Abraham and Chain in 1940 from gram-negative E. coli even before penicillin entered clinical use [1] but penicillinase production quickly spread to bacteria that previously did not produce it or only produced it rarely. (wikidoc.org)
  • Most of the beta-lactamases I'm going to talk about are in Gram-negative bacteria. (hstalks.com)
  • There are, of course, beta-lactamases in Gram-positive bacteria and they have caused problems clinically, but largely they are overcome by new drugs such as methicillin and the newer cephalosporins. (hstalks.com)
  • MA1-20370 detects beta lactamase in bacteria samples. (thermofisher.com)
  • Bacteria that produce TEM type or SHV type beta lactamases have point mutations in structural genes that have extended the substrate specificity of these beta lactamases. (thermofisher.com)
  • Imipenem-EDTA disk method for rapid identification of metallo-β-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor about the identification of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) producing gram-negative bacteria is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • Finegold, In Vitro Efficacy of Beta-Lactam/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations Against Bacteria Involved in Mixed Infections, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 1999, p. (patentgenius.com)
  • Characterization of a new metallo-β-lactamase gene, bla NDM-1 , and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique genetic structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 from India. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreak of a Nosocomial Infection of SHV2-Beta-Lactamase-Containing Klebsiella pneumonia Strains in an Operative Intensive Care Unit, Immunitat and Infection, 1992, p. 3-6, vol. 20, No. 1, Richard Pflaum Verlag, Germany. (patentgenius.com)
  • Through hydrolysis, the enzyme lactamase breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In doing so the beta-lactamase enzyme inactivates the antibiotic and becomes resistant to that antibiotic. (drugs.com)
  • a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring of some penicillins and cephalosporins, producing penicilloic acid and rendering the antibiotic ineffective. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These data were in agreement with the molecular mass of the original Aeromonas enzyme and of the recombinant enzyme produced in E. coli, evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude beta-lactamase preparations followed by renaturation treatment for proteins separated in the gel and localization of protein bands showing carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase activity by a modified iodometric technique. (asm.org)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the CphA enzyme showed regions of partial homology with both the beta-lactamase II of Bacillus cereus and the CfiA beta-lactamase of Bacteroides fragilis. (asm.org)
  • The enterobacterial strains produced a beta-lactamase with the same isoelectric point, immunological reactions, and substrate profile as those of the prototype PSE-1 enzyme determined by Pseudomonas plasmid RPL11. (asm.org)
  • Computer model showing the structure of the enzyme New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1). (sciencephoto.com)
  • SYN‐004 (ribaxamase) is an orally delivered beta‐lactamase intended to degrade penicillins and cephalosporins within the gastrointestinal tract to protect the microbiome. (umd.edu)
  • Incorporation of β-Lactamase in the culture medium will overcome this problem when cephalosporins/penicillins are present. (agscientific.com)
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate phenotypic and genotypic methods for detection of Metallo-Beta-Lactamases (MBLs) among nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Aeromonas hydrophila cphA gene: molecular heterogeneity among class B metallo-beta-lactamases. (asm.org)
  • These results, therefore, suggest the existence of at least two molecular subclasses within molecular class B metallo-beta-lactamases. (asm.org)
  • The beta-lactamase-inhibitor protein (BLIP) is produced by Streptomyces species. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Crystal structure and kinetic analysis of beta-lactamase inhibitor protein-II in complex with TEM-1 beta-lactamase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We also studied the inactivation of the R164H and R164S mutants with tazobactam and SA2-13, a unique β-lactamase inhibitor that undergoes a distinctive reaction chemistry in the active site. (rcsb.org)
  • A beta-lactamase inhibitor is a drug given in conjunction with a beta-lactam antibiotic . (wikidoc.org)
  • Although the inhibitor does not usually have significant antibiotic activity on its own, [1] it still plays an important role by disabling or slowing down the action of beta-lactamase . (wikidoc.org)
