A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.
Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.
A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A type I keratin expressed in a variety of EPITHELIUM, including the ESOPHAGUS, the TONGUE, the HAIR FOLLICLE and NAILS. Keratin-16 is normally found associated with KERATIN-6. Mutations in the gene for keratin-6 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A type II keratin found expressed in the upper spinous layer of epidermal KERATINOCYTES. Mutations in genes that encode keratin-2A have been associated with ICHTHYOSIS BULLOSA OF SIEMENS.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-3 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-12 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A type II keratin found predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated EPIDERMIS of palms and soles. Mutations in the gene for keratin 9 are associated with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
An autosomal dominant hereditary skin disease characterized by epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is strictly confined to the palms and soles. It has been associated with mutations in the gene that codes for KERATIN-9.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions in HEPATOCYTES. They are associated with ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS and non-alcoholic STEATOHEPATITIS, but are also present in benign and malignant hepatocellular neoplasms, and metabolic, toxic, and chronic cholestatic LIVER DISEASES.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Deformities in nail structure or appearance, including hypertrophy, splitting, clubbing, furrowing, etc. Genetic diseases such as PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA can result in malformed nails.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An autosomal dominant form of hereditary corneal dystrophy due to a defect in cornea-specific KERATIN formation. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-3 and KERATIN-12 have been linked to this disorder.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.

Characterization of the structure and composition of gecko adhesive setae. (1/17)

The ability of certain reptiles to adhere to vertical (and hang from horizontal) surfaces has been attributed to the presence of specialized adhesive setae on their feet. Structural and compositional studies of such adhesive setae will contribute significantly towards the design of biomimetic fibrillar adhesive materials. The results of electron microscopy analyses of the structure of such setae are presented, indicating their formation from aggregates of proteinaceous fibrils held together by a matrix and potentially surrounded by a limiting proteinaceous sheath. Microbeam X-ray diffraction analysis has shown conclusively that the only ordered protein constituent in these structures exhibits a diffraction pattern characteristic of beta-keratin. Raman microscopy of individual setae, however, clearly shows the presence of additional protein constituents, some of which may be identified as alpha-keratins. Electrophoretic analysis of solubilized setal proteins supports these conclusions, indicating the presence of a group of low-molecular-weight beta-keratins (14-20 kDa), together with alpha-keratins, and this interpretation is supported by immunological analyses.  (+info)

Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays. (2/17)

Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading.  (+info)

Frictional adhesion: A new angle on gecko attachment. (3/17)

Directional arrays of branched microscopic setae constitute a dry adhesive on the toes of pad-bearing geckos, nature's supreme climbers. Geckos are easily and rapidly able to detach their toes as they climb. There are two known mechanisms of detachment: (1) on the microscale, the seta detaches when the shaft reaches a critical angle with the substrate, and (2) on the macroscale, geckos hyperextend their toes, apparently peeling like tape. This raises the question of how geckos prevent detachment while inverted on the ceiling, where body weight should cause toes to peel and setal angles to increase. Geckos use opposing feet and toes while inverted, possibly to maintain shear forces that prevent detachment of setae or peeling of toes. If detachment occurs by macroscale peeling of toes, the peel angle should monotonically decrease with applied force. In contrast, if adhesive force is limited by microscale detachment of setae at a critical angle, the toe detachment angle should be independent of applied force. We tested the hypothesis that adhesion is increased by shear force in isolated setal arrays and live gecko toes. We also tested the corollary hypotheses that (1) adhesion in toes and arrays is limited as on the microscale by a critical angle, or (2) on the macroscale by adhesive strength as predicted for adhesive tapes. We found that adhesion depended directly on shear force, and was independent of detachment angle. Therefore we reject the hypothesis that gecko toes peel like tape. The linear relation between adhesion and shear force is consistent with a critical angle of release in live gecko toes and isolated setal arrays, and also with our prior observations of single setae. We introduced a new model, frictional adhesion, for gecko pad attachment and compared it to existing models of adhesive contacts. In an analysis of clinging stability of a gecko on an inclined plane each adhesive model predicted a different force control strategy. The frictional adhesion model provides an explanation for the very low detachment forces observed in climbing geckos that does not depend on toe peeling.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of scale beta-keratins in the differentiating epidermis of geckoes show they are glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with a central motif homologous to avian beta-keratins. (4/17)

