Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Cyclacillin: A cyclohexylamido analog of PENICILLANIC ACID.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Cleome: A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Streptothricins: A group of antibiotic aminoglycosides differing only in the number of repeating residues in the peptide side chain. They are produced by Streptomyces and Actinomyces and may have broad spectrum antimicrobial and some antiviral properties.IminesPlant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Aza CompoundsBicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.PeptidoglycanTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.

Mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance amongst Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in an Italian survey. (1/1038)

The mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in 325 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined. These isolates were selected because of their resistance to meropenem and imipenem (breakpoint, >4 mg/L), carbenicillin (>128 mg/L), ceftazidime (>8 mg/L), piperacillin and ticarcillin/clavulanate (>64 mg/L). The most frequent mechanism of resistance was beta-lactamase-independent, so called 'intrinsic resistance', which was found in 183 isolates and was probably due to impermeability and/or efflux mechanisms. beta-Lactamase-mediated resistance was demonstrated in 111 strains (11.1%). Derepression of Ambler Class C chromosomal beta-lactamase was detected in 64 isolates, most of which were resistant to ceftazidime and piperacillin but susceptible to meropenem, whereas secondary plasmid-encoded beta-lactamases were found in 34 isolates, all of them resistant to carboxypenicillins and ureidopenicillins and susceptible to carbapenems. Twelve strains showed more than one plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase plus derepression of chromosomal Class C enzyme. Resistance to carbapenems was independent of resistance to other beta-lactam antibiotics, indicating a different mechanism of resistance, probably due to the loss of the D2 porin. In total, 32 strains were resistant to carbapenems: 24 only to imipenem and eight to both imipenem and meropenem.  (+info)

Ampicillin-sulbactam and amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli isolates with different beta-lactam resistance phenotypes. (2/1038)

The activities of ampicillin-sulbactam and amoxicillin-clavulanate were studied with 100 selected clinical Escherichia coli isolates with different beta-lactam susceptibility phenotypes by standard agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques and with a commercial microdilution system (PASCO). A fixed ratio (2:1) and a fixed concentration (clavulanate, 2 and 4 micrograms/ml; sulbactam, 8 micrograms/ml) were used in the agar dilution technique. The resistance frequencies for amoxicillin-clavulanate with different techniques were as follows: fixed ratio agar dilution, 12%; fixed concentration 4-micrograms/ml agar dilution, 17%; fixed ratio microdilution, 9%; and disk diffusion, 9%. Marked discrepancies were found when these results were compared with those obtained with ampicillin-sulbactam (26 to 52% resistance), showing that susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid cannot be predicted by testing the isolate against ampicillin-sulbactam. Interestingly, the discrimination between susceptible and intermediate isolates was better achieved with 4 micrograms of clavulanate per ml than with the fixed ratio. In contrast, amoxicillin susceptibility was not sufficiently restored when 2 micrograms of clavulanate per ml was used, particularly in moderate (mean beta-lactamase activity, 50.8 mU/mg of protein) and high-level (215 mU/mg) TEM-1 beta-lactamase producer isolates. Four micrograms of clavulanate per milliliter could be a reasonable alternative to the 2:1 fixed ratio, because most high-level beta-lactamase-hyperproducing isolates would be categorized as nonsusceptible, and low- and moderate-level beta-lactamase-producing isolates would be categorized as nonresistant. This approach cannot be applied to sulbactam, either with the fixed 2:1 ratio or with the 8-micrograms/ml fixed concentration, because many low-level beta-lactamase-producing isolates would be classified in the resistant category. These findings call for a review of breakpoints for beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitors combinations.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a new porin gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae: its role in beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. (3/1038)

Klebsiella pneumoniae porin genes were analyzed to detect mutations accounting for the porin deficiency observed in many beta-lactam-resistant strains. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed the existence of a third porin gene in addition to the OmpK36 and OmpK35 porin genes previously described. This new porin gene was designated ompK37 and is present in all of the clinical isolates tested. The OmpK37 porin gene was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In contrast to that of the major porins, OmpK37 porin expression was only detectable by Western blot analysis in porin-deficient beta-lactam-resistant strains, suggesting strong down regulation under standard laboratory conditions. Functional characterization suggested a narrower pore for the OmpK37 porin than for K. pneumoniae porins OmpK36 and OmpK35. This correlated with the susceptibility to certain beta-lactam antibiotics, since a K. pneumoniae strain expressing porin OmpK37, but not porin OmpK36 or OmpK35, was less susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics than the same strain expressing either porin OmpK36 or OmpK35.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in Klebsiella oxytoca isolates recovered from patients with septicemia at hospitals in the Stockholm area. (4/1038)

Two beta-lactamase gene regions were characterized by DNA sequencing in eight clinical isolates of Klebsiella oxytoca. The blaOXY-2a region encoded a beta-lactamase nearly identical to OXY-2 (one amino acid residue substituted) and conferred aztreonam and cefuroxime resistance on the K. oxytoca isolates. Overproduction of OXY-2a was caused by a G-to-A substitution of the fifth nucleotide in the -10 consensus sequence of blaOXY-2a. The blaOXY-1a was identified in a susceptible strain, and the OXY-1a enzyme differed from OXY-1 by two amino acid residues.  (+info)

Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to interplay between the MexAB-OprM efflux pump and beta-lactamase. (5/1038)

We evaluated the roles of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump and beta-lactamase in beta-lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by constructing OprM-deficient, OprM basal level, and OprM fully expressed mutants from beta-lactamase-negative, -inducible, and -overexpressed strains. We conclude that, with the notable exception of imipenem, the MexAB-OprM pump contributes significantly to beta-lactam resistance in both beta-lactamase-negative and beta-lactamase-inducible strains, while the contribution of the MexAB-OprM efflux system is negligible in strains with overexpressed beta-lactamase. Overexpression of the efflux pump alone contributes to the high level of beta-lactam resistance in the absence of beta-lactamase.  (+info)

Inhibitor-resistant TEM beta-lactamases: phenotypic, genetic and biochemical characteristics. (6/1038)

Beta-lactamases represent the main mechanism of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The recent emergence of bacterial strains producing inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) enzymes could be related to the frequent use of beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam in hospitals and in general practice. The IRT beta-lactamases differ from the parental enzymes TEM-1 or TEM-2 by one, two or three amino acid substitutions at different locations. This paper reviews the phenotypic, genetic and biochemical characteristics of IRT beta-lactamases in an attempt to shed light on the pressures that have contributed to their emergence.  (+info)

Proficiency of clinical laboratories in Spain in detecting vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. The Spanish VRE Study Group. (7/1038)

Studies in a variety of U.S. clinical laboratories have demonstrated difficulty in detecting intermediate and low-level vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The misclassification of "at least intermediate resistant isolates" as vancomycin susceptible may have both clinical implications and a negative impact on measures to control the spread of VRE. No published study has assessed the ability of clinical laboratories in Europe to detect VRE. So, the apparent low prevalence of VRE in European hospitals may be, in part, secondary to the inability of these laboratories to detect all VRE. In an effort to assess European laboratories' proficiency in detecting VRE, we identified 22 laboratories in Spain and asked them to test four VRE strains and one susceptible enterococcal strain from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collection. Each organism was tested by the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used by each laboratory. Overall, VRE were correctly identified in 61 of 88 (69.1%) instances. The accuracy of VRE detection varied with the level of resistance and the antimicrobial susceptibility method. The high-level-resistant strain (Enterococcus faecium; MIC, 512 microg/ml) was accurately detected in 20 of 22 (91. 3%) instances, whereas the intermediate-resistant isolate (Enterococcus gallinarum; MIC, 8 microg/ml) was accurately detected in only 11 of 22 (50%) instances. Classification errors occurred in 27 of 88 (30.9%) instances. Misclassification as vancomycin susceptible was the most common error (16 of 27 [59.3%] instances). Our study shows that the participating Spanish laboratories had an overall acceptable proficiency in detecting VRE but that a substantial proportion of VRE isolates with low or intermediate levels of resistance were not detected. We recommend that studies be conducted to validate laboratory proficiency testing as an important step in the prevention and control of the spread of antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

Aspartic acid for asparagine substitution at position 276 reduces susceptibility to mechanism-based inhibitors in SHV-1 and SHV-5 beta-lactamases. (8/1038)