  • WALTHAM, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Entasis Therapeutics , a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial products, today announced initiation of a Phase 1 clinical trial of its novel oral beta-lactamase inhibitor ETX0282. (businesswire.com)
  • A phosphonate monoester, m-carboxyphenyl phenylacetamidomethylphosphonate, has been found to be a specific inhibitor of the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99. (sciencemag.org)
  • The invention describes a composition for combating beta-lactamase-mediated antibiotic resistance using beta-lactamase inhibitor useful for injection, capable of pharmaceutical application. (patentgenius.com)
  • In typical circumstances, they derive from genes for TEM-1, TEM-2, or SHV-1 by mutations that alter the amino acid configuration around the active site of these β-lactamases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nanoparticles' status as emerging therapeutic elements has motivated investigators to assess the effects of iron nanoparticles on the expression of TEM type beta-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa. (magiran.com)
  • lactamase genes. (banglajol.info)
  • It appeared initially in a limited number of bacterial species (E. cloacae, C. freundii, S. marcescens, and P. aeruginosa) that could mutate to hyperproduce their chromosomal class C β-lactamase. (wikipedia.org)
  • particularly if the person is infected with a gram-negative bacterial type and is receiving treatment with an antibiotic that contains a beta-lactam ring structure. (disabled-world.com)
  • Bacterial resistance to beta lactams continues to increase, primarily due to the production of beta lactamases. (thermofisher.com)
  • Beta-lactamases are important mediators of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam agents. (asmscience.org)
  • Routine beta-lactamase tests are performed directly off bacterial colonies and are based on visual detection of the end products of beta-lactamase hydrolysis, demonstrated with a colorimetric reaction. (asmscience.org)
  • The most concerning ones being the β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity, i.e, Ambler class-D serine oxacillinases and Ambler class-B metallo-β-lactamases. (novapublishers.com)
  • Structure-Activity Studies of the Inhibition of Serine .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • The Synthesis and Serine .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • Rahil, J. and Pratt, RF, "Structure-Activity Relationships in the Inhibition of Serine .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • Carbapenemases (β-lactamases able to inactivate carbapenems) have been identified in both serine β-lactamase (SBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) families. (uio.no)
  • NDM-1 functions through two zinc ions present in the active site that cause hydrolysis of the beta-lactams, rendering them ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta lactamases catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta lactam bond, which destroys antibacterial activity. (thermofisher.com)
  • More than a 2,000-fold difference between the relative efficiencies of hydrolysis (kcat/Km) of cefazolin and cefuroxime by the type A beta-lactamase exists. (asm.org)
  • Whereas the isoelectric points of the type A, B, and C beta-lactamases were similar, the value for the type D beta-lactamase was distinguishably lower (10.1 for types A, B, and C and 9.7 for type D).We conclude that marked differences in the stability of commonly used beta-lactams to hydrolysis by the staphylococcal beta-lactamases are present. (asm.org)
  • 5'-His-tagged E.coli TEM-1 beta lactamase. (thermofisher.com)
  • The MA1-20370 immunogen is 5'-His-tagged E.coli TEM-1 beta lactamase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Recombinant E.coli Beta-Lactamase produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 263 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 29 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • Beta Lactamase antibody LS-C523605 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to e. coli Beta Lactamase. (lsbio.com)
  • Beta Lactamase antibody was raised against recombinant 5'-His-tagged TEM-1 beta-lactamase derived from E. coli 205 TEM. (lsbio.com)
  • beta-Lactamases: protein evolution in real time. (nih.gov)
  • Lyophilized Beta Lactamase although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution Beta Lactamase Recombinant should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). (prospecbio.com)
  • Beta-lactamase inhibitory protein antibody LS-C681992 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to streptomyces clavuligerus Beta-lactamase inhibitory protein. (lsbio.com)
