Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Keratins, Type II: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.Keratins, Hair-Specific: Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.Keratins, Type I: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic: A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Keratin-16: A type I keratin expressed in a variety of EPITHELIUM, including the ESOPHAGUS, the TONGUE, the HAIR FOLLICLE and NAILS. Keratin-16 is normally found associated with KERATIN-6. Mutations in the gene for keratin-6 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).Keratin-17: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Keratin-2: A type II keratin found expressed in the upper spinous layer of epidermal KERATINOCYTES. Mutations in genes that encode keratin-2A have been associated with ICHTHYOSIS BULLOSA OF SIEMENS.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Keratin-13: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Keratin-6: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pachyonychia Congenita: A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Keratin-12: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-3 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-12 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Keratin-9: A type II keratin found predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated EPIDERMIS of palms and soles. Mutations in the gene for keratin 9 are associated with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Epidermolytic: An autosomal dominant hereditary skin disease characterized by epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is strictly confined to the palms and soles. It has been associated with mutations in the gene that codes for KERATIN-9.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Keratin-19: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Nail Diseases: Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Inbred C57BLMallory Bodies: Cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions in HEPATOCYTES. They are associated with ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS and non-alcoholic STEATOHEPATITIS, but are also present in benign and malignant hepatocellular neoplasms, and metabolic, toxic, and chronic cholestatic LIVER DISEASES.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nails, Malformed: Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Corneal Dystrophy, Juvenile Epithelial of Meesmann: An autosomal dominant form of hereditary corneal dystrophy due to a defect in cornea-specific KERATIN formation. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-3 and KERATIN-12 have been linked to this disorder.beta-Keratins: Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Skin DiseasesTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.

Characterization of the structure and composition of gecko adhesive setae. (1/17)

The ability of certain reptiles to adhere to vertical (and hang from horizontal) surfaces has been attributed to the presence of specialized adhesive setae on their feet. Structural and compositional studies of such adhesive setae will contribute significantly towards the design of biomimetic fibrillar adhesive materials. The results of electron microscopy analyses of the structure of such setae are presented, indicating their formation from aggregates of proteinaceous fibrils held together by a matrix and potentially surrounded by a limiting proteinaceous sheath. Microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis has shown conclusively that the only ordered protein constituent in these structures exhibits a diffraction pattern characteristic of beta-keratin. Raman microscopy of individual setae, however, clearly shows the presence of additional protein constituents, some of which may be identified as alpha-keratins. Electrophoretic analysis of solubilized setal proteins supports these conclusions, indicating the presence of a group of low-molecular-weight beta-keratins (14-20 kDa), together with alpha-keratins, and this interpretation is supported by immunological analyses.  (+info)

Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays. (2/17)

Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading.  (+info)

Frictional adhesion: A new angle on gecko attachment. (3/17)

Directional arrays of branched microscopic setae constitute a dry adhesive on the toes of pad-bearing geckos, nature's supreme climbers. Geckos are easily and rapidly able to detach their toes as they climb. There are two known mechanisms of detachment: (1) on the microscale, the seta detaches when the shaft reaches a critical angle with the substrate, and (2) on the macroscale, geckos hyperextend their toes, apparently peeling like tape. This raises the question of how geckos prevent detachment while inverted on the ceiling, where body weight should cause toes to peel and setal angles to increase. Geckos use opposing feet and toes while inverted, possibly to maintain shear forces that prevent detachment of setae or peeling of toes. If detachment occurs by macroscale peeling of toes, the peel angle should monotonically decrease with applied force. In contrast, if adhesive force is limited by microscale detachment of setae at a critical angle, the toe detachment angle should be independent of applied force. We tested the hypothesis that adhesion is increased by shear force in isolated setal arrays and live gecko toes. We also tested the corollary hypotheses that (1) adhesion in toes and arrays is limited as on the microscale by a critical angle, or (2) on the macroscale by adhesive strength as predicted for adhesive tapes. We found that adhesion depended directly on shear force, and was independent of detachment angle. Therefore we reject the hypothesis that gecko toes peel like tape. The linear relation between adhesion and shear force is consistent with a critical angle of release in live gecko toes and isolated setal arrays, and also with our prior observations of single setae. We introduced a new model, frictional adhesion, for gecko pad attachment and compared it to existing models of adhesive contacts. In an analysis of clinging stability of a gecko on an inclined plane each adhesive model predicted a different force control strategy. The frictional adhesion model provides an explanation for the very low detachment forces observed in climbing geckos that does not depend on toe peeling.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of scale beta-keratins in the differentiating epidermis of geckoes show they are glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with a central motif homologous to avian beta-keratins. (4/17)

The beta-keratins constitute the hard epidermis and adhesive setae of gecko lizards. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of beta-keratins in epidermis of gecko lizards were cloned from mRNAs. Specific oligonucleotides were used to amplify by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analyses five specific gecko beta-keratin cDNA sequences. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins of 16.8-18 kDa containing 169-191 amino acids, especially 17.8-23% glycine, 8.4-14.8% proline, 14.2-18.1% serine. Glycine-rich repeats are localized toward the initial and end regions of the protein, while a central region, rich in proline, has a strand conformation (beta-pleated fold) likely responsible for the formation of beta-keratin filaments. It shows high homology with a core region of other lizard keratins, avian scale, and feather keratins. Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis show a higher beta-keratin gene expression in regenerating epidermis compared with normal epidermis. In situ hybridization confirms that mRNAs for these proteins are expressed in cells of the differentiating oberhautchen cells and beta-cells. Expression in adhesive setae of climbing lamellae was shown by RT-PCR. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the proteins are encoded by a multigene family. PCR analysis showed that the genes are presumably located in tandem along the DNA and are transcribed from the same DNA strand like in avian beta-keratins.  (+info)

Ancestrally high elastic modulus of gecko setal beta-keratin. (5/17)

Typical bulk adhesives are characterized by soft, tacky materials with elastic moduli well below 1MPa. Geckos possess subdigital adhesives composed mostly of beta-keratin, a relatively stiff material. Biological adhesives like those of geckos have inspired empirical and modelling research which predicts that even stiff materials can be effective adhesives if they take on a fibrillar form. The molecular structure of beta-keratin is highly conserved across birds and reptiles, suggesting that material properties of gecko setae should be similar to that of beta-keratin previously measured in birds, but this has yet to be established. We used a resonance technique to measure elastic bending modulus in two species of gecko from disparate habitats. We found no significant difference in elastic modulus between Gekko gecko (1.6 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae) and Ptyodactylus hasselquistii (1.4 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae). If the elastic modulus of setal keratin is conserved across species, it would suggest a design constraint that must be compensated for structurally, and possibly explain the remarkable variation in gecko adhesive morphology.  (+info)

Expression of beta-keratin mRNAs and proline uptake in epidermal cells of growing scales and pad lamellae of gecko lizards. (6/17)

Beta-keratins form a large part of the proteins contained in the hard beta layer of reptilian scales. The expression of genes encoding glycine-proline-rich beta-keratins in normal and regenerating epidermis of two species of gecko lizards has been studied by in situ hybridization. The probes localize mRNAs in differentiating oberhautchen and beta cells of growing scales and in modified scales, termed pad lamellae, on the digits of gecko lizards. In situ localization at the ultrastructural level shows clusters of gold particles in the cytoplasm among beta-keratin filaments of oberhautchen and beta cells. They are also present in the differentiating elongation or setae of oberhautchen cells present in pad lamellae. Setae allow geckos to adhere and climb vertical surfaces. Oberhautchen and beta cells also incorporate tritiated proline. The fine localization of the beta-keratin mRNAs and the uptake of proline confirms the biomolecular data that identified glycine-proline-rich beta-keratin in differentiating beta cells of gecko epidermis. The present study also shows the presence of differentiating and metabolically active cells in both inner and outer oberhautchen/beta cells at the base of the outer setae localized at the tip of pad lamellae. The addition of new beta and alpha cells to the corneous layer near the tip of the outer setae explains the anterior movement of the setae along the apical free-margin of pad lamellae. The rapid replacement of setae ensures the continuous usage of the gecko's adhesive devices, the pad lamellae, during most of their active life.  (+info)

Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene organization. (7/17)

Beta-keratins of reptilian scales have been recently cloned and characterized in some lizards. Here we report for the first time the sequence of some beta-keratins from the snake Elaphe guttata. Five different cDNAs were obtained using 5'- and 3'-RACE analyses. Four sequences differ by only few nucleotides in the coding region, whereas the last cDNA shows, in this region, only 84% of identity. The gene corresponding to one of the cDNA sequences has a single intron present in the 5'-untranslated region. This genomic organization is similar to that of birds' beta-keratins. Cloning and Southern blotting analysis suggest that snake beta-keratins belong to a family of high-related genes as for geckos. PCR analysis suggests a head-to-tail orientation of genes in the same chromosome. In situ hybridization detected beta-keratin transcripts almost exclusively in differentiating oberhautchen and beta-cells of the snake epidermis in renewal phase. This is confirmed by Northern blotting that showed, in this phase, a high expression of two different transcripts whereas only the longer transcript is expressed at a much lower level in resting skin. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine rich proteins containing 137-139 amino acids, with apparent isoelectric point at 7.5 and 8.2. A central region, rich in proline, shows over 50% homology with avian scale, claw, and feather keratins. The prediction of secondary structure shows mainly a random coil conformation and few beta-strand regions in the central region, likely involved in the formation of a fibrous framework of beta-keratins. This region was possibly present in basic reptiles that originated reptiles and birds.  (+info)