In SHV-type beta-actamases, position 276 (in Ambler's numbering scheme) is occupied by an asparagine (Asn) residue. The effect on SHV-1 beta-lactamase and its extended-spectrum derivative SHV-5 of substituting an aspartic acid (Asp) residue for Asn276 was studied. Mutations were introduced by a PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis procedure. Wild-type SHV-1 and -5 beta-lactamases and their respective Asn276-->Asp mutants were expressed under isogenic conditions by cloning the respective bla genes into the pBCSK(+) plasmid and transforming Escherichia coli DH5alpha. Determination of IC50 showed that SHV-1(Asn276-->Asp), compared with SHV-1, was inhibited by 8- and 8.8-fold higher concentrations of clavulanate and tazobactam respectively. Replacement of Asn276 by Asp in SHV-5 beta-lactamase caused a ten-fold increase in the IC50 of clavulanate; the increases in the IC50s of tazobactam and sulbactam were 10- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Beta-lactam susceptibility testing showed that both Asn276-->Asp mutant enzymes, compared with the parental beta-lactamases, conferred slightly lower levels of resistance to penicillins (amoxycillin, ticarcillin and piperacillin), cephalosporins (cephalothin and cefprozil) and some of the expanded-spectrum oxyimino beta-lactams tested (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam). The MICs of ceftazidime remained unaltered, while those of cefepime and cefpirome were slightly elevated in the clones producing the mutant beta-lactamases. The latter clones were also less susceptible to penicillin-inhibitor combinations. Asn276-->Asp mutation was associated with changes in the substrate profiles of SHV-1 and SHV-5 enzymes. Based on the structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the potential effects of the introduced mutation on SHV-1 and SHV-5 are discussed.  (+info)

Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), an environment where resistance genes can potentially spread and exchange between microbes. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were quantified using qPCR in three WWTPs of decreasing capacity located in Helsinki, Tallinn, and Tartu, respectively: sulphonamide resistance genes (sul1 and sul2), tetracycline resistance genes (tetM and tetC), and resistance genes for extended spectrum beta-lactams (blaoxa-58, blashv-34, and blactx-m-32). To avoid inconsistencies among qPCR assays we normalised the ARG abundances with 16S rRNA gene abundances while assessing if the respective genes increased or decreased during treatment. ARGs were detected in most samples; sul1, sul2, and tetM were detected in all samples. Statistically significant differences (adjusted p,0.01) between the inflow and effluent were detected in only four cases. Effluent values for blaoxa-58 and tetC decreased in the two larger plants while ...
have discovered a novel mechanism of resistance to ?-lactams that is independent of penicillinase and the low affinity penicillin bindin protein (PBP), PBP2a, the two known mechanisms of ?-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. This new type of resistance was identified during experiments in which methicillin- susceptible S. aureus strains were passaged in the presence of each of the two so-called "fifth generation" anti-MRSA cephalosporins, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline. Whole genome sequencing of a ceftobiprole- passage mutant revealed mutations in genes encoding PBP4, a non-essential, low-molecular weight PBP; GdpP, a putative signaling protein; and AcrB, a putative transporter. Ceftaroline also selected for PBP4 and GdpP mutants, but not AcrB mutants, indicating the primary importance of the former two proteins. We hypothesize 1) that a gain of transpeptidase function by mutant PBP4 accounts for high-level ?-lactam resistance; and 2) that GdpP contributes to resistance via a signaling ...
The optimal method to screen for gastrointestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO) has yet to be established. The direct MacConkey (direct MAC) plate method demonstrates high sensitivity for CRO detection, but established zone diameter (ZD) criteria for ertapenem (≤27 mm) and meropenem (≤32 mm) result in high rates of false positives upon confirmatory testing. To increase specificity, we screened for CRO in two high-risk wards using the direct MAC plate method, recorded ZDs for each sample, and generated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate the optimal ZD cutoff criteria. Of 6,868 swabs obtained over an 18-month period, 4,766 (69%) had growth on MAC plates, and 2,500 (36%) met criteria for further evaluation based on previously established ZDs around the carbapenem disks. A total of 812 (12%) swabs were confirmed positive for at least one CRO and included 213 (3%) carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO), resulting in a specificity of 78% for the ...
Publisher : International Dairy Federation All titles : An evaluation of the Idexx SNAP test for detecting beta-Lactam antibiotics in raw milk [enzyme linked receptor-binding assay] ...
1IYS: Crystal Structure of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase Toho-1: Insights into the Molecular Mechanism for Catalytic Reaction and Substrate Specificity Expansion
1IYS: Crystal Structure of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase Toho-1: Insights into the Molecular Mechanism for Catalytic Reaction and Substrate Specificity Expansion
Trends in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) collected from hospitals nationwide in Singapore over 3 years are presented. Hospital isolates with imipenem or meropenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ,1 mg/L were sent to the National Public Health Laboratory for further investigation. A total of 400 CRE were submitted, 227 (56.8%) of which carried a carbapenemase gene. blaNDM was the most common (130/400; 32.5%), followed by blaOXA-48-like (blaOXA-48, -181, -232) (55/400; 13.8%). Interestingly, four isolates bearing dual carbapenemase genes were also detected. KPC- and OXA-48-like-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were fingerprinted by DiversiLab® rep-PCR. Locally, KPC producers do not appear to have clonal dissemination. In contrast, OXA-48-like producers were found to have a greater degree of clustering than KPC producers. © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer ...
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page about new carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), untreatable or difficult-to-treat Enterobacteriaceae that have developed high levels of resistance to antibiotics, including last-resort antibiotics called carbapenems. Includes NC DHHS and CDC communications about this emerging public health concern as well as links to infection prevention information tailored for patients and healthcare providers.
Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult to treat bacteria that are resistant to carbapenem antibiotics and nearly all available antibiotics. They can cause serious illness and death; bloodstream infections are fatal in 40% -50% of cases. CRE was designated by the CDC in 2013 as one of the three most urgent drug resistant threats in the United States. An estimated 9,000 CRE infections cause 600 deaths yearly in the U.S.. Risk factors for CRE colonization or infection include open wounds, presence of indwelling devices (such as endotracheal tubes, feeding tubes, and catheters), multiple medical problems, and high antimicrobial use. CRE are easily spread between infected or colonized patients by health care workers and equipment, unless rigorous infection prevention precautions are taken. Cases and outbreaks of CRE have been increasingly recognized in recent years in Northern California, including Alameda County. In June 2017, the Alameda County Public Health ...
Provider Role in Transmission of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae - Volume 38 Issue 11 - Marika E. Grabowski, Hyojung Kang, Kristen M. Wells, Costi D. Sifri, Amy J. Mathers, Jennifer M. Lobo
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a serious threat to public health. Infections with CRE are difficult, and in some cases impossible, to treat and have been associated with mortality rates up to 50%(1). Due to the movement of patients throughout the healthcare system, if CRE are a problem in one facility, then typically they are a problem in other facilities in the region as well. To help protect patients and prevent transmission, CDC has updated 2012 CRE toolkit; this document will continue to be updated as new information becomes available.. ...
PubMedID: 24985124 | Successful management of an outbreak due to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a neonatal intensive care unit. | European journal of pediatrics | 7/2/2014
Schwaber et al identified risk factors for acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospitalized patient. These can help to identify a patient who should be screened for carriage. The authors are from Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center.
Despite the unfavorable double-room configuration of our ICU, the 4.1% rate of ESBL acquisition was much lower than the 13% reported by Razazi et al. in a 24-bed ICU with eight single rooms but without any protocol of contact precautions for ESBL carriers [13]. It is close to that reported by Alves et al. in an ICU with only single rooms, in which contact precautions were also applied [17]. Unlike Barbier et al., who reported that half of the ESBL carriers acquired their ESBL during their ICU stay [16], and Gardam et al., who reported that ESBL acquisition accounted for two-thirds of ESBL carriage in the ICU [18], ESBL acquisition accounted for only 12.7% of all ESBL carriage in our study, confirming that ESBL carriage is mostly imported, whereas high-level cephalosporinase (HL-Case) is mostly acquired, in the ICU [19]. In multivariate analysis, the severity (SAPS II) at admission was the only factor identified to be associated with the acquired carriage of ESBL, while some authors have reported ...
What are carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)? Enterobacteriaceae are a group of bacteria normally found in the human gut. Common types include E. coli and Klebsiella species. Carbapenems are a class of antibiotics that were developed to treat bacteria that are resistant to other drugs. Due to the overuse of these antibiotics, some types of Enterobacteriaceae have developed resistance to carbapenems; these bacteria are called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).. Who gets CRE? Healthy people usually do not get CRE infections. In healthcare settings, CRE infections may occur among patients who are receiving treatment for other conditions. Patients whose care requires devices like ventilators (breathing machines), urinary (bladder) catheters, or intravenous (vein) catheters, and patients who are taking long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk for CRE infections.. How are CRE spread? CRE can be transmitted via direct person-to-person contact with an infected person or ...
It was a week into my elderly patients hospital admission when he began to have fever and profuse diarrhea, some 10-12 bowel movement a day. The diagnosis was not hard to make: a stool test showed he had C difficile. Another patient, a thin women in her late 40s who had become paraplegic after a […]. ...
(PRWEB) May 15, 2015 -- GeneWEAVE, Inc.,a clinical diagnostics company addressing multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDRO), announced that initial data presented
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On the right plate, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is able to grow even in the presence of antibiotics. Photo by CDC A ...
Besides the constant care of patients, healthcare facilities have one more thing on their hands: the CRE (carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria. This lethal enemy is unfortunately growing to be very common in intensive care settings to the point that there is an alert rising due to this.
Brink, Adrian et al. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in South Africa: Risk factors for acquisition and prevention. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j., July 2012, vol.102, no.7, p.599-601. ISSN 0256- ...
After reports that a dangerous drug-resistant bacterium, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, or CRKP, had spread to at least 356 patients in Southern California last year, Times staff writer
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
James Foster (foster at cs.uidaho.edu) wrote: ,Ahhh...gotcha. That is indeed an interesting question. Im not sure ,what the answer is. I know that many new functions are co-opted from ,similar functions (I think the classical example is some enzyme ,beginning with the letter l...but cant remember right now). But that ,begs the question of where the co-opted behaviors came from. True, and I think also the important issue is how this new function arose from a similar function. The evolution, and natural selection, of classes of beta-lactamases are the examples I know. While we havent observed it, the early beta-lactamases are hypothesised to have arisen from cell-wall enzymes and the bacteria were facing an enemy in nature (beta-lactams in fungi). Today, we have artificial beta-lactams that are not seen anywhere in nature, yet there are bacteria resistant to it. One explanation that this new function /arose/ (evolved) in the the last few decades, compared to the initial ones, which mightve ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2ffy: Ampc Beta-Lactamase N289A Mutant in Complex With A Boronic Acid Deacylation Transition State Analog Compound SM3
The global dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Carbapenemases, or carbapenem-hydro...
The global dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Carbapenemases, or carbapenem-hydro...
Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported from a number of European countries
Medsun Pharma is a Manufacturer of Cephalosporin & Beta-Lactam Tablet company which provides high-quality healthcare products to customers across the globe. Get More Info on Our Site Now!
Backbone RMSDs are shown for native and S130 mutant SHV β-lactamase at 300 K, black color indicate native SHV, point mutant form S130G SHV β-lactamase shown i
Veinberg G.; Shestakova I.; Bokaldere R.; Dikovskaya K.; Grigan N.; Musel D.; Vorona M.; Kanepe I.; Domracheva I.; Zharkova O.; Mežapuķe R.; Kalvinsh I.; Lukevics E. Cytotoxic properties of beta-lactam antibiotics structural analogs. Abstr., Baltijas valstu onkologu un radiologu 2. kongr. = 2nd Baltic congr. of oncology and radiology; 10.-12. sept.: Rīga, Latvija, 1998; 173 ...
