A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Keratins, Type II
Keratins, Type I
Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
Intermediate Filament Proteins
Transforming Growth Factor beta
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hoof and Claw
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta Chains
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
beta 2-Glycoprotein I
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Gene Expression Regulation
Amino Acid Sequence
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Epidermolytic
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
Estrogen Receptor beta
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Transforming Growth Factor beta1
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Corneal Dystrophy, Juvenile Epithelial of Meesmann
Promoter Regions, Genetic
DNA Polymerase beta
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Characterization of the structure and composition of gecko adhesive setae. (1/17)The ability of certain reptiles to adhere to vertical (and hang from horizontal) surfaces has been attributed to the presence of specialized adhesive setae on their feet. Structural and compositional studies of such adhesive setae will contribute significantly towards the design of biomimetic fibrillar adhesive materials. The results of electron microscopy analyses of the structure of such setae are presented, indicating their formation from aggregates of proteinaceous fibrils held together by a matrix and potentially surrounded by a limiting proteinaceous sheath. Microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis has shown conclusively that the only ordered protein constituent in these structures exhibits a diffraction pattern characteristic of beta-keratin. Raman microscopy of individual setae, however, clearly shows the presence of additional protein constituents, some of which may be identified as alpha-keratins. Electrophoretic analysis of solubilized setal proteins supports these conclusions, indicating the presence of a group of low-molecular-weight beta-keratins (14-20 kDa), together with alpha-keratins, and this interpretation is supported by immunological analyses. (+info)
Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays. (2/17)Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading. (+info)
Frictional adhesion: A new angle on gecko attachment. (3/17)Directional arrays of branched microscopic setae constitute a dry adhesive on the toes of pad-bearing geckos, nature's supreme climbers. Geckos are easily and rapidly able to detach their toes as they climb. There are two known mechanisms of detachment: (1) on the microscale, the seta detaches when the shaft reaches a critical angle with the substrate, and (2) on the macroscale, geckos hyperextend their toes, apparently peeling like tape. This raises the question of how geckos prevent detachment while inverted on the ceiling, where body weight should cause toes to peel and setal angles to increase. Geckos use opposing feet and toes while inverted, possibly to maintain shear forces that prevent detachment of setae or peeling of toes. If detachment occurs by macroscale peeling of toes, the peel angle should monotonically decrease with applied force. In contrast, if adhesive force is limited by microscale detachment of setae at a critical angle, the toe detachment angle should be independent of applied force. We tested the hypothesis that adhesion is increased by shear force in isolated setal arrays and live gecko toes. We also tested the corollary hypotheses that (1) adhesion in toes and arrays is limited as on the microscale by a critical angle, or (2) on the macroscale by adhesive strength as predicted for adhesive tapes. We found that adhesion depended directly on shear force, and was independent of detachment angle. Therefore we reject the hypothesis that gecko toes peel like tape. The linear relation between adhesion and shear force is consistent with a critical angle of release in live gecko toes and isolated setal arrays, and also with our prior observations of single setae. We introduced a new model, frictional adhesion, for gecko pad attachment and compared it to existing models of adhesive contacts. In an analysis of clinging stability of a gecko on an inclined plane each adhesive model predicted a different force control strategy. The frictional adhesion model provides an explanation for the very low detachment forces observed in climbing geckos that does not depend on toe peeling. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of scale beta-keratins in the differentiating epidermis of geckoes show they are glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with a central motif homologous to avian beta-keratins. (4/17)The beta-keratins constitute the hard epidermis and adhesive setae of gecko lizards. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of beta-keratins in epidermis of gecko lizards were cloned from mRNAs. Specific oligonucleotides were used to amplify by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analyses five specific gecko beta-keratin cDNA sequences. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins of 16.8-18 kDa containing 169-191 amino acids, especially 17.8-23% glycine, 8.4-14.8% proline, 14.2-18.1% serine. Glycine-rich repeats are localized toward the initial and end regions of the protein, while a central region, rich in proline, has a strand conformation (beta-pleated fold) likely responsible for the formation of beta-keratin filaments. It shows high homology with a core region of other lizard keratins, avian scale, and feather keratins. Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis show a higher beta-keratin gene expression in regenerating epidermis compared with normal epidermis. In situ hybridization confirms that mRNAs for these proteins are expressed in cells of the differentiating oberhautchen cells and beta-cells. Expression in adhesive setae of climbing lamellae was shown by RT-PCR. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the proteins are encoded by a multigene family. PCR analysis showed that the genes are presumably located in tandem along the DNA and are transcribed from the same DNA strand like in avian beta-keratins. (+info)
Ancestrally high elastic modulus of gecko setal beta-keratin. (5/17)Typical bulk adhesives are characterized by soft, tacky materials with elastic moduli well below 1MPa. Geckos possess subdigital adhesives composed mostly of beta-keratin, a relatively stiff material. Biological adhesives like those of geckos have inspired empirical and modelling research which predicts that even stiff materials can be effective adhesives if they take on a fibrillar form. The molecular structure of beta-keratin is highly conserved across birds and reptiles, suggesting that material properties of gecko setae should be similar to that of beta-keratin previously measured in birds, but this has yet to be established. We used a resonance technique to measure elastic bending modulus in two species of gecko from disparate habitats. We found no significant difference in elastic modulus between Gekko gecko (1.6 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae) and Ptyodactylus hasselquistii (1.4 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae). If the elastic modulus of setal keratin is conserved across species, it would suggest a design constraint that must be compensated for structurally, and possibly explain the remarkable variation in gecko adhesive morphology. (+info)
Expression of beta-keratin mRNAs and proline uptake in epidermal cells of growing scales and pad lamellae of gecko lizards. (6/17)Beta-keratins form a large part of the proteins contained in the hard beta layer of reptilian scales. The expression of genes encoding glycine-proline-rich beta-keratins in normal and regenerating epidermis of two species of gecko lizards has been studied by in situ hybridization. The probes localize mRNAs in differentiating oberhautchen and beta cells of growing scales and in modified scales, termed pad lamellae, on the digits of gecko lizards. In situ localization at the ultrastructural level shows clusters of gold particles in the cytoplasm among beta-keratin filaments of oberhautchen and beta cells. They are also present in the differentiating elongation or setae of oberhautchen cells present in pad lamellae. Setae allow geckos to adhere and climb vertical surfaces. Oberhautchen and beta cells also incorporate tritiated proline. The fine localization of the beta-keratin mRNAs and the uptake of proline confirms the biomolecular data that identified glycine-proline-rich beta-keratin in differentiating beta cells of gecko epidermis. The present study also shows the presence of differentiating and metabolically active cells in both inner and outer oberhautchen/beta cells at the base of the outer setae localized at the tip of pad lamellae. The addition of new beta and alpha cells to the corneous layer near the tip of the outer setae explains the anterior movement of the setae along the apical free-margin of pad lamellae. The rapid replacement of setae ensures the continuous usage of the gecko's adhesive devices, the pad lamellae, during most of their active life. (+info)
Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene organization. (7/17)Beta-keratins of reptilian scales have been recently cloned and characterized in some lizards. Here we report for the first time the sequence of some beta-keratins from the snake Elaphe guttata. Five different cDNAs were obtained using 5'- and 3'-RACE analyses. Four sequences differ by only few nucleotides in the coding region, whereas the last cDNA shows, in this region, only 84% of identity. The gene corresponding to one of the cDNA sequences has a single intron present in the 5'-untranslated region. This genomic organization is similar to that of birds' beta-keratins. Cloning and Southern blotting analysis suggest that snake beta-keratins belong to a family of high-related genes as for geckos. PCR analysis suggests a head-to-tail orientation of genes in the same chromosome. In situ hybridization detected beta-keratin transcripts almost exclusively in differentiating oberhautchen and beta-cells of the snake epidermis in renewal phase. This is confirmed by Northern blotting that showed, in this phase, a high expression of two different transcripts whereas only the longer transcript is expressed at a much lower level in resting skin. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine rich proteins containing 137-139 amino acids, with apparent isoelectric point at 7.5 and 8.2. A central region, rich in proline, shows over 50% homology with avian scale, claw, and feather keratins. The prediction of secondary structure shows mainly a random coil conformation and few beta-strand regions in the central region, likely involved in the formation of a fibrous framework of beta-keratins. This region was possibly present in basic reptiles that originated reptiles and birds. (+info)
Beta-keratins of turtle shell are glycine-proline-tyrosine rich proteins similar to those of crocodilians and birds. (8/17)(+info)
Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays | Journal of Experimental Biology
Setal array specimens were mounted on SEM stubs and evaluated with a custom 2-axis mechanical tester (Fig. 4). The specimen chuck was attached to a Kistler 9328A 3-axis force sensor (Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland) that was moved in the Z (up-and-down) and Y (left-and-right) axes with Newport 460P stages (Newport, Irvine, CA, USA) driven by closed loop brushless DC servomotors (Newport 850G-HS actuator in the Y axis and a Newport 850G actuator in the Z axis). The stage and force sensor assembly were vertically mounted to a stainless steel `tombstone above a Newport RP Reliance breadboard table. A Newport ESP 300 servocontroller drove the actuators. Force measurements were collected through an AD Instruments Maclab/4e data acquisition unit (ADInstruments, Milford, MA, USA). The stage controller and force acquisition were interfaced with a Powerbook G3 (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA, USA) for automated control of array experiments. The stiffness of the 2-axis mechanical tester was measured by ...
Group theory on some chemical nanostructures
Shinsaku Fujita, to enumerate isomers of molecules introduced some definitions like maturity and the Q-conjugacy character table of a finite group. In this paper at first, we provide a new simple method to specify how a given finite group with big symmetry and complicated structure is maturated or unmaturated, then, to verify our derived theorem some useful nanostructures are considered ...
1601.06716] The Optical Chirality Flux as a Useful Far-Field Probe of Chiral Near Fields
Abstract: To optimize the interaction between chiral matter and highly twisted light, quantities that can help characterize chiral electromagnetic fields near nanostructures are needed. Here, by analogy with Poyntings theorem, we formulate the time-averaged conservation law of optical chirality in lossy dispersive media and identify the optical chirality flux as an ideal far-field observable for characterizing chiral optical near fields. Bounded by the conservation law, we show that it provides precise information, unavailable from circular dichroism spectroscopy, on the magnitude and handedness of highly twisted fields near nanostructures ...
Controlling electron localization in H-2(+) by intense plasmon-enhanced laser fields
We present a theoretical study of the H-2(+) molecular ion wave-packet dynamics in plasmon-enhanced laser fields. These fields may be produced, for instance, when metallic nanostructures are illuminated by a laser pulse of moderated intensity. Their main property is that they vary in space on a nanometric scale. We demonstrate that the spatial inhomogeneous character of the plasmonic fields leads to an enhancement of electron localization (EL), an instrumental phenomenon to control molecular fragmentation. We suggest that the charge imbalance induced by the surface-plasmon resonance near the metallic nanostructure is the origin of the increase in the EL. ...
Nano-pea pod model widens electronics applications | EurekAlert! Science News
Periodic chain-like nanostructures are widely used in nanoelectronics. Typically, chain elements include the likes of quantum rings, quantum dots, or quantum graphs. Such a structure enables electrons to move along the chain, in theory, indefinitely. Now, a new study, published in EPJ B, identifies ways of disturbing the periodicity of a model nanostructure to obtain the desired discrete energy spectrum with localized electrons.
DNA rendering of polyhedral meshes at the nanoscale | Nature
A general method of folding arbitrary polygonal digital meshes in DNA uses a routeing algorithm based on graph theory and a relaxation simulation that traces scaffold strands through the target structures to produce complex structures with an open conformation that are stable under biological assay conditions. Constraints arising from the inherent properties of DNA impose important restrictions on how it can be assembled, so that procedures such as DNA origami still require considerable manual adjustment if complex structures are to be achieved. Here Erik Benson and colleagues present a general method - using single helices rather than bundles of closely packed helices as construction elements - which makes it possible to design and produce complex DNA structures that would have been very difficult to achieve using existing approaches. The resulting nanostructures are more stable than conventional DNA origami under conditions typically encountered in biological assays. And because the overall design
Large-Area High-Resolution Imaging
Highest-resolution, accurate SEM imaging of large samples exceeding a single typical field of view (in the order of a few tens of μm) is a challenging procedure. A set of several hundreds or thousands of images have to be stitched together in order to display a surface spanning several millimeters or even centimeters as a Google Earth-style map. Any standard mechanical stage will have visible stitching errors, and thus yield distorted images. The Raith systems are different: By reversing the functionality of a professional electron beam lithography tool, the sample surface is not exposed; instead, existing nanostructures are seamlessly imaged using the extreme placement accuracy of the tool infrastructure.. Users can benefit e. g. from the on-board Laser Interferometer Controlled Stage technology, related write field alignment functionality, and drift correction algorithms. These features deliver ultra-precise and fully automated image acquisition for generating highly accurate and ...