Beta-keratins of turtle shell are glycine-proline-tyrosine rich proteins similar to those of crocodilians and birds. (8/17)

 (+info)

Setal array specimens were mounted on SEM stubs and evaluated with a custom 2-axis mechanical tester (Fig. 4). The specimen chuck was attached to a Kistler 9328A 3-axis force sensor (Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland) that was moved in the Z (up-and-down) and Y (left-and-right) axes with Newport 460P stages (Newport, Irvine, CA, USA) driven by closed loop brushless DC servomotors (Newport 850G-HS actuator in the Y axis and a Newport 850G actuator in the Z axis). The stage and force sensor assembly were vertically mounted to a stainless steel `tombstone above a Newport RP Reliance breadboard table. A Newport ESP 300 servocontroller drove the actuators. Force measurements were collected through an AD Instruments Maclab/4e data acquisition unit (ADInstruments, Milford, MA, USA). The stage controller and force acquisition were interfaced with a Powerbook G3 (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA, USA) for automated control of array experiments. The stiffness of the 2-axis mechanical tester was measured by ...
Periodic chain-like nanostructures are widely used in nanoelectronics. Typically, chain elements include the likes of quantum rings, quantum dots, or quantum graphs. Such a structure enables electrons to move along the chain, in theory, indefinitely. Now, a new study, published in EPJ B, identifies ways of disturbing the periodicity of a model nanostructure to obtain the desired discrete energy spectrum with localized electrons.
Highest-resolution, accurate SEM imaging of "large samples" exceeding a single typical field of view (in the order of a few tens of μm) is a challenging procedure. A set of several hundreds or thousands of images have to be stitched together in order to display a surface spanning several millimeters or even centimeters as a "Google Earth"-style map. Any standard mechanical stage will have visible stitching errors, and thus yield distorted images. The Raith systems are different: By reversing the functionality of a professional electron beam lithography tool, the sample surface is not exposed; instead, existing nanostructures are seamlessly imaged using the extreme placement accuracy of the tool infrastructure.. Users can benefit e. g. from the "on-board" Laser Interferometer Controlled Stage technology, related write field alignment functionality, and drift correction algorithms. These features deliver ultra-precise and fully automated image acquisition for generating highly accurate and ...
Exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures are dominated by the effects of many-body physics. The application of coherent spectroscopic tools, such as two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy (2dFTS), to the ...
The microornamentation of the scales (oberhautchen) has been studied by means of enamel casts (in negative), or with detached skin pieces (positive cast in the upper face or negative in their lower face of the scales) and its observation by transparency with optical microscopy at 40x, 400x and 1000x. In this study we have found a remarkable uniformity in all genera of Lacertini studied (already known, although significantly expanding the number of species previously studied). In light of the results obtained, it seems that the use of the microornamentation of the scales in taxonomy is limited. There is a remarkable degree of variation and probably of homoplasy, as it happens in so many characters of Lacertini. Nor is it clearly linked to certain conditions of the environment, although it may have a certain importance in mechanisms such as evapotranspiration and perhaps in the crypsis through its influence on the reflectance of the scales. These scales can present protuberances (like small ...
This coupling of pigments and nanostructures is even more apparent in non-iridescent green colours of feathers, which may be difficult to produce without structure-pigment combinations (the green colours produced by turacoverdin pigments are produced by a pigment that requires large quantities of copper, which is probably difficult to obtain from the diet [20]). Iridescent green colour can be produced in feathers, generally in the barbules, by coherent scattering of light by layers of keratin and melanin (figure 2II) [6]. In addition, some olive-green colours are produced by combination of carotenoid pigments in the barb and melanin in the barbules [22]. However, bright non-iridescent greens (figure 1f) in all cases other than turacos are produced by a combination of quasi-ordered spongy keratin arrays and carotenoid or psittacofulvin pigments (figure 2IV) [6,22,23,43,44]. These pigments appear to be placed in the keratin cortex of barbs, above the colour-producing nanostructures [43]. ...
This monograph for young researchers and professionals looking for a comprehensive reference offers an advanced treatment of the topic that extends beyond an introductory work. As such, it systematically covers the inorganic nanostructures in the breadth needed, while presenting them together with the surface science tools used to characterize them, such as electron spectroscopy and scanning probe techniques. The unique challenges in the fabrication of nanostructures are illustrated, and set into context of controlling structure, dimensionality and electronic properties.
With unique surface plasmon resonance and high potential for many important applications, plasmonic nanostructures are attracting more and more attention in the past decade. In addition to ever increasing research interest in realizing precise control over their structure (such as size, shape, aspect ratio and uniformity), plasmon enhanced catalysis represents a highly promising research area. In this presentation, the development of several types of plasmonic nanostructures by wet chemical method or pulsed laser ablation will be introduced first. Their interesting optical properties and their applications in photocatalysis will then be presented and discussed ...
DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.273. Traditionally porous silicon based photonic structures have been prepared by electrochemically etching of silicon. In this work, porous multilayers of nanocolumnar SiOx and SiO2 thin films acting as near infrared (NIR) 1D-photonic nanostructures are prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition at oblique angles (MS-OA). Simultaneous control of porosity and stoichiometry of the stacked films is achieved by adjusting the deposition angle and oxygen partial pressure according to a parametric formula. This new methodologoy is proved for the synthesis of SiOx thin films with x close to 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and nanostructures varying from compact (at 0° deposition angle) to highly porous and nanocolumnar (at 70° and 85° deposition angles). The strict control of composition, structure and nanostructure provided by this technique permits a fine tuning of the absorption edge and refraction index at 1500 nm of the porous films and their manufacturing in the form of ...
Two-dimensional, "sheet-like" nanostructures are commonly employed in biological systems such as cell membranes, and their unique properties have inspired interest in materials such as graphene. Now, Berkeley Lab scientists have made the largest two-dimensional polymer crystal self-assembled in water to date. This entirely new material mirrors the structural complexity of biological systems with the durable architecture needed for membranes or integration into functional devices.. These self-assembling sheets are made of peptoids, engineered polymers that can flex and fold like proteins while maintaining the robustness of manmade materials. Each sheet is just two molecules thick yet hundreds of square micrometers in area""akin to "Ë molecular paper large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Whats more, unlike a typical polymer, each building block in a peptoid nanosheet is encoded with structural "Ë marching orders""suggesting its properties can be precisely tailored to an application. ...
Crop milk is a way of feeding from the crop of parent birds, by regurgitating to young birds. They are found among all pigeons and doves where they are referred to as pigeon milk. Crop milk is also produced by flamingos and even some penguins.[1][2][3]. ...
Crested gecko health is easy to maintain. Starting with a healthy gecko minimizes the chances of diseases or other health problems.
Once a lizard habitat has been set up properly and a feeding regimen has been established, baby geckos can be relatively easy to care for. Learn how to care for a baby gecko for a long and healthy life, here.
Due to high biocompatibility and tailorable properties, DNA-based nanostructures are widely studied in biosensor and nanomedicine applications. The restriction for using DNA-based nanostructures lie in the purification processes which have low product yield and tedious steps involved. MoS2 nanosheets are chosen to test for its purification efficiency as MoS2 is shown to have discriminating properties between single stranded DNA and double stranded DNA. Adsorption studies of different DNA nanostructures are tested to see the adsorption capacity of MoS2. From the adsorption studies, it has been observed that MoS2 has high affinity to plasmid DNA, so the use of MoS2 as a gene carrier is tested for its delivery performance ...
Increasing interest in commercializing functional nanostructured devices heightened the need for cost effective scale-up manufacturing approaches for nanostructures. Diamond turning using multi-tip single crystal diamond tools is a new promising approach to the fabrication of micro/nano structures. In this paper, a serial of nanometric face cutting trails on copper using multi-tip nanoscale diamond tools has been carried out to indentify the nanomanufacturing capacity of this technique under different cutting conditions. The dependency between processing parameters and the surface integrity of the machined nanostructures are discussed. Moreover, large scale molecular dynamics (MD) nanometric cutting model is developed to simulate the nanostructures generation process. The simulation results well reveals the material removal mechanism and explains why structure defects are more likely to be formed in the cases of large depth of cut and high cutting speed observed in experiments.. ...
This thesis examines possible routes for the preparation of graphene nanostructures on metal substrates and performs structural and electronic characterizations using scanning tunneling microcopy and spectroscopy. Investigations of graphene nanostructures necessitate the use of a suitable graphene-substrate combination, which allows for a controlled in situ preparation of small and well-shaped graphene nanostructures. The choice of a graphene-substrate combination with weak interaction in order to prevent the destruction of monolayer graphene properties is inevitable.,br /,,br /,Within this work graphene layers and graphene nanostructures are grown using well-established procedures based on thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons on Ir(111) and Rh(111) surfaces. Implementing intercalation - the insertion of additional material between graphene and substrate - allows for a tailoring of interactions between graphene and the substrate. In the first part of this work the intercalation of Fe and Ni is ...
The photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on core-shell structures require efficient luminescence within specific wavelength range, preferably in near infrared. In the present study we aim to create a multifunctional platform for PDT through Fe3O4/ZnO core shell structure. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures will enable us magnetically driven tumor targeting as well delivery of photosensitizer. On the other hand, ZnO is well known for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and will help to kill cancer cells through oxidative stress. Fe3O4/ZnO core-shell nanostructures are synthesized via a simple aqueous solution method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDS), Photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results on capability of generating active singlet oxygen are in progress and will be presented.
Manjavacas and his team, composed of Lauren Zundel and Stephen Sanders, both graduate students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, modeled the optical response of these arrays, finding exciting new results. When periodic arrays of nanostructures are illuminated with light, each of the particles produces a strong response, which, in turn, results in enormous collective behaviors if all of the particles can interact with one another. This happens at certain wavelengths of incident light, which are determined by the interparticle spacing of the array, and can result in electric fields that are thousands, or even tens of thousands, of times that of the light shined on the array ...
We demonstrate a new nanoscale spectroscopic technique that combines subwavelength near-field imaging with broadband interference spectroscopy. We apply this technique to study phase spectra of surface plasmons in individual gold nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimers. Collective plasmon oscillations in selected nanostructures are excited by a femtosecond white-light continuum transmitted through a subwavelength aperture. The interference spectra detected in the far field result from the coherent superposition of the aperture field and the secondary field re-emitted by the nanostructure. The analysis of these spectra allows us to accurately measure the positions and damping constants of single-nanostructure plasmon resonances.. © 2003 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
In our modern society, we are surrounded by numerous sensors, constantly feeding us information about our physical environment. From small, wearable sensors that monitor our physiological status to large satellites orbiting around the earth, detecting global changes. Although, the performance of these sensors have been significantly improved during the last decades there is still a demand for faster and more reliable sensing systems with improved sensitivity and selectivity. The rapid progress in nanofabrication techniques has made a profound impact for the development of small, novel sensors that enables miniaturization and integration. A specific area where nanostructures are especially attractive is biochemical sensing, where the exceptional properties of nanomaterials can be utilized in order to detect and analyze biomolecular interactions. The focus of this thesis is to investigate plasmonic nanoparticles composed of gold or silver and optimize their performance as signal transducers in ...
Dendritic nanostructures are capturing increasing attention in electrocatalysis owing to their unique structural features and low density. Herein, we report for the first time, bromide ion mediated synthesis of low Pt-content PdCuPt ternary nanodendrites via galvanic replacement reaction between a Pt precurs
It is important to mention that the time spent by animal observation has a healing effect on me (but also the medicaments from others played their role). I could be amazed by a stunning sunset and continue in searching for local animals. Birds were active even after the coming of the darkness, in gecko lizards it was nothing surprising. The altitude here was much smaller than in the central parts of island, so mosquiots were around. I used another way to fight against them except the repellent and a mosquito net -I caught my own gecko lizard and released it on the net. The bungallows had opened space under the roof, so various animals could move inside and outside (especially spiders). We headed for a small walk with Jožko outside from the Le Paradisier. There were no animals on the main road, but a special moment of magic was waiting for us. A truck appeared from the darkness and stopped about 500 meters behind us. Then it started again and dissapeared. As we walked back, we started to see a ...
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Printing at the nanoscale doesnt offer quite the same households benefits of a full-size 3D printer, but in the fields of science and medicine, its enormously valuable. "Printing microstructures with features a few hundred nanometers in size could be useful for making heart stents, microneedles for painless shots, gecko adhesives, parts for microfluidics chips, and scaffolds for growing cells and tissue. Another important application could be in the electronics industry, where patterning nanoscale features on chips currently involves slow, expensive techniques," writes Technology Review.. Nanoscribes claims its new microprinter, which it plans to sell later this year, is 100 times faster at printing microstructures than what is possible today. And that includes their current printer. Why is the new model so much faster?. Microprinters use a technology called two-photon polymerization, or, as Nanoscribe calls it, direct laser writing. It involves lasers: ...
In her contest submission, Farquhar, a student at Oaklyn Elementary School in Oaklyn, NJ, dared to be different and strayed away from using typical Latin names that describe the geckos habitat or physical features. Bavayia periclitata means "endangered" in Latin. Farquhar says she chose this name to help emphasize the importance of taking care of geckos, other endangered species as well as our environment in general. "I chose this name because it means endangered and it will make people think about how our geckos are disappearing and are on the endangered list. I hope people will try harder to protect our geckos," said Farquhar. "Winning Project Gecko means a lot to me because I named a whole new species of gecko for eternity and giving the gecko this name may mean theres a better chance to help other species ...
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House gecko 3d model free download, 3D model of highly detailed house gecko available in 3dsMax, use models for animation or games. .max files size 728 KB
Ok i need help with breeding my barbs i love barbs ive got the space so there for no worrys and i could say i know what to do except for when to remove the female barb from the cumunity tank or do i put her into the condition tank any time and wait for her to fill with eggs.
As sticky as a gecko. Wageningen UR Veni-researcher Marleen Kamperman tries to stick with plastic material full of microscopic rods.
Researchers carried out genetic analysis of hundreds of specimens of a gecko subspecies called Pristurus rupestris, sampling individuals in the UAE and Oman.
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Youll have to be quick though, these discounts are one-off deals that can disappear at any time. Youll need to pay in full at the time of booking. But other than that, theres nothing stopping you from jumping headfirst into a last-minute adventure!. View booking T&Cs. ...
Youll have to be quick though, these discounts are one-off deals that can disappear at any time. Youll need to pay in full at the time of booking. But other than that, theres nothing stopping you from jumping headfirst into a last-minute adventure!. View booking T&Cs. ...
Science-fiction had prognosticated an undead apocalypse, in one form or another, for decades, but no one really expected it to happen. Mans arrogance, Mans...
In this study, double-sided polymer surface nanostructures are fabricated using twice nanoimprint lithography and metal deposition technique. We perform electrical property measurement on these double-sided surface nanostructures. Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the as-prepared samples with double-sided surface nanostructures and conductive electrode are recorded using an oscilloscope with applying different external force. The measurements are carried out at room temperature. We find that the intensity of open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current for the double-sided surface nanostructures depends strongly on the sizes, shapes, and arrangements of nanostructures and pressure force. The strongest electrical property can be observed in the hexagon nanopillar arrays with the diameter of about 400 nm containing sub-50-nm resolution sharp structures at the force of about 40 N. We discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for these interesting research findings. The experimental
In this paper, we present the synthesis of nanostructures of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) with ciprofloxacin and kanamycin antibiotics, based on self-assembling principle. The nanostructures were prepared in crystallite size, ranging 8-16 nm, in one pot addition setup and further washing steps, using only iron precursors and above-mentioned antibiotics as stabilizers. Nanostructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis methods, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy methods. It was found that they have well-shaped spherical form and are homogeneous in size. The quantitative analysis of nanostructured antibiotics was performed by atom absorbance spectroscopy (AAS) as well as on the basis of Lambert-Beer law. Prepared nanostructures were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Obtained results demonstrated that these nanostructures are able to improve antimicrobial properties and decrease the minimal ...
In this thesis, plasmonic properties of metal nanostructures are investigated by electromagnetic simulations using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Chapter 1 covers the background knowledge required to read this thesis. It talks about the fundamentals of the FDTD method, the physics of plasmonics and a brief description of photocatalysis. In chapters 2 to 6, I am going to present the work our research group has done in the field of plasmonics that has already been published. Chapter 7 contains work that we can derive from our past research. ❧ In chapter 2, we perform optimization of plasmonic nanoparticle geometries. An iterative optimization algorithm is used to determine the configuration of the nanoparticles that gives the maximum electric field intensity at the center of the cluster. We observe that the optimum configurations of these clusters have mirror symmetry about the axis of planewave propagation, but are otherwise non-symmetric and non-intuitive. The maximum field ...
Irregularity of the size and distribution of nanostructures on the surface of the butterfly wing causes low reflection of light at all view angles. (Photo: Radwanul Hasan Siddique, KIT). For research into this so far unstudied phenomenon, the scientists examined glasswings by scanning electron microscopy. Earlier studies revealed that regular pillar-like nanostructures are responsible for the low reflections of other animals. The scientists now also found nanopillars on the butterfly wings. In contrast to previous findings, however, they are arranged irregularly and feature a random height. Typical height of the pillars varies between 400 and 600 nanometers, the distance of the pillars ranges between 100 and 140 nanometers. This corresponds to about one thousandth of a human hair.. In simulations, the researchers mathematically modeled this irregularity of the nanopillars in height and arrangement. They found that the calculated reflected amount of light exactly corresponds to the observed ...