Background. During 2006, Israeli hospitals faced a clonal outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae that was not controlled by local measures. A nationwide intervention was launched to contain the outbreak and to introduce a strategy to control future dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals.. Methods. In March 2007, the Ministry of Health issued guidelines mandating physical separation of hospitalized carriers of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and dedicated staffing and appointed a professional task force charged with containment. The task force paid site visits at acute-care hospitals, evaluated infection-control policies and laboratory methods, supervised adherence to the guidelines via daily census reports on carriers and their conditions of isolation, provided daily feedback on performance to hospital directors, and intervened additionally when necessary. The initial intervention period was 1 April 2007-31 May 2008. The primary outcome measure ...
Nosocomial pathogens can be associated with a variety of infections, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs) and in immunocompromised patients. Usually these pathogens are resistant to multiple drugs and pose therapeutic challenges. Among these organisms, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most frequent being encountered in the clinical setting. Carbapenems are very useful to treat infections caused by these drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, but carbapenem resistance is increasing globally. Combination therapy is frequently given empirically for hospital-acquired infections in critically ill patients and is usually composed of an adequate beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of plazomicin against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Amikacin was used as a comparator. The activity of plazomicin in combination with several different antibiotics was tested by disk diffusion, the checkerboard method, and time-kill ...
Identifying Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of carbapenemase production and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in 47 carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by phenotypic confirmatory tests and molecular assay.. Methodology: Carbapenem resistance genes KPC, OXA-48 and NDM were investigated with the BD MAX CRE assay kit in the BD MAX real time PCR instrument. Modified Hodge test, MBL gradient strip test, D70C Carbapenemase Detection Set, Temocillin gradient strip test methods were used as phenotypic confirmatory tests. Clonal relationship between study isolates was investigated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.. Results: Analysis with BD MAX CRE assay revealed OXA-48 positivity in 17 (36%) strains, NDM positivity in 6 (13%) strains and coexistence of OXA-48 + NDM positivity in 8 (17%) strains. In 16 (34%) strains, none of the KPC, OXA-48 and NDM genes were detected. While MHT was the most sensitive phenotypic confirmatory test, D70C disc set had not been ...
Read "Faecal colonization of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC in Mozambican university students, BMC Infectious Diseases" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The results indicated that spring waters could become a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via drinking water or food chain. In addition, wastewater discharge of restaurants or hotels may be an important contribution source of …
Define Beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactam antibiotics synonyms, Beta-lactam antibiotics pronunciation, Beta-lactam antibiotics translation, English dictionary definition of Beta-lactam antibiotics. n. Any of a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins, that contain a beta-lactam ring
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Carbapenems, such as imipenem and meropenem, are antibacterial agents with activity against many gram-negative, gram-positive, and anaerobic microorganisms. Carbapenems are often used to treat multidrug-resistant isolates, especially strains producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (21, 29, 30, 47, 58). However, the recent appearance of β-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems, in addition to other mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, creates an increasing therapeutic dilemma (21, 29, 30, 47,58). Therefore, a better understanding of carbapenem resistance mechanisms is critical to optimizing therapy.. Here we describe the fourth class A β-lactamase with high carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity isolated from a strain ofEnterobacteriaceae. The enzyme KPC-1 shows 45% amino acid identity to Sme-1 (41) from S. marcescens S6. Unlike KPC-1, the other three class A carbapenemases (Nmc-A [42], IMI-1 [57], and Sme-1 [41]) show ,90% similarity to each other at the nucleotide level (41, 47). These ...
Looking for online definition of beta-lactam antibiotics in the Medical Dictionary? beta-lactam antibiotics explanation free. What is beta-lactam antibiotics? Meaning of beta-lactam antibiotics medical term. What does beta-lactam antibiotics mean?
Table 4: Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing|i| Klebsiella pneumoniae|/i| Compared to Nonproducing Isolates
Identifying transmission route of antimicrobial-resistant pathogen is essential for appropriate infection control strategy in healthcare facilities. We report the utility of single-nucleotide...
Learn more about Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Infection at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs), especially those who have patients with wounds, are encouraged to take steps to protect their most vulnerable patients from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a family of germs that have become difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. In addition to patients at high risks, PTs and PTAs should take all necessary precautions to prevent the spread of CRE to healthy individuals. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CRE are resistant to all, or nearly all, antibiotics-even the most powerful drugs of last-resort. CRE also have high mortality rates, killing 1 in 2 patients who get bloodstream infections from them. Additionally, CRE easily transfer their antibiotic resistance to other bacteria. For example, carbapenem-resistant klebsiella can spread its drug-destroying properties to a normal E. coli bacteria, which makes the E.coli resistant to antibiotics ...
Physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs), especially those who have patients with wounds, are encouraged to take steps to protect their most vulnerable patients from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a family of germs that have become difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. In addition to patients at high risks, PTs and PTAs should take all necessary precautions to prevent the spread of CRE to healthy individuals. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CRE are resistant to all, or nearly all, antibiotics-even the most powerful drugs of last-resort. CRE also have high mortality rates, killing 1 in 2 patients who get bloodstream infections from them. Additionally, CRE easily transfer their antibiotic resistance to other bacteria. For example, carbapenem-resistant klebsiella can spread its drug-destroying properties to a normal E. coli bacteria, which makes the E.coli resistant to antibiotics ...
Antimicrobials are among the most important and commonly prescribed drugs in the management of critically ill patients and beta-lactams are the most common antibiotic class used. Critically ill patients pathophysiological factors lead to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of beta-lactams. A comprehensive bibliographic search in PubMed database of all English language articles published from January 2000 to December 2017 was performed, allowing the selection of articles addressing the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients. In critically ill patients, several factors may increase volume of distribution and enhance renal clearance, inducing high intra- and inter-patient variability in beta-lactam concentration and promoting the risk of antibiotic underdosing. The duration of infusion of beta-lactams has been shown to influence the fT | minimal inhibitory concentration and an improved beta-lactam pharmacodynamics profile may be obtained by
Detection of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from different hospitals in China. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2016 ...
Washington, D.C. and Malvern, PA, July 22, 2019 - The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) will collaborate with the U.S. Department of Defenses Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) and Venatorx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. of Malvern, Pennsylvania, to develop a novel antibiotic to treat infections caused by bacteria resistant to currently available agents.. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designated antibiotic-resistant infections, including infections such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), as urgent public health threats. CDC estimates that antibiotic-resistant infections affect at least two million people in the United States each year and drive $35 billion in healthcare system costs annually.. Venatorxs clinical-stage candidate includes a novel compound, VNRX-5133, which when combined with cefepime, a currently marketed antibiotic, may overcome certain forms of antibiotic ...
Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) said that three people tested positive as potential carriers of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE).
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Fulltext - Frequency and Characteristics of the Neonatal Sepsis Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing and Non-Producing Organisms in the Chittagong Area of Bangladesh
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of maternal recto-vaginal ESBL-E colonization, identify risk factors for maternal and neonatal ESBL-E c...
James A. McKinnell, MD, is an associate professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. His research focuses on understanding optimal treatment and better classifying disease burden from highly drug resistant bacteria, including Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae spp.. ...
Wielooporne szczepy Klebsiella pneumoniae są częstą przyczyną poważnych zakażeń, takich jak: zapalenie płuc, zakażenia układu moczowego, sepsa, zapalenie opon mózgowo- rdzeniowych oraz ropnie narządowe. Najważniejszym mechanizmem oporności pałeczek Klebsiella na antybiotyki β-laktamowe jest wytwarzanie β-laktamaz o rozszerzonym spektrum substratowym (ESBL). Geny kodujące ESBL są najczęściej zlokalizowane w obrębie dużych plazmidów, co ułatwia ich koniugacyjne rozprzestrzenianie się wśród pałeczek Gram-ujemnych.
Toho-1 which is also designated CTX-M-44 is an extended-spectrum class A β-lactamase that has high activity toward cefotaxime. have certain effects on expansion of substrate specificity while those of Cys69 and Phe160 have less effect and that of Asp240 has no effect on the hydrolysis of any substrates examined. Gly232 which have been assumed to … Continue reading Toho-1 which is also designated CTX-M-44 is an extended-spectrum class A. ...
Tn2603 that differs from Tn21 only by a single additional cassette encoding the OXA-1 Beta-lactamase gene (46). aureus infections among patients in the emergency orde ment.
Revision as of 17:10, 28 February 2012 by Mevans86 (Talk , contribs) (Adding DOI property to each full OR chapter page, for linking and organizational purposes) ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. They are resistant because they produce an enzyme called a carbapenemase that disables the drug molecule. The resistance can vary from moderate to severe. Enterobacteriaceae are common commensals and infectious agents. Experts fear CRE as the new "superbug". The bacteria can kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections. Tom Frieden, former head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has referred to CRE as "nightmare bacteria". Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. Both of these enzymes, as well as the enzyme VIM (Verona Integron-Mediated Metallo-β-lactamase) have also been ...
Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae especially blaNDM-1-carrying isolates is a great concern worldwide. In this study we describe the molecular basis of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in three teaching hospitals at Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 170 nonduplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion method. PCR was carried out for detection of carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaSPM, blaOXA-48, and blaOXA-181) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaGES, and blaPER). Clonal relatedness of blaNDM-1-positive isolates was evaluated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS: Tigecycline was the most effective antimicrobial agent with 96.5% susceptibility. In addition, 6.5% of the isolates were carbapenem resistant. BlaNDM-1 was identified in four isolates (isolate A-D) and all ...
The present study aimed to perform a deep phenotypic and genotypic analysis of 15 clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) strains isolated in Madagascar between 2008 and 2016 from diverse sources. CRAb isolates collected from the Clinical Biology Centre of the Institut Pasteur of Madagascar, from the neonatal unit of Antananarivo military hospital, and from intensive care units of Mahajanga Androva and Antananarivo Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (HJRA) hospitals were subjected to susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing allowed us to assess the presence of antibiotic-resistance determinants, insertion sequences, integrons, genomic islands and potential virulence factors in all strains. The structure of the carO porin gene and deduced protein (CarO) were also assessed in CRAb isolates. All isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant strains. Antibiotic-resistance genes against six classes of antimicrobial agents were described. The four carbapenem-resistance genes: blaOXA
Concluding remarks.The rising incidence of ESBL- and KPC-producing pathogens presents challenges in the empirical therapy for Gram-negative bacterial infections. Acknowledging the increased mortality rates with ineffective initial therapy (13, 16), the timely recognition of ESBL- and KPC-producing organisms may have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Nucleic acid microarrays can be important in achieving this end.. In this study, the nucleic acid microarray technology (Check-KPC/ESBL kits) demonstrated accurate and reproducible results with regard to the presence of ESBL and KPC genes within the Enterobacteriaceae (2, 3, 8, 9). Current practice requires 24 h of adequate growth prior to testing on the microarray system. Our study shows that the Check-KPC/ESBL kit could be employed with DNA extracted directly from blood cultures before species identification. This could reduce the notification time by as much as 18 to 20 h. Depending on the method used, the time savings, costs of materials, ...
As a healthcare-associated infections (HAI) fellow, I get to work closely with highly knowledgeable public health experts from both public and private sectors on emerging public health priorities, such as antimicrobial resistance. This year, I developed a protocol and designed a surveillance system to better understand the burden of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in North Carolina. This project requires collaborating with seven major healthcare facilities in our state and the state laboratory of public health. By collecting epidemiologic information from cases and conducting resistance type testing on isolates, surveillance will provide information on the incidence of CRE in North Carolina, identify common mechanisms of carbapenem resistance and identify common healthcare exposures related to CRE. Preliminary results show that of 55 isolates tested, 35 (62%) are positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). KPC is a common mechanism of resistance first identified in ...
A recent outbreak of the "superbug", carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bacteria, at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center has resulted in seven confirmed infections and two deaths [2]. The source of the outbreak was found to be two of the hospitals seven Olympus Corp. duodenoscopes that were used between October 3 and January 28 [2]. A total of 179 patients have been exposed [1,2]. The UCLA Medical Center is providing these individuals with free, at-home screening tests to determine if they are infected with the CRE bacteria as a result of their exposure [2].. What is CRE? Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacteria are part of a family of bacteria commonly found in the colon. Over time, some of these gut-dwelling pathogens have developed high-resistance against many widely used antibiotics. These bacteria contain an enzyme that breaks down carbapenem antibiotics, rendering them useless, and making it very difficult to treat patients with CRE infections. Antibiotic-resistance ...
3. Should I use combination or monotherapy for the treatment of serious infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli?. When dealing with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli clinicians are left with limited and suboptimal treatment options.. While recent additions of ceftolozane/tazobactam (Zerbaxa) and ceftazidime/avibactam (Avycaz) have given clinicians novel beta-lactam based treatment options for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), experience remains extremely limited with these agents and isolates with resistance to these newer agents have already been identified. The options remaining all come with significant limitations that temper enthusiasm about them.. The mainstays of therapy, the polymyxins, are associated with a dose-limiting nephrotoxicity (occurring around ~30-50% of the time!!), an inability to hit pharmacodynamic targets for deep-seeded infections, and significant heteroresistance, most notably in A. baumannii.. While ...
In its acceptance letter, the FDA has stated that it is currently planning to hold an advisory committee meeting to discuss this application. The NDA is supported by data from both the EPIC and CARE clinical trials which evaluated the safety and efficacy of plazomicin in patients with serious infections caused by gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation for plazomicin for the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by certain Enterobacteriaceae in patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. Breakthrough Therapy designation was created by the FDA to expedite the development and review of drugs that target serious or life-threatening conditions. Plazomicin has also received Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) designation from the FDA which provides incentives for the development of new antibiotics, including priority ...
Carbapenems are antibiotics of last-resort. These agents are crucial for preventing and treating life-threatening bacterial infections. Carbapenemase enzymes, which degrade carbapenems thereby conferring carbapenem resistance, are harbored on transmissible mobile genetic elements called plasmids that are easily spread from species to species and even among different genera of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria harboring carbapenemase enzymes, in particular Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), have been identified in nearly all States in the U.S. Even more concerning is the increasing reports of the appearance of non-endemic carbapenemase variants in the U.S. such as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Gram-negative bacilli. Early detection of CPOs in the health care-setting is required as patients with unrecognized colonization with a CPO serve as a reservoir for transmission during health-care associated outbreaks. Therapeutic options for infections caused by a CPO ...
Teck Wee Boo, Molecular characterisation of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter species in an Irish tertiary care hospital, [thesis], Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). School of Medicine. Discipline of Clinical Microbiology, 2010, pp 377 ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Cobalt atom in PDB 1fof: Crystal Structure of the Class D Beta-Lactamase Oxa-10
The CDC recently published a report on Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance, which revealed that more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result. In addition, 223,900 cases of Clostridioides difficile occurred in 2017 and at least 12,800 people died.. Clostridioides difficile (C.diff) is of special concern because it causes a dangerous infection that is linked to antibiotic use. It can cause deadly diarrhea when antibiotics kill beneficial bacteria in the digestive system that normally keep it under control. When the C. diff. illnesses and deaths are added, the annualU.S. toll of all these pathogens is more than 3 million infections and 48,000 deaths.. C. diff., drug-resistant gonorrhea, and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are known as "nightmare bacteria" because they pose a triple threat. They are resistant to all or nearly all antibiotics, they kill up to half of patients who get bloodstream infections ...
in Biochemical Pharmacology (2007), 74(12), 1686-1701. One strategy employed by bacterial strains to resist beta-lactam antibiotics is the expression of metallo-beta-lactamases requiring Zn+2 for activity. In the last few years, many new zinc beta-lactamases ... [more ▼]. One strategy employed by bacterial strains to resist beta-lactam antibiotics is the expression of metallo-beta-lactamases requiring Zn+2 for activity. In the last few years, many new zinc beta-lactamases have been described and several pathogens are now known to synthesize members of this class. Metallo-beta-lactamases are especially worrisome due to: (1) their broad activity profiles that encompass most beta-lactam antibiotics, including the carbapenems; (2) potential for horizontal transference; and (3) the absence of clinically useful inhibitors. on the basis of the known sequences, three different lineages, identified as subclasses B1, B2, and B3 have been characterized. The three-dimensional structure of at least one ...
(BPT) - If you’ve ever felt sick or battled a bug, you may have asked your doctor for an antibiotic. Ever since the advent of these wonder drugs, these medications have one common goal: fight bacteria in the body to help maintain a healthy immune system. As new medical breakthroughs emerge, the role of antibiotics has also evolved and helped patients dealing with anything from ear infections to serious lung infections like pneumonia.However, antibiotics are not foolproof. Bacteria, when exposed to antibiotic drugs, can learn how to resist them. These resistant bacteria are known as superbugs, which are harder for antibiotics to kill.Recently, superbugs have become a greater and far more serious concern. In March 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a warning about a new class of superbugs called Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), which can cause dangerous infections that can get into the bloodstream – and kill up to 50 percent of people when they do
Washington, D.C., February 27, 2013 /3BL Media/ - Patients who tested positive for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) took an average of 387 days following hospital discharge to be clear of the organism, according to a new study published in the March issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).. The study was conducted in the Shaare Zedek Medical Center, a 700-bed university-affiliated general hospital in Jerusalem, Israel. The research team analyzed follow-up cultures from 97 CRE-positive patients who had been discharged from the medical center between January 2009 and December 2010.. The average time until cultures became negative was 387 days. At three months, 78 percent of patients remained culture positive; at six months, 65 percent remained positive; at nine months, 51 percent, and at one year 39 percent of patients remained positive, meaning they could potentially ...
Youll hear continued debate about which antibiotics to use to treat carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections.... Learn more with Hospital Pharmacists Letter.
The woman was in her 70s when she arrived at a hospital in August 2016 with signs of sepsis. She had been in India years before and had been treated for a broken leg and bone infection, according to the CDC. After doing tests, her doctors found the bacteria - which belong to a class of drug-resistant bugs called carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) - were resistant to all forms of FDA-approved antibiotics. The patient died in September after going into septic shock, according to the CDC ...
Excerpt from: Infection Control Today (click for full article) As the superbugs known as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have continued to spread over the last decade with cases in at least 42 states, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA)...
