A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.
Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.
A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A type I keratin expressed in a variety of EPITHELIUM, including the ESOPHAGUS, the TONGUE, the HAIR FOLLICLE and NAILS. Keratin-16 is normally found associated with KERATIN-6. Mutations in the gene for keratin-6 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A type II keratin found expressed in the upper spinous layer of epidermal KERATINOCYTES. Mutations in genes that encode keratin-2A have been associated with ICHTHYOSIS BULLOSA OF SIEMENS.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-3 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-12 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type II keratin found predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated EPIDERMIS of palms and soles. Mutations in the gene for keratin 9 are associated with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
An autosomal dominant hereditary skin disease characterized by epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is strictly confined to the palms and soles. It has been associated with mutations in the gene that codes for KERATIN-9.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions in HEPATOCYTES. They are associated with ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS and non-alcoholic STEATOHEPATITIS, but are also present in benign and malignant hepatocellular neoplasms, and metabolic, toxic, and chronic cholestatic LIVER DISEASES.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An autosomal dominant form of hereditary corneal dystrophy due to a defect in cornea-specific KERATIN formation. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-3 and KERATIN-12 have been linked to this disorder.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.

Characterization of the structure and composition of gecko adhesive setae. (1/17)

The ability of certain reptiles to adhere to vertical (and hang from horizontal) surfaces has been attributed to the presence of specialized adhesive setae on their feet. Structural and compositional studies of such adhesive setae will contribute significantly towards the design of biomimetic fibrillar adhesive materials. The results of electron microscopy analyses of the structure of such setae are presented, indicating their formation from aggregates of proteinaceous fibrils held together by a matrix and potentially surrounded by a limiting proteinaceous sheath. Microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis has shown conclusively that the only ordered protein constituent in these structures exhibits a diffraction pattern characteristic of beta-keratin. Raman microscopy of individual setae, however, clearly shows the presence of additional protein constituents, some of which may be identified as alpha-keratins. Electrophoretic analysis of solubilized setal proteins supports these conclusions, indicating the presence of a group of low-molecular-weight beta-keratins (14-20 kDa), together with alpha-keratins, and this interpretation is supported by immunological analyses.  (+info)

Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays. (2/17)

Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading.  (+info)

Frictional adhesion: A new angle on gecko attachment. (3/17)

Directional arrays of branched microscopic setae constitute a dry adhesive on the toes of pad-bearing geckos, nature's supreme climbers. Geckos are easily and rapidly able to detach their toes as they climb. There are two known mechanisms of detachment: (1) on the microscale, the seta detaches when the shaft reaches a critical angle with the substrate, and (2) on the macroscale, geckos hyperextend their toes, apparently peeling like tape. This raises the question of how geckos prevent detachment while inverted on the ceiling, where body weight should cause toes to peel and setal angles to increase. Geckos use opposing feet and toes while inverted, possibly to maintain shear forces that prevent detachment of setae or peeling of toes. If detachment occurs by macroscale peeling of toes, the peel angle should monotonically decrease with applied force. In contrast, if adhesive force is limited by microscale detachment of setae at a critical angle, the toe detachment angle should be independent of applied force. We tested the hypothesis that adhesion is increased by shear force in isolated setal arrays and live gecko toes. We also tested the corollary hypotheses that (1) adhesion in toes and arrays is limited as on the microscale by a critical angle, or (2) on the macroscale by adhesive strength as predicted for adhesive tapes. We found that adhesion depended directly on shear force, and was independent of detachment angle. Therefore we reject the hypothesis that gecko toes peel like tape. The linear relation between adhesion and shear force is consistent with a critical angle of release in live gecko toes and isolated setal arrays, and also with our prior observations of single setae. We introduced a new model, frictional adhesion, for gecko pad attachment and compared it to existing models of adhesive contacts. In an analysis of clinging stability of a gecko on an inclined plane each adhesive model predicted a different force control strategy. The frictional adhesion model provides an explanation for the very low detachment forces observed in climbing geckos that does not depend on toe peeling.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of scale beta-keratins in the differentiating epidermis of geckoes show they are glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with a central motif homologous to avian beta-keratins. (4/17)

The beta-keratins constitute the hard epidermis and adhesive setae of gecko lizards. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of beta-keratins in epidermis of gecko lizards were cloned from mRNAs. Specific oligonucleotides were used to amplify by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analyses five specific gecko beta-keratin cDNA sequences. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins of 16.8-18 kDa containing 169-191 amino acids, especially 17.8-23% glycine, 8.4-14.8% proline, 14.2-18.1% serine. Glycine-rich repeats are localized toward the initial and end regions of the protein, while a central region, rich in proline, has a strand conformation (beta-pleated fold) likely responsible for the formation of beta-keratin filaments. It shows high homology with a core region of other lizard keratins, avian scale, and feather keratins. Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis show a higher beta-keratin gene expression in regenerating epidermis compared with normal epidermis. In situ hybridization confirms that mRNAs for these proteins are expressed in cells of the differentiating oberhautchen cells and beta-cells. Expression in adhesive setae of climbing lamellae was shown by RT-PCR. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the proteins are encoded by a multigene family. PCR analysis showed that the genes are presumably located in tandem along the DNA and are transcribed from the same DNA strand like in avian beta-keratins.  (+info)

Ancestrally high elastic modulus of gecko setal beta-keratin. (5/17)

Typical bulk adhesives are characterized by soft, tacky materials with elastic moduli well below 1MPa. Geckos possess subdigital adhesives composed mostly of beta-keratin, a relatively stiff material. Biological adhesives like those of geckos have inspired empirical and modelling research which predicts that even stiff materials can be effective adhesives if they take on a fibrillar form. The molecular structure of beta-keratin is highly conserved across birds and reptiles, suggesting that material properties of gecko setae should be similar to that of beta-keratin previously measured in birds, but this has yet to be established. We used a resonance technique to measure elastic bending modulus in two species of gecko from disparate habitats. We found no significant difference in elastic modulus between Gekko gecko (1.6 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae) and Ptyodactylus hasselquistii (1.4 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae). If the elastic modulus of setal keratin is conserved across species, it would suggest a design constraint that must be compensated for structurally, and possibly explain the remarkable variation in gecko adhesive morphology.  (+info)

Expression of beta-keratin mRNAs and proline uptake in epidermal cells of growing scales and pad lamellae of gecko lizards. (6/17)

Beta-keratins form a large part of the proteins contained in the hard beta layer of reptilian scales. The expression of genes encoding glycine-proline-rich beta-keratins in normal and regenerating epidermis of two species of gecko lizards has been studied by in situ hybridization. The probes localize mRNAs in differentiating oberhautchen and beta cells of growing scales and in modified scales, termed pad lamellae, on the digits of gecko lizards. In situ localization at the ultrastructural level shows clusters of gold particles in the cytoplasm among beta-keratin filaments of oberhautchen and beta cells. They are also present in the differentiating elongation or setae of oberhautchen cells present in pad lamellae. Setae allow geckos to adhere and climb vertical surfaces. Oberhautchen and beta cells also incorporate tritiated proline. The fine localization of the beta-keratin mRNAs and the uptake of proline confirms the biomolecular data that identified glycine-proline-rich beta-keratin in differentiating beta cells of gecko epidermis. The present study also shows the presence of differentiating and metabolically active cells in both inner and outer oberhautchen/beta cells at the base of the outer setae localized at the tip of pad lamellae. The addition of new beta and alpha cells to the corneous layer near the tip of the outer setae explains the anterior movement of the setae along the apical free-margin of pad lamellae. The rapid replacement of setae ensures the continuous usage of the gecko's adhesive devices, the pad lamellae, during most of their active life.  (+info)

Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene organization. (7/17)

Beta-keratins of reptilian scales have been recently cloned and characterized in some lizards. Here we report for the first time the sequence of some beta-keratins from the snake Elaphe guttata. Five different cDNAs were obtained using 5'- and 3'-RACE analyses. Four sequences differ by only few nucleotides in the coding region, whereas the last cDNA shows, in this region, only 84% of identity. The gene corresponding to one of the cDNA sequences has a single intron present in the 5'-untranslated region. This genomic organization is similar to that of birds' beta-keratins. Cloning and Southern blotting analysis suggest that snake beta-keratins belong to a family of high-related genes as for geckos. PCR analysis suggests a head-to-tail orientation of genes in the same chromosome. In situ hybridization detected beta-keratin transcripts almost exclusively in differentiating oberhautchen and beta-cells of the snake epidermis in renewal phase. This is confirmed by Northern blotting that showed, in this phase, a high expression of two different transcripts whereas only the longer transcript is expressed at a much lower level in resting skin. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine rich proteins containing 137-139 amino acids, with apparent isoelectric point at 7.5 and 8.2. A central region, rich in proline, shows over 50% homology with avian scale, claw, and feather keratins. The prediction of secondary structure shows mainly a random coil conformation and few beta-strand regions in the central region, likely involved in the formation of a fibrous framework of beta-keratins. This region was possibly present in basic reptiles that originated reptiles and birds.  (+info)

Beta-keratins of turtle shell are glycine-proline-tyrosine rich proteins similar to those of crocodilians and birds. (8/17)

 (+info)