Browsing by Author Jarvis, Thomas William
Exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures are dominated by the effects of many-body physics. The application of coherent spectroscopic tools, such as two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy (2dFTS), to the ...
Iberolacerta cyreni - bibliography
The microornamentation of the scales (oberhautchen) has been studied by means of enamel casts (in negative), or with detached skin pieces (positive cast in the upper face or negative in their lower face of the scales) and its observation by transparency with optical microscopy at 40x, 400x and 1000x. In this study we have found a remarkable uniformity in all genera of Lacertini studied (already known, although significantly expanding the number of species previously studied). In light of the results obtained, it seems that the use of the microornamentation of the scales in taxonomy is limited. There is a remarkable degree of variation and probably of homoplasy, as it happens in so many characters of Lacertini. Nor is it clearly linked to certain conditions of the environment, although it may have a certain importance in mechanisms such as evapotranspiration and perhaps in the crypsis through its influence on the reflectance of the scales. These scales can present protuberances (like small ...
Dalmatolacerta oxycephala - bibliography
The microornamentation of the scales (oberhautchen) has been studied by means of enamel casts (in negative), or with detached skin pieces (positive cast in the upper face or negative in their lower face of the scales) and its observation by transparency with optical microscopy at 40x, 400x and 1000x. In this study we have found a remarkable uniformity in all genera of Lacertini studied (already known, although significantly expanding the number of species previously studied). In light of the results obtained, it seems that the use of the microornamentation of the scales in taxonomy is limited. There is a remarkable degree of variation and probably of homoplasy, as it happens in so many characters of Lacertini. Nor is it clearly linked to certain conditions of the environment, although it may have a certain importance in mechanisms such as evapotranspiration and perhaps in the crypsis through its influence on the reflectance of the scales. These scales can present protuberances (like small ...
Oxygen Non-Iridescent 107 Mosaic Tile - Oceanside Glass & Tile
5/8 x 5/8, 7/8 x 7/8, 7/8 x 1 3/8, Interlude, Repose, Cadence, Parallels, Vibrato, Wave, 1 5/8 Hexagon, Braid, 1/2 x 1/2, 1x1, 1x2, 1.75 Hexagon, Kaleidoscope, Pave, Perspectives, Fez, Meridian, Prelude, Overture, Additional Specialty Patterns and Trim.. ...
cdna chromosome:GRCm39:7:19314960:19338411:-1 gene:ENSMUSG00000061028 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Clasrp description:CLK4-associating serine/arginine rich protein [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1855695 ...
19</sup>F Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals from Peptide Amphiphile Nanostructures Are Strongly Affected by Their Shape...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals from Peptide Amphiphile Nanostructures Are Strongly Affected by Their Shape. AU - Preslar, Adam T.. AU - Tantakitti, Faifan. AU - Park, Kitae. AU - Zhang, Shanrong. AU - Stupp, Samuel I.. AU - Meade, Thomas J.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from National Institutes of Healths (NIH) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute under awards P01HL108795 and R01HL116577, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Publisher Copyright: © 2016 American Chemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/8/23. Y1 - 2016/8/23. N2 - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging modality that provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution. The most commonly used MR probes face significant challenges originating from the endogenous 1H background signal of water. In contrast, fluorine MRI (19F MRI) allows quantitative probe imaging with zero ...
US Patent Application for DELIVERY OF NITRIC OXIDE-RELEASING PHOSPHOLIPIDS, LIPOSOMES, AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN-LIKE...
Nanostructures having a lipid layer which are useful for delivering nitric oxide are provided herein. Methods of treating disease using the nanostructures are also provided, including methods of treating vascular diseases, angiogenesis, ischemia- reperfusion, etc. Implantable devices coated with the nanostructures are also encompassed within the invention.
Gecko Lizards Wall Decal
These slithery gecko lizards would love to get their sticky hands and feet on your walls! Three gecko friends included in each kit.
Brown Gecko Lizards Clip Art | Free Clip Art & Vector Art At Clker
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Structure-pigment interactions | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
This coupling of pigments and nanostructures is even more apparent in non-iridescent green colours of feathers, which may be difficult to produce without structure-pigment combinations (the green colours produced by turacoverdin pigments are produced by a pigment that requires large quantities of copper, which is probably difficult to obtain from the diet ). Iridescent green colour can be produced in feathers, generally in the barbules, by coherent scattering of light by layers of keratin and melanin (figure 2II) . In addition, some olive-green colours are produced by combination of carotenoid pigments in the barb and melanin in the barbules . However, bright non-iridescent greens (figure 1f) in all cases other than turacos are produced by a combination of quasi-ordered spongy keratin arrays and carotenoid or psittacofulvin pigments (figure 2IV) [6,22,23,43,44]. These pigments appear to be placed in the keratin cortex of barbs, above the colour-producing nanostructures . ...
Universidade do Minho: Edible bio-based nanostructures: delivery, absorption and potential toxicity
The development of bio-based nanostructures as nanocarriers of bioactive compounds to specific body sites has been presented as a hot topic in food, pharmaceutical and nanotechnology fields. Food and pharmaceutical industries seek to explore the huge potential of these nanostructures, once they can be entirely composed of biocompatible and non-toxic materials. At the same time, they allow the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds protecting them against degradation, maintaining its active and functional performance. Nevertheless, the physicochemical properties of such structures (e.g., size and charge) could change significantly their behavior in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The main challenges in the development of these nanostructures are the proper characterization and understanding of the processes occurring at their surface, when in contact with living systems. This is crucial to understand their delivery and absorption behavior as well as to recognize ...
Inorganic Nanostructures: Properties and Characterization - Petra Reinke - Google Books
This monograph for young researchers and professionals looking for a comprehensive reference offers an advanced treatment of the topic that extends beyond an introductory work. As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the surface science tools used to characterize them, such as electron spectroscopy and scanning probe techniques. The unique challenges in the fabrication of nanostructures are illustrated, and set into context of controlling structure, dimensionality and electronic properties.
Abstract: <em>(Invited)</em> Development of Plasmonic Nanostructures for Plasmon-Enhanced Photocatalysis (232nd ECS Meeting ...
With unique surface plasmon resonance and high potential for many important applications, plasmonic nanostructures are attracting more and more attention in the past decade. In addition to ever increasing research interest in realizing precise control over their structure (such as size, shape, aspect ratio and uniformity), plasmon enhanced catalysis represents a highly promising research area. In this presentation, the development of several types of plasmonic nanostructures by wet chemical method or pulsed laser ablation will be introduced first. Their interesting optical properties and their applications in photocatalysis will then be presented and discussed ...
Graphite platelet nanostructures - MAZURKIEWICZ MARIAN
Separated graphite nanostructures are formed of thin graphite platelets having an aspect ratio of at least 1,500:1. The platelets have an angular geometric structure and may be fully independent from
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.273. Traditionally porous silicon based photonic structures have been prepared by electrochemically etching of silicon. In this work, porous multilayers of nanocolumnar SiOx and SiO2 thin films acting as near infrared (NIR) 1D-photonic nanostructures are prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition at oblique angles (MS-OA). Simultaneous control of porosity and stoichiometry of the stacked films is achieved by adjusting the deposition angle and oxygen partial pressure according to a parametric formula. This new methodologoy is proved for the synthesis of SiOx thin films with x close to 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and nanostructures varying from compact (at 0° deposition angle) to highly porous and nanocolumnar (at 70° and 85° deposition angles). The strict control of composition, structure and nanostructure provided by this technique permits a fine tuning of the absorption edge and refraction index at 1500 nm of the porous films and their manufacturing in the form of ...
Berkeley Lab Scientists Create Molecular Paper - Redorbit
Two-dimensional, sheet-like nanostructures are commonly employed in biological systems such as cell membranes, and their unique properties have inspired interest in materials such as graphene. Now, Berkeley Lab scientists have made the largest two-dimensional polymer crystal self-assembled in water to date. This entirely new material mirrors the structural complexity of biological systems with the durable architecture needed for membranes or integration into functional devices.. These self-assembling sheets are made of peptoids, engineered polymers that can flex and fold like proteins while maintaining the robustness of manmade materials. Each sheet is just two molecules thick yet hundreds of square micrometers in areaakin to Ë molecular paper large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Whats more, unlike a typical polymer, each building block in a peptoid nanosheet is encoded with structural Ë marching orderssuggesting its properties can be precisely tailored to an application. ...
Crop milk - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Crop milk is a way of feeding from the crop of parent birds, by regurgitating to young birds. They are found among all pigeons and doves where they are referred to as pigeon milk. Crop milk is also produced by flamingos and even some penguins.. ...
Crested Gecko Health: Gecko Diseases & Health Problems | moonvalleyreptiles.com
Crested gecko health is easy to maintain. Starting with a healthy gecko minimizes the chances of diseases or other health problems.
937485 - WebIccManager API: Use Webidl enum for cardState
In reply to Vicamo Yang [:vicamo][:vyang] from comment #36) , (In reply to Alexandre LISSY :gerard-majax from comment #29) , , FYI, the error comes from: , , , , , 09-05 11:39:52.628 1684 1684 I Gecko : defineLazyServiceGetter: aObject=[object FakeBackstagePass] aName=icc [email protected]/ril/content-helper;1 aInterfaceName=nsIIccProvider , , , 09-05 11:39:52.628 1684 1684 I Gecko : [email protected]://gre/modules/XPCOMUtils.jsm:222:15 , , , 09-05 11:39:52.628 1684 1684 I Gecko : XPCU_defineLazyGetter/,[email protected]://gre/modules/XPCOMUtils.jsm:193:33 , , , 09-05 11:39:52.628 1684 1684 I Gecko : [email protected]://gre/modules/PhoneNumberUtils.jsm:63:9 , , , 09-05 11:39:52.628 1684 1684 I Gecko : [email protected]://gre/modules/ContactService.jsm:73:23 , , , 09-05 11:39:52.628 1684 1684 I Gecko : [email protected]://gre/modules/ContactService.jsm:47:5 , , , 09-05 11:39:52.628 1684 1684 I Gecko : ...
How to Care for a Baby Gecko | Baby Lizard Care | petMD
Once a lizard habitat has been set up properly and a feeding regimen has been established, baby geckos can be relatively easy to care for. Learn how to care for a baby gecko for a long and healthy life, here.
Although this isnt a NXT robot, it shows how limitless the possbilities are with LEGO Mindstorms. Rick just posted about a Gecko robot invented by Carnegie Melon, so I was surprised when I went on brickshelf and just happened to see a LEGO robotic gecko, made with the RIS, that can also climb walls. You can see more pictures here, and theres also a video of it crawling up a wall, here ...
SCVN Spotlight of the Week - Barb Deuchler
Barb has only been with our organization for a couple of months but in that time she has time and time again shown her kind spirit and big heart. From putting together floral bouquets for our care receivers birthdays to helping out with planning for Lifes A Journey, Barb is always up ...
New Caledonian Geckos | Bavayia, Eurydactylodes & Rhacodactylus, Mniarogekko, Correlop
New Caledonian Geckos | Bavayia, Eurydactylodes & Rhacodactylus, Mniarogekko, Correlop - Discuss other Rhacodactylus species, Bavayia, and Eurydactylo
Children´s surgeries - GECKO Kinderhilfe Südostasien e.V.
Every year we go with Dr. VUTHY CHHOEURN and a twenty-headed team for 4 days in a previously selected province 60 children and give them a new life.
944537 - Only use gecko to decide whether to show Tab progress or not
In reply to Mark Finkle (:mfinkle) from comment #12) , Just a note. I have always felt the using mState (STATE_SUCCESS or , STATE_LOADING) as a way to control the progress visibility is a bit hacky. , Maybe we can figure out a better way someday. You mean the fact that tweak the tab state to represent the showProgress behaviour? I agree, this is hacky. This is a bit out of the scope of this bug though. I filed bug 945714 to track this ...
SURFACE ADSORPTION STUDIES OF PRIMARY STRUCTURED DNA AND DNA NANOSTRUCTURES ONTO 2D MOS2 NANOSHEETS | [email protected]
Due to high biocompatibility and tailorable properties, DNA-based nanostructures are widely studied in biosensor and nanomedicine applications. The restriction for using DNA-based nanostructures lie in the purification processes which have low product yield and tedious steps involved. MoS2 nanosheets are chosen to test for its purification efficiency as MoS2 is shown to have discriminating properties between single stranded DNA and double stranded DNA. Adsorption studies of different DNA nanostructures are tested to see the adsorption capacity of MoS2. From the adsorption studies, it has been observed that MoS2 has high affinity to plasmid DNA, so the use of MoS2 as a gene carrier is tested for its delivery performance ...