The beta-keratins constitute the hard epidermis and adhesive setae of gecko lizards. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of beta-keratins in epidermis of gecko lizards were cloned from mRNAs. Specific oligonucleotides were used to amplify by 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analyses five specific gecko beta-keratin cDNA sequences. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins of 16.8-18 kDa containing 169-191 amino acids, especially 17.8-23% glycine, 8.4-14.8% proline, 14.2-18.1% serine. Glycine-rich repeats are localized toward the initial and end regions of the protein, while a central region, rich in proline, has a strand conformation (beta-pleated fold) likely responsible for the formation of beta-keratin filaments. It shows high homology with a core region of other lizard keratins, avian scale, and feather keratins. Northern blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis show a higher beta-keratin gene expression in regenerating epidermis compared with normal epidermis. In situ hybridization confirms that mRNAs for these proteins are expressed in cells of the differentiating oberhautchen cells and beta-cells. Expression in adhesive setae of climbing lamellae was shown by RT-PCR. Southern blotting analysis revealed that the proteins are encoded by a multigene family. PCR analysis showed that the genes are presumably located in tandem along the DNA and are transcribed from the same DNA strand like in avian beta-keratins.  (+info)

Ancestrally high elastic modulus of gecko setal beta-keratin. (5/17)

Typical bulk adhesives are characterized by soft, tacky materials with elastic moduli well below 1MPa. Geckos possess subdigital adhesives composed mostly of beta-keratin, a relatively stiff material. Biological adhesives like those of geckos have inspired empirical and modelling research which predicts that even stiff materials can be effective adhesives if they take on a fibrillar form. The molecular structure of beta-keratin is highly conserved across birds and reptiles, suggesting that material properties of gecko setae should be similar to that of beta-keratin previously measured in birds, but this has yet to be established. We used a resonance technique to measure elastic bending modulus in two species of gecko from disparate habitats. We found no significant difference in elastic modulus between Gekko gecko (1.6 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae) and Ptyodactylus hasselquistii (1.4 GPa +/- 0.15s.e.; n=24 setae). If the elastic modulus of setal keratin is conserved across species, it would suggest a design constraint that must be compensated for structurally, and possibly explain the remarkable variation in gecko adhesive morphology.  (+info)

Expression of beta-keratin mRNAs and proline uptake in epidermal cells of growing scales and pad lamellae of gecko lizards. (6/17)

Beta-keratins form a large part of the proteins contained in the hard beta layer of reptilian scales. The expression of genes encoding glycine-proline-rich beta-keratins in normal and regenerating epidermis of two species of gecko lizards has been studied by in situ hybridization. The probes localize mRNAs in differentiating oberhautchen and beta cells of growing scales and in modified scales, termed pad lamellae, on the digits of gecko lizards. In situ localization at the ultrastructural level shows clusters of gold particles in the cytoplasm among beta-keratin filaments of oberhautchen and beta cells. They are also present in the differentiating elongation or setae of oberhautchen cells present in pad lamellae. Setae allow geckos to adhere and climb vertical surfaces. Oberhautchen and beta cells also incorporate tritiated proline. The fine localization of the beta-keratin mRNAs and the uptake of proline confirms the biomolecular data that identified glycine-proline-rich beta-keratin in differentiating beta cells of gecko epidermis. The present study also shows the presence of differentiating and metabolically active cells in both inner and outer oberhautchen/beta cells at the base of the outer setae localized at the tip of pad lamellae. The addition of new beta and alpha cells to the corneous layer near the tip of the outer setae explains the anterior movement of the setae along the apical free-margin of pad lamellae. The rapid replacement of setae ensures the continuous usage of the gecko's adhesive devices, the pad lamellae, during most of their active life.  (+info)

Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene organization. (7/17)

Beta-keratins of reptilian scales have been recently cloned and characterized in some lizards. Here we report for the first time the sequence of some beta-keratins from the snake Elaphe guttata. Five different cDNAs were obtained using 5'- and 3'-RACE analyses. Four sequences differ by only few nucleotides in the coding region, whereas the last cDNA shows, in this region, only 84% of identity. The gene corresponding to one of the cDNA sequences has a single intron present in the 5'-untranslated region. This genomic organization is similar to that of birds' beta-keratins. Cloning and Southern blotting analysis suggest that snake beta-keratins belong to a family of high-related genes as for geckos. PCR analysis suggests a head-to-tail orientation of genes in the same chromosome. In situ hybridization detected beta-keratin transcripts almost exclusively in differentiating oberhautchen and beta-cells of the snake epidermis in renewal phase. This is confirmed by Northern blotting that showed, in this phase, a high expression of two different transcripts whereas only the longer transcript is expressed at a much lower level in resting skin. The cDNA coding sequences encoded putative glycine-proline-serine rich proteins containing 137-139 amino acids, with apparent isoelectric point at 7.5 and 8.2. A central region, rich in proline, shows over 50% homology with avian scale, claw, and feather keratins. The prediction of secondary structure shows mainly a random coil conformation and few beta-strand regions in the central region, likely involved in the formation of a fibrous framework of beta-keratins. This region was possibly present in basic reptiles that originated reptiles and birds.  (+info)