Setal array specimens were mounted on SEM stubs and evaluated with a custom 2-axis mechanical tester (Fig. 4). The specimen chuck was attached to a Kistler 9328A 3-axis force sensor (Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland) that was moved in the Z (up-and-down) and Y (left-and-right) axes with Newport 460P stages (Newport, Irvine, CA, USA) driven by closed loop brushless DC servomotors (Newport 850G-HS actuator in the Y axis and a Newport 850G actuator in the Z axis). The stage and force sensor assembly were vertically mounted to a stainless steel `tombstone above a Newport RP Reliance breadboard table. A Newport ESP 300 servocontroller drove the actuators. Force measurements were collected through an AD Instruments Maclab/4e data acquisition unit (ADInstruments, Milford, MA, USA). The stage controller and force acquisition were interfaced with a Powerbook G3 (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA, USA) for automated control of array experiments. The stiffness of the 2-axis mechanical tester was measured by ...
Shinsaku Fujita, to enumerate isomers of molecules introduced some definitions like maturity and the Q-conjugacy character table of a finite group. In this paper at first, we provide a new simple method to specify how a given finite group with big symmetry and complicated structure is maturated or unmaturated, then, to verify our derived theorem some useful nanostructures are considered ...
Abstract: To optimize the interaction between chiral matter and highly twisted light, quantities that can help characterize chiral electromagnetic fields near nanostructures are needed. Here, by analogy with Poyntings theorem, we formulate the time-averaged conservation law of optical chirality in lossy dispersive media and identify the optical chirality flux as an ideal far-field observable for characterizing chiral optical near fields. Bounded by the conservation law, we show that it provides precise information, unavailable from circular dichroism spectroscopy, on the magnitude and handedness of highly twisted fields near nanostructures ...
Periodic chain-like nanostructures are widely used in nanoelectronics. Typically, chain elements include the likes of quantum rings, quantum dots, or quantum graphs. Such a structure enables electrons to move along the chain, in theory, indefinitely. Now, a new study, published in EPJ B, identifies ways of disturbing the periodicity of a model nanostructure to obtain the desired discrete energy spectrum with localized electrons.
A general method of folding arbitrary polygonal digital meshes in DNA uses a routeing algorithm based on graph theory and a relaxation simulation that traces scaffold strands through the target structures to produce complex structures with an open conformation that are stable under biological assay conditions. Constraints arising from the inherent properties of DNA impose important restrictions on how it can be assembled, so that procedures such as DNA origami still require considerable manual adjustment if complex structures are to be achieved. Here Erik Benson and colleagues present a general method - using single helices rather than bundles of closely packed helices as construction elements - which makes it possible to design and produce complex DNA structures that would have been very difficult to achieve using existing approaches. The resulting nanostructures are more stable than conventional DNA origami under conditions typically encountered in biological assays. And because the overall design
Highest-resolution, accurate SEM imaging of large samples exceeding a single typical field of view (in the order of a few tens of μm) is a challenging procedure. A set of several hundreds or thousands of images have to be stitched together in order to display a surface spanning several millimeters or even centimeters as a Google Earth-style map. Any standard mechanical stage will have visible stitching errors, and thus yield distorted images. The Raith systems are different: By reversing the functionality of a professional electron beam lithography tool, the sample surface is not exposed; instead, existing nanostructures are seamlessly imaged using the extreme placement accuracy of the tool infrastructure.. Users can benefit e. g. from the on-board Laser Interferometer Controlled Stage technology, related write field alignment functionality, and drift correction algorithms. These features deliver ultra-precise and fully automated image acquisition for generating highly accurate and ...
Exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures are dominated by the effects of many-body physics. The application of coherent spectroscopic tools, such as two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy (2dFTS), to the ...
The microornamentation of the scales (oberhautchen) has been studied by means of enamel casts (in negative), or with detached skin pieces (positive cast in the upper face or negative in their lower face of the scales) and its observation by transparency with optical microscopy at 40x, 400x and 1000x. In this study we have found a remarkable uniformity in all genera of Lacertini studied (already known, although significantly expanding the number of species previously studied). In light of the results obtained, it seems that the use of the microornamentation of the scales in taxonomy is limited. There is a remarkable degree of variation and probably of homoplasy, as it happens in so many characters of Lacertini. Nor is it clearly linked to certain conditions of the environment, although it may have a certain importance in mechanisms such as evapotranspiration and perhaps in the crypsis through its influence on the reflectance of the scales. These scales can present protuberances (like small ...
The microornamentation of the scales (oberhautchen) has been studied by means of enamel casts (in negative), or with detached skin pieces (positive cast in the upper face or negative in their lower face of the scales) and its observation by transparency with optical microscopy at 40x, 400x and 1000x. In this study we have found a remarkable uniformity in all genera of Lacertini studied (already known, although significantly expanding the number of species previously studied). In light of the results obtained, it seems that the use of the microornamentation of the scales in taxonomy is limited. There is a remarkable degree of variation and probably of homoplasy, as it happens in so many characters of Lacertini. Nor is it clearly linked to certain conditions of the environment, although it may have a certain importance in mechanisms such as evapotranspiration and perhaps in the crypsis through its influence on the reflectance of the scales. These scales can present protuberances (like small ...
5/8 x 5/8, 7/8 x 7/8, 7/8 x 1 3/8, Interlude, Repose, Cadence, Parallels, Vibrato, Wave, 1 5/8 Hexagon, Braid, 1/2 x 1/2, 1x1, 1x2, 1.75 Hexagon, Kaleidoscope, Pave, Perspectives, Fez, Meridian, Prelude, Overture, Additional Specialty Patterns and Trim.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals from Peptide Amphiphile Nanostructures Are Strongly Affected by Their Shape. AU - Preslar, Adam T.. AU - Tantakitti, Faifan. AU - Park, Kitae. AU - Zhang, Shanrong. AU - Stupp, Samuel I.. AU - Meade, Thomas J.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from National Institutes of Healths (NIH) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute under awards P01HL108795 and R01HL116577, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Publisher Copyright: © 2016 American Chemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/8/23. Y1 - 2016/8/23. N2 - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging modality that provides excellent spatial and temporal resolution. The most commonly used MR probes face significant challenges originating from the endogenous 1H background signal of water. In contrast, fluorine MRI (19F MRI) allows quantitative probe imaging with zero ...
Nanostructures having a lipid layer which are useful for delivering nitric oxide are provided herein. Methods of treating disease using the nanostructures are also provided, including methods of treating vascular diseases, angiogenesis, ischemia- reperfusion, etc. Implantable devices coated with the nanostructures are also encompassed within the invention.
This coupling of pigments and nanostructures is even more apparent in non-iridescent green colours of feathers, which may be difficult to produce without structure-pigment combinations (the green colours produced by turacoverdin pigments are produced by a pigment that requires large quantities of copper, which is probably difficult to obtain from the diet [20]). Iridescent green colour can be produced in feathers, generally in the barbules, by coherent scattering of light by layers of keratin and melanin (figure 2II) [6]. In addition, some olive-green colours are produced by combination of carotenoid pigments in the barb and melanin in the barbules [22]. However, bright non-iridescent greens (figure 1f) in all cases other than turacos are produced by a combination of quasi-ordered spongy keratin arrays and carotenoid or psittacofulvin pigments (figure 2IV) [6,22,23,43,44]. These pigments appear to be placed in the keratin cortex of barbs, above the colour-producing nanostructures [43]. ...
The development of bio-based nanostructures as nanocarriers of bioactive compounds to specific body sites has been presented as a hot topic in food, pharmaceutical and nanotechnology fields. Food and pharmaceutical industries seek to explore the huge potential of these nanostructures, once they can be entirely composed of biocompatible and non-toxic materials. At the same time, they allow the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds protecting them against degradation, maintaining its active and functional performance. Nevertheless, the physicochemical properties of such structures (e.g., size and charge) could change significantly their behavior in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The main challenges in the development of these nanostructures are the proper characterization and understanding of the processes occurring at their surface, when in contact with living systems. This is crucial to understand their delivery and absorption behavior as well as to recognize ...
This monograph for young researchers and professionals looking for a comprehensive reference offers an advanced treatment of the topic that extends beyond an introductory work. As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the surface science tools used to characterize them, such as electron spectroscopy and scanning probe techniques. The unique challenges in the fabrication of nanostructures are illustrated, and set into context of controlling structure, dimensionality and electronic properties.
With unique surface plasmon resonance and high potential for many important applications, plasmonic nanostructures are attracting more and more attention in the past decade. In addition to ever increasing research interest in realizing precise control over their structure (such as size, shape, aspect ratio and uniformity), plasmon enhanced catalysis represents a highly promising research area. In this presentation, the development of several types of plasmonic nanostructures by wet chemical method or pulsed laser ablation will be introduced first. Their interesting optical properties and their applications in photocatalysis will then be presented and discussed ...
Separated graphite nanostructures are formed of thin graphite platelets having an aspect ratio of at least 1,500:1. The platelets have an angular geometric structure and may be fully independent from
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.273. Traditionally porous silicon based photonic structures have been prepared by electrochemically etching of silicon. In this work, porous multilayers of nanocolumnar SiOx and SiO2 thin films acting as near infrared (NIR) 1D-photonic nanostructures are prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition at oblique angles (MS-OA). Simultaneous control of porosity and stoichiometry of the stacked films is achieved by adjusting the deposition angle and oxygen partial pressure according to a parametric formula. This new methodologoy is proved for the synthesis of SiOx thin films with x close to 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and nanostructures varying from compact (at 0° deposition angle) to highly porous and nanocolumnar (at 70° and 85° deposition angles). The strict control of composition, structure and nanostructure provided by this technique permits a fine tuning of the absorption edge and refraction index at 1500 nm of the porous films and their manufacturing in the form of ...
Two-dimensional, sheet-like nanostructures are commonly employed in biological systems such as cell membranes, and their unique properties have inspired interest in materials such as graphene. Now, Berkeley Lab scientists have made the largest two-dimensional polymer crystal self-assembled in water to date. This entirely new material mirrors the structural complexity of biological systems with the durable architecture needed for membranes or integration into functional devices.. These self-assembling sheets are made of peptoids, engineered polymers that can flex and fold like proteins while maintaining the robustness of manmade materials. Each sheet is just two molecules thick yet hundreds of square micrometers in areaakin to Ë molecular paper large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Whats more, unlike a typical polymer, each building block in a peptoid nanosheet is encoded with structural Ë marching orderssuggesting its properties can be precisely tailored to an application. ...
Crop milk is a way of feeding from the crop of parent birds, by regurgitating to young birds. They are found among all pigeons and doves where they are referred to as pigeon milk. Crop milk is also produced by flamingos and even some penguins.[1][2][3]. ...
Crested gecko health is easy to maintain. Starting with a healthy gecko minimizes the chances of diseases or other health problems.
Once a lizard habitat has been set up properly and a feeding regimen has been established, baby geckos can be relatively easy to care for. Learn how to care for a baby gecko for a long and healthy life, here.
New Caledonian Geckos | Bavayia, Eurydactylodes & Rhacodactylus, Mniarogekko, Correlop - Discuss other Rhacodactylus species, Bavayia, and Eurydactylo
Every year we go with Dr. VUTHY CHHOEURN and a twenty-headed team for 4 days in a previously selected province 60 children and give them a new life.