Colorful Rhinestone Gecko Lizard Necklace - Fashion Jewelry
Colorful Rhinestone Gecko Lizard Necklace Fashion Jewelry Geko Pendant NecklaceStudded With Rainbow RhinestonesLobster Claw ClaspSilver-Tone ChainMeasures Approximately: 15 Inches (End-To-End)
Kingfisher feathers - colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films | Journal of Experimental Biology
The chemical and physical colouration mechanisms of birds are in principle the same as those applied by other living systems. Pigments, used for chemical colouration, are often deposited in granules, and therefore the granules attached to the walls of the hollow cells of the orange breast feather barbs most probably contain a short-wavelength-absorbing pigment (Fig. 3B,C). The very irregular spatial organisation of the barb cells causes randomisation of the direction of incident light, resulting in diffuse scattering of the little-absorbed long-wavelength light (Fig. 7A).. Although the spatial organisation of the sponge cells inside the kingfishers back and tail feather barbs is irregular (Fig. 4A,B), there still exists sufficient quasi-order (Fig. 4C,D) to create structural colouration, which changes in hue when observed from different directions (Fig. 7). The spectral peak depends on the dimensions of the sponge structures (Dyck, 1971; Finger, 1995; Shawkey et al., 2009). Spongy barbs are ...
Investigation of a scale-up manufacturing approach for nanostructures using multi-tip nanoscale diamond tool - University of...
Increasing interest in commercializing functional nanostructured devices heightened the need for cost effective scale-up manufacturing approaches for nanostructures. Diamond turning using multi-tip single crystal diamond tools is a new promising approach to the fabrication of micro/nano structures. In this paper, a serial of nanometric face cutting trails on copper using multi-tip nanoscale diamond tools has been carried out to indentify the nanomanufacturing capacity of this technique under different cutting conditions. The dependency between processing parameters and the surface integrity of the machined nanostructures are discussed. Moreover, large scale molecular dynamics (MD) nanometric cutting model is developed to simulate the nanostructures generation process. The simulation results well reveals the material removal mechanism and explains why structure defects are more likely to be formed in the cases of large depth of cut and high cutting speed observed in experiments.. ...
Local electronic properties of graphene flakes on noble metal surfaces
This thesis examines possible routes for the preparation of graphene nanostructures on metal substrates and performs structural and electronic characterizations using scanning tunneling microcopy and spectroscopy. Investigations of graphene nanostructures necessitate the use of a suitable graphene-substrate combination, which allows for a controlled in situ preparation of small and well-shaped graphene nanostructures. The choice of a graphene-substrate combination with weak interaction in order to prevent the destruction of monolayer graphene properties is inevitable.,br /,,br /,Within this work graphene layers and graphene nanostructures are grown using well-established procedures based on thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons on Ir(111) and Rh(111) surfaces. Implementing intercalation - the insertion of additional material between graphene and substrate - allows for a tailoring of interactions between graphene and the substrate. In the first part of this work the intercalation of Fe and Ni is ...
Multifunctional Fe3O4/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy
The photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on core-shell structures require efficient luminescence within specific wavelength range, preferably in near infrared. In the present study we aim to create a multifunctional platform for PDT through Fe3O4/ZnO core shell structure. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures will enable us magnetically driven tumor targeting as well delivery of photosensitizer. On the other hand, ZnO is well known for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and will help to kill cancer cells through oxidative stress. Fe3O4/ZnO core-shell nanostructures are synthesized via a simple aqueous solution method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDS), Photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results on capability of generating active singlet oxygen are in progress and will be presented.
Nanoscale design of snake skin for reptation locomotions via friction anisotropy
Multi-mode scanning probe microscopy is employed to investigate the nanostructure of dermal samples from three types of snakes. Sophisticated friction modifying nanostructures are described. These include an ordered microfibrillar array that can function to achieve mission adaptable friction charact …
Nanotechnology Now - Press Release: Nanoscale manipulation of light leads to exciting new advancement: UNM researchers find...
Manjavacas and his team, composed of Lauren Zundel and Stephen Sanders, both graduate students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, modeled the optical response of these arrays, finding exciting new results. When periodic arrays of nanostructures are illuminated with light, each of the particles produces a strong response, which, in turn, results in enormous collective behaviors if all of the particles can interact with one another. This happens at certain wavelengths of incident light, which are determined by the interparticle spacing of the array, and can result in electric fields that are thousands, or even tens of thousands, of times that of the light shined on the array ...
OSA | Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using a femtosecond white-light continuum
We demonstrate a new nanoscale spectroscopic technique that combines subwavelength near-field imaging with broadband interference spectroscopy. We apply this technique to study phase spectra of surface plasmons in individual gold nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimers. Collective plasmon oscillations in selected nanostructures are excited by a femtosecond white-light continuum transmitted through a subwavelength aperture. The interference spectra detected in the far field result from the coherent superposition of the aperture field and the secondary field re-emitted by the nanostructure. The analysis of these spectra allows us to accurately measure the positions and damping constants of single-nanostructure plasmon resonances.. © 2003 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Low Pt-content ternary PdCuPt nanodendrites: an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction - Nanoscale (RSC...
Dendritic nanostructures are capturing increasing attention in electrocatalysis owing to their unique structural features and low density. Herein, we report for the first time, bromide ion mediated synthesis of low Pt-content PdCuPt ternary nanodendrites via galvanic replacement reaction between a Pt precurs
Optimizing the Refractive Index Sensitivity of Plasmonically Coupled Gold Nanoparticles
In our modern society, we are surrounded by numerous sensors, constantly feeding us information about our physical environment. From small, wearable sensors that monitor our physiological status to large satellites orbiting around the earth, detecting global changes. Although, the performance of these sensors have been significantly improved during the last decades there is still a demand for faster and more reliable sensing systems with improved sensitivity and selectivity. The rapid progress in nanofabrication techniques has made a profound impact for the development of small, novel sensors that enables miniaturization and integration. A specific area where nanostructures are especially attractive is biochemical sensing, where the exceptional properties of nanomaterials can be utilized in order to detect and analyze biomolecular interactions. The focus of this thesis is to investigate plasmonic nanoparticles composed of gold or silver and optimize their performance as signal transducers in ...
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Evolutionary Vertebrate Zoology: 2012
It is important to mention that the time spent by animal observation has a healing effect on me (but also the medicaments from others played their role). I could be amazed by a stunning sunset and continue in searching for local animals. Birds were active even after the coming of the darkness, in gecko lizards it was nothing surprising. The altitude here was much smaller than in the central parts of island, so mosquiots were around. I used another way to fight against them except the repellent and a mosquito net -I caught my own gecko lizard and released it on the net. The bungallows had opened space under the roof, so various animals could move inside and outside (especially spiders). We headed for a small walk with Jožko outside from the Le Paradisier. There were no animals on the main road, but a special moment of magic was waiting for us. A truck appeared from the darkness and stopped about 500 meters behind us. Then it started again and dissapeared. As we walked back, we started to see a ...
crested gecko tail sticking up
Help! They have the ability to change the intensity of their pigmentation (firing up or down) according to temperature, light, mood, etc. Some species of geckos, including leopard geckos and day geckos, have a defense mechanism that allows them to drop their tails when they feel threatened. They appeared after I uploaded the video! Hes my first reptile pet. Todays Posts; Forum; RHACODACTYLUS GECKOS; CRESTED GECKOS; If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. The crested gecko - unlike the closely related gargoyle gecko (Rhacodactylus auriculatus) - will not regrow its tail once lost. Crested Geckos are one of the more popular pets available when it comes to reptiles. I think it may just have been an excited/stressed thing. Often a darker grey or redish brown color. With these types of geckos, a loud noise or sudden movement can be enough of a trigger to … Females can sometimes be housed together successfully, but there have been cases where females ...
Pigeons - Pest Control Richmond
Biology: Breeding can occur throughout the year, but the peak occurs between March and July. Two white eggs are laid and incubated for 17-19 days by both parents. The young pigeons or squabs are fed on highly proteinceous Pigeon milk. But this gradually replaced by regurgitated grain. The young are independent after 30-37 days. Up to 4 broods maybe reared during the year. Some young birds breed at 6 months.. Habits: Nests are built in or on buildings, bridges, ledges or hollows such as gutters. Grass, twigs, feathers and scraps such as pieces of wire are used in their unusually flimsy nests. Feral Pigeons mainly rely on spillages or scraps left by the public. Some pigeons fly to arable farmlands to feed on sowings and stubbles. Pigeons normally feed in flocks.. Treatment: With pigeons nesting in areas where they are not welcome, deterrent products are used to keep them away. This is normally by means of proofing with pointed spikes, trip wire or complex netting systems. In areas where pigeons ...
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3D Microprinter Creates Sub-Millimeter Nanostructures - Tested
Printing at the nanoscale doesnt offer quite the same households benefits of a full-size 3D printer, but in the fields of science and medicine, its enormously valuable. Printing microstructures with features a few hundred nanometers in size could be useful for making heart stents, microneedles for painless shots, gecko adhesives, parts for microfluidics chips, and scaffolds for growing cells and tissue. Another important application could be in the electronics industry, where patterning nanoscale features on chips currently involves slow, expensive techniques, writes Technology Review.. Nanoscribes claims its new microprinter, which it plans to sell later this year, is 100 times faster at printing microstructures than what is possible today. And that includes their current printer. Why is the new model so much faster?. Microprinters use a technology called two-photon polymerization, or, as Nanoscribe calls it, direct laser writing. It involves lasers: ...
T-Rex Day Gecko Diet Super Food - T-Rex Products
T-Rex Day Gecko Diet is a nutritious food that is a balanced diet and complete nutrition for your gecko. It is not just a supplement. Just add water and make a paste of this powder and your Day Gecko will dig right in. Day Geckos eat fruits, nectar and insects. For this reason Day Gecko Diet is a blend of fruits and pr
Reptile Related News: 06/01/2008 - 07/01/2008
In her contest submission, Farquhar, a student at Oaklyn Elementary School in Oaklyn, NJ, dared to be different and strayed away from using typical Latin names that describe the geckos habitat or physical features. Bavayia periclitata means endangered in Latin. Farquhar says she chose this name to help emphasize the importance of taking care of geckos, other endangered species as well as our environment in general. I chose this name because it means endangered and it will make people think about how our geckos are disappearing and are on the endangered list. I hope people will try harder to protect our geckos, said Farquhar. Winning Project Gecko means a lot to me because I named a whole new species of gecko for eternity and giving the gecko this name may mean theres a better chance to help other species ...
House gecko 3d model 3dsMax files free download - modeling 18386 on CadNav
House gecko 3d model free download, 3D model of highly detailed house gecko available in 3dsMax, use models for animation or games. .max files size 728 KB
SOLD: FS: Gecko AV - Hifi rack (NSW) - Classifieds - 2-Channel Stereo - StereoNET
Item: Gecko AV / hifi equipment rack Location:Liverpool NSW Price: SOLD Item condition: Good Reason for selling: unused Payment methods:Cash on pick up Extra info: Gecko 6 tier hifi rack , please note 1 shelf glass is missing refer to photo sale as is , PICK UP only Pictures:
Ok Im Ready With My 180 Tank To Breed Barbs
Ok i need help with breeding my barbs i love barbs ive got the space so there for no worrys and i could say i know what to do except for when to remove the female barb from the cumunity tank or do i put her into the condition tank any time and wait for her to fill with eggs.
Feather Pen Wallpapers, Feather Pen Backgrounds, Feather Pen Images - Desktop Nexus
Free Feather Pen wallpapers and Feather Pen backgrounds for your computer desktop. Find Feather Pen pictures and Feather Pen photos on Desktop Nexus.
My crested gecko is digging around the nesting box. - Reptile Forums
Hi, I wondered if you guys could help as my female crested gecko is digging around the nesting box(I`m breeding them) not inside the nesting box?! Is
The gecko walks on sticky pads
As sticky as a gecko. Wageningen UR Veni-researcher Marleen Kamperman tries to stick with plastic material full of microscopic rods.
Hajar Mountain gecko family could be as many as 10 subspecies, researchers say - The National
Researchers carried out genetic analysis of hundreds of specimens of a gecko subspecies called Pristurus rupestris, sampling individuals in the UAE and Oman.
Wonder gecko has not laid her eggs
LOG IN TO CLOSE THIS AD Ny wonder gecko has been pregnant from July and has not yet laid her eggs. Should i start worrying? Is it normal?