Exploring giant magnetic anisotropy in small magnetic nanostructures is of technological merit for information storage. Large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) over 50 meV in magnetic nanostructure is desired for practical applications. Here we show the possibility to boost the magnetic anisotropy of the smallest magnetic nanostructure-transition metal dimer. Through systematic first-principles calculations, we proposed an effective way to enhance the MAE of an iridium dimer from 77 meV to 223-294 meV by simply attaching a halogen atom at one end of the Ir-Ir bond. The underlying mechanism for the enormous MAE is attributed to the rearrangement of the molecular orbitals which alters the spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian and hence the magnetic anisotropy. Our strategy can be generalized to design other magnetic molecules or clusters to obtain giant magnetic anisotropy. Strong magnetic anisotropic effects in nanostructures are an important property for materials to be used in spintronics and magnetic data
Peptide-based self-assembling systems are increasingly attractive because of their wide range of applications in different fields. Peptide nanostructures are flexible with changes in the ambient conditions. Herein, a reversible shape transition between self-assembled dipeptide nanotubes (DPNTs) and vesicle-like structures is observed upon a change in the peptide concentration. SEM, TEM, AFM, and CD spectroscopy were used to follow this transition process. We show that dilution of a peptide-nanotube dispersion solution results in the formation of vesicle-like structures, which can then be reassembled into the nanotubes by concentrating the solution. A theoretical model describing this shape-transition phenomenon is presented to propose ways to engineer assembling molecules in order to devise other systems in which the morphology can be tuned on demand ...
Bibliografía. Alibardi, L. (2002). Histidine uptake in the epidermis of lizards and snakes in relation to the formation of the shedding complex. J. Exp. Zool., 292 (4): 331-344.. Alibardi, L. (2005). Differentiation of snake epidermis, with emphasis on the shedding layer. J. Morphol. 264 (2): 178-190.. Alibardi, L., Toni M. (2005). Immunolocalization and characterization of cornification proteins in snake epidermis. Anat. Rec. 282A (2): 138-146.. Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A. (1998). Apéndice 1. Nomenclarura: Lista de sinónimos y combinaciones, Pp. 645-685. En: Salvador, A. (coord.) y Ramos, M. A. et al. (Eds.). Fauna Ibérica,vol. 10, Reptiles. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid. Amiranashvili, N. G., Gutieva, N. V., Chkhikvadze, V. M. (1991). [New data on the Palaeolithic herpetofauna of Georgia.] Pp.159-165. En: Taktakishvili, I.G., Ed., [The flora and fauna of the Meso-Cainozoic of Georgia.]. Metsniereba, Tbilisi. Angel, F. (1946). Reptiles et Amphibiens, Pp. 1-204.En: ...
Researchers have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54-million-year-old sea turtle hatchling. The work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting persistence of original molecules over millions of years and also provides direct evidence that a pigment-based survival trait common to modern sea turtles evolved at least 54 million years ago. 17th October 2017 01:18 PM More...
IT HELPED solve a sticky situation in the distant past. Geckos adhesive toe pads and chameleons projectile tongues may have evolved by 100 million years ago. This is according to analysis of a new collection of 12 early lizards preserved in amber. The specimens date back to the middle of the Cretaceous period, when dinosaurs such as the massive Argentinosaurus were still around.. The fossils come from Myanmars Kachin state and are thought to have lived in tropical forest. They are well preserved and unusually diverse, suggesting that major lizard groups were already established at that time (Science Advances, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501080).. "One of them is perhaps the best fossil gecko known in the world," says Juan Daza of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, Texas, whose team revealed the finds. One small lizard is trapped next to a scorpion and a millipede. This proximity and the fact that modern lizards in tropical forests hunt arthropods suggest these were their prey, too, Daza ...
After the landing in Toliara I was in a beautiful, but harsh land. The air is a combination of dry one from semidesert and a humid one coming from sea. It is already dark, but I can see nice palm alley along the road. The Moon and stars are very close on equator. It seems like this is the reason why Malagasy people have no street lights. I suspect that life here is much more difficult than in the area around Tana. Tomorrow I will realise what can meet my body in the tropics. The dinner in the hotel is in the indian style, because the owners are from India. There are also the mosquito nets in the rooms, because we are no more high above the sea level. After the dinner I discovered gecko lizards Hemidactylus frenatus on the walls. It is a circumtropic species, which is native to southeastern Asia and was introduced to many countries by ships. I have caught some of them and put them on the net to prey on insect during the night. It was a good idea, but finally I released them out, because in the ...
Humans mind the motto, "Slippery when wet." But for geckos, wet surfaces actually provide traction. Geckos are known to stick to surfaces such as leaves even when they are wet. How can this be? To find out, doctoral candidate Alyssa Stark worked with NSF-funded researcher Ali Dhinojwala and colleagues at the University of Akron, to determine the amount of force required to have geckos slide on different types of surfaces, both dry and wet.. They used two types of surfaces, hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-repelling). Water spreads out on hydrophilic surfaces, while it beads up on hydrophobic ones. When geckos find themselves on a wet hydrophilic surface, the water makes them slip as expected. However, on a hydrophobic surface (like most types of leaves), the water had no effect between the geckos toes and the surface, so they adhered just as strongly as when the surface was dry. The effect was seen strongly even on wet Teflon.. These findings may help scientists design surfaces ...
There has been much talk recently about egg-laying geckos that also occasionally reproduce parthenogenetically. Todays article, however, focuses on "obligate" parthenogenetic geckos, i.e. those who are obligated" to reproduce asexually. These geckos are generally quite small and live in desert or near-desert climates. Incidentally, the process of asexual reproduction is called "parthenogenesis" and the adjective has been rendered both "parthenogenic" and "parthenogenetic". We have chosen to consistently use the term "parthenogenetic".. Read More » ...
The Eublepharidae are a family of geckos consisting of 30 described species in six genera. They occur in Asia, Africa and North America. Eublepharid geckos lack adhesive toepads and, unlike other geckos, have movable eyelids. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) are popular pet lizards. The following genera are considered members of the Eublepharidae: Aeluroscalabotes Coleonyx Eublepharis Goniurosaurus Hemitheconyx Holodactylus Grismer, L.L. 1988. Phylogeny, taxonomy, classification, and biogeography of eublepharid geckos. In: Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families (R. Estes & G. Pregill, eds), pp. 369- 469. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. Gamble, T., A. M. Bauer, G. R. Colli, E. Greenbaum, and T.R. Jackman, L. J. Vitt and A. M. Simons. 2011. Coming to America: Multiple Origins of New World Geckos. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24:231-244. Gamble, T., E. Greenbaum, T.R. Jackman, A.P. Russell, and A.M. Bauer. 2012. Repeated origin and loss of adhesive toepads in geckos. ...
Gecko sensory organ. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a sensory organ in the epidermis (skin) of a gecko (family Gekkonidae). A variety of epidermal sensory organs exist in reptiles. This one may act as a tactile sensory organ (sensitive to the touch). Magnification: x2000 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C004/6477
Hi guys, I need a bit of help with one of my geckos. I recently found my female spiny tail gecko struggling on the floor of their enclosure kind of...
Geckos are a type of lizard found in warm climates throughout the world. They range from 1.6 to 60 cm. Most geckos cannot blink, however they keep their ey
Mozilla has progressed with Boot2Gecko, an open mobile operating system whos interface is made up of applications based only on HTML, JavaScript and CSS, and running on top of Gecko. Telefonica, Deutsche Telecom and Adobe have announced their interest in the platform.
by Dave Delgado. Guam - The George Washington Geckos quest of an undefeated season is still intact after the Geckos traveled to Sanchez and picked up the 2-set win over the Sharks. G-Dub won 25-18, 25-21 and improve to 9-0 on the season.. Chemistry and good on the court awareness have helped GW get to where they are now and with the playoffs right around the corner the team needs to stay focused and take it one game at time in order to remain contenders for this years championship trophy. ...
Barbãr Bok (formerly Barbãr De Noël) is a Belgian Strong Dark Ale style beer brewed by Brasserie Lefèbvre SA in Rebecq-Quenast, Belgium. 3.68 average with 194 ratings, reviews and opinions.
Gecko is equipped with dual quick-release suction cups that form a tight and secure seal with non-porous material. With an easy to grip handle, use the Gecko to lift and carry non-porous materials and sheet goods up to 110 pounds. Combine the Gecko Suction Handle with the Gecko Guide Rail Adapter to secure your Festool guide rail to any non-porous flat surface for secure and precise cutting or routing. Includes one Gecko Suction Handle. ...
(Phys.org) -Geckos, found in places with warm climates, have fascinated people for hundreds of years. Scientists have been especially intrigued by these lizards, and have studied a variety of features such as the adhesive ...
Electrostatic forces may play a key role in the legendary stickiness of geckos feet, says a team that gently dragged the creatures across several surfaces
We can imagine what it is like for a living to have a spatially disconnected body. First, if we are made of point particles, we all are spatially disconnected. Second, when a gecko is attacked, it can shed a tail. That tail then continues wiggling for a while in order to distract the pursuer. A good case can be made that the geckos shed tail remains a part of the geckos body while it is wiggling. After all, it continues to be biologically active in support of the geckos survival. Third, there is the metaphysical theory on which sperm remains a part of the male even after it is emitted.. But even if all these theories are wrong, we should have very little difficulty in understanding what it would mean for a living thing to have a spatially disconnected body.. What about a living thing having a temporally disconnected life? Again, I think it is not so difficult. It could be the case that when an insect is frozen, it ceases to live (or exist), but then comes back to life when defrosted. And even ...
Page contains details about [email protected] nanodumbbell nanostructures . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Page contains details about FePd3 nanostructures . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Hey, Was wondering if anyone has any advice about arulius barbs? I bought some plants for my guppy tank a few months ago, and I have noticed 2 random...
The Feather pixel art challenge is complete and we have three new champions. This weeks challenge awards go to the following pieces:



Thanks so much to all who took the time to vote and participate in the challenge! Check out the Feather forum thread for more information.
Feathers with Hats - 12 stunning photos of Feathers and Hats with items like Black Zara, Black Aldo, Zara, Black Jessica, Brick Red, And Silver GINA TRICOT hats
Are arrow crab and hawaiian feather duster combatile? My hawaiian feather duster was fine until my arrow crab arrived. The feather duster is leaving its tube, it seems to be in pain. I do not see the
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3
The Volume Feather operation smooths the edges of the scalar data in volume primitives. This is done either in an inwards or outwards direction. It sets the maximum rate of change in the volume, clamps either increasing or decreasing transitions, and can be thought of as a one-sided blur.. ...
This thesis presents structural and morphological studies of semiconductor nanostructures, namely quantum dots, nanowires and a dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor. These nanostructures are investigated on the atomic scale using cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM). Indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots in both an indium phosphide (InP) and GaAs matrix are studied. The InAs/InP quantum dots are shown to be vertically aligned and I present experimental and theoretical investigations on the vertical correlation of the dots. The InAs/InP dots have a pure InAs stoichiometry, with intermixing occurring only at the outermost atomic rows, and they have a truncated pyramidal shape. In the case of InAs/GaAs quantum dots, their shape could best be approximated by an oval dot shape; they are intermixed contrarily to the InAs/InP dots and have a non-uniform size distribution. Furthermore, various defects are observed in the quantum dot structures and the surrounding material. The origins of ...
Within this work nanostructured surfaces were generated by immobilization of gold and silver nanoparticles with organosilanes and characterized regarding their suitability as substrates for Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Essential knowledge for the optimization of SERS-active nanostructures could be found by experimental invest-igations on the influence of particle size and assembly on the plasmonic properties. Through combined experimental investigations, including spectroscopic and imaging techniques, and electrodynamic simulations of local fields, the plasmonic and nanoscopic properties of particles on surfaces were related to their SERS-properties. The nanostructured surfaces exhibit high and, over a wide range of analyte concentration, stable enhancement factors with high microscopic homogeneity. Therefore immobilized nanostructures are suitable substrates for quantitative SERS. The potential for the use of the nanostructured surfaces in analytical problems was shown in various ...
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an inorganic compound, owing to wide band gap and large binding energy, and holds promising potential in the fields of semiconducting as well as piezoelectric applications with excellent stability and reliability. In addition, ZnO has a plenteous number of nanoscale structures containing unique physical, chemical, electrical, sensing and optical properties. These properties of nanostructures are being unrevealed extensively since last two decades and have become a prominent field of research in nanoscience and nanotechnology.. More specifically, the present dissertation deals with the low temperature synthesis of ZnO nanostructures (nanorods, nanotubes, nanodisks and nanowalls) on a variety of substrates such as silicon, gallium nitride, zinc foil, silver and aluminum; structural characterization and study of their luminescence properties. In paper 1 we investigated the synthesis mechanism of chemically fashioned ZnO nanotubes and their superior emission capability compared ...
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide-bandgap material with excellent optical properties for optoelectronics applications. ZnO nanostructures are attractive for research because it is easy to fabricate in single-crystalline form and it has interesting physical properties at the nanoscale. In this paper, we report our successful growth of a p-type ZnO nanorods/n-GaN film heterojunction ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED). The heterojunction LED shows its advantages over a p-ZnO film/n-GaN film heterojunction. The LED demonstrates a rectifying I-V characteristics with a turn-on voltage of 2.7 V. The ideality factor is 6.5. The existences of interface charges in the interface are the reason for this low turn-on voltage and high ideality factor in the heterojunction. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the LED consist of an ultraviolet peak at 378 nm and a broad yellow emission centered at 560 nm. Fitting and comparing EL of the LED with PL of p-ZnO and n-GaN show that p-ZnO contributes more to the EL than ...
Calcium deficiencies are common heath issue in Tokay geckos which may lead to serious health issues like Metabolic Bone Disease or MBD. Like any other reptiles, Tokay geckos need calcium for them to grow and produce healthy eggs. Calcium is an important mineral to a reptiles health but giving them with a bowl of calcium daily doesnt guarantee that they absorb or get the right amount of calcium. It is important to note however, that calcium absorption is a process that involves other processes to be able to efficiently deliver calcium in the system. Other than giving your Tokay geckos a daily dose of calcium it is also important that your Tokay geckos have enough Vitamin D3 in their system. Vitamin D3 is naturally produced in a reptiles body when exposed to UVB (ultraviolet light B) which can be done using UVB lighting or exposing your Tokay geckos to natural sunlight. UVB rays trigger the kidneys of reptiles to create vitamin D3 which is delivered into their bloodstream and enable the cells ...
Provided by Iqbal Pittalwala, University of California - Riverside. Biologists at UC Riverside show that geckos alter foot orientation during downhill locomotion. Found in warm regions of the world, geckos are extremely capable of climbing up steep, smooth surfaces. To do so, they employ an adhesive system - a key evolutionary innovation that facilitates climbing vertically, and even in inverted positions. On the underside of their toes are "setae," millions of very fine hair-like structures, which provide increased surface area and close contact between the foot and the surface on which it rests.. This adhesive system works best when loading - the application of the geckos weight - occurs along the long-axis of the toe, and when this loading is along the natural curvature of the setae. But can geckos employ this adhesive system when moving downhill? If the setae are positioned so that loading might be against their natural curvature, would the gecko not slip as it moved downhill?. Biologists ...
After experiencing serious health issues and being diagnosed with hereditary hemochromatosis (an inherited, iron-overloading disease), Barb began an extensive search for ways to improve her health. Quickly. She had been a lazy vegan for more than 10 years and often wondered if her own diet was really "balanced.". In 2010, Barb discovered a Food for Life nutrition and cooking class. The setting made healthy, plant-based nutrition come alive! Unwanted pounds began to fall off, and she was feeling much better. Barbs husband went from preparing the bulk of the meals in the household to not being able to keep Barb out of the kitchen!. Barb is a Level 1 Diabetes Educator and earned a Certificate in Plant Based Nutrition from Cornell University. Barb now lives to promote delicious, preventative medicine by sharing her knowledge of healthful foods, tips on preparing them quickly and easily-plus how to have fun in the process!. ...
In the newly created placode, the Shh and Bmp2 proteins are expressed in a polarized anterior-posterior fashion, and then subsequently expressed at the tip of the cylindrical feather-germ to facilitate elongation. Next, the genes are expressed in the epithelium separating the barb ridges that are beginning to form, and they begin to establish a growth pattern for each ridge. In pennaceous feathers, the signaling of Shh and Bmp2 proteins then lay down the pattern needed for the helical growth of barb ridges, and the formation of the rachis. In plumulaceous feathers the proteins create a pattern for the growth of barbs much simpler than that in pennaceous feathers. This signaling pattern can be observed in the following figure. ...
This report examines the Down and Feather market standing and opportunity of global plus major regions, from plans of manufacturers, regions, product types and end industries; this report investigates the best manufacturers in global and major regions and splits the Down and Feather market by product type and applications/end industries. The Global Down and Feather…
I think the comment about Gasters sign being offensive is offensive. Obama is destroying the country and Gaster and others who are protesting it are upstanding Americans.". "I think the white plastic chair chained to the CAT sign on Wilmington Island should tell CAT that they need to put a bench there.". "My house is being inundated with pink geckos. Does anyone know what they are and how I can get rid of them?". "All the women who work at the Telfair Pavilion do an excellent job. Thanks and see you next year!". "The article Savannah gets growing, greener was wonderful. Everyone should read it. That is the sort of thing that will make this world a better place.". ...
Pam Feather:Singles PAM FEATHER released One album in 2010 The first album PAM FEATHER released nowadays is Feather Tales on ARTISTIK Records. In 2009 PAM FEATHER released only one single. The firs
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Best Teensy 3.x Feather Adapter in Robot Italy This Feather adapter rearranges the pins of a Teensy 3.x to give you the same shape and pinout for our Feathers.
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Everyone is getting these at my school. I think they look fine on some people if its just one or two feathers in the right color, but its just a fad