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant enterobacterial species poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. OXA-48-type carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases are widely distributed among Enterobacteriaceae, with significant geographical differences. To date, 11 OXA-48-like variants have been identified, with classical OXA-48 being the most widespread. These enzymes show high-level hydrolytic activity against penicillins and low-level hydrolysis towards carbapenems. Since the first description of the OXA-48 carbapenemase in Turkey, bacterial strains producing the enzyme have been extensively reported in nosocomial and community outbreaks in many parts of the word, particularly in the Mediterranean area and European countries ...
Deaths caused by carbapenem-resistant K.pneumoniae. Some strains are developing resistance to antibiotics.. The alarming thing is these bacteria are resistant to one of the key last-line antibiotics, Dr Sophia David, from the Sanger Institute, told BBC News.. The infections are associated with a high mortality rate. Its already worrying that were seeing 2,000 deaths in 2015 - but the concern is that if action isnt taken, then this will continue to rise. Deaths from carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae have gone up from 341 in Europe in 2007 to 2,094 by 2015.. ...
...   Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, and have a structure which renders them
Carbapenems are a major last-line class of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant infections is a threat to healthcare and patient safety in Europe as it seriously curtails the ability to cure infections.
Determinarea riscului de portaj şi a direcţiei de transmitere a enterobacteriaceelor producătoare de ESBL la animalele de companie şi proprietarii acestora ...
Background and Objective: The production of carbapenemases especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is the most important mechanism of enzymatic resistance in isolated Enterobacteriaceae such as K. pneumoniae. The purpose of this study was detected of the carbapenemase producer K. pneumoniae strains with phenotypic and genotypic methods. Method: Out of 800 strains, 270 K. pneumoniae strains (33.7%), were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. Carbapenem resistant strains were identified by the Modified Hodge Test based on CLSI instruction and PCR for surveying the presence of bla-KPC gene. Results: A total 270 K. pneumoniae strains were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility test results showed the highest and lowest resistance was related to piperacillin (60.6%) and carbapenems (14.6%) respectively. 80.5% (33 of 41) isolates were positive by MHT, but all of them (100%) were negative for amplification of the bla-KPC
CRE trends during 2006-2015 in the VHA recapitulate the epidemic of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in the United States and indicate that a "second epidemic" of carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae complex appears to be unfolding. In the United States, the predominant carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae genotype is sequence type (ST) 258, which is associated with Tn4401, a mobile genetic element containing blaKPC (7). In contrast, the genetic background of carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae complex is not well defined. Analysis of carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae from the US Midwest and New York, NY, demonstrated dissemination of E. cloacae complex ST171 harboring the blaKPC-3 gene (2,3,8). Further analysis demonstrated that ST171 was associated with a Tn4401 variant within a pBK30683-like plasmid; however, various other plasmids in Enterobacter spp. also harbor blaKPC-3 (4). Of note, in a northeastern US hospital, one third of carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae contained carbapenemases and the rest ...
In the United States, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is the most common carbapenemase, followed by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM). OXA-48-like and VIM carbapenemases predominate in other parts of the globe, but do occur in the United States. The genes blaOXA-48-like and blaVIM encode OXA-48-like and VIM enzyme production, respectively. PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid means of identifying these genes.. This test detects the genes encoding OXA-48-like (oxacillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase) and VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase) types of beta-lactamases in stool and perirectal/rectal/perianal/anal swabs. It can be used as a tool to find colonized patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends surveillance to detect unrecognized colonized patients who may be a potential source for transmission of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli under certain circumstances. Such surveillance may be focused in certain high-risk settings or ...
We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklins gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklins gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and ...
7.24.14. Selective Micro Technologies demonstrated pure chlorine dioxide successfully kills Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae at greater than 99.9999%. The test was also conducted according to EPA registration standards using active ingredient at the lowest certified limit (LCL). Test demonstrated successful efficacy at 10 minute contact time. According to CDC, "CRE, which stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are examples of Enterobacteriaceae, a normal part of the human gut bacteria, that can become carbapenem-resistant." CRE bacteria are highly contagious and marked by severe illness or even death. For more information click here.. ...
The articles reports on the discovery of a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain producing a Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM) carbapenemase. The strain, not common among Enterobacteriaceae in the U.S., was detected from an American tourist who was vacationing in Greece. Initial diagnosis was Clostridium difficile infection but was proven otherwise when the patient was transferred to a U.S. hospital. No other patients in the hospital was found to have the strain ...
Buy Bactoclav Online! Bactoclav (Amoxicillin/clavulanate) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial that has been available for clinical use in a wide range of indications for over 20 years and is now used primarily in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This is against a background of increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, notably the continued spread of beta-lactamase-mediated resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, and penicillin, macrolide and qu
Buy Amoklavin Online! Amoklavin (Amoxicillin/clavulanate) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial that has been available for clinical use in a wide range of indications for over 20 years and is now used primarily in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This is against a background of increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, notably the continued spread of beta-lactamase-mediated resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, and penicillin, macrolide and qu
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a class of bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are considered last-resort drugs when other antibiotics have failed.. CRE, which tend to spread in hospitals and long-term care facilities, cause an estimated 9,300 infections and 600 deaths in the U.S. each year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).. And incidence is on the rise.. Tom Frieden, director of the CDC, has called these nightmare bacteria because they are resistant to some of the last-ditch treatments available to doctors fighting resistant infections.. The researchers looked at about 250 samples of CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals and from one California hospital. Their goal was to obtain a snapshot of the genetic diversity of CRE, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks, to find evidence of strains being transmitted within and between hospitals, and to learn how ...
The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (E-ESBL) is a major public health problem. It leads more frequent prescription of penems with the risk of emergence and spread of strains producing carbapenemases, which may be resistant to all known antibiotics. A policy of savings of penems is desirable. Among the alternatives to penems, amikacin is in the foreground. It remains active on the majority of E-ESBL strains. Some risk factors for E-ESBL emergence are known: recent antibiotic therapy (particularly quinolones and cephalosporins third generation), previous hospitalization or residence in a high endemic country.. In pediatrics, E-ESBLs are primarily responsible for urinary tract infection. In France, E-ESBLs represent about 10% of the strains responsible for urinary tract infections. The Pathology Group Pediatric Infectious (GPIP) of the French Society of Pediatrics (SFP) and the Society of Infectious Pathology French Language (SPILF) have proposed different ...
Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli poses a significant threat to patients and healthcare systems in all European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are associated with high mortality, primarily due to delays in administration of effective treatment and the limited availability of treatment options. ...
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. METHODS: In this study we explore both genotypic and phenotypic properties of 26 CRAB isolates: 16 isolates were collected from January 2010 to March 2011, and 10 were collected between February and May 2015 ...
Verona Integron. From the Latin integrare (to make whole), integrons are systems for capturing and spreading antibiotic resistance genes among gram-negative bacteria. Integrons were first described by Stokes and Hall in 1989, although they clearly contributed to the first outbreaks of multidrug resistance in the 1950s. The Verona integron was first described in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a patient hospitalized at Verona University Hospital, Verona, Italy. Integrons are ancient structures that have been present in bacteria for millions of years, indicating that bacteria had the means of acquiring and disseminating antibiotic resistance long before humans developed antibiotics.. ...
Klebsiella bacteria cause about 10 percent of all hospital-acquired infections in the United States. K. pneumoniae sequence type 258 (ST258) is one of the Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae organisms labeled an urgent threat by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This strain of bacteria is particularly concerning because it is resistant to most antibiotics and kills nearly half of people with bloodstream infections.
The rate of bacterial infections resistant to even the strongest antibiotics are rising in the U.S. and leading to untreatable and often fatal illnesses. In a recent press conference, officials from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported that in 2012 nearly four percent of patients in all U.S. hospitals were infected with the drug-resistant bacteria; the rate in specialty hospitals was nearly 18 percent. The officials called for doctors, hospitals and public health workers to come together to stop the infections from spreading. The last decade has seen an explosion in the rate of hospitalized patients contracting Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE s. The name refers to the bacteria s lack of response to carbapenems, a class of drugs currently regarded by experts as last resort antibiotics. CRE s are fatal to over half of patients who get bloodstream infections from them and include over 70 known species that occur naturally in water, soil and the human digestive ...
FOX NEWS - A long-dreaded superbug that is a strain of E. Coli has made its first appearance in the United States, researchers at the U.S. Military HIV Research Program announced Thursday. After being identified in China, Europe and Canada, researchers identified mcr-1 positive- part of the deadly family of bacteria carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE- last month in a urinary tract sample in Pennsylvania, and found it was resistant to the antibiotic colistin.. Colistin, known as the last line of defense against the most antibiotic-resistant bacteria, now appears to be exchanging genes for its resistance and waning in strength, according to a news release.. "Colistin is one of the last efficacious antibiotics for the treatment of highly resistant bacteria. The emergence of a transferable gene that confers resistance to this vital antibiotic is extremely disturbing," Dr. Patrick McGann, of the Multidrug Resistant Organism Repository and Surveillance Network (MRSN) at the Walter Reed ...