Due to high biocompatibility and tailorable properties, DNA-based nanostructures are widely studied in biosensor and nanomedicine applications. The restriction for using DNA-based nanostructures lie in the purification processes which have low product yield and tedious steps involved. MoS2 nanosheets are chosen to test for its purification efficiency as MoS2 is shown to have discriminating properties between single stranded DNA and double stranded DNA. Adsorption studies of different DNA nanostructures are tested to see the adsorption capacity of MoS2. From the adsorption studies, it has been observed that MoS2 has high affinity to plasmid DNA, so the use of MoS2 as a gene carrier is tested for its delivery performance ...
Colorful Rhinestone Gecko Lizard Necklace Fashion Jewelry Geko Pendant NecklaceStudded With Rainbow RhinestonesLobster Claw ClaspSilver-Tone ChainMeasures Approximately: 15 Inches (End-To-End)
The chemical and physical colouration mechanisms of birds are in principle the same as those applied by other living systems. Pigments, used for chemical colouration, are often deposited in granules, and therefore the granules attached to the walls of the hollow cells of the orange breast feather barbs most probably contain a short-wavelength-absorbing pigment (Fig. 3B,C). The very irregular spatial organisation of the barb cells causes randomisation of the direction of incident light, resulting in diffuse scattering of the little-absorbed long-wavelength light (Fig. 7A).. Although the spatial organisation of the sponge cells inside the kingfishers back and tail feather barbs is irregular (Fig. 4A,B), there still exists sufficient quasi-order (Fig. 4C,D) to create structural colouration, which changes in hue when observed from different directions (Fig. 7). The spectral peak depends on the dimensions of the sponge structures (Dyck, 1971; Finger, 1995; Shawkey et al., 2009). Spongy barbs are ...
Increasing interest in commercializing functional nanostructured devices heightened the need for cost effective scale-up manufacturing approaches for nanostructures. Diamond turning using multi-tip single crystal diamond tools is a new promising approach to the fabrication of micro/nano structures. In this paper, a serial of nanometric face cutting trails on copper using multi-tip nanoscale diamond tools has been carried out to indentify the nanomanufacturing capacity of this technique under different cutting conditions. The dependency between processing parameters and the surface integrity of the machined nanostructures are discussed. Moreover, large scale molecular dynamics (MD) nanometric cutting model is developed to simulate the nanostructures generation process. The simulation results well reveals the material removal mechanism and explains why structure defects are more likely to be formed in the cases of large depth of cut and high cutting speed observed in experiments.. ...
This thesis examines possible routes for the preparation of graphene nanostructures on metal substrates and performs structural and electronic characterizations using scanning tunneling microcopy and spectroscopy. Investigations of graphene nanostructures necessitate the use of a suitable graphene-substrate combination, which allows for a controlled in situ preparation of small and well-shaped graphene nanostructures. The choice of a graphene-substrate combination with weak interaction in order to prevent the destruction of monolayer graphene properties is inevitable.,br /,,br /,Within this work graphene layers and graphene nanostructures are grown using well-established procedures based on thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons on Ir(111) and Rh(111) surfaces. Implementing intercalation - the insertion of additional material between graphene and substrate - allows for a tailoring of interactions between graphene and the substrate. In the first part of this work the intercalation of Fe and Ni is ...
The photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on core-shell structures require efficient luminescence within specific wavelength range, preferably in near infrared. In the present study we aim to create a multifunctional platform for PDT through Fe3O4/ZnO core shell structure. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures will enable us magnetically driven tumor targeting as well delivery of photosensitizer. On the other hand, ZnO is well known for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and will help to kill cancer cells through oxidative stress. Fe3O4/ZnO core-shell nanostructures are synthesized via a simple aqueous solution method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDS), Photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results on capability of generating active singlet oxygen are in progress and will be presented.
Multi-mode scanning probe microscopy is employed to investigate the nanostructure of dermal samples from three types of snakes. Sophisticated friction modifying nanostructures are described. These include an ordered microfibrillar array that can function to achieve mission adaptable friction charact …
Manjavacas and his team, composed of Lauren Zundel and Stephen Sanders, both graduate students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, modeled the optical response of these arrays, finding exciting new results. When periodic arrays of nanostructures are illuminated with light, each of the particles produces a strong response, which, in turn, results in enormous collective behaviors if all of the particles can interact with one another. This happens at certain wavelengths of incident light, which are determined by the interparticle spacing of the array, and can result in electric fields that are thousands, or even tens of thousands, of times that of the light shined on the array ...
We demonstrate a new nanoscale spectroscopic technique that combines subwavelength near-field imaging with broadband interference spectroscopy. We apply this technique to study phase spectra of surface plasmons in individual gold nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimers. Collective plasmon oscillations in selected nanostructures are excited by a femtosecond white-light continuum transmitted through a subwavelength aperture. The interference spectra detected in the far field result from the coherent superposition of the aperture field and the secondary field re-emitted by the nanostructure. The analysis of these spectra allows us to accurately measure the positions and damping constants of single-nanostructure plasmon resonances.. © 2003 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Dendritic nanostructures are capturing increasing attention in electrocatalysis owing to their unique structural features and low density. Herein, we report for the first time, bromide ion mediated synthesis of low Pt-content PdCuPt ternary nanodendrites via galvanic replacement reaction between a Pt precurs
In our modern society, we are surrounded by numerous sensors, constantly feeding us information about our physical environment. From small, wearable sensors that monitor our physiological status to large satellites orbiting around the earth, detecting global changes. Although, the performance of these sensors have been significantly improved during the last decades there is still a demand for faster and more reliable sensing systems with improved sensitivity and selectivity. The rapid progress in nanofabrication techniques has made a profound impact for the development of small, novel sensors that enables miniaturization and integration. A specific area where nanostructures are especially attractive is biochemical sensing, where the exceptional properties of nanomaterials can be utilized in order to detect and analyze biomolecular interactions. The focus of this thesis is to investigate plasmonic nanoparticles composed of gold or silver and optimize their performance as signal transducers in ...
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It is important to mention that the time spent by animal observation has a healing effect on me (but also the medicaments from others played their role). I could be amazed by a stunning sunset and continue in searching for local animals. Birds were active even after the coming of the darkness, in gecko lizards it was nothing surprising. The altitude here was much smaller than in the central parts of island, so mosquiots were around. I used another way to fight against them except the repellent and a mosquito net -I caught my own gecko lizard and released it on the net. The bungallows had opened space under the roof, so various animals could move inside and outside (especially spiders). We headed for a small walk with Jožko outside from the Le Paradisier. There were no animals on the main road, but a special moment of magic was waiting for us. A truck appeared from the darkness and stopped about 500 meters behind us. Then it started again and dissapeared. As we walked back, we started to see a ...
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Printing at the nanoscale doesnt offer quite the same households benefits of a full-size 3D printer, but in the fields of science and medicine, its enormously valuable. Printing microstructures with features a few hundred nanometers in size could be useful for making heart stents, microneedles for painless shots, gecko adhesives, parts for microfluidics chips, and scaffolds for growing cells and tissue. Another important application could be in the electronics industry, where patterning nanoscale features on chips currently involves slow, expensive techniques, writes Technology Review.. Nanoscribes claims its new microprinter, which it plans to sell later this year, is 100 times faster at printing microstructures than what is possible today. And that includes their current printer. Why is the new model so much faster?. Microprinters use a technology called two-photon polymerization, or, as Nanoscribe calls it, direct laser writing. It involves lasers: ...
T-Rex Day Gecko Diet is a nutritious food that is a balanced diet and complete nutrition for your gecko. It is not just a supplement. Just add water and make a paste of this powder and your Day Gecko will dig right in. Day Geckos eat fruits, nectar and insects. For this reason Day Gecko Diet is a blend of fruits and pr
In her contest submission, Farquhar, a student at Oaklyn Elementary School in Oaklyn, NJ, dared to be different and strayed away from using typical Latin names that describe the geckos habitat or physical features. Bavayia periclitata means endangered in Latin. Farquhar says she chose this name to help emphasize the importance of taking care of geckos, other endangered species as well as our environment in general. I chose this name because it means endangered and it will make people think about how our geckos are disappearing and are on the endangered list. I hope people will try harder to protect our geckos, said Farquhar. Winning Project Gecko means a lot to me because I named a whole new species of gecko for eternity and giving the gecko this name may mean theres a better chance to help other species ...
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Ok i need help with breeding my barbs i love barbs ive got the space so there for no worrys and i could say i know what to do except for when to remove the female barb from the cumunity tank or do i put her into the condition tank any time and wait for her to fill with eggs.
Hi, I wondered if you guys could help as my female crested gecko is digging around the nesting box(I`m breeding them) not inside the nesting box?! Is
As sticky as a gecko. Wageningen UR Veni-researcher Marleen Kamperman tries to stick with plastic material full of microscopic rods.
Researchers carried out genetic analysis of hundreds of specimens of a gecko subspecies called Pristurus rupestris, sampling individuals in the UAE and Oman.
Keep your pets habitat looking and smelling fresh with crested gecko clean up & odor control products from Petco. Browse terrarium cleaners and more here.
LOG IN TO CLOSE THIS AD Ny wonder gecko has been pregnant from July and has not yet laid her eggs. Should i start worrying? Is it normal?
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Youll have to be quick though, these discounts are one-off deals that can disappear at any time. Youll need to pay in full at the time of booking. But other than that, theres nothing stopping you from jumping headfirst into a last-minute adventure!. View booking T&Cs. ...
Youll have to be quick though, these discounts are one-off deals that can disappear at any time. Youll need to pay in full at the time of booking. But other than that, theres nothing stopping you from jumping headfirst into a last-minute adventure!. View booking T&Cs. ...
Geckos can race across the surface of water, even though it doesnt seem like they should be able to. A new study looks at how theyre doing this.
Science-fiction had prognosticated an undead apocalypse, in one form or another, for decades, but no one really expected it to happen. Mans arrogance, Mans...
Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Takafuta, T; Wu G; Murphy G F; Shapiro S S (Jul 1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic ... Takafuta T, Wu G, Murphy GF, Shapiro SS (1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *9 ...
Sajid M, Hu Z, Lele M, Stouffer GA (May 2000). "Protein complexes involving alpha v beta 3 integrins, nonmuscle myosin heavy ... "Keratin 5-Cre-driven excision of nonmuscle myosin IIA in early embryo trophectoderm leads to placenta defects and embryonic ...
The talin n-terminal head domain interacts with the membrane-proximal region of the beta(3) cytoplasmic tail". The Journal of ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Calderwood DA, Zent R, Grant R, Rees DJ, Hynes RO, Ginsberg MH (Oct 1999). "The Talin head domain binds to integrin beta ... in the talin rod domain is essential for linking integrin beta subunits to the cytoskeleton". The Journal of Biological ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Further studies have shown that the beta-hairpin loops within the ankyrin repeat domain of ankyrin-B are required for the ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this hair keratin, as well as KRTHB3 and KRTHB6, is found primarily in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which ... Keratin, type II cuticular Hb1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT81 gene.[5][6][7] ... KRT81, HB1, Hb-1, KRTHB1, MLN137, ghHkb1, hHAKB2-1, keratin 81. External IDs. OMIM: 602153 MGI: 1928858 HomoloGene: 55645 ...