application: {name: Firefox, osVersion: Windows_NT 6.1, version: 78.0.2, buildID: 20200708170202, distributionID: , userAgent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64; rv:78.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/78.0, safeMode: false, updateChannel: release, supportURL: https://support.mozilla.org/1/firefox/78.0.2/WINNT/pt-BR/, numTotalWindows: 1, numRemoteWindows: 1, launcherProcessState: 1, remoteAutoStart: true, autoStartStatus: 1, policiesStatus: 0, keyLocationServiceGoogleFound: true, keySafebrowsingGoogleFound: true, keyMozillaFound: true}, securitySoftware: {registeredAntiVirus: , registeredAntiSpyware: , registeredFirewall: }, processes: {remoteTypes: {extension: 1, privilegedabout: 1, web: 5, privilegedmozilla: 1}, maxWebContentProcesses: 8}, lockedPreferences: {dom.ipc.processCount.webIsolated: 1, fission.autostart: false}, media: {currentAudioBackend: wasapi, currentMaxAudioChannels: 2, ...
Of the Big Four players of his generation, Mickelson is the only one not have reached No 1 as he positions himself to unseat Woods.
Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO/n-type ZnO were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation shows that the adopted synthesis leads to high crystalline quality nanostructures. The morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures are dominated mainly by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence of the decorated ZnO nanostructures is enhanced by the presence of the NiO.
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Inspired by the agile geckos uncanny ability to run up walls and across ceilings, researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the University of Akron have been successful in creating a synthetic "gecko tape" with four times the sticking power of the real thing.. According to Pulickel Ajayan, the Henry Burlage Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Rensselaer, and Lijie Ci (a postdoctoral research associate in Ajayans lab):. "Several people have tried to use carbon nanotube films and other fibrous structures as high-adhesive surfaces and to mimic gecko feet, but with limited success when it comes to realistic demonstrations of the stickiness and reversibility that one sees in gecko feet.. We have shown that the patchy structures from micropatterned nanotubes are essential for this unique engineering feat to work. The nanotubes also need to be the right kind, with the right dimensions and compliance.. Geckos inspired us to develop a synthetic gecko tape unlike any youll find ...
Leopard geckos are pretty hardy animals that make great pets, but if youve noticed your pet leopard gecko not eating, there could be many reasons other than the gecko is sick. Make sure that you find out why your gecko isnt eating.
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Leopard Geckos | Health & Diseases - If you think that your leopard gecko is sick or have specific questions about leopard gecko health, disease, or p
... The gecko, a climber´s hero, a lizard able to get a grip even face down on the smoothest ceiling
See over three hundred Gecko tattoo designs. The Geckos slow movement is careful and wise making this lizard appear most friendly.
A U of G researcher has discovered the spinal cord of the geckos tail houses a special type of stem cell known as the radial glia. When the tail detaches, these cells jump into action by proliferating and making different proteins in response to the injury. The result is a brand new spinal cord. This finding has implications for developing a way to treat humans with spinal cord injuries.
MBP Feather Fast 3oz. Morning Birds Feather Fast is composed of vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Its designed to promote healthy feather growth and good molts.
The Bruce Lowe #1 family of Tregonwells Natural Barb is one of the more populous in the Thoroughbred breed. But exactly how much is actually from the same mare? Mitochondrial DNA gives us the answers.
M&J Trimming carries a large variety of accessories. One of M&J Trimmings most extravagant accessory are its feather collection. The feathers can be sold individually, pinned, patched, as fringe, and even jeweled. Our feather collection features items perfect for any project or headpiece that could use just a little more drama.
M&J Trimming carries a large variety of accessories. One of M&J Trimmings most extravagant accessory are its feather collection. The feathers can be sold individually, pinned, patched, as fringe, and even jeweled. Our feather collection features items perfect for any project or headpiece that could use just a little more drama.
I am a self-utilized tradesman and Barbara is my company partner and partner. She helps keep the little company on track. Now just gently, among you and me, aged Barb can be a bit of a nag and whenever I started going through men design baldness… properly the nagging got a bit significantly. You can see, I took to wearing a head wear to cover it and Barb failed to get also kindly to me wearing it on the inside and to be honest all over the place in addition I moved. Neither of my bros or my Dad experienced seasoned my difficulty. I really thought I needed pulled the simple straw in the event it came to the circulation of my genes. Now when Barb will get on to anything she is not going to stop until finally she finds an answer but it really was not my problem which induced her in to exploring baldness it was her own. I suggested she wear a head wear however I imagine this became not too tactful since… properly the appearance I bought stated so! Each night after I obtained residence from work ...
Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Takafuta, T; Wu G; Murphy G F; Shapiro S S (Jul 1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic ... Takafuta T, Wu G, Murphy GF, Shapiro SS (1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *9 ...
Sajid M, Hu Z, Lele M, Stouffer GA (May 2000). "Protein complexes involving alpha v beta 3 integrins, nonmuscle myosin heavy ... "Keratin 5-Cre-driven excision of nonmuscle myosin IIA in early embryo trophectoderm leads to placenta defects and embryonic ...
The talin n-terminal head domain interacts with the membrane-proximal region of the beta(3) cytoplasmic tail". The Journal of ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Calderwood DA, Zent R, Grant R, Rees DJ, Hynes RO, Ginsberg MH (Oct 1999). "The Talin head domain binds to integrin beta ... in the talin rod domain is essential for linking integrin beta subunits to the cytoskeleton". The Journal of Biological ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Further studies have shown that the beta-hairpin loops within the ankyrin repeat domain of ankyrin-B are required for the ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this hair keratin, as well as KRTHB3 and KRTHB6, is found primarily in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which ... Keratin, type II cuticular Hb1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT81 gene.[5][6][7] ... KRT81, HB1, Hb-1, KRTHB1, MLN137, ghHkb1, hHAKB2-1, keratin 81. External IDs. OMIM: 602153 MGI: 1928858 HomoloGene: 55645 ...
"squamous keratins" CK-1. CK-2. CK-3. CK-4. CK-5. CK-6. CK-9. CK-10. CK-11. CK-12. CK-13. CK-14. CK-15. CK-16. CK-17 ... are simply called keratins (human epithelial category). For example, cytokeratin-4 (CK-4) has been renamed keratin-4 (K4).[3] ... Cytokeratins are keratin proteins found in the intracytoplasmic cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue. They are an important ... The term "cytokeratin" began to be used in the late 1970s, when the protein subunits of keratin intermediate filaments inside ...
In most animal cells, monomeric actin is bound to profilin and thymosin beta-4, both of which preferentially bind with one-to- ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Although thymosin beta-4 is strictly a monomer-sequestering protein, the behavior of profilin is far more complex. Profilin ...
Wu QL, Jha PK, Du Y, Leavis PC, Sarkar S (Apr 1995). "Overproduction and rapid purification of human fast skeletal beta ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... "Isolation and characterization of human fast skeletal beta troponin T cDNA: comparative sequence analysis of isoforms and ... "Isolation and characterization of human fast skeletal beta troponin T cDNA: comparative sequence analysis of isoforms and ...
"Possible Interactions with Beta-Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012.. *^ Meschino Health. "Comprehensive Guide to Beta-Carotene". ... "Find a Vitamin or Supplement - Beta Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012.. *^ a b Stargrove, Mitchell (2007-12-20). Herb, nutrient ... Not to be confused with beta-keratin.. β-Carotene Names IUPAC name β,β-Carotene ... "Beta-Carotene Interactions". Retrieved 28 May 2012.. *^ University of Maryland Medical Center. " ...
Keratin 1 Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness 602540 GJB2 Connexin-26 (Gap junction beta-2) ... Keratin 2A Ichthyosis hystrix, Curth-Macklin type 146590 KRT1 ...
July 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, ...
HTML abstract) Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin ...
This is conferred by the presence of beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer. ... Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing ... Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol ... which allows the cells to concentrate keratin and toughen them before they rise into a typically thicker, more cohesive SC. The ...
1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ...
... the absence of alpha-keratin. While beta-keratin is found in all integumentary (skin and feather) cells of reptiles and birds, ... 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ... biochemical analyses later showed that these structures contain decay products of the protein beta-keratin, and more ... only bird feathers completely lack alpha-keratin. These findings show that, though poorly preserved, Shuvuuia likely possessed ...
The naming convention for proteins follows that for keratin, alpha keratin is helical and beta keratin is sheet like. Alpha ... Keratin is a structural protein located at the hard surfaces in many vertebrates. Keratin has two forms, α-keratin and β- ... keratin is found in mammalian hair, skin, nails, horn and quills, while beta keratin can be found in avian and reptilian ... This tensile strength is an order of magnitude higher than human nails (20MPa), because human hair's keratin filaments are more ...