  • A novel acquired carbapenemase, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), has recently been described in the United Kingdom and Sweden, mostly in patients who had received care on the Indian subcontinent. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The two most common MBLs are VIM and IMP, with the New Delhi metallobeta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) identified in visitors to the Indian subcontinent. (scielo.org.za)
  • New metallo-β-lactamase: Is its name after New Delhi helpful or harmful? (ebscohost.com)
  • β-lactamase II is cephalosporinase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Crystallographic Structure of a Phosphonate Derivative of the Enterobacter cloacae P99 Cephalosporinase: Mechanistic Interpretation of a .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • Occurrence of Ambler Class B Metallo-ß-Lactamase Gene in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Samples. (ebscohost.com)
  • Outbreak of metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2-positive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Ivory Coast. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented discussing research which assessed the outbreak of metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-2-positive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Ivory Coast. (ebscohost.com)
  • In order to know the susceptibility to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), ceftazidime and aztreonam as phenotypical indicator substrates of β-lactamases, 30 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18 from animal clinical samples and 12 from non- chlorinated water) were analysed. (ebscohost.com)
  • The disc diffusion test with penicillin G and the cloverleaf method could not separate beta-lactamase-positive from beta-lactamase-negative strains. (lu.se)
  • Because the isolate exhibited a suspicious phenotype, i.e. carbapenem resistance (with both E-tests and the VITEK II analyser), susceptibility to the monobactam aztreonam, and synergy between ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and the carbapenems, the production of a metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) was suspected. (scielo.org.za)
  • Molecular characterization showed a gene encoding the CTX-M-15 [beta]-1actamase. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Characterization of four beta-lactamases produced by Staphylococcus aureus. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus produces four types of beta-lactamase (A, B, C, and D). To investigate the effect of specific beta-lactamase type upon staphylococcal resistance, each beta-lactamase was purified to homogeneity, and the Michaelis constants (Km values) and turnover numbers (kcat values) for various penicillin and cephalosporin substrates were determined. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that the type B beta-lactamase is relatively inefficient in hydrolyzing penicillin G, we found only minor differences in the specific activities and kcat values of the type A, B, and C beta-lactamases. (asm.org)
  • The type D beta-lactamase was distinctly less active against penicillin G, however, exhibiting only 15 to 25% of the kcat values of the other beta-lactamases. (asm.org)
  • Beta-Lactamase can be used to reduce levels of penicillin in patients with severe penicillin reactions. (agscientific.com)
  • Penicillinase is a specific type of β-lactamase, showing specificity for penicillins, again by hydrolysing the β-lactam ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penicillinase was the first β-lactamase to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penicillinase-resistant beta-lactams such as methicillin were developed, but there is now widespread resistance to even these. (wikipedia.org)
  • Penicillinase is a specific type of β lactamase, showing specificity for penicillins , again by hydrolysing the beta-lactam ring. (wikidoc.org)
  • One ongoing example of these mechanisms is the evolution of new variants of the TEM and SHV beta-lactamases with altered substrate specificity. (nih.gov)
  • other types of carbapenemase are class A or class D beta-lactamases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transferable class B and transferable class D beta-lactamases, but we would discuss these in more detail later on. (hstalks.com)
  • Background: Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for many important nosocomial outbreaks including pneumonia and septicemia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Lack of beta- lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa of animal origin and water. (ebscohost.com)
  • Spread of a "Pseudomonas-specific" beta-lactamase to plasmids of enterobacteria. (asm.org)
  • PSE-1 beta-lactamase was not Pseudomonas specific and appeared to have spread among plasmids found in enterobacteria by transposition. (asm.org)