"squamous keratins" CK-1. CK-2. CK-3. CK-4. CK-5. CK-6. CK-9. CK-10. CK-11. CK-12. CK-13. CK-14. CK-15. CK-16. CK-17 ... are simply called keratins (human epithelial category). For example, cytokeratin-4 (CK-4) has been renamed keratin-4 (K4).[3] ... Cytokeratins are keratin proteins found in the intracytoplasmic cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue. They are an important ... The term "cytokeratin" began to be used in the late 1970s, when the protein subunits of keratin intermediate filaments inside ...
In most animal cells, monomeric actin is bound to profilin and thymosin beta-4, both of which preferentially bind with one-to- ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Although thymosin beta-4 is strictly a monomer-sequestering protein, the behavior of profilin is far more complex. Profilin ...
Wu QL, Jha PK, Du Y, Leavis PC, Sarkar S (Apr 1995). "Overproduction and rapid purification of human fast skeletal beta ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... "Isolation and characterization of human fast skeletal beta troponin T cDNA: comparative sequence analysis of isoforms and ... "Isolation and characterization of human fast skeletal beta troponin T cDNA: comparative sequence analysis of isoforms and ...
"Possible Interactions with Beta-Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012.. *^ Meschino Health. "Comprehensive Guide to Beta-Carotene". ... "Find a Vitamin or Supplement - Beta Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012.. *^ a b Stargrove, Mitchell (2007-12-20). Herb, nutrient ... Not to be confused with beta-keratin.. β-Carotene Names IUPAC name β,β-Carotene ... "Beta-Carotene Interactions". Retrieved 28 May 2012.. *^ University of Maryland Medical Center. " ...
They often have prominent, lumpy ridges and are covered in hard-wearing beta-keratin. The head lacks actual scales and is ... The outer surface of the scutes consists of the relatively rigid beta-keratin while the hinge region between the scutes ... contains only the more pliable alpha-keratin. Many of the scutes are strengthened by bony plates known as osteoderms, which are ...
July 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, ...
1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ...
... the absence of alpha-keratin. While beta-keratin is found in all integumentary (skin and feather) cells of reptiles and birds, ... 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ... biochemical analyses later showed that these structures contain decay products of the protein beta-keratin, and more ... only bird feathers completely lack alpha-keratin. These findings show that, though poorly preserved, Shuvuuia likely possessed ...
Keratin 1 Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness 602540 GJB2 Connexin-26 (Gap junction beta-2) ... Keratin 2A Ichthyosis hystrix, Curth-Macklin type 146590 KRT1 ...
This is conferred by the presence of beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer. In the human forearm, about ... Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing ... Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol ... which allows the cells to concentrate keratin and toughen them before they rise into a typically thicker, more cohesive SC. The ...
2018). A study on the putative beta-keratin antibodies reported in a fossil specimen of Shuvuuia deserti by Schweitzer et al. ( ... M.H. Schweitzer; J.A. Watt; R. Avci; L. Knapp; L. Chiappe; M. Norell; M. Marshall (1999). "Betakeratin specific immunological ... Evan T. Saitta; Jakob Vinther (2019). "A perspective on the evidence for keratin protein preservation in fossils: An issue of ... "Preservation potential of keratin in deep time". PLOS ONE. 13 (11): e0206569. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1306569S. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin specific ... In particular, a fossil of the Alvarezsauridae Shuvuuia has a version of keratin consistent with that of avian feathers. Many ...
HTML abstract) Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin ...
The naming convention for these keratins follows that for protein structures: alpha keratin is helical and beta keratin is ... Alpha keratin is found in mammalian hair, skin, nails, horn and quills, while beta keratin can be found in avian and reptilian ... Keratin is a structural protein located at the hard surfaces in many vertebrates. Keratin has two forms, α-keratin and β- ... This tensile strength is an order of magnitude higher than human nails (20MPa), because human hair's keratin filaments are more ...
1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ... Alibardi, Lorenzo; Knapp, Loren W.; Sawyer, Roger H. (2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and ... Research into the genetics of American alligators has also revealed that crocodylian scutes do possess feather-keratins during ... embryonic development, but these keratins are not expressed by the animals before hatching. Archaeopteryx was the first fossil ...
Alibardi, L; Knapp, LW; Sawyer, RH (2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers in relation ... Feathers and scales are made up of two distinct forms of keratin, and it was long thought that each type of keratin was ... that produce keratin proteins. The β-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws - and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles - are ... This type of keratin, previously thought to be specific to feathers, is suppressed during embryological development of the ...
Crocodilians also possess beta keratin similar to those of birds, which suggests that they evolved from common ancestral genes ... Diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins". Journal of Experimental Zoology ... Feathers are largely made of the keratin protein complex, which has disulfide bonds between amino acids that give it stability ... Greenwold, Matthew J.; Sawyer, Roger H. (September 2013). "Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian β-keratins: ...
... and subsequent demonstration that beta-keratin is made of beta sheets consigned the alpha sheet proposal to obscurity. However ... they suggested that it agreed well with fiber diffraction results from beta-keratin fibers. However, since the alpha sheet did ... For example, amyloid beta is a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, and ... Most beta sheets in known proteins are "twisted" about 15° for optimal hydrogen bonding and steric packing; however, some ...
... all made of tough beta-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier, especially regarding the passage of chemicals via skin ... The epidermis of birds and reptiles is closer to that of mammals, with a layer of dead keratin-filled cells at the surface, to ... The epidermis of fish and of most amphibians consists entirely of live cells, with only minimal quantities of keratin in the ... between each other and secreting keratin proteins and lipids which contribute to the formation of an extracellular matrix and ...
Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti. „ ... Pióra Shuvuuia deserti w testach immunologicznych wykazały nawet obecność beta-keratyny - głównego białka występującego w ...
They are made of alpha and beta-keratin and are formed from the epidermis (contrary to fish, in which the scales are formed ...
上皮角蛋白(英语:Epithelial keratin). (软α-角蛋白). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has keratolytic properties.[ ... or excess keratin) fully accounted for the disease in its entirety.[179] This led to the current understanding that acne could ... excessive deposition of the protein keratin leading to comedo formation, colonization of the follicle by Cutibacterium acnes (C ...
The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Frizzle feather was found to stem from a deletion in the genomic region coding for α-Keratin. This gene seems to ... Sickle cell anemia occurs when the HBB gene mutation causes both beta-globin subunits of hemoglobin to change into hemoglobin S ... "The Chicken Frizzle Feather Is Due to an α-Keratin (KRT75) Mutation That Causes a Defective Rachis". PLoS Genetics. 8 (7): ...
The alpha-3 subunit (COL4A3) of collagen IV is thought to be the antigen implicated in Goodpasture syndrome, wherein the immune system attacks the basement membranes of the glomeruli and the alveoli upon the antigenic site on the alpha-3 subunit becomes unsequestered due to environmental exposures. Goodpasture syndrome presents with nephritic syndrome and hemoptysis. Microscopic evaluation of biopsied renal tissue will reveal linear deposits of Immunoglobulin G by immunofluorescence. This is classically in young adult males. Mutations to the genes coding for collagen IV lead to Alport syndrome. This will cause thinning and splitting of the glomerular basement membrane. It will present as isolated hematuria, sensorineural hearing loss, and ocular disturbances and is passed on genetically, usually in an X-linked manner, although there are rarer autosomal forms. Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are associated with the deposition of collagen IV in the liver. Serum Collagen IV concentrations correlate ...
However, histological and evolutionary developmental work in this area revealed that these structures lack beta-keratin (a ... The scales of birds are composed of keratin, like beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and tarsi (lower ... hallmark of reptilian scales) and are entirely composed of alpha-keratin.[25] [27] This, along with their unique structure, has ...
Primeri so kolagen, fibrin, keratin (lasje, nohti), aktin in miozin (mišice).. V industriji in izdelkih za široko uporaboUredi ... Pri tem nastanejo lokalne strukture, ki jih razdelimo na alfa vijačnice, beta plošče in zanke. ... rumene beta plošče, modre zanke), desno so barvno označene površinske aminokisline z različnimi lastnostmi (kisle rdeče, ...
... is composed mostly of keratin, a protein found in the hair, wool, horns and skin of all mammals, but mohair's special ...
... such as the keratin in hair). The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins (protein retention) and to replace damaged ... one meta-analysis concluded that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins A and E and beta-carotene did not convey any ...
Cystathionine beta-synthase then combines homocysteine and serine to form the asymmetrical thioether cystathionine. The enzyme ... Again, the cysteine is used for breaking up the disulfide bonds in the hair's keratin. ... Cysteine synthesis: Cystathionine beta synthase catalyzes the upper reaction and cystathionine gamma-lyase catalyzes the lower ...
... is made by linking together many small soluble precursor tropoelastin protein molecules (50-70 kDa), to make the final massive insoluble, durable complex. The unlinked tropoelastin molecules are not normally available in the cell, since they become crosslinked into elastin fibres immediately after their synthesis by the cell and during their export into the extracellular matrix. Each tropoelastin consists of a string of 36 small domains, each weighing about 2 kDa in a random coil conformation. The protein consists of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, which are encoded by separate exons, so that the domain structure of tropoelastin reflects the exon organization of the gene. The hydrophilic domains contain Lys-Ala (KA) and Lys-Pro (KP) motifs that are involved in crosslinking during the formation of mature elastin. In the KA domains, lysine residues occur as pairs or triplets separated by two or three alanine residues (e.g. AAAKAAKAA) whereas in KP domains the lysine ...
beta 4 integrin. InterleukiinidRedigeeri. Tüümuse erinevad rakud sünteesivad ja eritavad interleukiine nagu interleukiin-1 (IL- ... Laster AJ, Itoh T, Palker TJ, Haynes BF., The human thymic microenvironment: thymic epithelium contains specific keratins ... immunohistochemical characterization of four thymic epithelial subsets defined by monoclonal anti-keratin antibodies., Eur J ... monoclonal antibody to high molecular weight keratins exclusively binds to Hassall's corpuscles., ...
A bird's beak is primarily made of bone as projections of the mandibles which are covered in keratin. ... These factors include insulin-like growth factors I and II, transforming growth factor-beta, fibroblast growth factor, platelet ...
de 2002). «Keratin 8 phosphorylation by p38 kinase regulates cellular keratin filament reorganization: modulation by a keratin ... de 2001). «A Novel MAPK phosphatase MKP-7 acts preferentially on JNK/SAPK and p38 alpha and beta MAPKs». J. Biol. Chem. (United ...
Fibrous proteins are often structural, such as collagen, the major component of connective tissue, or keratin, the protein ... and keratin is found in hard or filamentous structures such as hair, nails, feathers, hooves, and some animal shells.[37] Some ...
Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.[46] Goat butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta- ... Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and ...
2005). „Vitamin K3 (menadione)-induced oncosis associated with keratin 8 phosphorylation and histone H3 arylation". Mol. ... Tokoferol (Alfa, Beta, Gama, Delta) • Tokotrienol (Alfa, Beta, Gama, Delta) · Tokofersolan. K. Naftohinon • Filohinon (K1) • ...
Disulfides, S-S bonds, confer mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and ... beta: 1.96 g/cm3 gamma: 1.92 g/cm3 when liquid (at m.p.). 1.819 g/cm3 ...
The molecular structure and elastic properties of hair keratin". Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A232 (707-720): 333-394. doi:10.1098/rsta ... "The discovery of the alpha-helix and beta-sheet, the principal structural features of proteins". Proceedings of the National ... The configuration of the keratin molecule and its orientation in the biological cell". Proceedings of the Royal Society. A150: ... Fibrous proteins such as keratin or the "stalks" of myosin or kinesin often adopt coiled-coil structures, as do several ...
... connecting the ECM to intermediate filaments such as keratin. This cell-to-ECM adhesion is regulated by specific cell-surface ...
The structures often feature cross-links between chains (e.g., cys-cys disulfide bonds between keratin chains). ... There are many scleroprotein superfamilies including keratin, collagen, elastin, and fibroin. The roles of such proteins ...
a b c d e f g h i j What can foods rich in beta-carotene do for you? Archived June 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Whfoods. ... Not to be confused with keratin.. For the Canadian racehorse, see Carotene (horse). ... The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the ... 1996). "Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease". N Engl J Med. 334 ( ...
... alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. Alpha-keratin is seen in humans and other mammals, beta-keratin is present in birds and ... "beta-keratins" in recent works is replaced by "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins." β-keratins add ... Beta-keratin is harder than alpha-keratin. Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical coiled coil structure while beta- ... β-keratin or beta-keratin is a member of a structural protein family found in the epidermis of reptiles and birds. β-keratins ...
Pancreatic keratins are thus involved in essential beta-cell functions and could comprise a novel beta-cell factor that can ... In this project, we are exploring the regulatory functions of intermediate filament keratins in pancreatic beta-cell biology ... Keratin stress proteins as novel beta-cell health protectors and insulin regulators. ... This research will utilize several in vivo disease models and complementary beta-cell lines, to comprehensively examine keratin ...
Alpha (α) keratins are found in all vertebrates, while beta (β) keratins are found exclusively in reptiles and birds. We have ... We found that the total number of α-keratins is lower in birds than mammals and non-avian reptiles, yet two α-keratin genes ( ... The β-keratins, however, demonstrate a dynamic evolution associated with avian lifestyle. The avian specific feather β-keratins ... These results support the view that the number of α- and β-keratin genes expressed, the proportion of the β-keratin subfamily ...
Here, Trichologist Lisa Caddy explains the crucial role that Keratin plays in our hair structure ... Keratin, the protein that your hair is made from. ... Alpha-Keratins and Beta-Keratins. Keratin proteins can be ... Beta-Keratins: These occur in beaks, horns and nails. Their hard, rigid structure comes from the fact that they consist of ... What is Keratin?. Keratin is a fibrous, structural protein. It is the main building block of human hair. It is also the main ...
Alpha-keratin. Beta-keratin. Segment by Application. Clinical. Skin and Hair. Silk. Feed and Food Industries. Fertilizers and ... Keratin Industry 2019 Market Research Report. The Keratin Market accounts for USD Keratin billion and is expected to grow at a ... Keratin is the structural protein of ectoderm cells, including hair, nails, feathers and so on. Keratin is a kind of hard ... Keratin Express. Malfroy and Million. Spirit. Arteseta. Vanners Silks. Sunrise Textile. Sanskriti India. Shanghai Zhanzhi ...
... keratins. The molecularphylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, ... Results: The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale) of β-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5 to 3 orderon ... Knowing that the crocodilian β-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes ofthe chicken and ... Expression sequence tag analysis for thechicken demonstrates that all feather β-keratin clades are expressed. Conclusions: ...
Find more product information on Keratin Booster for Men with Biotin & Resveratrol and shop online. ... Buy Discount Keratin Booster for Men with Biotin & Resveratrol, 60 Veggie Capsules, ReserveAge Organics at VitaSprings. ... It features Cynatine HNS, a patented form of bioavailable Keratin, combined with plant-derived Saw Palmetto and Beta Sitosterol ... Keratin provides the highest proportions of amino acids necessary for a healthy head of hair. Keratin Booster for Men helps ...
Keratin 3 also known as cytokeratin 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT3 gene.[1][2] Keratin 3 is a type II ... It is specifically found in the corneal epithelium together with keratin 12. ... "Mutations in cornea-specific keratin K3 or K12 genes cause Meesmanns corneal dystrophy". Nat. Genet. 16 (2): 184-7. doi: ... "New consensus nomenclature for mammalian keratins". J. Cell Biol. 174 (2): 169-74. doi:10.1083/jcb.200603161. PMC 2064177 ...
Keratin 6A. Keratin 6A (protein name K6A; gene name KRT6A), is a type II cytokeratin, one of a number of isoforms of keratin 6 ... Keratin 6A is one of the 27 different type II keratins expressed in humans. Keratin 6A was the first type II keratin sequence ... Keratins form heteropolymers consisting of a type I and a type II keratin. Keratins are generally expressed in particular pairs ... Both epithelial keratins and hard keratins can be further subdivided into type I (acidic) keratins and type II (neutral-basic) ...
Amyloid beta (A4) Precursor Protein (APP) * Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) * Membrane-Spanning 4-Domains, Subfamily A, ... keratin 82 , keratin, type II cuticular Hb2-like , K82 , hard keratin, type II, 2 , keratin, hair, basic, 2 , keratin, type II ... type II hair keratin Hb2 , type-II keratin Kb22 , keratin complex 2, basic, gene 20 , type II keratin Kb22 ... All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this keratin appears to be a hair cuticle-specific keratin. ...
Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Takafuta, T; Wu G; Murphy G F; Shapiro S S (Jul 1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic ... Takafuta T, Wu G, Murphy GF, Shapiro SS (1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
An international team of paleontologists has found evidence of beta-keratin and melanosome preservation in a 130-million-year- ... Ancient Melanosomes, Beta-Keratin Found in Fossilized Feathers of Early Cretaceous Bird. 26th November 2016 ... An international team of paleontologists has found evidence of beta-keratin and melanosome preservation in a 130-million-year- ... "Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in ...
Keratin 10 ELISA Kits für viele Reaktivitäten. Rind (Kuh), Hund, Human und weitere. Keratin 10 ELISA Kits vergleichen und ... Karyopherin (Importin) beta 1 ELISA Kits * Kallmann Syndrome 1 Sequence ELISA Kits ... keratin 25D , epithelial keratin 10 , epithelial keratin-10 , keratin 10 , keratin 25 , keratin 27 , keratin 28 , keratin, type ... CK-10 , cytokeratin 10 , keratin, type I cytoskeletal 10 , keratin-10 , 56 kDa cytokeratin , cytokeratin-10 , epidermal keratin ...
The α-keratins are formed primarily as helical fibers, while the β-keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets. Some beta ... New aspects of the alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition in stretched hard alpha-keratin fibers. Biophys J 87(1): 640-7. ... Keratins are rivaled as biological materials in toughness only by chitin. Keratins are present in all epithelial cells, both ... Keratins aid the epithelial cells in maintaining their connected integrity, as the keratins typically span the full interior ...
Keratin 19, a cancer stem cell marker in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2015;21:3081-91. ... The role of TGF-beta and Wnt signaling in gastrointestinal stem cells and cancer. Oncogene 2005;24:5775-89. ... Keratin 19: a key role player in the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinomas. Gut 2014;63:674-85. ... Essential role of TGF-beta signaling in glucose-induced cell hypertrophy. Dev Cell 2009;17:35-48. ...
... of laminin-5 gamma2 and beta3 subunits in budding cells was associated with focal under-expression of the E-cadherin-beta- ... Keratins / biosynthesis * Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism * Laminin / biosynthesis * Laminin / genetics* * Laminin / isolation & ...
Expression levels were calculated by the comparative Ct method using beta-tubulin for normalization. The reference for ... However, an induction of a great number of proteases occurred when T. rubrum was grown in the presence of keratin such as the ... Adhesin-like proteinConidiaElastinKeratinTranscriptional gene expression Trichophyton rubrum Background. Trichophyton rubrum is ... In our microarray data an adhesin like protein was modulated during the growth of T. rubrum on keratin and also in co-culture ...
Beta Sitosterol 120 mg. Campesterol 60 mg. Stigmasterol 40 mg. Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (Serenoa repens) 160 mg. ( ... Keratin Booster For Men 60 Vcaps. Code: 661008 Price: USD $44.93 Shipping Weight 0.50 pounds Category: Professional ... Cynatine HNS (Solubilized Keratin) 500 mg. Pro-Longevity Factor Resveratrol 40 mg. Organic French red whole grape (skin, vine, ... Cynatine HNS Keratin: A patented complex clinically tested to boost hair strength, shine and appearance.* Biotin: Essential B- ...
Researchers in Japan have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54-million-year-old sea turtle ... Keratin, proteins from 54-million-year-old sea turtle show survival trait evolution. ...
Hair is made up of keratin.. Pygeum africanum: The extracts from pygeum bark include beta-sitosterol, other plant sterols, ... Saw Palmetto, Beta-sitosterol ✔ Saw Palmetto, Beta-sitosterol, Pygeum ✔ Saw Palmetto, Myricetin ✔ ... Saw palmetto and Beta-sitosterol: Two herbal extracts known to block DHT, a hormone which can inhibit hair growth, which would ... Beta-sitosterol, green tea, red-raspberry are antioxidants that help prevent free-radical damage and help support a healthy ...
Expression of an endogenous stabilized beta-catenin (DeltaE3 beta-catenin) in mammary epithelium leads to the ... The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway controls cell fate and neoplastic transformation. ... In support of transdifferentiation, expression of hard keratins specific for hair and nails was observed in pilar tumors. These ... Expression of an endogenous stabilized beta-catenin (DeltaE3 beta-catenin) in mammary epithelium leads to the ...
Arginylation of beta-actin regulates actin cytoskeleton and cell motility. Science. 313:192-196. ... The type II keratin 5 (K5) and type I keratin 14 (K14) represent the main keratin pairing expressed in the progenitor basal ... The functional diversity of epidermal keratins revealed by the partial rescue of the keratin 14 null phenotype by keratin 16. J ... Keratin purification and reconstitution of keratin filament in vitro. pET-K5, pET-K5bd, pET-K8, pET-K8bc, and pET-K14 were ...
New aspects of the alpha-coil to beta-sheet transition in stretched hard alpha-keratin fibers. Biophys. J. 87,640 -647. ... hydrated alpha-keratin) to 85±19.5% for WECB. Drying WECB appears to make it more similar to hydrated alpha-keratin, but ... In hard alpha-keratin, a very stiff and brittle material, the addition of water acts as a plasticizer allowing a decrease in ... This agrees with keratin models suggesting that in the yield region there are still coiled-coil motifs unraveling, and that the ...
... keratin,HLA A24, A32, B15, B18. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. The cells expressed p53 ... carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 118 ng/10 exp6 cells/10 days; Colon Specific Antigen (CSAp); transforming growth factor beta; ... The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining.. The cells expressed p53 antigen (the p53 produced has a G -> ... carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 118 ng/10 exp6 cells/10 days; Colon Specific Antigen (CSAp); transforming growth factor beta; ...
This chicken-like character contains the oldest beta-keratin proteins so far found. ... scientists led by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the oldest fossil evidence of beta-keratin from ...
These keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets. However, beta sheets are also found in α-keratins.)[1] ... Keratin it:Cheratina lt:Keratinas nl:Keratine no:Keratin oc:Queratina simple:Keratin su:Keratin sv:Keratin ta:நகமியம் ur:قرنین ... keratin 8 keratin 18, keratin 20 simple epithelium Clinical significance. Some infectious fungi, such as those which cause ... am:ኬራቲን bg:Кератин ca:Ceratina cs:Keratin da:Keratin de:Keratin eo:Keratino fi:Keratiini gl:Queratina he:קרטין hr: ...
... mammalian keratins have been immunohistochemically demonstrated in the epidermis of reptiles. However, there are... ... Beta-keratin is different as a result of different amino acidic sequences, which determine a beta-pleated conformation. The ... Two main types of keratins, alpha and beta, have been described in the reptilian epidermis. Alpha-keratin bundles are formed by ... Toni M, Alibardi L. Alpha- and beta-keratins of the snake epidermis. Zoology. 2007;110:41-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
These keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets. However, beta sheets are also found in α-keratins. The baleen plates of ... Keratin (/ˈkɛrətɪn/) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins known as scleroproteins. α-Keratin is a type of keratin ... For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells react with antibodies for keratin 5, keratin 8, and keratin 14. These antibodies are ... Keratin also protects epithelial cells from damage or stress. Keratin is extremely insoluble in water and organic solvents. ...
... keratin 17, 79) functions, and a non-inflammatory Th17/IL-17 dominance in SGR skin compared to SGP. Regarding pro-inflammatory ... keratin 17, 79) functions and a non-inflammatory Th17/IL-17 dominance in SGR skin compared to SGP. Regarding pro-inflammatory ... defensin beta; FLG, filaggrin; KRT, keratin; LCE, late cornified envelope; LCN, lipocalin; LOR, loricrin; S100, S100 calcium- ... IL-17A upregulates keratin 17 expression in keratinocytes through STAT1- and STAT3-dependent mechanisms. J Invest Dermatol ( ...
  • β-keratins were named so because they are components of epidermal stratum corneum rich in stacked β pleated sheets, in contrast to alpha-keratins, intermediate-filament proteins also found in stratum corneum and rich in alpha helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the accurate use of the term keratin is limited to the alpha-keratins, the term "beta-keratins" in recent works is replaced by "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratin proteins can be subdivided into alpha-Keratins and beta-Keratins. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Keratins are the intermediate filament proteins that form a dense meshwork of filaments throughout the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratins are generally expressed in particular pairs of type I and type II keratin proteins in a tissue -specific and cellular differentiation -specific manner. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratin is any one of the family of tough and insoluble fibrous structural proteins that form the chief, hard, nonmineralized structural component of hair , wool , horns , nails , claws, hooves, and other vertebrate tissues, as well as part of various invertebrate structures. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The properties that make structural proteins like keratins useful depend on their supermolecular aggregation, i.e., their pattern of protein ( polypeptide strand) folding. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Keratin (/ˈkɛrətɪn/) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins known as scleroproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • By analysis of the primary structures of these keratins and other intermediate filament proteins, Hanukoglu and Fuchs suggested a model in which keratins and intermediate filament proteins contain a central ~310 residue domain with four segments in α-helical conformation that are separated by three short linker segments predicted to be in beta-turn conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers in Japan have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54-million-year-old sea turtle hatchling. (nsf.gov)