Crested Gecko Clean Up & Odor Control | Petco
Keep your pets habitat looking and smelling fresh with crested gecko clean up & odor control products from Petco. Browse terrarium cleaners and more here.
Context: Alternative designs of and potential constraints on the morphology of digit I in geckos [abstract]
Your search returned too many results to display in the tree. Showing only the first 100 items. For a full search click here. ...
Last minute travel deals | Geckos Adventures EN-US
Youll have to be quick though, these discounts are one-off deals that can disappear at any time. Youll need to pay in full at the time of booking. But other than that, theres nothing stopping you from jumping headfirst into a last-minute adventure!. View booking T&Cs. ...
Last minute travel deals | Geckos Adventures EN-US
Youll have to be quick though, these discounts are one-off deals that can disappear at any time. Youll need to pay in full at the time of booking. But other than that, theres nothing stopping you from jumping headfirst into a last-minute adventure!. View booking T&Cs. ...
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Whats so surprising - Big Think
Geckos can race across the surface of water, even though it doesnt seem like they should be able to. A new study looks at how theyre doing this.
Two Black Feathers - Briony - Wattpad
Science-fiction had prognosticated an undead apocalypse, in one form or another, for decades, but no one really expected it to happen. Mans arrogance, Mans...
It has been found, that beta-keratins aid in formation of scales, as the keratin proteins produce a pre-corneous layer of ... Toni, Mattia; Alibardi, Lorenzo (2007-02-01). "Alpha- and beta-keratins of the snake epidermis". Zoology. 110 (1): 41-47. doi: ... Snakeskin is composed of a soft, flexible inner layer (alpha-layer), as well as a hard, inflexible outer surface (beta-layer). ... The regions between snake scales is made of soft integument called an alpha-layer, which is composed of alpha-keratin that ...
Scales mostly consist of hard beta keratins which are basically transparent. The colours of the scale are due to pigments in ... Snake scales are made of keratin, the same material that hair and fingernails are made of. They are cool and dry to touch. ... Anatomical terms of location Canthus (snake) Fish scale Keratin Moult Reptile scale Snake Scale (zoology) from Latin mentum " ...
They often have prominent, lumpy ridges and are covered in hard-wearing beta-keratin. The head and jaws lack actual scales and ... The outer surface of the scutes consists of the relatively rigid beta-keratin while the hinge region between the scutes ... contains only the more pliable alpha-keratin. Many of the scutes are strengthened by bony plates known as osteoderms, which are ...
Greenwold, Matthew J.; Sawyer, Roger H. (15 December 2011). "Linking the molecular evolution of avian beta (β) keratins to the ... Alibardi, L.; Knapp, L. W.; Sawyer, R. H. (June 2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers ... Alibardi, L; Knapp, LW; Sawyer, RH (2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers in relation ... Feathers and scales are made up of two distinct forms of keratin, and it was long thought that each type of keratin was ...
2018 in non-avian dinosaur paleontology
2018). A study on the putative beta-keratin antibodies reported in a fossil specimen of Shuvuuia deserti by Schweitzer et al. ( ... M.H. Schweitzer; J.A. Watt; R. Avci; L. Knapp; L. Chiappe; M. Norell; M. Marshall (1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological ...
Physiology of dinosaurs
July 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, ...
1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ...
... the absence of alpha-keratin. While beta-keratin is found in all integumentary (skin and feather) cells of reptiles and birds, ... 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ... biochemical analyses later showed that these structures contain decay products of the protein beta-keratin, and more ... only bird feathers completely lack alpha-keratin. These findings show that, though poorly preserved, Shuvuuia likely possessed ...
This is conferred by the presence of beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer. In the human forearm, about ... Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing ... Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol ... which allows the cells to concentrate keratin and toughen them before they rise into a typically thicker, more cohesive SC. The ...
Toco toucan beak
... is composed of several layers of overlapping sheets of beta keratin . Each keratin sublayer is between 2 and 10 micrometers ... The keratin shell can therefore be considered transversely isotropic. The fracture modes of the keratin shell demonstrate a ... From testing the keratin-layer of the beak, it was found the mean value of the Yield Strength is 30 MPa. Further, the yield ... Keratin in the rhamphotheca of the toucan beak has a much lower abundance of sulfur, and therefore the amino acid, cystine, ...
Schweitzer, M. H.; Watt, J. A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin specific ... and immunohistochemical studies and found that they consisted of beta-keratin, which is the primary protein in feathers. The ...
Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin specific ... In particular, a fossil of the Alvarezsauridae Shuvuuia has a version of keratin consistent with that of avian feathers. Many ...
List of non-avian dinosaur species preserved with evidence of feathers
HTML abstract) Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin ...
1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ... Alibardi, Lorenzo; Knapp, Loren W.; Sawyer, Roger H. (2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and ... Research into the genetics of American alligators has also revealed that crocodylian scutes do possess feather-keratins during ... embryonic development, but these keratins are not expressed by the animals before hatching. Archaeopteryx was the first fossil ...
The naming convention for these keratins follows that for protein structures: alpha keratin is helical and beta keratin is ... Alpha keratin is found in mammalian hair, skin, nails, horn and quills, while beta keratin can be found in avian and reptilian ... Keratin is a structural protein located at the hard surfaces in many vertebrates. Keratin has two forms, α-keratin and β- ... This tensile strength is an order of magnitude higher than human nails (20MPa), because human hair's keratin filaments are more ...
Crocodilians also possess beta keratin similar to those of birds, which suggests that they evolved from common ancestral genes ... Alibardi, L.; Knapp, L. W.; Sawyer, R. H. (1 June 2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers ... Diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins". Journal of Experimental Zoology ... Feathers are largely made of the keratin protein complex, which has disulfide bonds between amino acids that give it stability ...
... and subsequent demonstration that beta-keratin is made of beta sheets consigned the alpha sheet proposal to obscurity. However ... they suggested that it agreed well with fiber diffraction results from beta-keratin fibers. However, since the alpha sheet did ... For example, amyloid beta is a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, and ... Most beta sheets in known proteins are "twisted" about 15° for optimal hydrogen bonding and steric packing; however, some ...
... all made of tough beta-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier, especially regarding the passage of chemicals via skin ... The epidermis of birds and reptiles is closer to that of mammals, with a layer of dead keratin-filled cells at the surface, to ... The epidermis of fish and of most amphibians consists entirely of live cells, with only minimal quantities of keratin in the ... between each other and secreting keratin proteins and lipids which contribute to the formation of an extracellular matrix and ...
They are made of alpha and beta-keratin and are formed from the epidermis (contrary to fish, in which the scales are formed ...
The beta activity was extremely high, with beta/gamma ratio reaching 10-30[clarification needed] and beta energy high enough to ... Due to the keratin in the epidermal layer of the skin, external alpha burns are limited to only mild reddening of the outermost ... Beta burns tend to be shallow as beta particles are not able to penetrate deeply into a body; these burns can be similar to ... Most energies of beta emissions are at about a third of the maximum energy. Beta emissions have much lower energies than what ...
However, histological and evolutionary developmental work in this area revealed that these structures lack beta-keratin (a ... The scales of birds are composed of keratin, like beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and tarsi (lower ... hallmark of reptilian scales) and are entirely composed of alpha-keratin. This, along with their unique structure, has led to ...
The addition of beta-keratin, a strong protein, would indeed allow the plates to bear more weight, suggesting they may have ...
While it is true that feather beta keratin is present in crocodilian scales in embryonic development, it fails to support the ... diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins". Journal of Experimental Zoology ... Greenwold, Matthew J.; Sawyer, Roger H. (June 6, 2013). "Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian β-keratins: ...
Silk fibroin is considered a β-keratin related to proteins that form hair, skin, nails and connective tissues. The silk worm ... The heavy fibroin protein consists of layers of antiparallel beta sheets. Its primary structure mainly consists of the ...
Florence Bell (scientist)
... where he identified a change in keratin inside wool fibres from alpha to beta form on stretching. In 1939 Bell gave a talk ...
Glossary of bird terms
... true epidermal scales are composed of a mix of alpha and beta keratin). This, along with their unique structure, has led to the ... The scales of birds are composed of keratin like their beaks and claws, and are found mainly on the toes and metatarsus, though ... rhamphotheca The outer surface of the beak consisting of a thin horny sheath of keratin, which can be subdivided into the ... The outer surface is covered in a thin, horny sheath of keratin called rhamphotheca specially called rhinotheca in the upper ...
DPT also has an important role in activating transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 has an important role in wound ... The keratinocytes are epidermal cells that help with the production of keratin, which is a fibrous protein that can be found in ... Dermatopontin is postulated to modify the behavior of TGF beta through interaction with decorin. Cell adhesion is the effect of ... Okamoto O, Fujiwara S, Abe M, Sato Y (February 1999). "Dermatopontin interacts with transforming growth factor beta and ...
... true epidermal scales are composed of a mix of alpha and beta keratin). These data have led some researchers to suggest that ... Scutes will usually not overlap as snake scales (but see the pangolin). The outer keratin layer is shed piecemeal, and not in ... The turtle's shell is covered by scutes formed mostly of keratin. They are built similarly to horn, beak, or nail in other ... Fish scutes Osteoderms Scale (zoology) Snake scales Keratin Skin Skeleton Sawyer, R.H., Knapp, L.W. 2003. Avian Skin ...
... demonstrate melanocyte stem cells in feather follicles and how they form within-a-feather color patterns and how beta keratin ... Chuong's team demonstrated intra-dermal adipose tissue exhibits BMP cycling which is out of phase with epidermal beta-catenin ... "Folding Keratin Gene Clusters during Skin Regional Specification". Developmental Cell. 53 (5): 561-576.e9. doi:10.1016/j.devcel ...
Proline-rich protein 30
In the region of high conservation, there are predicted alpha helices & beta sheets. Unstructured proteins like PRR30 are ... and Keratin Associated Protein 6-2 (KRTAP6-2). PRR30 is predicted to undergo post-translational modifications in the form of ...
ডাইনোসর - উইকিপিডিয়া
Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (১৯৯৯)। "Beta-keratin specific ...
Index of biochemistry articles
... beta-2 microglobulin - beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta- ... keratin - kinase - kinesin - kinetic energy - kinetic exclusion assay - kinetics - knock-out mouse - Krebs cycle lactalbumin - ... transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor beta receptor - transient receptor potential - translation ( ... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ...
Keratin pearls may also be seen. The cysts are usually filled with a yellow, viscous fluid rich in cholesterol crystals. Of a ... December 2002). "Craniopharyngiomas of adamantinomatous type harbor beta-catenin gene mutations". The American Journal of ... keratin, HPS stain Micrograph showing a papillary craniopharyngioma, HPS stain Craniopharyngiomas are usually successfully ...
Mansbridge JN, Hanawalt PC (March 1988). "Role of transforming growth factor beta in the maturation of human epidermal ... Is co-expressed with and binds to Keratin 10, a Type I keratin, to form a coiled coil heterotypic keratin chain. Keratin 1 and ... This difference is likely due to Keratin 9, rather than Keratin 10, being the major binding partner of Keratin 1 in acral (palm ... In contrast, basal layer keratinocytes express little to no Keratin 1. Mutations in KRT1, the gene encoding Keratin 1, have ...
List of skin conditions
... keratin cyst) Epidermal nevus syndrome (Feuerstein and Mims syndrome, Solomon's syndrome) Epidermolytic acanthoma Epithelioma ... broad beta disease, remnant removal disease) Familial hypertriglyceridemia Farber disease (fibrocytic dysmucopolysaccharidosis ... Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia Keratin implantation cyst Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum Large cell ... for autoimmune bullous conditions List of inclusion bodies that aid in diagnosis of cutaneous conditions List of keratins ...
Elastases form a subfamily of serine proteases, characterized by a distinctive structure consisting of two beta barrel domains ... "Diffuse and focal palmoplantar keratoderma can be caused by a keratin 6c mutation". Br. J. Dermatol. 165 (6): 1290-2. doi: ...
Protein fold class
Common examples include the SH3 domain, the beta-propeller domain, the immunoglobulin fold and B3 DNA binding domain. α+β ... There are many scleroprotein superfamilies including keratin, collagen, elastin, and fibroin. The roles of such proteins ...
Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1
... has been shown to interact with Keratin 18, Actinin alpha 4, Dystonin, Actinin, alpha 1, CTNND1 ... Aho S, Uitto J (1998). "Direct interaction between the intracellular domains of bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 (BP180) and beta 4 ... thereby mediating keratin cytoskeleton anchorage to the cell surface at the site of the hemidesmosome". Mol. Biol. Cell. 11 (1 ... and beta 4 integrin, hemidesmosomal components of basal keratinocytes". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243 (3): 694-9. doi: ...