KF, Kong (January 2010). "Beta-lactam antibiotics: from antibiosis to resistance and bacteriology". PubMed.gov. 118 (1): 1-36. ... have become better understood through the study of how antibiotics affect beta-lactam development through the antibiosis ... "Antibiosis resistance affects the biology of the insect so pest abundance and subsequent damage is reduced compared to that ... Antibiosis resistance often results in increased mortality or reduced longevity and reproduction of the insect." Antibiotic ...
Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (Feb 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ... which hydrolyzes the beta-lactam ring, rendering the drug inactive. This contributes to antibacterial resistance towards ... Cefalexin is a beta-lactam antibiotic of the cephalosporin family. It is bactericidal and acts by inhibiting synthesis of the ... Cefalexin is a beta-lactam antibiotic within the class of first-generation cephalosporins. It works similarly to other agents ...
Drug resistance plasmide, Baltimore, University Park Press 1977. *Ed. Beta-lactam antibiotics, Japan Scientific Societies Press ... Transferable drug resistance factor R, Tokyo University Press 1971. *Ed. com Hajime Hashimoto: Microbiological drug resistance ... com Ladislav Rosival, V. Krčméry Antibiotic resistance: transposition and other elements, Avicenium 1980 ...
Various strains tested have shown resistance to beta lactam antibiotics, lincosamides, macrolides, and quinolones. Multiple ... One of C. amycolatum's characteristic traits is its resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. ...
... they give some strains antibiotic resistance by degrading beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins). However, the protein ... beta 2". Retrieved 2015-07-07. Dominski Z (2007-03-01). "Nucleases of the metallo-beta-lactamase family and their role in DNA ... Lactamase, beta 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LACTB2 gene. LACTB2 is located on the 8th chromosome, with its ... The metallo beta-lactamases were first identified in bacteria; ...
Gram-negative bacteria can develop and transfer β-lactam resistance (including carbapenem resistance) in many ways. They can ... Independent risk factors for CRE infection include use of beta-lactam antibiotics and the use of mechanical ventilation. ... Martin, SI; Kaye, KM (2004). "Beta-lactam antibiotics: newer formulations and newer agents". Infectious Disease Clinics of ... These enzymes cleave the β-lactam ring, an essential component of β-lactam antibiotics that are recognized by and bound to PBPs ...
... as beta-lactamase production is an important contributor to beta-lactam resistance in these pathogens. In contrast, most beta- ... Beta-lactamases are a family of enzymes involved in bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. They act by breaking the ... Ambler Class B beta-lactams cleave beta-lactams by a mechanism similar to that of metalloproteases. As no covalent intermediate ... This allows the degraded beta-lactam to diffuse away and frees up the enzyme to process additional beta-lactam molecules. ...
However, resistance to penicillin and other beta-lactams may be transmitted from commensal neisseriae such as Neisseria ... "Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria polysaccharea as possible sources of meningococcal beta-lactam resistance by genetic ...
This gave an increased resistance to β-lactamases due to stereochemical blocking of the beta-lactam ring. Cefuroxime was the ... The bacteria can also replace the PBP that is vulnerable to Beta-lactam antibiotics with PBP that is less vulnerable. β-lactam ... The enzymes hydrolyze the bond between the carbon and nitrogen atom of the β-lactam ring. There are many beta lactamases which ... Target alterations in the binding site of PBP have led to high-level resistance of β-lactams among bacterias like staphylococci ...
... (PTZ-601) is a broad spectrum injectable antibiotic, from the carbapenem subgroup of beta-lactam antibiotics. It was ... against Enterobacteriaceae with defined resistance mechanisms". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 64 (2): 330-335. doi: ... developed as a replacement drug to combat bacteria that had acquired antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics. ...
Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other beta-lactams is increasing worldwide. The major mechanism of ... or antimicrobial resistance). NDM-1 is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. NDM ... Selective pressure is thought to play an important role, and use of beta-lactam antibiotics has been implicated as a risk ... Resistance to polymyxins first appear in 2011. An easier way for this resistance to spread, a plasmid known as MCR-1 was ...
However, administered in combination with a beta-lactam antibiotic, aminoglycosides appear to produce a synergistic effect ... "Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and erythromycin resistance mechanisms in beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae ... Oppegaard, O; Mylvaganam, H; Kittang, BR (February 2015). "Beta-haemolytic group A, C and G streptococcal infections in Western ... Sylvetsky, N; Raveh, D; Schlesinger, Y; Rudensky, B; Yinnon, AM (1 June 2002). "Bacteremia due to beta-hemolytic Streptococcus ...
Beta-lactam antibiotic Dicloxacillin Sutherland R, Croydon EA, Rolinson GN (November 1970). "Flucloxacillin, a new isoxazolyl ... Despite flucloxacillin being insensitive to beta-lactamases, some organisms have developed resistance to it and other narrow- ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to ... flucloxacillin has activity against beta-lactamase-producing organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus as it is beta-lactamase ...
Beta-lactam antibiotics mimic the D-Ala-D-Ala site, thereby irreversibly inhibiting PBP crosslinking of peptidoglycan. ... Resistance to cephalosporin antibiotics can involve either reduced affinity of existing PBP components or the acquisition of a ... Overall, the research shows that all beta lactams have the intrinsic hazard of very serious hazardous reactions in susceptible ... "5.1.2 Cephalosporins and other beta-lactams". British National Formulary (56 ed.). London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal ...
In general, B. fragilis is susceptible to metronidazole, carbapenems, tigecycline, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor ... Production of beta lactamase appears to be the main mechanism of antibiotic resistance in B. fragilis. Clindamycin is no longer ... These organisms are resistant to penicillin by virtue of production of beta-lactamase, and by other unknown factors. This group ... The bacteria have inherent high-level resistance to penicillin. ... fragilis due to emerging high-level resistance (>30% in some ...
This does not, however, confer resistance to bacterial beta-lactamases. Members of this family include ampicillin, amoxicillin ... Like other penicillins they contain a beta-lactam ring that is believed to be crucial to its antibacterial activity. ...
... may be used in patients with a history of allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics.[citation needed] Macrolide resistance has also ... Roberts MC; Soge OO; No DB (January 2011). "Characterization of macrolide resistance genes in Haemophilus influenzae isolated ... 1999). "Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory isolates of Haemophilus influenzae". Indian Pediatr. 36 (10): ... so it has gained resistance to the penicillin family of antibiotics. In severe cases, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone delivered ...
Beta lactam resistance in these pathogens is most commonly due to the expression of beta lactamase enzymes. Between 2007 and ... Their effectiveness is less affected by many common mechanisms of antibiotic resistance than other beta lactams. Carbapenem ... Pseudomonas produces an inducible broad spectrum beta lactamase, AmpC, that is produced in response to beta lactam exposure. ... Like other beta lactam antibiotics, they lack activity against atypical bacteria, which do not have a cell wall and are thus ...
It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis like other β-lactam antibiotics. In contrast to other beta-lactams, it is highly ... In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or ... In 2016, a synthetic peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO) was found to inhibit the expression of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, an ... As with other ß-lactams antibiotics, the effectiveness of treatment depends on the amount of time during the dosing interval ...
for example, Epicatechin gallate, a compound found in green tea, has shown signs of lowering the resistance to beta-lactams, to ... Severin A, Wu SW, Tabei K, Tomasz A (October 2005). "High-level (beta)-lactam resistance and cell wall synthesis catalyzed by ... Evidence has also show that interactions with other genes have been identified to decrease resistance to beta-lactams in ... 2a-mediated beta-lactam resistance by delocalizing PBP2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (31): 24055-65. doi:10.1074/ ...
In October 1943 Abraham and Sir Ernst Boris Chain proposed a novel beta-lactam structure with a fused two ring system. This ... In 1940 Edward discovered penicillinase as the cause of bacterial resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin. ... "Charity Details". beta.charitycommission.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2017. "Opening of EPA Building , Sir William Dunn School of ...
Beta-lactam antibiotics inhibit the formation of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria. Most of ... This allowed researchers to combat the resistance that certain bacteria had developed to particular forms of the drug. Sheehan ... Penicillin Antibiotic Beta-Lactam National Inventors Hall of Fame Elias James Corey and John Dombrowski Roberts (1995). "John ... The problem was the making the chemically unstable beta-lactam ring that was crucial to the antibiotic properties of the ...
These bacterial enzymes rapidly destroy earlier-generation cephalosporins by breaking open the drug's beta-lactam chemical ring ... leading to antibiotic resistance. Though initially active against these bacteria, with widespread use of third-generation ... This group provides improved stability against certain beta-lactamase enzymes produced by Gram-negative bacteria. ... cephalosporins, some Gram-negative bacteria known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are even able to inactivate the ...
... but the emergence of beta-lactam resistant strains has been observed as early as 1980. Genes for antibiotic resistance have ... 2007). The high frequency of strains producing beta-lactamase limit the use of single beta-lactam antibiotics as first-line ... This resistance is often linked to the production of beta- lactamases. Most beta-lactamases identified in Bacteroides, ... Following the characterization of CfxA beta- lactamase in B.vulgatus and CfxA2 beta-lactamase in P.intermedia (nucleotide ...
... are a class of Beta lactam antibiotics used to treat infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin ... and the mechanism of resistance was the production of β-lactamase. Modification of the penicillin molecule so that it was ... M.I. Page (6 December 2012). The Chemistry of β-Lactams. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 103. ISBN 978-94-011-2928-2. ... resistance in Staphylococcus aureus appeared very soon after penicillin entered general clinical use in 1943, ...
The substance has been reported to inhibit two antibiotic resistance carbapenemase proteins in bacteria, New Delhi metallo-beta ... The relative amount of these two toxins is dependent upon the pH of the growth medium, with lower pH favouring the lactam form ... The lactam can be hydrolyzed to aspergillomarasmine A by treating it with trifluoroacetic acid. Aspergillomarasmine A functions ... Anhydroaspergillomarasmine A, a lactam of aspergillomarasmine A, chemically called [1-(2-amino-2carboxyethyl)-6-carboxy-3- ...
The aim of this study was to investigate beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiellaspp. blood culture isolates ... The aim of this study was to investigate beta-lactam resistance inEscherichia coli andKlebsiella spp. blood culture isolates in ... Beta-lactam resistance amongEscherichia coli andKlebsiella species blood culture isolates in Finnish hospitals. ... Payne DJ, Amyes SGB: Transferable resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams: a major threat or a minor inconvenience? Journal ...