  • Keratins, the largest subgroup of intermediate filament (IF) proteins, form a network of 10-nm filaments built from type I/II heterodimers in epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • This chicken-like character contains the oldest beta-keratin proteins so far found. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Keratin mechanical models were applied to WECB in its representation as an intermediate state between matrix-free intermediate filament (IF)-type proteins and the more complex composite materials incorporating IFs such as keratin. (biologists.org)
  • The properties which make structural proteins like keratins useful depend on their supermolecular aggregation. (wikidoc.org)
  • The α-helix and β-sheet motifs, and disulfide bridges, are crucial to the conformations of globular, functional proteins like enzymes , many of which operate semi-independently, but they take on a completely dominant role in the architecture and aggregation of keratins. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that are the major components of intermediate filaments in epithelial cells however, their role in bacterial infection has been disregarded. (frontiersin.org)
  • Essential to their pathogenicity and virulence is the production of a broad spectrum of proteolytic enzymes and other key proteins involved in keratin biodegradation and utilization of its breakdown products. (deepdyve.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 17q21.2 that encodes the smallest of all type-I keratin proteins, which is expressed in the periderm, the transiently superficial layer that surrounds the developing epidermis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunohistochemical observations of epidermal growth factor, keratin proteins and lectin binding on effects of testosterone administration in duct-ligated submandibular glands of mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. (biolegend.com)
  • Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chain. (biolegend.com)
  • fibrillar protein any of the generally insoluble proteins that comprise the principal structural proteins of the body, e.g., collagens, elastins, keratin, actin, and myosin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Kemp, D.J., and Rogers, G.E., 1972, Differentiation of avian keratinocytes: Characterization and relationship of the keratin proteins of adult and embryonic feathers and scales. (springer.com)
  • These gold antibodies then bind to specific proteins (in this case, keratin), which makes them visible under an electron microscope. (livescience.com)
  • In the hair cortex, hair keratin intermediate filaments are embedded in an interfilamentous matrix, consisting of hair keratin-associated proteins (KRTAP), which are essential for the formation of a rigid and resistant hair shaft through their extensive disulfide bond cross-linking with abundant cysteine residues of hair keratins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In addition to co-expressing both keratin proteins, the Anchiornis feathers had already undergone the deletion event that sets feathers apart from other tissues. (eurekalert.org)
  • β-keratins add much more rigidity to reptilian skin than alpha-keratins alone do to mammalian skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are no reports of immunohistochemical staining patterns of alpha-keratins in other tissues from reptiles. (springer.com)
  • We also studied the immunolocalization of alpha-keratins in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in a bearded dragon and two loggerhead turtles. (springer.com)
  • Alpha-keratins were detected in a greater number of tissues of loggerhead turtles compared with those observed in bearded dragons. (springer.com)
  • This study provides, for the first time, information about the immunohistochemical staining patterns of alpha-keratins in normal tissues from bearded dragons and loggerhead sea turtles, and confirms the usefulness of AE1 and AE3 monoclonal antibodies in these reptile species. (springer.com)
  • Alpha keratins are typical intermediate filaments of epithelia in mammals. (springer.com)
  • Unlike other vertebrates birds and reptiles produce beta keratins, in addition to the alpha keratins which appear in the epidermis of all vertebrates. (springer.com)
  • 1983), O'Guin and Sawyer (1982) and O'Guin (1984) have shown that the alpha keratins of birds are also expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and are recognized, on Western Blots, by at least one of the monoclonal antibodies made against human alpha keratins (Sun et al. (springer.com)
  • They found that Anchiornis feathers were comprised of both β-keratins and alpha-keratins (α-keratins), a protein all terrestrial vertebrates have, including mammals. (eurekalert.org)
  • The scales, beaks, claws and feathers of birds contain β-keratin of the avian family. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study using molecular dating methods to link the evolution of avian β-keratin genes in general to that of feathers specifically reveals that the avian β-keratin family began diverging from the crocodile family about 216 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-keratins found in modern feathers have increased elasticity, a factor that may have contributed to their role in flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratin is the structural protein of ectoderm cells, including hair, nails, feathers and so on. (webnewswire.com)
  • The molecularphylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, especially feathers. (sc.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that evolution of archosaurian epidermal appendagesin the lineage leading to birds was accompanied by duplication and divergence of an ancestral β-keratin gene cluster.As morphological diversification of epidermal appendages occurred and the β-keratin multigene family expanded,novel β-keratin genes were selected for novel functions within appendages such as feathers. (sc.edu)
  • A team of international scientists led by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported the oldest fossil evidence of beta-keratin from feathers of a 130-million-year-old basal bird. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • the harder β-keratins found in nails and in the scales and claws of reptiles , their shells ( chelonians , such as tortoise , turtle , terrapin ), and in the feathers , beaks , and claws of birds . (wikidoc.org)
  • Multiple genes have been identified for the β-keratins in feathers, and this is probably characteristic of all keratins. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. (openaire.eu)
  • One model is based on feathers with tiny spherical air cavities packed in a protein called beta-keratin. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers also built a network laser using a series of interconnecting nano-channels, based on their observations of feathers whose beta-keratin takes the form of interconnecting channels in "tortuous and twisting forms. (redorbit.com)
  • If these small bodies are melanosomes, they should be embedded in a keratinous matrix, since feathers contain beta-keratin,' Schweitzer said in a statement . (livescience.com)
  • Investigation of feathers from the famous Middle Eocene Messel Oil Shale near Darmstadt, Germany shows that they are preserved as arrays of fossilized melanosomes, the surrounding beta-keratin having degraded. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Modern bird feathers are composed primarily of beta-keratin (β-keratin), a protein also found in skin, claws, and beaks of reptiles and birds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Feathers differ from these other β-keratin containing tissues, because the feather protein is modified in a way that makes them more flexible," says Mary Schweitzer, professor of biological sciences at NC State with a joint appointment at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences and co-author of a paper describing the research. (eurekalert.org)
  • At some point during the evolution of feathers, one of the β-keratin genes underwent a deletion event, making the resultant protein slightly smaller. (eurekalert.org)
  • They did the same to other feathers from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, as well as other β-keratin tissues not expected to show this deletion, then compared results with modern bird feathers and tissues. (eurekalert.org)
  • This was surprising because α-keratin is present in only small amounts in modern feathers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Annotation of Type II α-keratins is based upon avian gene annotations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Keratin 3 also known as cytokeratin 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT3 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • [1] In humans Keratin 6A is encoded by the KRT6A gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Trichocyte keratins are similar in their gene and protein structure to keratins except that they are especially rich in the sulfur -containing amino acid cysteine, which facilitates chemical cross-linking of the assembled hard keratins to form a more structurally resilient material. (wikidoc.org)
  • The genes for the type I keratins are located in a gene cluster on human chromosome 17q , whereas the genes for type II keratins are located in a cluster on human chromosome 12q (the exception being K18, a type I keratin located in the type II gene cluster). (wikidoc.org)
  • gene name KRT6A ), is a type II cyto keratin , one of a number of isoforms of keratin 6 encoded by separate genes located within the type II keratin gene cluster on human chromosome 12q . (wikidoc.org)
  • The KRT6A gene consists of 9 exons separated by 8 introns and is located in the type II keratin gene cluster on human chromosome 12q. (wikidoc.org)
  • The protein encoded by KRT82 is a member of the keratin gene family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278) , is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is encoded by the FLNB gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, keratin also promoted the up-regulation of a gene encoding an adhesin-like protein with a tandem repeat sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Keratin 37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT37 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • KRT37 is a member of the keratin gene family. (wikidoc.org)
  • The gene overexpression may play key roles in carcinogenesis through activation of the WNT-beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. (genecards.org)
  • Nuclear extracts from embryos of Xenopus laevis were shown to contain a protein activity, KTF-1, which binds in vitro to the promoter of the embryonic, epidermis-specific keratin gene, XK81A1. (biologists.org)
  • A construct of the keratin gene in which this sequence was altered so that it no longer binds KTF-1 in vitro showed severely reduced transcription levels upon injection into Xenopus embryos, but retained epidermal specificity. (biologists.org)
  • 2011) Keratin gene mutations in disorders of human skin and its appendages. (els.net)
  • Duplication and divergence events then led to claw β-keratin genes, and further recombination resulted in new feather and feather-like avian β-keratin genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowing that the crocodilian β-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes ofthe chicken and zebra finch provide an opportunity not only to compare the genomic organization of their β- keratins,but to study their molecular evolution in archosaurians. (sc.edu)
  • Results: The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale) of β-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5' to 3' orderon microchromosome 25 in chicken and zebra finch, although the number of claw and feather genes differs between the species. (sc.edu)
  • Keratin 6B and keratin 6C are encoded by the neighbouring genes, which are identical in intron - exon organization to KRT6A and are more than 99% identical in their DNA coding sequences. (wikidoc.org)
  • Mutations in the genes expressing this protein is associated with the PC-K6A subtype of pachyonychia congenita , an inherited disorder of the epithelial tissues in which keratin 6A is expressed, particularly leading to structural abnormalities of the nails, the epidermis of the palms and soles, and oral epithelia . (wikidoc.org)
  • The human genome encodes 54 functional keratin genes, located in two clusters on chromosomes 12 and 17. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcriptional activation of the Xtcf-3-target genes in response to endogenous Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by the overexpression of Xtcf-3BDN- led to a reduction of the ventral diencephalon . (xenbase.org)
  • β-keratin or beta-keratin is a member of a structural protein family found in the epidermis of reptiles and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: The epidermal appendages of reptiles and birds are constructed of beta (β) keratins. (sc.edu)
  • Keratin comes in two types, the primitive, softer forms found in all vertebrates and harder, derived forms found only among sauropsids (reptiles and birds). (wikipedia.org)
  • the harder β-keratins are found only in the sauropsids, that is all living reptiles and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha (α) keratins are found in all vertebrates, while beta (β) keratins are found exclusively in reptiles and birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Keratin provides the highest proportions of amino acids necessary for a healthy head of hair. (vitasprings.com)
  • For example, hair, a filamentous outgrowth from the skin that is found only on mammals, involves fibers comprising nonliving cells whose primary component is the protein keratin, a long chain (polymer) of amino acids that naturally forms an α-helix fiber and subsequently winds two of the α-helix fibers together to form a much stronger "coiled coil" fiber characteristic of α-keratin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The sulfur was broadly distributed, as would be expected in a keratinous material, as 'the keratin protein family incorporates high concentrations of amino acids rich in sulfur,' the researchers wrote in the study, published online yesterday (Nov. 21) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (livescience.com)