Schweitzer, Mary Higby, Watt, J.A., Avci, R., Knapp, L., Chiappe, L, Norell, Mark A., Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-Keratin ... Schweitzer, Watt; Higby, Mary; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L; Norell, Mark A.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-Keratin Specific ... and immunohistochemical studies and found that they consisted of beta-keratin, which is the primary protein in feathers. ...
Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin specific ... In particular, a fossil of the Alvarezsauridae Shuvuuia has a version of keratin consistent with that of avian feathers. Many ...
Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti. „ ... Pióra Shuvuuia deserti w testach immunologicznych wykazały nawet obecność beta-keratyny - głównego białka występującego w ...
Alibardi, L; Knapp, LW; Sawyer, RH (2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers in relation ... Feathers and scales are made up of two distinct forms of keratin, and it was long thought that each type of keratin was ... that produce keratin proteins. The β-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws - and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles - are ... This type of keratin, previously thought to be specific to feathers, is suppressed during embryological development of the ...
... and subsequent demonstration that beta-keratin is made of beta sheets consigned the alpha sheet proposal to obscurity. Recently ... they suggested that it agreed well with fiber diffraction results from beta-keratin fibers. However, since the alpha sheet did ... For example, amyloid beta is a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, and ... Most beta sheets in known proteins are "twisted" about 15° for optimal hydrogen bonding and steric packing; however, some ...
上皮角蛋白(英语:Epithelial keratin). (软α-角蛋白). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Authority records BETA Chamcheu, Jean ChristopherTörmä, Hans Search in DiVA By author/editor. Chamcheu, Jean ChristopherTörmä, ... Heat-induced keratin-positive aggregates were observed in all EBS cells, which were most prominent in severe keratin-defective ... epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic ichthyosis, genodermatoses, keratin, keratin mutation, keratinocytes, gene therapy ... EBS, keratinocytes, keratin, MAPK, immunostaining, Hsp, TMAO, 4-PBA National Category Medical and Health Sciences Research ...
... alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. Alpha-keratin is seen in humans and other mammals, beta-keratin is present in birds and ... β-keratin or beta-keratin is a protein in the keratin family. β-keratin is rich in stacked β pleated sheets, in contrast to ... Beta-keratin is harder than alpha-keratin. Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical coiled coil structure while beta- ... Phylogenetic studies of β-keratin sequences show that feather β-keratins evolved from scale β-keratins. The scale β-keratins ...
Alpha (α) keratins are found in all vertebrates, while beta (β) keratins are found exclusively in reptiles and birds. We have ... We found that the total number of α-keratins is lower in birds than mammals and non-avian reptiles, yet two α-keratin genes ( ... The β-keratins, however, demonstrate a dynamic evolution associated with avian lifestyle. The avian specific feather β-keratins ... These results support the view that the number of α- and β-keratin genes expressed, the proportion of the β-keratin subfamily ...
... keratins. The molecularphylogeny of these keratins is important to understanding the evolutionary origin of these appendages, ... Results: The subfamilies (claw, feather, feather-like, and scale) of β-keratin genes are clustered in the same 5 to 3 orderon ... Knowing that the crocodilian β-keratin genes are closely related to those of birds, the published genomes ofthe chicken and ... Expression sequence tag analysis for thechicken demonstrates that all feather β-keratin clades are expressed. Conclusions: ...
Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Takafuta, T; Wu G; Murphy G F; Shapiro S S (Jul 1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic ... Takafuta T, Wu G, Murphy GF, Shapiro SS (1998). "Human beta-filamin is a new protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *9 ...
Sajid M, Hu Z, Lele M, Stouffer GA (May 2000). "Protein complexes involving alpha v beta 3 integrins, nonmuscle myosin heavy ... "Keratin 5-Cre-driven excision of nonmuscle myosin IIA in early embryo trophectoderm leads to placenta defects and embryonic ...
The talin n-terminal head domain interacts with the membrane-proximal region of the beta(3) cytoplasmic tail". The Journal of ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Calderwood DA, Zent R, Grant R, Rees DJ, Hynes RO, Ginsberg MH (Oct 1999). "The Talin head domain binds to integrin beta ... in the talin rod domain is essential for linking integrin beta subunits to the cytoskeleton". The Journal of Biological ...
Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
Further studies have shown that the beta-hairpin loops within the ankyrin repeat domain of ankyrin-B are required for the ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ...
All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this hair keratin, as well as KRTHB3 and KRTHB6, is found primarily in ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which ... Keratin, type II cuticular Hb1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT81 gene.[5][6][7] ... KRT81, HB1, Hb-1, KRTHB1, MLN137, ghHkb1, hHAKB2-1, keratin 81. External IDs. OMIM: 602153 MGI: 1928858 HomoloGene: 55645 ...
"squamous keratins" CK-1. CK-2. CK-3. CK-4. CK-5. CK-6. CK-9. CK-10. CK-11. CK-12. CK-13. CK-14. CK-15. CK-16. CK-17 ... are simply called keratins (human epithelial category). For example, cytokeratin-4 (CK-4) has been renamed keratin-4 (K4).[3] ... Cytokeratins are keratin proteins found in the intracytoplasmic cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue. They are an important ... The term "cytokeratin" began to be used in the late 1970s, when the protein subunits of keratin intermediate filaments inside ...
In most animal cells, monomeric actin is bound to profilin and thymosin beta-4, both of which preferentially bind with one-to- ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Although thymosin beta-4 is strictly a monomer-sequestering protein, the behavior of profilin is far more complex. Profilin ...
Wu QL, Jha PK, Du Y, Leavis PC, Sarkar S (Apr 1995). "Overproduction and rapid purification of human fast skeletal beta ... Keratin,. Cytokeratin). Epithelial keratins. (soft alpha-keratins). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... "Isolation and characterization of human fast skeletal beta troponin T cDNA: comparative sequence analysis of isoforms and ... "Isolation and characterization of human fast skeletal beta troponin T cDNA: comparative sequence analysis of isoforms and ...
An international team of paleontologists has found evidence of beta-keratin and melanosome preservation in a 130-million-year- ... Ancient Melanosomes, Beta-Keratin Found in Fossilized Feathers of Early Cretaceous Bird. 26th November 2016 ... An international team of paleontologists has found evidence of beta-keratin and melanosome preservation in a 130-million-year- ... "Whereas melanosomes in modern feathers are always surrounded by and embedded in keratin, melanosomes embedded in keratin in ...
Alpha-keratin. Beta-keratin. Segment by Application. Clinical. Skin and Hair. Silk. Feed and Food Industries. Fertilizers and ... Keratin Industry 2019 Market Research Report. The Keratin Market accounts for USD Keratin billion and is expected to grow at a ... Keratin is the structural protein of ectoderm cells, including hair, nails, feathers and so on. Keratin is a kind of hard ... Keratin Express. Malfroy and Million. Spirit. Arteseta. Vanners Silks. Sunrise Textile. Sanskriti India. Shanghai Zhanzhi ...
The complex contains two alpha and four beta subunits, the two subunits .... cl23720. Location:392 → 460. RILP-like; Rab ... keratin, type II cuticular Hb6. Names. hair keratin K2.11. hard keratin, type II, 6. keratin 86, type II. keratin protein HB6. ... keratin, hair, basic, 6 (monilethrix). type II hair keratin Hb6. type-II keratin Kb26. ... Keratin_2_head; Keratin type II head. cl09111. Location:302 → 417. Prefoldin; Prefoldin is a hexameric molecular chaperone ...
Find more product information on Keratin Booster for Men with Biotin & Resveratrol and shop online. ... Buy Discount Keratin Booster for Men with Biotin & Resveratrol, 60 Veggie Capsules, ReserveAge Organics at VitaSprings. ... It features Cynatine HNS, a patented form of bioavailable Keratin, combined with plant-derived Saw Palmetto and Beta Sitosterol ... Keratin provides the highest proportions of amino acids necessary for a healthy head of hair. Keratin Booster for Men helps ...
"Possible Interactions with Beta-Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012.. *^ Meschino Health. "Comprehensive Guide to Beta-Carotene". ... "Find a Vitamin or Supplement - Beta Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012.. *^ a b Stargrove, Mitchell (2007-12-20). Herb, nutrient ... Not to be confused with beta-keratin.. β-Carotene Names IUPAC name β,β-Carotene ... "Beta-Carotene Interactions". Retrieved 28 May 2012.. *^ University of Maryland Medical Center. " ...
... keratin,HLA A24, A32, B15, B18. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. The cells expressed p53 ... carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 118 ng/10 exp6 cells/10 days; Colon Specific Antigen (CSAp); transforming growth factor beta; ... The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining.. The cells expressed p53 antigen (the p53 produced has a G -> ... carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 118 ng/10 exp6 cells/10 days; Colon Specific Antigen (CSAp); transforming growth factor beta; ...
... keratin 17, 79) functions, and a non-inflammatory Th17/IL-17 dominance in SGR skin compared to SGP. Regarding pro-inflammatory ... keratin 17, 79) functions and a non-inflammatory Th17/IL-17 dominance in SGR skin compared to SGP. Regarding pro-inflammatory ... defensin beta; FLG, filaggrin; KRT, keratin; LCE, late cornified envelope; LCN, lipocalin; LOR, loricrin; S100, S100 calcium- ... IL-17A upregulates keratin 17 expression in keratinocytes through STAT1- and STAT3-dependent mechanisms. J Invest Dermatol ( ...