Alpha and beta proteins (α/β) are considered the oldest class of proteins. Mass spectrometry is one analytical method used to ... The keratin of textiles and animal skins worn by Ötzi, the Iceman, were also identified using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF ... The examination of damaged artifacts through the sequencing of their keratin peptides has allowed researchers to discriminate ... Novel α-keratin peptide markers for species identification". Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 27 (23): 2685-2698. doi ...
It may be used by men undergoing foreskin restoration to reduce excess keratin that forms a layer on the exterior of the human ... After penetration into the follicle, adapalene binds to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (namely retinoic acid receptor beta and ... Adapalene selectively targets retinoic acid receptor beta and retinoic acid receptor gamma when applied to epithelial cells ... Adapalene has the unique ability to inhibit keratinocyte differentiation and decrease keratin deposition. This property makes ...
Stem cell marker
CK15, Cytokeratin 15) Keratin 19 (aka. CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX ... August 2004). "Beta-galactosidase of ROSA26 mice is a useful marker for detecting the definitive erythropoiesis after stem cell ... asialo GM1 Bcl-2 Beta-galactosidase (β-gal) of ROSA26 mice beta1-integrin bromodeoxyuridine c-kit (CD117) c-Met C1qR(p) END ( ... Her5 hMYADM HSA hsp25 Id2 IL-3Ralpha Integrins interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain Iron oxide nanoparticles KDR Keratin 15 (aka ...
This imaging reveals sub-diffraction limit sized features of the intermediate filaments keratin and vimentin, critical in the ... Even with expansion microscopy, Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid-beta plaques cannot be resolved. Boyden devised "expansion- ... revealing occasional spirals of amyloid-beta protein around axons, which are the threadlike parts of nerve cells that carry ...
Hairstylist Danny Jelaca states that milk's keratin proteins may "add weight to the hair". Some commercial hair products ... proposes that nanoclusters of calcium phosphate and the phosphopeptide fraction of beta-casein are the centerpiece to micellar ...
Eugene C. Butcher
1982." J Immunol 2005; 175: 3: 1363-72 Habtezion A, Toivola DM, Butcher EC, Omary MB "Keratin-8-deficient mice develop chronic ... Regulation by TGF-beta and TLR ligands." Exp Hematol 2006; 34: 8: 1106-14 Sato T, Thorlacius H, Johnston B, Staton TL, Xiang W ...
... but not keratin, S100, calponin, or CD34 proteins. The finding that a tumor's cells have some of these patterns of protein ... "Ischemic Fasciitis of the Left Buttock in a 40-Year-Old Woman with Beta-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN ...
Zinc finger protein 226
Predicted secondary structures of ZNF226 demonstrate a variable number of alpha helices, beta-stranded bridges, and random ... "HOXC13 is involved in the regulation of human hair keratin gene expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (5): 3718 ...
Bøe R, Silvola J, Yang J, Moens U, McCray PB, Stenfors LE, Seljfelid R (September 1999). "Human beta-defensin-1 mRNA is ... The primary components of earwax are shed layers of skin, with, on average, 60% of the earwax consisting of keratin, 12-20% ...
... alpha-keratin can even change into beta-keratin, a stronger keratin formation that has a secondary structure of beta-pleated ... Alpha-keratin, or α-keratin, is a type of keratin found in vertebrates. This protein is the primary component in hairs, horns, ... a type I alpha-keratin, to form the alpha-keratin complex of the epidermis layer of cells in the skin. Hard alpha-keratins, ... Alpha-keratins proteins can be one of two types: type I or type II. There are 54 keratin genes in humans, 28 of which code for ...
... who proposed rudimentary models of secondary structure elements such as the alpha helix and the beta sheet. ... physicist Frederick Frank suggested that the fibrous protein α-keratin might be stabilized by an alternative mechanism, namely ...
A bird's beak is primarily made of bone as projections of the mandibles which are covered in keratin. Some bones, primarily ... These factors include insulin-like growth factors I and II, transforming growth factor-beta, fibroblast growth factor, platelet ...
Regardless of the group, keratins are either acidic or basic. Acidic and basic keratins bind each other to form acidic-basic ... then as the strain increases they transition into beta-sheets, and finally at increased strain the hydrogen bonds between beta- ... Analysis of a second keratin sequence revealed that the two types of keratins share only about 30% amino acid sequence homology ... keratin 5 or keratin 14 mutation Laminopathies are a family of diseases caused by mutations in nuclear lamins and include ...
... followed by low transfer of vitamin A during lactation and infant/child diets low in vitamin A or beta-carotene. The prevalence ... which are clumps of keratin debris that build up inside the conjunctiva and night blindness, which precedes corneal ulceration ...
Crish J, Conti MA, Sakai T, Adelstein RS, Egelhoff TT (October 2013). "Keratin 5-Cre-driven excision of nonmuscle myosin IIA in ... Sajid M, Hu Z, Lele M, Stouffer GA (May 2000). "Protein complexes involving alpha v beta 3 integrins, nonmuscle myosin heavy ...
Beta-keratin - Wikipedia
... alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. Alpha-keratin is seen in humans and other mammals, beta-keratin is present in birds and ... "beta-keratins" in recent works is replaced by "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins." β-keratins add ... Beta-keratin is harder than alpha-keratin. Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical coiled coil structure while beta- ... Beta-keratin (β-keratin), is a member of a structural protein family found in the epidermis of reptiles and birds. Beta- ...
Keratin stress proteins as novel beta-cell health protectors and insulin regulators - Publications - Åbo Akademi University
Lichen Amyloidosis: Background, Pathophysiology
Basal keratins are the primary elements of the amyloid deposits.  Amyloid deposits in macular amyloidosis and lichen ... SAP and the beta-pleated sheet configurations are thought to protect amyloid deposits from degradation and phagocytosis, ... These deposits contain sulfhydryl groups, pointing to altered keratin as a source for these deposits. Apaydin et al found no ... X-ray diffraction crystallography and infrared spectroscopy revealed that these fibrils have a meridional, antiparallel, beta- ...
Is Keratin Treatment Good for Thin Hair?
Types of Keratins. Keratins are divided into two groups. These are; alpha keratins and beta keratins based on their external ... Alpha keratins are fiber-like and helical. On the other hand, Beta keratins are found in reptiles and birds majorly. ... Side Effects of Keratin Hair Treatment: Is Keratin Safe? Some Keratin solutions contain Formaldehyde, a carcinogen capable of ... Pros of Keratin Hair Treatment. Keratin is an essential solution that our body needs. The Keratin treatment is often adopted ...
Science Clips - Volume 13, Issue 35, September 28, 2021
O envolvimento das glândulas salivares na doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro:...
Fibrinogen beta chain; Alpha- 1-acidic glycoprotein 1; Isoform gamma-A of Fibrinogen gamma chain; Hemopexin; Keratin type I CK ... Fibrinogen beta chain; Alpha-1-acidic glycoprotein 1; Isoform gamma-A of Fibrinogen gamma chain; Hemopexin; Keratin type I CK ... 14; Alpha-2-Macroglobulin; Thioredoxin; Complement C3; Vitamin D; Keratin type I CK16; Lactoperoxidase; Cystatin B e Neutrophil ... 14; Alpha-2-Macroglobulin; Thioredoxin; Complement C3; Vitamin D; Keratin type I CK16; Lactoperoxidase; Cystatin B e Neutrophil ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
The transcription factors, NF kappa B and NF-IL-6 (C/EBP beta), which coordinately help regulate IL-6 expression, were ... Furthermore, addition of IL-6 to NHEK cultures decreased the expression of keratins 1 and 10, differentiation markers of ... Addition of IL-1 alpha to NHEK cultures increased IL-6 production and activated NF kappa B and C/EBP beta. Addition of the IL-1 ... the response involves NF kappa B and C/EBP beta transcription factors, and IL-6 may be associated with modulation of ...
Organic Eprints - In vitro pepsin digestibility and amino acid composition in soluble and residual fractions of hydrolyzed...
Reptiles of Anza-Borrego Desert - DesertUSA
... harder beta keratin on the outer exposed surface. Keratin is the structural protein found in human nails and in bird feathers. ... Only the reptiles produce the beta form. Reptile skin greatly reduces the loss of water by evaporation compared to mammal or ... All reptiles possess a thick, scaly skin composed of pliable alpha keratin on the inner surface and stiffer, ...
Excess NF-κB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium | Max Delbrück Center
What is keratin for hair and types of keratin - Assertive News
Beta keratin. Beta keratin is used to make smoothing treatments with a softer effect since it hardly has a cysteine ... What is keratin for hair?. Keratin, popularly known as keratin, is a type of natural protein found in hair, skin, and nails. ... Alpha keratin. This type of keratin is the main base of all keratin treatments. One of its main components is cysteine, which ... What is keratin for hair and types of keratin. Roman Cyrus February 15, 2021 4 min read ...
SKIN-HAIR-NAILS Archives - Occupational and Environmental Medicine | North Charleston SC
Beta-carotene is very helpful in preventing the excess production of keratin. Consume 2 to 3 carrots on a daily basis. ... Beta-glucan - This is a kind of fiber, is sometimes used to help fight Morgellons disease. Beta-glucan is thought to stimulate ... The keratin forms a scaly plug that blocks the opening of the hair follicle. Usually many plugs form, causing patches of rough ... This results in accumulation of the keratin in the topmost layer of the skin. Due to the presence of the scales in ichthyosis ...
Animal and Human Cells in Culture | Nikon's MicroscopyU
CRE BAG2 cells produce a beta-galactosidase-transducing vector (BAG) and are similar in many ways to the psi 2 BAG alpha line. ... The epithelial cells stain positive for keratin and are negative for reverse transcriptase. Though utilized in a wide array of ... The MDCK line is a popular tool for studies focusing on the processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein and its proteolytic ... The cells are positive for both PAS (Periodic acid-Schiff) and for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. GPC-16 cells are ...
Novel Nutritional And Biotechnological Approaches To Convert Defatted Microalgal Biomass And Poultry Feathers Into Highly...
Nekton-R-Beta Red Color Enhancer for Birds (Nekton)
NEKTON-R-Beta contains all essential vitamins, amino acids, minerals, the colorant beta-carotene and trace elements in balanced ... Achieves splendid red coloring through the natural carotenoid Beta-carotene. Especially effective on red parts of colored ... Storage of colored pigments in the feathers horn (keratin) can only occur naturally during the keratinization process as a ... NEKTON-R-BETA contains a high amount of the highly effective colorant beta carotene, which is found in nature. NEKTON-R-Beta is ...
Epidermolysis Bullosa: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Keratin filaments. Keratins 5 and 14 combine to form intermediate filaments in basal keratinocytes. Keratins contain a central ... The beta-4 integrin subunit performs a central role in hemidesmosome formation and contains an especially large cytoplasmic ... The regions of highest conservation between the keratins are located on the ends of the keratin rod in the helix boundary ... Most epidermolysis bullosa simplex keratin gene mutations are inherited dominantly and interfere with keratin filament assembly ...
The Best Face Oils for Every Skin Type - Elina Organics
It is a blend of beauty nutrients like beta keratin, lecithin, Vitamin D and E, Linoleic and Oleic Acids. It helps to increase ... I also use in this formula Sea Buckthorn Oil which nourishes the skin with beta certain (pre-cursor of Vitamin A), and other ... It is a blend of beauty nutrients like beta keratin, lecithin, Vitamin D and E, Linoleic and Oleic Acids. It helps to increase ... I also use in this formula Sea Buckthorn Oil which nourishes the skin with beta certain (pre-cursor of Vitamin A), and other ...
Similar skin proteins in humans and turtles? - Uncommon Descent
Anolis carolinensis | The Reptile Database
Difference between revisions of "Feather-Decomposing Bacteria" - microbewiki
Specifically, bird feathers contain beta-keratin: a particular protein arrangement that can form into long, stiff fibers, much ... Once there, they do what they do best and, thinking that theyve struck gold, begin to gorge themselves on as much keratin as ... Many bacteria that come into regular contact with keratin have evolved to produce this enzyme when in its presence (Williams et ... 1990). A good number of soil-dwelling bacteria are capable of breaking down keratin even though they only rarely come in ...
Code System Concept
Study finds 'Snowball Earth' event gave rise to oxygen based life - Watts Up With That?
Julie Schwarz - Research output - Research Profiles at Washington University School of Medicine
Cas 52-90-4,L-Cysteine | lookchem
Found in beta-keratin, the main protein in nails, skin, and hair, Cysteine is important in collagen production, as well as skin ... Synonyms: (R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid;3-mercapto-l-alanin;alpha-amino-beta-mercaptopropionicacid;alpha-Amino-beta- ... L-cysteine is present in keratin, which is the major protein that makes up nails, toenails, skin and hair. L-cysteine can help ... Again the cysteine is used for breaking up the disulfide bonds in the hairs keratin. Cysteine is a very popular target for ...