  • Low prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a tertiary burn care center in Tehran. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Carbapenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Carrying VIM-2 Metallo-β-Lactamase Determinants, Croatia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Metallo-beta-lactamase production is an important mechanism for carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which represents an emerging public health challenge. (scielo.br)
  • For the rapid chromogenic detection of beta-lactamase activity. (openwetware.org)
  • Four qualitative methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species were evaluated and compared with a quantitative macroiodometric reference method. (lu.se)
  • Beta-lactamases produced by gram-positive organisms are usually secreted. (wikidoc.org)
  • The ability of an organism to produce a β-lactamase may be chromosomal and constitutive or a plasmid-associated acquired property. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The organism was resistant to beta-lactams and after the organism's genetic and antibiotic resistance mechanisms were studied - NDM-1 and its genetic source were discovered. (disabled-world.com)
  • This review considers the ability of the prevalent beta-lactamases to cause resistance to widely used beta-lactams, whether resistance is accurately reflected in routine tests, and the extent to which the antibiogram for an organism can be used to predict the type of beta-lactamase that it produces. (asm.org)
  • Beta-lactamase gene bla or ampR is used in molecular cloning as a selection marker, since cells bearing plasmids encoding the gene are resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin . (openwetware.org)
  • Plasmids of IncH2 and IncFIme were shown to contain 8 x 10(6)-molecular-weight transposons Tn1401 and Tn1402 that encoded PSE-1 beta-lactamase production, resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin via AAD(3"), and resistance to sulfonamide. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the risk factors, clinical features, molecular epidemiology, and treatment outcomes associated with an outbreak of infections due to beta-lactamase-producing, high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis . (annals.org)
  • The two tandemly repeated domains of BLIP have an alpha(2)-beta(4) structure, the beta-hairpin loop from domain 1 inserting into the active site of beta-lactamase [ PMID: 8605632 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • As a result, many of the beta lactamase producing Gram negative pathogens have become multidrug resistant. (thermofisher.com)
  • Sixty-five patients infected or colonized with beta-lactamase-producing high-level gentamicin-resistant E. faecalis (case patients) were matched and compared with 65 randomly selected patients infected or colonized with beta-lactamase-negative, gentamicin-susceptible E. faecalis . (annals.org)
  • Univariate analysis showed older age, higher APACHE II score, nosocomial acquisition, recent surgical procedure, total parenteral nutrition, and antibiotic treatment to be significantly associated with the acquisition of beta-lactamase-producing, high-level gentamicin-resistant E. faecalis . (annals.org)
  • ß-lactamase-resistant antibiotic (bat?a lak'ta-mas? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A beta-lactam + H 2 O = a substituted beta-amino acid. (rcsb.org)
  • All of the beta lactams are structurally related through the presence of a core beta lactam ring. (thermofisher.com)
  • Agarwal, J., Kalyan, R. and Singh, M. (2009) High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Beta-Lactamase Production in Enterococci at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. (scirp.org)
  • Lactamase Inhibitory Activity of Some Phosphonamidate Analogues of Dipeptides," Bioorganic & Medi. (patentgenius.com)
  • This lack of understanding or resources is responsible for a continuing failure to respond appropriately to prevent the rapid worldwide dissemination of pathogens possessing these beta-lactamases. (cdc.gov)
  • The ability of a beta-lactamase to cause resistance varies with its activity, quantity, and cellular location and, for gram-negative organisms, the permeability of the producer strain. (asm.org)
  • Low amoxicillin concentrations can be caused by beta-lactamase activity in the lungs. (dovepress.com)
  • MIC 90 had higher beta-lactamase activity in sputum than patients with a concentration ≥MIC 90 . (dovepress.com)
  • Sputum and serum samples were collected at day 3 of treatment to determine beta-lactamase activity in sputum and amoxicillin concentrations in both sputum and serum. (dovepress.com)
  • Described herein are compounds and compositions that modulate the activity of beta-lactamases. (patents.com)
  • Comment on: Role of changes in the L3 loop of the active site in the evolution of enzymatic activity of VIM-type metallo-β-lactamases. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Role of Changes in the L3 Loop of the Active Site in the Evolution of Enzymatic Activity of VIM-Type Metallo-Î'-Lactamases. (ebscohost.com)