  • Silica adds luster, vitamin E fortifies, amino acids support natural keratin production, and biotin assists in healthy hair growth. (sephora.com)
  • Amino Acids: An essential element in keratin production. (sephora.com)
  • Alpha-keratin is seen in humans and other mammals, beta-keratin is present in birds and reptiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratin 6A is one of the 27 different type II keratins expressed in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratin is nutritionally useless to humans, since it is not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes , but it can be used as fertilizer, being slowly broken down by bacteria (Bender and Bender 2005). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Both epithelial keratins and hard keratins can be further subdivided into type I (acidic) keratins and type II (neutral-basic) keratins. (wikidoc.org)
  • In mammals there are soft epithelial keratins, the cytokeratins , and harder hair keratins . (wikidoc.org)
  • Here we investigate the role of the major epithelial keratins, keratins 8 and 18 (K8 and K18), in the cellular infection by Listeria monocytogenes . (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, our results reveal novel functions for major epithelial keratins in the modulation of actin dynamics at the bacterial entry sites and in the control of surface receptors mRNA stability and expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • This research will utilize several in vivo disease models and complementary beta-cell lines, to comprehensively examine keratin-regulated beta-cell function at a molecular level as well as on their effects on the whole organism. (abo.fi)
  • In this project, we will clarify the molecular mechanisms of keratins in the dynamics of insulin secretion basally, after glucose-stimulation or in chronic hyperglycaemia (diabetes). (abo.fi)
  • With this research, we expect to be able to elucidate keratin-regulated molecular mechanisms and pathways that are important in beta-cell function and diabetes development. (abo.fi)
  • Molecular phylogeny and proposed genomic orientation of Type II α-keratins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we describe the process of keratin biodegradation by dermatophytes, with an especial focus on recent developments in cutting edge molecular biology and '-omic' studies that are helping to dissect the complex process of keratin breakdown and utilization. (deepdyve.com)
  • This particular antibody labels high and low molecular weight keratins in many epithelia, including keratinized and corneal epidermis, stratified squamous epithelia of internal organs, stratified epithelia, hyperproliferative keratinocytes, and simple epithelia. (osu.edu)
  • Therefore, one would not expect aβ -keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. (biologists.org)
  • Keratin 15 is a 456 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 49 kD. (biolegend.com)
  • This study is the first to demonstrate evidence for both keratin and melanosomes , using structural, chemical and molecular methods,' said study author Yanhong Pan, a researcher at the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. (livescience.com)
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. (hindawi.com)
  • This work shows that we can utilize molecular fossil data to root molecular clocks and improve their accuracy - we can start to put timing on genetic events in the dinosaur-bird transition via absence or presence of these two keratins. (eurekalert.org)
  • So luxe - 2chic Brazilian Keratin and Moroccan Argan Oil Ultra-Sleek Shampoo. (iherb.com)
  • 2 Chic Ultra-Sleek Brazilian Keratin and Argan Oil Ultra-Sleek Shampoo is an amazing natural shampoo for all hair types that leaves your hair magnificently clean, soft and shiny. (naturalhealthyconcepts.com)
  • The α-helix and β-sheet motifs, and the disulfide bridges, are central to the architecture and aggregation of keratins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Keratins (also described as cytokeratins) are polymers of type I and type II intermediate filaments that have been found only in chordates (vertebrates, amphioxus, urochordates). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokeratins with epitopes in common with those of alpha (acidic and basic) mammalian keratins have been immunohistochemically demonstrated in the epidermis of reptiles. (springer.com)
  • Among the invertebrates , arthropods such as crustaceans often have parts of their armor or exoskeleton made of keratin, sometimes in combination with chitin , which is a hard, semitransparent polysaccharide that is the main component of the shells of crustaceans, such as crabs , lobsters , and shrimp . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Keratins also are found in the gastrointestinal tracts of many animals, including roundworms (who also have an outer layer made of keratin). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Horns such as those of the impala are made of keratin covering a core of bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The baleen plates of filter-feeding whales are made of keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthropods such as crustaceans often have parts of their armor or exoskeleton made of keratin, sometimes in combination with chitin . (wikidoc.org)
  • An international team of paleontologists has found evidence of beta-keratin and melanosome preservation in a 130-million-year-old specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis . (sytec.news)
  • For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells react with antibodies for keratin 5, keratin 8, and keratin 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies against keratins bind to intercalated duct and ductal basal cells of normal salivary glands in paraffin sections. (nii.ac.jp)
  • ribosomal protein S6 [rpS6]) signaling pathways were used as well as antibodies against PAX6 and keratin 13 (Krt13). (diva-portal.org)
  • In the present study we utilized ER-beta affinity purified polyclonal (N19:sc6820) and ER-alpha monoclonal (clone h-151) antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, CFK-E12 (E12) and CWK-F12 (F12) monoclonal antibodies, which recognize approximately 64 kDa ER-beta with hormone binding domain, showed nuclear-specific reactivity with villous ST, extravillous trophoblast, and amniotic epithelium and fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • [1] [2] Keratin 3 is a type II cytokeratin . (wikidoc.org)
  • In contrast, cytokeratin expression in CK2alpha, dnGSK3beta and Cyclin D1 transgenic mammary tissues was similar to that in DeltaE3 beta-catenin tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Keratin 15 is a member of the type I cytokeratin family. (biolegend.com)
  • Vertebrate skin appendages are constructed of keratins produced by multigene families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1982). The alpha keratin polypeptides of mammals are products of a multigene family (Moll et al. (springer.com)
  • Biotin: Essential B-vitamin helps support natural keratin production for strong, healthy roots and thicker strands. (bayho.com)
  • Like filamentous actin, keratin IFs must be cross-linked in vitro to achieve the high level of mechanical resilience characteristic of live cells. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to actin, the role of intermediate filaments (IFs), in particular keratins, during bacterial infection is poorly characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • This antibody recognizes muscle specific alpha and gamma actin isomers but is not reactive to beta isomers. (osu.edu)
  • In this project, we are exploring the regulatory functions of intermediate filament keratins in pancreatic beta-cell biology under basal circumstances as well in diabetes. (abo.fi)
  • and hierarchical layers of ordered fibrous constituents ( Rawlings, 1999 ), suggestive of a structure analogous to an intermediate filament (IF)-based material such as that of hard alpha-keratin ( Whitely and Kaplin, 1977 ). (biologists.org)
  • Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical coiled coil structure while beta-keratin have twisted beta sheet structure.bIn the case of β-sheets, this allows sterically-unhindered hydrogen bonding between the amino and carboxyl groups of peptide bonds on adjacent protein chains, facilitating their close alignment and strong binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Analysis of the sequence of this keratin together with that of the first type I keratin led to the discovery of the four helical domains in the central rod of keratins. (wikidoc.org)
  • The α-keratins are formed primarily as helical fibers, while the β-keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This model has been confirmed by the determination of the crystal structure of a helical domain of keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major force that keeps the coiled-coil structure is hydrophobic interactions between apolar residues along the keratins helical segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibrous keratin molecules can twist around each other to form helical intermediate filaments. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratins are the chief constituent of structures that grow from the skin of vertebrates . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • α-Keratin is a type of keratin found in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spider silk is classified as keratin, although production of the protein may have evolved independently of the process in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • the α-keratins are found in all vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • the scales and interscalar skin also contain alpha keratin, which is a trait shared with other vertebrates . (britannica.com)
  • In the cutaneous SCCs of both sea turtles, acidic alpha-keratin was detected in the basal and suprabasal layers, and in all of the invasive neoplastic cords, while basic alpha-keratin was mainly detected in the invasive neoplastic cords. (springer.com)
  • The pattern observed in the metastases in both turtles consisted of immunohistological detection of acidic alpha-keratin in all metastatic foci, and limited or lack of detection of basic alpha-keratin. (springer.com)
  • In arthropods, however, chitin is frequently modified by being embedded in a hardened proteinaceous matrix of keratin, giving a more rigid exoskeleton, than seen, for example, in the use of chitin in the soft, more pliable body wall of a caterpillar . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cells in the epidermis contain a structural matrix of keratin which makes this outermost layer of the skin almost waterproof, and along with collagen and elastin , gives skin its strength. (wikidoc.org)
  • It is wellknown that mutations in keratins cause or predispose to many human liver and skin diseases, but the involvement of keratins in diabetes or in beta-cell biology is still insufficiently known. (abo.fi)
  • It also found that the feather β-keratin family did not begin diverging until 125 million years ago, a date consistent with the adaptive radiation of birds during the Cretaceous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, feathered relatives of birds such as Anchiornis and Archaeopteryx, whose flight capabilities have been questioned, would have had avian, but not feather, β-keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Part A is the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Type II α-keratins from human, green anole lizard, green sea turtle, American alligator and the 48 birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Part B is the proposed genomic orientation of Type II α-keratins in birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions: Similarity in the overall genomic organization of β-keratins in Galliformes and Passeriformes suggestssimilar organization in all Neognathae birds, and perhaps in the ancestral lineages leading to modern birds, such as theparavian Anchiornis huxleyi. (sc.edu)
  • Keratin monomers assemble into bundles to form intermediate filaments, which are tough and form strong unmineralized epidermal appendages found in reptiles, birds, amphibians, and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scales in both, birds and reptiles are made of beta-keratin , that make them significantly tougher. (buzzle.com)
  • Keratins also are a principle part of the cells in the tooth enamel of mammals and the baleen plates of filter-feeding whales . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Differential Evolution of the Epidermal Keratin Cytoskeleton in Terrestrial and Aquatic Mammals. (nih.gov)
  • In support of transdifferentiation, expression of hard keratins specific for hair and nails was observed in pilar tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Hard keratins, typical of nails and hair, contain regions with highly ordered protein filaments, extensively cross-linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds (∼18% cysteine). (deepdyve.com)
  • It's a 10 Miracle Deep Conditioner Plus Keratin is a nutritive complex and fortified with nature's own purity. (ulta.com)
  • 2 Chic Ultra-Sleek Brazilian Keratin Shampoo by Giovanni is a natural keratin shampoo designed to hydrate and moisturize the hair with a cruelty-free, natural formula. (naturalhealthyconcepts.com)
  • Follow with 2 Chic Brazilian Keratin and Argan Oil Ultra-Sleek Conditioner. (naturalhealthyconcepts.com)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy-keratin accumulation is due to copper/iron-catalyzed demethylation of methionine residues and contributes to keratin damage in human hair. (springer.com)
  • In the present work we have examined a hypothesis that the damage that accumulates in growing human hair is caused by the demethylation of keratin Met residues to Hcy. (springer.com)
  • An organotypic keratinocyte culture originated from continuous rat epidermal keratinocyte cell line was subjected to the proliferative and antiproliferative growth factors epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, respectively, to study their influence on hyaluronan synthesis and epidermal morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • The expression of keratin 10 and the maturation of filaggrin were inhibited, and epidermal permeability barrier became less efficient, indicating compromised terminal differentiation by epidermal growth factor. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results suggest that epidermal hyaluronan synthesis, controlled by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor beta through changes in the expression of Has2 and Has3, correlates with epidermal proliferation, thickness, and differentiation. (diva-portal.org)