Extended broad-spectrum beta-lactamases conferring transferable resistance to newer beta-lactam agents in Enterobacteriaceae: ... three beta-lactamases mediating cefotaxime resistance were identified as SHV-2 (isoelectric point [pI] 7.6), CTX-1 (pI 6.3), ... "extended broad-spectrum beta-lactamases" (EBS-Bla). The enzymes conferred to derivatives a high level of resistance to ... resistance to cefotaxime in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae involved only species producing inducible class 1 beta- ...
Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.. B J Hartman, A Tomasz ... Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. ... Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. ... Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. ...
Conclusion: The acquisition of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to beta lactam antibiotics in community infections among ... Describe resistance to beta lactam antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in community infection within HIV-1 infected persons. ... Resistance to Beta Lactam Antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated in Community Infections within HIV Infected Persons in ... Objective: Describe resistance to beta lactam antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in community infection within HIV-1 ...
In some bacteria the development of intrinsic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by the reduction in the affinity of PBPs ... The beta-lactam antibiotics kill bacteria by inhibiting a set of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that catalyse the final ... Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by re-modelling the active site of an E. coli penicillin-binding protein Nature. 1985 Dec ... In some bacteria the development of intrinsic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by the reduction in the affinity of PBPs ...
Antimicrobial resistance among 1991 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected at 24 UK hospitals during late 1993 was surveyed ... Mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics amongst Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected in the UK in 1993 J Med ... Resistance to imipenem was largely dissociated from that to other beta-lactam agents, and probably reflected loss of D2 porin, ... beta-Lactamase-independent "intrinsic" resistance occurred in 277 isolates and is believed to reflect some combination of ...
... proteins 2b and 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae are primary resistance determinants for different classes of beta-lactam ... proteins 2b and 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae are primary resistance determinants for different classes of beta-lactam ... proteins 2b and 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae are primary resistance determinants for different classes of beta-lactam ... proteins 2b and 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae are primary resistance determinants for different classes of beta-lactam ...
Transition from resistance to hypersusceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics associated with loss of a low-affinity penicillin- ... Transition from resistance to hypersusceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics associated with loss of a low-affinity penicillin- ... Transition from resistance to hypersusceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics associated with loss of a low-affinity penicillin- ... Transition from resistance to hypersusceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics associated with loss of a low-affinity penicillin- ...
Quantification of genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams and tetracyclines in wastewater environments by ... beta-lactams (mecA), and tetracyclines (tetA and tetB), for use in wastewater environments. The developed assays were applied ... In this study real-time PCR assays, based on the LUX-technique, were developed for quantification of genes mediating resistance ... were shown to be fast and reproducible tools for detection and quantification of the four genes encoding antibiotic resistance ...
Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase (MIR-1) conferring resistance to oxyimino- and alpha-methoxy beta-lactams in clinical ... Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase (MIR-1) conferring resistance to oxyimino- and alpha-methoxy beta-lactams in clinical ... Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase (MIR-1) conferring resistance to oxyimino- and alpha-methoxy beta-lactams in clinical ... Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase (MIR-1) conferring resistance to oxyimino- and alpha-methoxy beta-lactams in clinical ...
... exhibited broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance patterns. These organisms collectively produced three classes of beta- ... The rate of resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams among isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae is increasing in children in ... significant isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae were screened for patterns of broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactams. The ... and the resistance is driven largely by plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases. These data have important implications for ...
The need of continuous monitoring of beta-lactam susceptibility and a global system for molecular surveillance of rPBP3 strains ... The prevalence of clinical PBP3-mediated resistance to ampicillin was 9%, compared to 2.5% three years earlier. Group II low- ... Beta-lactam resistance in Haemophilus influenzae due to ftsI mutations causing altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) is ... Beta-lactams are first-line drugs for treatment of H. influenzae infections but resistance may develop due to transferable beta ...
... represents a novel resistance problem and one which may increase with increased use of newer antipseudo-monal beta-lactams. ... resistance could not be attributed to beta-lacta-mase production and was considered to be intrinsic. The unusual antibiogram in ... 35 produced plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases known to be active against carbenicillin and seven produced unusual beta- ... These represented the most resistant organisms of 1866 isolates collected during a national survey of antibiotic resistance in ...
... resistance. Because of the popularity of beta-lactam drugs, certain bacteria have been able to develop counter- ... A beta-lactam ring (β-lactam) is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen ... become resistant against beta-lactam antibiotics by expressing beta-lactamase.. History. The first synthetic β-lactam was ... As a response to bacterial resistance to beta-lactam drugs, there are drugs, such as Augmentin/CLA, that are designed to ...
PBP 4, although not essential for survival, has been associated with low-level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. To ... These data indicate that PBP 4 is a relatively unimportant target of beta-lactams not only in methicillin-susceptible but also ... determine its contribution to survival of Staphylococcus aureus cells exposed to beta-lactams, the PBP 4 gene (pbp4) was ... Impact of mecA promoter mutations on mecA expression and beta-lactam resistance levels.. Miriam Ender, Nadine McCallum, ...
Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics ... Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. ... beta-Lactam Resistance. Known as: beta Lactam Resistance, beta-Lactam Resistances Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action ... Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics can be achieved by any of three strategies: the production of beta-lactam… ...
Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is mediated by at least one of three resistance mechanisms: inactivating enzymes (BL); ... Resistance to beta-lactam agents among non-Bacteroides anaerobes is variable but is generally lower than the B. fragilis group ... Beta-lactams are still useful agents for the treatment of anaerobic infections, even though significant resistance has been ... The B. fragilis group has the highest prevalence of resistance to beta-lactams as almost all (more than 97%) of B. fragilis ...
Penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactam resistance André Zapun 1 Pauline Macheboeuf 1 Thierry Vernet 1 Details. ... Penicillin-binding proteins and beta-lactam resistance. Mayers D., Sobel J., Ouelette M., Lerner S. Antimicrobial Drug ... Resistance : Principles for the Clinic and Bench, 1 (13), Humana Press, p. 145-170, 2014. ⟨hal-01158934⟩ ...
Home » Noncommunicable and/or Chronic Disease » Novel Mechanisms of Beta-Lactam Resistance in Staph Aureus ... lactam resistance; and 2) that GdpP contributes to resistance via a signaling pathway that up-regulates expression of pbp4. Two ... lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. This new type of resistance was identified during experiments in which methicillin ... Aim 1: To determine the mechanism by which mutations in pbp4 confer high-level ?-lactam resistance. pbp4 missense mutations ...
Experimental: Antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotic *Ampicillin 2g IV/6h. *Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 160/800 mg IV/8 -12h ... The continuous increase in the bacterial resistance rate and the slow arrival of new therapeutic options have turned into an ... Drug: Antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotic Drug: De-escalation(short-spectrum antibiotic) Phase 3 ... Targeted simplification versus antipseudomonal broad-spectrum beta-lactams in patients with bloodstream infections due to ...
These isolates were selected because of their resistance to meropenem and imipenem (breakpoint, ,4 mg/L), carbenicillin (,128 ... The mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in 325 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined. ... Resistance to carbapenems was independent of resistance to other beta-lactam antibiotics, indicating a different mechanism of ... Mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance amongst Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated in an Italian survey J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 ...
Beta-lactam antibiotics synonyms, Beta-lactam antibiotics pronunciation, Beta-lactam antibiotics translation, English ... n. Any of a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as the penicillins and the cephalosporins, that contain a beta-lactam ... Reversing [beta]-lactam antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus with galangin from Alpinia officinarum Hance and ... Related to Beta-lactam antibiotics: beta-lactamase, Aminoglycosides beta-lactam antibiotic. n.. Any of a class of broad- ...
Antibiotic Resistance Solutions Initiative Providing Critical Support to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. Centers for ... CI of beta-lactam antibiotics is associated with better cure rates and higher %fT , MIC when administered to critically ill ... Beta-lactam infusion in severe sepsis (BLISS): a prospective, two-centre, open-labelled randomised controlled trial of ... CI of beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill adult patients with respiratory infections significantly improved clinical cure ...
Because, as mentioned in the first slide, beta-lactam resistance does not come only as a consequence of beta-lactamases, but ... Beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli: ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemases. Para ver esse vídeo, ative o JavaScript e considere ... To sum up what we have been talking so far, we can say that resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Escherichia coli, but also ... MUSIC] Welcome to this video lecture on resistance to beta-lactam in Escherichia coli, with a particular focus on ESBL, AmpC ...
Antimicrobial resistance - theory and methods. Learn online and earn valuable credentials from top universities like Yale, ... Beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli: ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemases. Чтобы просмотреть это видео, включите JavaScript и ... the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination.. And finally, among the carbapenems is meropenem, that is generally used. ... Beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli: ESBL, AmpC and carbapenemases17:35 ...

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