Keratin 3 also known as cytokeratin 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT3 gene.[1][2] Keratin 3 is a type II ... It is specifically found in the corneal epithelium together with keratin 12. ... "Mutations in cornea-specific keratin K3 or K12 genes cause Meesmanns corneal dystrophy". Nat. Genet. 16 (2): 184-7. doi: ... "New consensus nomenclature for mammalian keratins". J. Cell Biol. 174 (2): 169-74. doi:10.1083/jcb.200603161. PMC 2064177 ...
Keratin 6A. Keratin 6A (protein name K6A; gene name KRT6A), is a type II cytokeratin, one of a number of isoforms of keratin 6 ... Keratin 6A is one of the 27 different type II keratins expressed in humans. Keratin 6A was the first type II keratin sequence ... Keratins form heteropolymers consisting of a type I and a type II keratin. Keratins are generally expressed in particular pairs ... Both epithelial keratins and hard keratins can be further subdivided into type I (acidic) keratins and type II (neutral-basic) ...
  • It is specifically found in the corneal epithelium together with keratin 12 . (wikidoc.org)
  • The amount of keratins matters for stress protection of the colonic epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Increased detections of Wnt/beta-catenin (enhanced presence of Wnt5a, Wnt7a, and beta-catenin), SHH (detection of Gli1 and Hes1), and mTOR (identification of mTOR and rpS6) signaling pathways were found in the subepithelial pannus and epithelium of all ARK corneas, when compared with normal controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, CFK-E12 (E12) and CWK-F12 (F12) monoclonal antibodies, which recognize approximately 64 kDa ER-beta with hormone binding domain, showed nuclear-specific reactivity with villous ST, extravillous trophoblast, and amniotic epithelium and fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Among the invertebrates , arthropods such as crustaceans often have parts of their armor or exoskeleton made of keratin, sometimes in combination with chitin , which is a hard, semitransparent polysaccharide that is the main component of the shells of crustaceans, such as crabs , lobsters , and shrimp . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Keratins also are found in the gastrointestinal tracts of many animals, including roundworms (who also have an outer layer made of keratin). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Additionally, the baleen plates of filter-feeding whales are made of keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthropods such as crustaceans often have parts of their armor or exoskeleton made of keratin, sometimes in combination with chitin . (wikidoc.org)
  • Part A is the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Type II α-keratins from human, green anole lizard, green sea turtle, American alligator and the 48 birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KRUC_HUMAN KERATIN, ULTRA HIGH-SULFUR MATRIX. (upenn.edu)
  • The aims were i) to evaluate the structural changes and ii) cell signaling pathways, including the Notch1, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), mTOR and Wnt/beta-catenin cell signaling pathways in naïve and surgically treated corneas of aniridia cases with advanced ARK and comparing with normal human adult and fetal corneas and iii) to develop a corneal cell culture model of aniridia. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1983), O'Guin and Sawyer (1982) and O'Guin (1984) have shown that the alpha keratins of birds are also expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and are recognized, on Western Blots, by at least one of the monoclonal antibodies made against human alpha keratins (Sun et al. (springer.com)
  • IHC staining of anti-Keratin 15 antibody (Poly18339) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human skin tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • This antibody was raised against a peptide sequence derived from the C-terminus of the human keratin 15 protein, CDGQVVSSHKREI. (biolegend.com)
  • During human pregnancy, the production of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) rises steadily to eighty fold at term, and placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first report on ER-beta expression in human placenta and cultured trophoblast. (nih.gov)
  • 2 . The composition according to claim 1 , wherein the keratin fibre is human keratin fibre. (google.com.au)
  • Growing human head hair contains a history of keratin and provides a unique model for studies of protein damage. (springer.com)
  • Here, we examined mechanism of homocysteine (Hcy) accumulation and keratin damage in human hair. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy-keratin accumulation is due to copper/iron-catalyzed demethylation of methionine residues and contributes to keratin damage in human hair. (springer.com)
  • In the present work we have examined a hypothesis that the damage that accumulates in growing human hair is caused by the demethylation of keratin Met residues to Hcy. (springer.com)
  • IntAct predicts that PRR30 interacts with Human Testis Protein 37 or TEX37, Cystiene Rich Tail Protein 1 (CYSRT1), and Keratin Associated Protein 6-2 (KRTAP6-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratosis pilaris occurs when the human body produces excess amounts of the skin protein keratin, resulting in the formation of small, raised bumps in the skin often with surrounding redness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spermidine has also been found to "upregulate expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results, which confirm the oldest evidence of the structural protein beta-keratin, show that molecules can survive in their original state for hundreds of millions of years without fossilizing, and that researchers can use modern techniques to identify them, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
  • In general, alpha actins are found in muscle (α-skeletal, α-aortic smooth, α-cardiac, and γ2-enteric smooth), whereas beta and gamma isoforms are prominent in non-muscle cells (β- and γ1-cytoplasmic). (wikidoc.org)
  • In CV, strong cytoplasmic ER-beta immunoreactivity was confined to ST. Dual color immunohistochemistry revealed asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha in dividing villous CT cells. (nih.gov)
  • ER-beta was also detected in endothelial cells, amniotic epithelial cells and fibroblasts, extravillous trophoblast (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and decidual cells (cytoplasmic only). (nih.gov)
  • Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • The exception is the beta-4 subunit, which has a cytoplasmic domain of 1,088 amino acids, one of the largest of any membrane protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transcriptional profiling analysis was conducted using a custom oligonucleotide-based microarray by comparing T. rubrum conidia grown on elastin and keratin substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In arthropods, however, chitin is frequently modified by being embedded in a hardened proteinaceous matrix of keratin, giving a more rigid exoskeleton, than seen, for example, in the use of chitin in the soft, more pliable body wall of a caterpillar . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, an induction of a great number of proteases occurred when T. rubrum was grown in the presence of keratin such as the subtilisin family of proteases (Sub 1 and Sub 3) and leucine aminopeptidase (Lap 1 and Lap 2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In presence of keratin chips with phosphate and magnesium ions, it forms large quantities of struvite cystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratin provides the highest proportions of amino acids necessary for a healthy head of hair. (vitasprings.com)
  • In particular, the prevalence in Keratin of the sulfur -containing amino acid cysteine , with its ability to form strong covalent chemical bonds between sulfur atoms (disulfide bridge), helps confer strength and rigidity. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition to intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, the distinguishing feature of keratins is the presence of large amounts of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine, required for the disulfide bridges that confer additional strength and rigidity by permanent, thermally stable crosslinking-in much the same way that non-protein sulfur bridges stabilize vulcanized rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sulfur was broadly distributed, as would be expected in a keratinous material, as 'the keratin protein family incorporates high concentrations of amino acids rich in sulfur,' the researchers wrote in the study, published online yesterday (Nov. 21) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (livescience.com)
  • α-keratin is a fibrous structural protein, meaning it is made up of amino acids that form a repeating secondary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • These coiled coil dimers, approximately 45 nm long, are bonded together with disulfide bonds, utilizing the many cysteine amino acids found in α-keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the effects of two chemical chaperones (trimethylamine-N oxide (TMAO) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA)) on heat stress-induced keratin aggregation responses were examined in newly and previously established immortalized control and EBS patient-derived keratinocyte cell lines. (diva-portal.org)
  • High-fat diet triggers Mallory-Denk body formation through misfolding and crosslinking of excess keratin 8. (nih.gov)
  • The excess keratin, which is the color of the person's natural skin tone, surrounds and entraps the hair follicles in the pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotin: Essential B-vitamin helps support natural keratin production for strong, healthy roots and thicker strands. (bayho.com)
  • 2 Chic Ultra-Sleek Brazilian Keratin Shampoo by Giovanni is a natural keratin shampoo designed to hydrate and moisturize the hair with a cruelty-free, natural formula. (naturalhealthyconcepts.com)