Tinea Pedis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
20 Best Conditioner For Coarse Hair (2022 Updated) - Taste of St. Louis
Keratin Amino Acids, Hydrolyzed Keratin, Butylene Glycol, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Extract, Dimethiconol, Prunus ... Armeniaca (Apricot) Kernel Oil, Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil, Beta-Glucan, Linum Usitatissimum (Linseed) Seed ... Featuring keratin as the key active ingredient this 5 to 10 minute mask is a powerful restructuring treatment that will smooth ... Fortified with Hydrolysed Keratin, your hair fibres will appear stronger and more resilient when it comes to brushing and ...
COCOCHOCO, 24K Gold, Keratin treatment, straighten hair, Brazilian keratin - cocochoco.eu
Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract. *Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Bark/ Leaf/ Twig Extract ... COCOCHOCO Gold brazilian keratin hair treatment for extra shine / glossy hair - The unique formula is infused with 24k liquid ... COCOCHOCO 24K Gold Keratin Hair Treatment 250ml - For extra shine / glossy hair. Regular price €54.00 ...
Tretma za Obrvi The Cosmetic Republic Keratin Kit Temni kostanj - Beauti.si
How Nano Keratin Treatment is better than normal keratin treatment! | 2022
There are many incomprehensible points about the newly developed nano keratin ... The nano keratin treatment allows you to repair and smoothen your hair. ... Naturally, there are two forms of keratin; alpha(α)-keratin and beta(β)-keratin. The alpha(α)-keratin is a fibrous structural ... Nano keratin vs keratin treatment. Before going to discuss about nano keratin it is important to understand what is keratin. ...
Production of keratinCollagenNatural keratinSalicylic AcidArgan oilExtractFeathersSebumCorneous beta-proteinsBoosting keratin levelsBrazilianKeratinocytesCaroteneType of keratinTypes of keratinElastin and keratinExpression of keratinCysteineShampooProduce keratinFunctional keratinBiotinFilamentsHair FollicleStructuresNailsContain formaldehydeSkinDissolveEpidermisScalpProtein foundStrandsIngredientsElasticityReptiles and birdsEpithelialStraighten hairGenesFormulasFoundHydroxyNaturallyVulgarisProteins calledKRT8VitaminCellsBeaksHelp strengthenFormaldehydeTreatments and productsAlphaStrengthensAvian
Production of keratin5
- Certain nutrients aid in the production of keratin. (its-a-living.com)
- Azelaic Acid works by killing acne bacteria that infect pores, reducing skin inflammation, and decreasing the production of keratin, a natural substance that promotes the growth of bacteria which cause acne. (brensskincare.com)
- Biotin is a vitamin that is essential for the production of keratin, a protein that is important for hair growth. (healthcarebloggers.com)
- Biotin can help improve the strength of your hair shafts by enhancing the production of keratin proteins that are needed to make these substances stronger. (healthcarebloggers.com)
- Methylsulfonylmethane aids in the production of keratin (a protein in the hair) while doing double-duty to strengthen hair follicles. (mariaelenamyhairstylist.com)
- Hemidesmosomes also contain the intracellular portions of the transmembrane proteins collagen XVII (BP180) and alpha-6-beta-4 integrin. (medscape.com)
- These structures contain the extracellular portions of collagen XVII (BP180) and alpha-6-beta-4 integrin. (medscape.com)
- Found in beta-keratin, the main protein in nails, skin, and hair, Cysteine is important in collagen production, as well as skin elasticity and texture. (lookchem.com)
- As mentioned earlier, keratin is you'll collagen show. (tnmode.com)
- AHA (alpha-hydroxyl), PHA, LHA acids are water soluble acids that promote the exfoliation of the surface keratin layer and stimulate the basal membrane and increase the production of collagen and glycosaminoglycans. (kosmosbeauty.com)
- Nutraceuticals we use are lycopene and pomegranate extract for men's health, high quality curcumin for your well-being, beta-glucan from yeast extract in our immune product, omega-3 fatty acids from krill for heart and liver health, keratin from sheep's wool for your hair, hyaluonic acid and collagen for your skin and saffron, ashwagandha and melissa extracts for your psyche. (beneganic.com)
- Examples of structural proteins can be keratin, collagen, and elastin. (webrepost.top)
- ReVITALIZE's Ceramide cocktail boosts collagen, elastin and keratin production to help protect and replenish the skin's delicate lipid barrier. (goodlifepure.com)
- Not only does this combination stimulate the production of new collagen but it also enhances the antimicrobial activity of keratinocytes - the main cells of the epidermis which produce keratin - reinforcing the natural skin defence system. (nourishlondon.ae)
- What makes gelatine the optimal anti aging ingredient is its natural keratin segment. (tnmode.com)
- What makes gelatine a really wonderful anti aging ingredient is its natural keratin area. (parrovphins.com)
- Its gentle formula works to restore and strengthen hair's natural keratin structure. (thecosmeticrepublic.com)
- All COCOCHOCO Keratin treatments and styling products are specially formulated to contain natural keratin protein, which rebuilds, restores and rejuvenates all types of hair. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- This oil also contains sulfur, which helps to form natural keratin in the skin, giving it a youthful glow. (aosproduct.com)
- Milia Face Scrubbies, Helps Dissolve and Reduce Milia, With Salicylic Acid, Niacin, Retinol, Pumice and More, 12 Count, Diva Stuff Features : Salicylic Acid is a Beta Hydroxy Acid, which means it has an exfoliating effect. (misterspencer.de)
- Another key ingredient in Nip and Fab skincare products is salicylic acid, a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA). (thedermreview.com)
- Salicylic acid works as a keratolytic, which means that it breaks down keratin found in the outer layers of the skin. (theskiny.com)
- Giovanni, conditioner 2chic ultra-sleek conditioner with brazilian keratin & argan oil is a product you can count on. (theisens.com)
- The rich power of keratin and argan oil will banish frizz and smooth every strand. (theisens.com)
- The Instant Repairing Hair Mask with Keratin & Argan Oil has helped to strengthen my hair. (berinacosmetics.com)
- So luxe-2 chic Brazillian Keratin and Moroccan Argan Oil Ultra-Sleek Conditioner. (cherryblossomsubscription.com)
- Massage into hair after washing with 2 chic Brazilian Keratin Moroccan Argan Oil Ultra-Sleep Shampoo. (cherryblossomsubscription.com)
- De shampoo is rijk aan hyaluronzuur en edelweissbloem extract om koperachtige en gele ondertonen te verwijderen, die jouw haarkleur weer een prachtige koele toon geeft en daarnaast ook je haar heerlijk laat ruiken. (jemith.com)
- Packed full of goodies such as keratin to help strengthen your hair, the antioxidant power of green tea extract and scalp rebalancing beta-glucan, you can be sure that its rich lather performs as good as it smells. (beautygroup.eu)
- Amino Acids, Beta-Glucan, Linum Usitatissimum (Linseed) Seed Extract, Ascorbic It does its job and it's reasonably priced. (customerlabs.co)
- When it comes to solving chronic skin dryness and cracked hands, beta glucan from purified yeast extract combined with hyaluronic acid is a superb combination for the rapid repair and the key ingredients in our Kale Anti-Ageing Hand Cream . (nourishlondon.ae)
- Hair growth improved in men taking 400 mg of a standardized extract of saw palmetto and 100 mg of beta-sitosterol (from saw palmetto) daily. (mariaelenamyhairstylist.com)
- The scales, beaks, claws and feathers of birds contain β-keratin of the avian family. (wikipedia.org)
- A recent study using molecular dating methods to link the evolution of avian β-keratin genes in general to that of feathers specifically reveals that the avian β-keratin family began diverging from the crocodile family about 216 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
- β-keratins found in modern feathers have increased elasticity, a factor that may have contributed to their role in flight. (wikipedia.org)
- Beta-keratin in poultry feathers is a structural protein that is resistant to degradation due to disulfide and hydrogen bonds. (orgprints.org)
- Keratin is the structural protein found in human nails and in bird feathers. (desertusa.com)
- Storage of colored pigments in the feathers' horn (keratin) can only occur naturally during the keratinization process as a part of feather development. (jedds.com)
- The alpha(α)-keratin is a fibrous structural protein, mostly found in the hair, epidermis, horns, and feathers of mammals. (theemergingsciences.com)
- They have evolved structural colour, created by the way light waves interact with the feathers and their arrangement of protein molecules, called keratin. (willowwildedges.com)
- Light scattering is similar to the effects of a prism and when light hits these pockets of keratin, all of the colours of the wavelength except blue are absorbed and scattered whilst the blue wavelength is refracted, which is what allows us to see the feathers as blue. (willowwildedges.com)
- Sweet potatoes - The beta carotene in orange-colored veggies and fruit can protect against dull, dry hair and stimulate sebum production leading to healthier hair. (rachelfirasek.com)
- An omphalolith or umbolith or omphalith or navel stone or umbilical concretion is a periumbilical mass that may form due to the accumulation of sebum and keratin. (churbuck.com)
- BHA acids are capable of dissolving glued sebum keratin scales and, through this, to penetrate deeply into the pores of the skin. (kosmosbeauty.com)
- SA softens the keratin found in dead cells that accumulated with sebum to clog pores. (theskiny.com)
- Acne results from a buildup of oil (sebum) and dead skin cells (keratin) inside the hair follicle or pores," says board-certified dermatologist and co-founder of Skintap.com, Dr. Mamina Turegano, MD, FAAD . (wellandgood.com)
- Because the accurate use of the term keratin is limited to the alpha-keratins, the term "beta-keratins" in recent works is replaced by "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- The EDC of the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) comprises more than 100 genes, including at least 48 genes that encode proteins referred to as beta-keratins or corneous beta-proteins. (uncommondescent.com)
Boosting keratin levels1
- Onions are known for boosting keratin levels as they contain N-acetylcysteine, a plant-based antioxidant. (its-a-living.com)
- However, for this post, the Keratin we will discuss is the artificial chemical formula that is popularly referred to as Brazilian blowout, used to treat hair loss and frizziness. (hairfinity.com)
- The Keratin hair treatment, also known as the Brazilian blowout or the Brazilian keratin treatment, is a chemical measure adopted to smoothen, straighten, and make the hair less frizzy. (hairfinity.com)
- Except for Brazilian keratin, keratin treatments do not straighten the hair, but they achieve an anti-frizz effect on the hair for the reasons mentioned above. (iddaalihaber.com)
- COCOCHOCO Gold brazilian keratin hair treatment for extra shine / glossy hair - The unique formula is infused with 24k liquid gold which minimizes static electricity and water absorption in the hair, protecting it from humidity, salt water, and rain. (cocochoco.eu)
- Brazilian keratin treatments are dangerous to your health and your hair. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- In the US, the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration, known as OSHA, has issued a warning regarding Brazilian keratin treatments, and they even added an informational site just for this important health topic. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- COCOCHOCO PROFESSIONAL Complex Brazilian straightening keratin hair treatment. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- COCOCHOCO Original Brazilian Keratin Hair Treatment 1000ml (2 items). (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- COCOCHOCO Brazilian Keratin Hair Treatment is an advanced process that transforms your hair to a straight, smooth shiny and glossy look. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- COCOCHOCO Brazilian Keratin Hair Treatment Keratin is a natural substance that gives your hair the ability to return to its original healthy, shiny, smooth and conditioned state. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- COCOCHOCO Original - Brazilian Keratin Hair Treatment straightens the hair without changing its texture. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- Brush the Brazilian Keratin Treatment onto sections of hair (avoiding the scalp) and comb out the excess. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- Furthermore, addition of IL-6 to NHEK cultures decreased the expression of keratins 1 and 10, differentiation markers of keratinocytes, while proliferation was not affected. (cdc.gov)
- Keratins 5 and 14 combine to form intermediate filaments in basal keratinocytes. (medscape.com)
- Most cases are due to missense mutations of keratin 14 and 5 which is important for the structural integrity of epidermal keratinocytes. (mhmedical.com)
- Achieves splendid red coloring through the natural carotenoid Beta-carotene. (jedds.com)
- NEKTON-R-Beta contains all essential vitamins, amino acids, minerals, the colorant beta-carotene and trace elements in balanced proportions. (jedds.com)
- NEKTON-R-BETA contains a high amount of the highly effective colorant beta carotene, which is found in nature. (jedds.com)
- Beta carotene is one of the best known antioxidants which helps to protect the skin against the damaging effects of 'free radicals' created by the action of ultra-violet rays on the skin. (health4youonline.com)