  • In CV, strong cytoplasmic ER-beta immunoreactivity was confined to ST. Dual color immunohistochemistry revealed asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha in dividing villous CT cells. (nih.gov)
  • ER-beta was also detected in endothelial cells, amniotic epithelial cells and fibroblasts, extravillous trophoblast (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and decidual cells (cytoplasmic only). (nih.gov)
  • Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • The newfound Cretaceous-age Eoconfuciusornis specimen from northern China has 130-million-year-old beta-keratin and melanosomes on it. (livescience.com)
  • If we couldn't find the keratin, then those structures could as easily be microbes, or a mix of microbes and melanosomes,' which would lead to inaccurate predictions of pigmentation. (livescience.com)
  • In contrast, copper is found in melanosomes but not in keratin. (livescience.com)
  • In particular, the prevalence in Keratin of the sulfur -containing amino acid cysteine , with its ability to form strong covalent chemical bonds between sulfur atoms (disulfide bridge), helps confer strength and rigidity. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, the distinguishing feature of keratins is the presence of large amounts of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine, required for the disulfide bridges that confer additional strength and rigidity by permanent, thermally stable crosslinking-in much the same way that non-protein sulfur bridges stabilize vulcanized rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the bearded dragon SCC, all layers of the nests of neoplastic cells, including the cornified layer of the keratin pearls, were strongly reactive with the AE1 antibody. (springer.com)
  • IHC staining of anti-Keratin 15 antibody (Poly18339) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human skin tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • Western blot of anti-Keratin 15 antibody (Poly18339). (biolegend.com)
  • This antibody was raised against a peptide sequence derived from the C-terminus of the human keratin 15 protein, CDGQVVSSHKREI. (biolegend.com)
  • The horn, hooves, nails, hair, and other keratin-based hard, tough materials growing on animals are produced by epithelial cells adapted to growing an abundance of keratin and then dying as individual cells while leaving the keratin to help form a structure valuable to the whole animal. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 1999) showed that these featherlike structures consisted of beta-keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-Keratin Specific Immunological reactivity in Feather-Like Structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti Journal of Experimental Biology (Mol Dev Evol) 255:146-157 beta-Keratins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) There are two main forms of keratin, alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of an endogenous stabilized beta-catenin (DeltaE3 beta-catenin) in mammary epithelium leads to the transdifferentiation into epidermis- and pilar-like structures. (nih.gov)
  • Although it is now difficult to be certain, the prevailing view among paleontologists is that the scales, claws, beaks, and some protective armor of dinosaurs most likely were composed of a type of keratin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In Crossopterygian fish, the outer layer of cosmoid scales was keratin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although it is now difficult to be certain, the scales, claws, some protective armour and the beaks of dinosaurs would, almost certainly, have been composed of a type of keratin. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratin is the main component of reptilian scales. (britannica.com)
  • The scales resemble those of reptiles in possessing layers containing beta keratin and alpha keratin. (britannica.com)
  • Modern research has shown the main component of pangolin scales is beta keratin, similar to our fingernails, with no medicinal value. (nature.org)
  • Keratins 5 and 14 (K5 and K14), the main pairing occurring in the basal progenitor layer of epidermis and related epithelia, can readily self-organize into large filament bundles in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Keratin hydrolysis by dermatophytes Mercer, Derry K;Stewart, Colin S 2018-01-17 00:00:00 Abstract Dermatophytes are the most common cause of superficial fungal infections (tinea infections) and are a specialized group of filamentous fungi capable of infecting and degrading keratinised tissues, including skin, hair, and nail. (deepdyve.com)
  • Fibrous keratin molecules supercoil to form a very stable, left-handed superhelical motif to multimerise, forming filaments consisting of multiple copies of the keratin monomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling molecules in the canonical Wnt pathway upstream from beta-catenin induce glandular tumors but it is not clear whether they also cause squamous transdifferentiation. (nih.gov)
  • To address this question we have now investigated mammary epithelium from transgenic mice that express activating molecules of the Wnt pathway: Wnt10b, Int2/Fgf3, CK2alpha, DeltaE3 beta-catenin, Cyclin D1, and dominant negative (dn) GSK3beta. (nih.gov)
  • The results, which confirm the oldest evidence of the structural protein beta-keratin, show that molecules can survive in their original state for hundreds of millions of years without fossilizing, and that researchers can use modern techniques to identify them, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
  • KRUC_HUMAN KERATIN, ULTRA HIGH-SULFUR MATRIX. (upenn.edu)
  • The aims were i) to evaluate the structural changes and ii) cell signaling pathways, including the Notch1, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), mTOR and Wnt/beta-catenin cell signaling pathways in naïve and surgically treated corneas of aniridia cases with advanced ARK and comparing with normal human adult and fetal corneas and iii) to develop a corneal cell culture model of aniridia. (diva-portal.org)
  • During human pregnancy, the production of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) rises steadily to eighty fold at term, and placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first report on ER-beta expression in human placenta and cultured trophoblast. (nih.gov)
  • A composition for the oxidation dyeing of keratin fibers, such as human keratin fibers and further such as the hair, comprising, in a medium that is suitable for dyeing and that is free of glycerol and of cationic synthetic thickening polymer comprising at least one fatty chain, at least one oxidation. (google.com.au)
  • A composition for the oxidation dyeing of keratin fibers, such as human keratin fibers and further such as the hair, comprising, in a medium that is suitable for dyeing and that is free of glycerol and of cationic synthetic thickening polymer comprising at least one fatty chain, at least one oxidation dye, at least one fatty alcohol chosen from mono- and polyglycerolated fatty alcohols, and at least one particular polyol. (google.com.au)
  • 2 . The composition according to claim 1 , wherein the keratin fibre is human keratin fibre. (google.com.au)
  • Growing human head hair contains a history of keratin and provides a unique model for studies of protein damage. (springer.com)
  • Here, we examined mechanism of homocysteine (Hcy) accumulation and keratin damage in human hair. (springer.com)
  • A transcriptional profiling analysis was conducted using a custom oligonucleotide-based microarray by comparing T. rubrum conidia grown on elastin and keratin substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Keratin is extremely insoluble in water and organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • VitaSprings does not imply any medical claims from the customer reviews on this Keratin Booster for Men with Biotin & Resveratrol product on this website. (vitasprings.com)
  • Write a Review on this Keratin Booster for Men with Biotin & Resveratrol product and share your experience or opinion with other customers. (vitasprings.com)
  • Buy Keratin Booster for Men with Biotin & Resveratrol from ReserveAge Organics at VitaSprings, and we guarantee you a safe, secure online shopping experience! (vitasprings.com)
  • The scale β-keratins form the basal group in avians. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type II keratin 5 (K5) and type I keratin 14 (K14) represent the main keratin pairing expressed in the progenitor basal layer of epidermis and related stratified epithelia. (rupress.org)
  • Keratin 15 has been associated with diseases such as malignant syringoma and morpheaform basal cell carcinoma. (biolegend.com)
  • Introducing… Keratin, the protein that your hair is made from. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Here, Trichologist Lisa Caddy explains the crucial role that Keratin plays in our hair structure, the daily challenges it faces, and how you can protect the Keratin in your strands. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Can Keratin in my hair be damaged? (philipkingsley.com)
  • When our hair is exposed to harsh external factors-such as heated styling tools-Keratin suffers. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Brushing scrapes away tiny amounts of Keratin from the cuticle of the hair, fraying and weakening it. (philipkingsley.com)
  • What are the benefits of hair care products that contain Keratin? (philipkingsley.com)
  • When used as an ingredient in hair products, such as shampoos, conditioners and styling aids, Keratin can help make your hair smoother and easier to manage. (philipkingsley.com)
  • you were talking about keratin in your hair. (philipkingsley.com)
  • Is there a product that you can use to keep keratin in your hair? (philipkingsley.com)
  • Keratin Booster for Men with Cynatine HNS represents the latest innovation in healthy hair supplementation for men. (vitasprings.com)
  • Keratin Booster for Men helps provide a nourishing blend of science-backed ingredients for supporting and maintaining healthy, youthful-looking hair. (vitasprings.com)
  • It is found with keratin 16 and/or keratin 17 in the palm and sole epidermis, the epithelial cells of the nail bed, the filiform papillae of the tongue , the epithelial lining of oral mucosa and esophagus , as well as the hair follicles . (wikidoc.org)
  • Cynatine HNS Keratin: A patented complex clinically tested to boost hair strength, shine and appearance. (bayho.com)
  • We found that the content of Hcy-keratin increased along the hair fiber, with levels 5-10-fold higher levels in older sections at the hair's tip than in younger sections at hair's base. (springer.com)
  • Levels of Hcy-keratin were correlated with hair copper and iron in older hair. (springer.com)
  • To liberate Hcy from S -Hcy-keratin, hair (~ 2 mg) were treated in a 0.5 mL Eppendorf polyethylene tube with a hot solution containing 50 mM Na 2 HPO 4 , 20 mM NaOH, 25 mM DTT, 1% SDS (200 μL, 65 °C, 1 h). (springer.com)
  • Featuring keratin as the key active ingredient this 5-10 minute mask is a powerful restructuring treatment that will smooth hair cuticles and layer it with a strong protective coating that resists heat, humidity, split ends and sun damage. (ulta.com)
  • It is specifically found in the corneal epithelium together with keratin 12 . (wikidoc.org)
  • The amount of keratins matters for stress protection of the colonic epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Increased detections of Wnt/beta-catenin (enhanced presence of Wnt5a, Wnt7a, and beta-catenin), SHH (detection of Gli1 and Hes1), and mTOR (identification of mTOR and rpS6) signaling pathways were found in the subepithelial pannus and epithelium of all ARK corneas, when compared with normal controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • Beta-cell stress and dysfunction contributes to diabetes in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (abo.fi)
  • Keratin 6A was the first type II keratin sequence determined. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keratins form hetero polymers consisting of a type I and a type II keratin. (wikidoc.org)
  • These sequences revealed that there are two distinct but homologous keratin families, which were named type I and type II keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-organization is determined independently of polymerization into 10-nm filaments, but involves specific type I-type II keratin complementarity. (rupress.org)
  • Keratin 8 (K8) is the major type II keratin in digestive organs, including the small and large intestine, where it forms obligate noncovalent heteropolymers with one or more of the type I keratins K18, K19, or K20 depending on the cell and tissue involved ( Coulombe and Omary, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, expression of laminin-5 gamma2 and beta3 subunits in budding cells was associated with focal under-expression of the E-cadherin-beta-catenin complex. (nih.gov)
  • The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway controls cell fate and neoplastic transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Extensive squamous metaplasias and widespread expression of CK1 and CK6 were observed in DeltaE3 beta-catenin transgenic mammary tissue. (nih.gov)
  • To study the Notch1, Wnt/beta-catenin, sonic hedgehog (SHH), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling pathways in naive and surgically treated corneas of aniridia cases with advanced aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK). (diva-portal.org)
  • Functions in the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Tsuji S and Hashimoto C (2005), Choice of either beta-catenin or Groucho/TLE as. (xenbase.org)
  • Choice of either beta-catenin or Groucho/TLE as a co-factor for Xtcf-3 determines dorsal- ventral cell fate of diencephalon during Xenopus development. (xenbase.org)
  • Based on these data, we propose that the localized activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which converts Tcf from a repressor to an activator, is required for the establishment of dorsal- ventral patterning in the prospective diencephalon . (xenbase.org)
  • Behrens, Functional interaction of beta-catenin with the transcription factor LEF-1. (xenbase.org)