- What is beta-carotene good for? (health4youonline.com)
- This product provides a guaranteed level of 15mg of natural beta carotene per capsule plus mixed carotenoids. (health4youonline.com)
- The body is able to convert beta carotene into Vitamin A according to its needs, and remaining beta carotene is stored in the skin where it can be seen as a light gold colour and is known to give some protection against sun damage. (health4youonline.com)
- High strength beta carotene 15mg, with mixed carotenoids. (health4youonline.com)
- In addition to preventing night blindness, eating adequate amounts of beta-carotene may help slow the decline in eyesight that some people experience as get older. (health4youonline.com)
- In some studies, eating higher amounts of vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene has been linked to a decreased risk of certain types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as cervical, lung and bladder cancer. (health4youonline.com)
- Papaya contains a hefty associated with beta carotene. (tnmode.com)
- A powerhouse of health and taste, sweet potatoes contain provitamin A named carotenoids-beta carotene. (its-a-living.com)
- One of Solgar's premium-quality carotenoid complexes providing Beta-carotene plus Alpha Carotene, Cryptoxanthin, Zeaxanthin and Lutein. (2pharmacy.gr)
- Beta-carotene is the precursor to vitamin A and is found in carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, squashes, bananas, mangoes and all yellow vegetables. (griffinandrow.com)
- Beta carotene and iron, both of which pumpkin contains in high quantities, are both key nutrients for hair growth. (dayspaassociation.com)
- Beta-carotene is a type of carotenoid found in many foods. (judiklee.com)
- There are over 600 different types of carotenoids, with beta-carotene being one of the more common examples. (judiklee.com)
- About fifty carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A. The major carotenoids in humans are beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin. (judiklee.com)
- Beta-carotene is yellow to orange to red in color and gives many fruits and vegetables their characteristic bright colors ranging from green to orange, red, and purple. (judiklee.com)
- The color of beta-carotene in dark green vegetables is masked by the chlorophyll in the plants. (judiklee.com)
- Beta-carotene serves as a provitamin (or precursor) to Vitamin A in the body. (judiklee.com)
- This means that the body uses beta-carotene to make Vitamin A. Vitamin A is an important fat-soluble vitamin with a variety of functions in the body. (judiklee.com)
- Provitamin A (in the form of carotenoids, with beta-carotene being one of them) is only found in plants, whereas preformed Vitamin A (a group of retinoids) is found in animal foods such as dairy products, fish oils, eggs, and meat (especially liver). (judiklee.com)
- The Vitamin A your body makes from beta-carotene does not accumulate in the body to toxic levels, whereas preformed Vitamin A from animal sources can. (judiklee.com)
- All carotenoids, including beta-carotene, serve as antioxidants in the body. (judiklee.com)
- As mentioned above, Vitamin A (that we can make from beta-carotene) has a number of important functions in the body. (judiklee.com)
- Simply ensuring adequate intake of Vitamin A or beta-carotene-rich foods prevents these serious eye problems and possible death, especially among children. (judiklee.com)
- Furthermore, research shows that those who eat a diet rich in beta-carotene (or Vitamin A) are less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration, and have a lower risk of developing cataracts. (judiklee.com)
- Moringa oil is also rich in anti-inflammatory and antiseptic compounds such as ascorbic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, beta-carotene, and sulfur, which are key elements in maintaining skin health and fighting acne. (aosproduct.com)
- It has a high beta-carotene content, which helps to warm your complexion. (goodguysblog.com)
Type of keratin4
- The type of Keratin relevant to this post is the alpha keratin because it is found in human hair. (hairfinity.com)
- The amount of time taken to perform a keratin treatment on your hair depends on hair density, the type of keratin formula used, and the stylist's expertise, among others. (hairfinity.com)
- It is a type of keratin used in treatments that restructure the hair since it acts as a conditioner. (iddaalihaber.com)
- This type of keratin is the main base of all keratin treatments. (iddaalihaber.com)
Types of keratin3
- In the following article, we want to shed light on keratin treatments, tell you what they consist of, and what types of keratin you can find most frequently in hairdressers. (iddaalihaber.com)
- There are many types of keratin, which are not proper treatments, but components used for them. (iddaalihaber.com)
- There are two main types of keratin. (well-beingsecrets.com)
Elastin and keratin1
- Chia seeds contain omega-3 fats, which improve the integrity of elastin and keratin, creating thick, voluminous tresses. (danajames.com)
Expression of keratin2
- Exocrine acinar cells and endocrine islet cells are well-differentiated cells which express the keratin combination 8 and 18, whereas the less-differentiated cells of the ductal tree are characterized by the additional expression of keratin 7, keratin 19, and, in the rat, keratin 20. (humpath.com)
- Procyanidin B2 has a positive effect on alopecia because it can promote the expression of keratin in hair cells. (nutrami.it)
- Beta keratin is used to make smoothing treatments with a softer effect since it hardly has a cysteine composition. (iddaalihaber.com)
- It gets converted into L-cysteine, a component of keratin made up of amino acids. (its-a-living.com)
- When consumed, it gets transformed into L-cysteine, an amino acid that is found in keratin. (its-a-living.com)
- All keratin cells are comprised of large amounts of cysteine, an amino acid containing sulfur. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- Cysteine is an amino acid and a component found in beta-keratin and is believed to preserve skin elasticity and to protect the lining of the digestive system. (nuacell.com)
- In the hair cortex, hair keratin intermediate filaments are embedded in an interfilamentous matrix, consisting of hair keratin-associated proteins (KRTAP), which are essential for the formation of a rigid and resistant hair shaft through their extensive disulfide bond cross-linking with abundant cysteine residues of hair keratins. (nih.gov)
- La'dor Keratin LPP Shampoo este un șampon universal, fără sulfati, pentru părul deteriorat, slab și fragil. (herb.md)
- Dit is een hydraterende shampoo voor blond haar waarmee de haarvezel zorgvuldig wordt gereinigd, verhelderd en luchtig gemaakt wordt. (jemith.com)
- In deze Blond Absolu lijn zit ook de Ultra Violet shampoo , dit is een zilvershampoo die warme en ongewenste gele tonen in ontkleurd haar zal neutraliseren. (jemith.com)
- Een shampoo speciaal tegen haaruitval is de Kérastase Genesis Hydra-Fortifiant Shampoo , dit is een verzorgende en versterkende shampoo die haaruitval tegengaat en het haar versterkt waardoor je lokken weer sterk en veerkrachtig worden. (jemith.com)
- De shampoo is ideaal te gebruiken bij fijn en vet haar, de formule zorgt voor een delicate reiniging waardoor het geschikt is voor dagelijks gebruik. (jemith.com)
- De Kérastase Résistance Force Architecte Shampoo is er speciaal om beschadigd en breekbaar haar te herstellen. (jemith.com)
- De shampoo helpt bij het herstellen van de haarvezel en gaat splijten van de haarpunten tegen. (jemith.com)
- Een conditioner versterkt de werking van de shampoo door het haar te verzorgen, en zorgt ervoor dat het handelbaarder wordt. (jemith.com)
- This paraben and sulphate free surfactants Multivitamin shampoo with A, B, C, E & F vitamins and keratin microspheres has been specially designed for weak, thin hair and hair loss cases. (thecosmeticrepublic.com)
- We recommend after a Keratin treatment that you maintain your hair and ensure the long-lasting effect of our treatment by using: Our COCOCHOCO Sulphate free Shampoo Our COCOCHOCO Sodium Chloride free, Formaldehyde Free Conditioner. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- Inform the Customer that to assist in extending the life of the treatment: Use COCOCHOCO Sulphate Free Shampoo with every wash Use COCOCHOCO Conditioner & Keratin Mask twice a week. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- We recommend our COCOCHOCO Free sulphate shampoo and Sodium Chloride Free Conditioner as they also have Keratin and UV protection. (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- USAGE:- It's highly recommended to use BOTANICA ORGANIC Purifying Shampoo prior to Reform System Keratin Treatment. (berinacosmetics.com)
- With their key ingredient, Virtue Labs Alpha Keratin 60ku, using this shampoo will repair your hair at the root. (honestbrandreviews.com)
- All together with the keratin, this shampoo will bring your limp locks back to life. (honestbrandreviews.com)
- Your body needs biotin to help produce keratin, which is responsible for keeping your nails strong and healthy. (healthcarebloggers.com)
- Biotin has been shown to benefit hair growth and strength by helping the body produce keratin-a protein found in hair follicles-and helps maintain healthy skin cells. (healthcarebloggers.com)
- This is made up of functional keratin. (tnmode.com)
- Moreover, one cooked egg is equipped with 10 mcg of biotin, an important nutrient involved in keratin synthesis. (its-a-living.com)
- Enriched with proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, and biotin, salmon is a wonderful source of keratin. (its-a-living.com)
- Which Include 5000 Mcg Biotin, Beta-sitosterol, Saw Palmetto and Pygeum. (worldshop.pk)
- Eggs - Full of keratin and the B vitamin biotin, eggs can strengthen new hair growth. (rachelfirasek.com)
- When you take biotin, it strengthens the keratin in your skin, nails, and hair by helping to build new tissue. (healthcarebloggers.com)
- At the superior aspect of the BMZ, keratin-containing intermediate filaments of the basal cell cytoskeleton insert on basal cell plasma membrane condensations termed hemidesmosomes. (medscape.com)
- Keratin intermediate filaments insert upon electron-dense structures termed hemidesmosomes. (medscape.com)
- Actin filaments are shown in red, and microtubules composed of beta tubulin are in green. (cloudfront.net)
- Desmosomes (macula adherens) connect keratin intermediate filaments from cell to cell to create a structural construction of great tensile power [4, 7]. (stemedics.com)
- Vitamin C May Also Stimulate the Production of IGF-1, Which Strengthens the Hair Follicle and Produces Cells That Makes Keratin. (worldshop.pk)
- 1999) showed that these featherlike structures consisted of beta-keratin. (wikipedia.org)
- alpha keratins and beta keratins based on their external structures. (hairfinity.com)
- 6. A Type I Turn: In addition to the alpha helix and beta sheet secondary structures (see Bio 13 tutorials), another distinct structural motif has been recognized in which the the polypeptide chain reverses direction over the span of only a few amino acids. (facfil.eu)
- Main Difference - Alpha Helix and Beta Pleated Sheet Alpha helix and beta plates are two different secondary structures of protein. (facfil.eu)
- The most common secondary structures are alpha helices and beta sheets. (facfil.eu)
- The only difference is a few minor changes in protein structure that cause plate-like structures to form rather the more extended alpha keratin structures. (coinfxpro.net)
- Depending on their exact composition (keratin, muscle, elastic structures, etc.), they may have been stiffening or strengthening agents in the outer part of the wing. (cloudflare-ipfs.com)
- The structures generally contain 'cross-links' involving chains, for example cys-cys disulphide bonds among keratin chains. (webrepost.top)
- This doubly-wound parallel beta sheet is the most frequent folding pattern discovered in known protein structures. (webrepost.top)
- Keratin is a fiber-like protein found in the hair, nails, hoofs, horns, wools, and outer layer of the skin or the epithelial cells. (hairfinity.com)
- Keratin is a protein that aids in the structural maintenance of hair, nails, skin, and the lining of internal organs. (its-a-living.com)
- A specific type of non-living protein, keratin makes up our skin, hair and nails. (its-a-living.com)
- The kind found in human skin, hair, and nails is called alpha-keratin. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- NAC is important for skin, nails and hair by stimulating the protein beta-keratin. (provita-nutrition.eu)
- The treatment is Keratin based (the primary protein of skin, hair, and nails). (braziliankeratinhair.com)
- Keratin, a protein, is the primary structural component of our hair and nails. (goodguysblog.com)
- That's because these organs are made of keratin-a protein also found in hair and nails. (healthcarebloggers.com)
- β-keratins add much more rigidity to reptilian skin than alpha-keratins alone do to mammalian skin. (wikipedia.org)
- β-keratins are impregnated into the stratum corneum of the reptilian skin, providing waterproofing and the prevention of desiccation. (wikipedia.org)
- All reptiles possess a thick, scaly skin composed of pliable alpha keratin on the inner surface and stiffer, harder beta keratin on the outer exposed surface. (desertusa.com)
- I also use in this formula Sea Buckthorn Oil which nourishes the skin with beta certain (pre-cursor of Vitamin A), and other skin-restoring phytonutrients. (elinaorganics.com)
- Gene expression analysis in the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) showed that EDC genes are differentially expressed in the skin of the various body sites and that a subset of beta-keratin genes within the EDC as well as those located outside of the EDC are expressed predominantly in the shell. (uncommondescent.com)
- Using enzymes called keratinases, dermatophyte fungi invade the superficial keratin of the skin, and the infection remains limited to this layer. (medscape.com)
- Recently we demonstrated a strong induction of activin expression after skin injury, suggesting a function of this transforming growth factor-beta family member in wound repair. (uni.lu)
- Keratin is produced from living skin cells in the body and is found in our glands and the lining of our organs as well. (its-a-living.com)
- Keratin protein is not only important for healthy hair, but it is also responsible for the repair and growth of ligaments, certain tissues, bones, muscles, skin, and beyond. (its-a-living.com)
- Keratin deficiency can lead to sagging skin, hair loss and nail breakage. (its-a-living.com)
- Keratin is the natural element that comprises your hair, skin, and fingernails. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- Milia is when keratin (a substance produced by the skin) becomes entrapped beneath the outer layer of the skin, forming a tiny cyst. (misterspencer.de)
- It also has the ability to dissolve keratin, the protein that acts as a "glue" to keep dead skin cells together in the stratum corneum. (thedermreview.com)
- These cells have moved up through the skin layers losing moisture as they go, becoming harder, flatter and more concentrated with a protein called keratin. (griffinandrow.com)
- It prevents dry, rough skin by controlling keratin levels. (griffinandrow.com)
- Of these, alpha hydroxy action and beta keratin antioxidants nourish the skin. (popdiaries.com)
- Hair and gecko toe pads are actually made from the same material - keratin - which is a structural protein used in a range of animal features, from rhino horns to antlers, claws, skin, and more. (coinfxpro.net)
- The alpha and beta hydroxy acids chemically work to remove the excess keratin and skin cells. (skinworthy.ca)
- Glycolic Acid, Alpha-Hydroxy Acids, Beta-Hydroxy Acids, Poly-Hydroxy Acids - are excellent to exfoliate, purify and regenerate the skin. (brensskincare.com)
- Not only is the natural beta-hydroxy acid used to exfoliate, but at Bella Reina, a secret 30% Lactic acid is added for more vibrant skin and super soft feet. (bellareinaspa.com)
- And chemical exfoliants, which use alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) or beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs) to break down dead skin cells. (wellandgood.com)
- Beta-keratin (β-keratin), is a member of a structural protein family found in the epidermis of reptiles and birds. (wikipedia.org)
- Taken together, these data indicate that constitutive keratinocyte-derived IL-1 alpha is a stimulus for IL-6 production in wounded epidermis, the response involves NF kappa B and C/EBP beta transcription factors, and IL-6 may be associated with modulation of keratinocyte differentiation rather than proliferation. (cdc.gov)
- To test this possibility, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress the activin betaA chain in the epidermis under the control of a keratin 14 promoter. (uni.lu)
- The hair shaft keratins were broadly expressed in the epidermis but there was no expression of the terminal differentiation markers K1 and loricrin. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Compatible with hats or helmets, Keratin does not block your scalp pores. (thecosmeticrepublic.com)
- Propionyl-L-Carnitine , a cationic molecule that improves the liposomes' adhesion to the scalp and facilitates the beta-oxidation of the lipid chains, which boosts tissue metabolism. (trinovanticaduta.com)
- Keratin is a natural type of major protein found in our hair. (theemergingsciences.com)
- Beta pleated sheets are made of beta strands connected laterally by two or more hydrogen bonds forming a backbone. (facfil.eu)
- View the structure of a protein, with a perfect representation where you can clearly differentiate the secondary structure of protein and report the number of helices and the beta strands, also report whether structure contains loops or not. (amrita.edu)
- It aids the body's ability to manufacture keratin within hair strands to reduce breakage. (mariaelenamyhairstylist.com)
- F urther, the ingredients consist of amino acids and enzymes, which reconstruct the hair and thus it is far better than normal keratin hair treatment. (theemergingsciences.com)
- Ingredients include gluten-free oats, organic spirulina, nature's multivitamin protein that is loaded with omega 3's, beta keratin, and B Vitamins, and millet, a high-protein seed that has soluble fibers our bodies need. (puriumcorp.com)
- The nano keratin treatment of hair is a semi-permanent hair restoration and smoothing method, which works by transforming damaged and dry hair into repaired, stronger hair with less elasticity. (theemergingsciences.com)
- Keratin plays an important role in maintaining hair health by preventing hair loss , It also boosts the resilience and elasticity of hair. (its-a-living.com)
Reptiles and birds1
- On the other hand, Beta keratins are found in reptiles and birds majorly. (hairfinity.com)
- What has been noted is that procyanidin B2 has been shown to counteract TGF beta-1 and TGF beta-2 growth factors (responsible for epithelial cell apoptosis). (nutrami.it)
- Keratin does not straighten hair but deeply hydrates it to eliminate frizz, relax curls, and add shine without causing damage to the hair's internal structure. (iddaalihaber.com)
- Duplication and divergence events then led to claw β-keratin genes, and further recombination resulted in new feather and feather-like avian β-keratin genes. (wikipedia.org)
- Other genes implicated in EBS include plectin, plakophilin1, desmoplakin, and alpha-6 beta-4 (α6β4) integrin, see Table 110-1 . (mhmedical.com)
- Rapid evolution of Beta-keratin genes contribute to phenotypic differences that distinguish turtles and birds from other reptiles. (ox.ac.uk)
- Below is the procedure for applying keratin treatment formulas. (hairfinity.com)
- Unfortunately, keratin is not the only ingredient used in these formulas, and the additional elements, which include formaldehyde, pose serious health risks both to those getting the treatments and to hair stylists and other salon patrons. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- Formaldehyde is the most common preservative used in keratin treatments, and even those formulas that are labeled formaldehyde-free can still produce formaldehyde when exposed to the high heat of the styling iron. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- The formulas that make you look orange are beta keratin based solution. (jessisdolls.com)
- Beta-keratins were named so because they are components of epidermal stratum corneum rich in stacked beta sheets, in contrast to alpha-keratins, intermediate-filament proteins also found in stratum corneum and rich in alpha helices. (wikipedia.org)
- It also found that the feather β-keratin family did not begin diverging until 125 million years ago, a date consistent with the adaptive radiation of birds during the Cretaceous. (wikipedia.org)
- [ 2 ] Many classic eponymic diseases were later found to be related to a diverse array of misfolded polypeptides (amyloid) that contain the common beta-pleated sheet architecture. (medscape.com)
- Keratin is found in many vegetables naturally. (its-a-living.com)
- It also found in beta-keratin. (pipingrock.com)
- Beta-keratin is found in animal hide and external body parts, like beaks and claws. (well-beingsecrets.com)
- Thus, the SNVs in the Surface category have a higher likelihood of being found in Loop regions when compared to the Buried category, wherein SNVs related changes are more likely to be found in Alpha_helix and Beta_strand. (facfil.eu)
- Contains MSM which helps binding together chondroitin and keratin which are found in connective tissues. (allcarepharmacy.ie)
- I think most of us are aware that peppers are full of antioxidants, but Rick explained that the yellow and orange ones have beta keratin in them and are rich in vitamin C. Interestingly I found out that green chillis are excellent fat burners. (helpfulmum.com)
- Beetroot is one of the many cultivated varieties of beets (Beta vulgaris). (allcarepharmacy.ie)
- A. Oller 1 , G. Oberdorster 2 teins like beta-actin (ACTB) and keratin (KRT8, KRT2). (cdc.gov)
- Three fusion candidates, integrin subunit beta 7 (ITGB7)-ROS1, lamin A/C (LMNA)-NTRK1 and Golgi-associated PDZ and coiled-coil motif containing (GOPC)-keratin 8 (KRT8), showed relatively high junction-spanning reads by the FusionMap algorithm, but did not pass validation. (who.int)
- No other vitamin compound should be administered whilst using NEKTON-R-Beta. (jedds.com)
- It is a blend of beauty nutrients like beta keratin, lecithin, Vitamin D and E, Linoleic and Oleic Acids. (elinaorganics.com)
- It has been suggested that vitamin A deficiency may increase your risk of developing acne, as it causes an overproduction of the protein keratin in your hair follicles. (health4youonline.com)
- When consumed, it transforms into vitamin A in the body and produces keratin, leading to healthy hair. (its-a-living.com)
- A highly nutritious green veggie, kale contains provitamin A, which gets transformed into vitamin A which is essential for the synthesis of keratin. (its-a-living.com)
- Enriched with vitamin C, mango supports keratin synthesis. (its-a-living.com)
- Considered a protective protein, keratin provides resilience and strength to cells from mild trauma that includes rubbing or scratching. (its-a-living.com)
- Keratin-rich foods help maintain eye health , In addition, keratin regulates cell size and allows cells to grow and heal wounds. (its-a-living.com)
- The tumor cells labeled for CD10 with aberrant nuclear labeling for beta-catenin. (jhu.edu)
- They contain about 85 percent beta-keratin, the same protein in bird beaks and claws. (gardenbetty.com)
- Keratin-rich foods help strengthen muscles, tissues and bones by reducing damage from friction. (its-a-living.com)
- It's crucial to know what kind of keratin treatment you're using, and it's best to avoid the ones that include a lot of formaldehyde. (hairfinity.com)
- When the boom in keratin treatments began, a large majority contained formaldehyde among its components. (iddaalihaber.com)
- OSHA investigations have determined that salons that perform keratin straightening treatments often have dangerously high levels of formaldehyde in the air. (well-beingsecrets.com)
Treatments and products1
- Many believe that keratin supplements, treatments and products help hair look healthier and can strengthen the hair's structural building block. (its-a-living.com)
- Alpha keratins are fiber-like and helical. (hairfinity.com)
- Addition of IL-1 alpha to NHEK cultures increased IL-6 production and activated NF kappa B and C/EBP beta. (cdc.gov)
- Alpha keratin eliminates curl and gives hair a smooth appearance, offering a straightening effect that lasts for approximately 4 months. (iddaalihaber.com)
- Keratins contain a central alpha-helical rod with several nonhelical interruptions, as well as nonhelical carboxyterminal and aminoterminal regions. (medscape.com)
- Similar to all members of the family of laminin proteins, laminin-332 is a large heterotrimeric molecule containing alpha-3, beta-3, and gamma-2 chains. (medscape.com)
- alpha(α)-keratin and beta(β)-keratin. (theemergingsciences.com)
- As described in the accepted answer to the related question about alpha-subunits vs alpha-helices the alpha- and beta- are arbitrary names. (facfil.eu)
- Summary Alpha helix & beta sheets form in very dierent ways, that give them dierent properties! (facfil.eu)
- The key difference between the alpha and beta helix is the type of hydrogen bonding they show. (facfil.eu)
- Alpha helix and beta sheets difference. (facfil.eu)
- The beta helix is larger and it involves more residues per turn when compared with the alpha helix. (facfil.eu)
- A helix can be left-handed (beta) or right-handed where the alpha helix is always right-handed. (facfil.eu)
- The Path from PoC to MVP to Alpha to Beta to Release 'Ideas are shit, execution is the game. (facfil.eu)
- Mit dem Alpha Beta Daily Face Peel aus der Dr Dennis Gross Skincare Alpha Beta Pflege-Serie verfeinern Sie Ihre Poren, verringern Hautunreinheiten und sorgen für ein ebenmäßigeres Hautbild. (parfumdreams.de)
- Das Alpha Beta Daily Face Peel aus der Dr Dennis Gross Skincare Alpha Beta Pflege-Serie zählt zu den meistverkauften Peelingprodukten der USA und zeigt schon nach der ersten Anwendung sichtbare Resultate. (parfumdreams.de)
- Das Alpha Beta Daily Face Peel aus der Dr Dennis Gross Skincare Alpha Beta Pflege-Serie zeigt schon nach wenigen Minuten deutlich sichtbare Resultate. (parfumdreams.de)
- The mutated version consists more of beta sheets whereas normal version has alpha helices. (sanfoundry.com)
- Neovaginas (median Shannon's H index = 1.33) had higher alpha diversity compared to cis vaginas (Shannon's H = 0.35) ( p = 7.2E−3, Mann-Whitney U test) and were more similar to the non- Lactobacillus dominant/polymicrobial cis vaginas based on beta diversity (perMANOVA, p = 0.001, r 2 = 0.342). (biomedcentral.com)
- NEKTON-R-Beta strengthens and supports the bird's body during the whole molting/rearing process. (jedds.com)
- Thus, feathered relatives of birds such as Anchiornis and Archaeopteryx, whose flight capabilities have been questioned, would have had avian, but not feather, β-keratins. (wikipedia.org)
- ED13, [[Development of colour-producing beta-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs]] R.O. Prum, E. R. Dufresne, T. Quinn, K. Waters, J. R. Soc. (harvard.edu)