Beta-keratins of turtle shell are glycine-proline-tyrosine rich proteins similar to those of crocodilians and birds. (8/17)

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Keratins are a type of fibrous structural proteins that constitute the main component of the integumentary system, which includes the hair, nails, and skin of vertebrates. They are also found in other tissues such as horns, hooves, feathers, and reptilian scales. Keratins are insoluble proteins that provide strength, rigidity, and protection to these structures.

Keratins are classified into two types: soft keratins (Type I) and hard keratins (Type II). Soft keratins are found in the skin and simple epithelial tissues, while hard keratins are present in structures like hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

Keratin proteins have a complex structure consisting of several domains, including an alpha-helical domain, beta-pleated sheet domain, and a non-repetitive domain. These domains provide keratin with its unique properties, such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and mechanical stress.

In summary, keratins are fibrous structural proteins that play a crucial role in providing strength, rigidity, and protection to various tissues in the body.

Type II keratins are a group of intermediate filament proteins that are primarily expressed in epithelial cells. They are part of the keratin family, which is divided into two types (Type I and Type II) based on their acidic or basic isoelectric point. Type II keratins have a basic isoelectric point and include several subtypes such as KRT2, KRT3, KRT4, KRT10, KRT12, and others.

Type II keratins form heteropolymers with Type I keratins to provide structural support and integrity to epithelial cells. They are essential for the maintenance of cell shape, polarity, and mechanical resistance to stress. Mutations in type II keratin genes have been associated with several human genetic disorders, including epidermolysis bullosa simplex, a blistering skin disorder, and some forms of hair loss.

In summary, Type II keratins are a group of basic intermediate filament proteins that form heteropolymers with Type I keratins to provide structural support and integrity to epithelial cells.

Hair-specific keratins are a type of keratin proteins that are particularly abundant in the structural composition of hair fibers. They are primarily responsible for providing strength, resilience, and elasticity to the hair. Keratins are part of a larger family of fibrous proteins known as intermediate filaments, which also include keratins found in nails, skin, and other epithelial tissues.

Hair-specific keratins are categorized into two types: Type I (acidic keratins) and Type II (basic keratins). These keratin types form heterodimers, which then assemble into intermediate filament structures called protofibrils. Protofibrils further aggregate to create larger intermediate filaments that provide the hair's internal structure.

There are several hair-specific keratin genes, and mutations in these genes can lead to various hair and skin abnormalities, such as hair shaft defects and brittle hair syndromes.

Type I keratins are a subgroup of the keratin family of proteins, which are the key structural components of epithelial cells in vertebrates. These proteins are expressed in softer tissues and are characterized by their acidic isoelectric point. They form heteropolymers with type II keratins to create intermediate filaments, which provide mechanical support and structure to the cell. Type I keratins are further divided into several subtypes, including KRT9-KRT20 and KRT23-KRT28, each of which has specific roles in various tissues throughout the body. Mutations in type I keratin genes have been associated with a number of genetic skin disorders, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex and some forms of ichthyosis.

Keratin-8 is a type of keratin protein that is primarily found in the epithelial cells, including those that line the surfaces of organs and glands. It is one of the major components of intermediate filaments, which are the structural proteins that help to maintain the shape and integrity of cells.

Keratin-8 is known to form heteropolymers with keratin-18 and is abundant in simple epithelia such as those lining the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, and reproductive organs. It has been implicated in various cellular processes, including protection against mechanical stress, regulation of cell signaling, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mutations in the gene that encodes keratin-8 have been associated with several diseases, including a rare form of liver disease called cryptogenic cirrhosis. Additionally, abnormalities in keratin-8 expression and assembly have been linked to cancer progression and metastasis.

Intermediate filaments (IFs) are a type of cytoskeletal filament found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, including animal cells. They are called "intermediate" because they are smaller in diameter than microfilaments and larger than microtubules, two other types of cytoskeletal structures.

Intermediate filaments are composed of fibrous proteins that form long, unbranched, and flexible filaments. These filaments provide structural support to the cell and help maintain its shape. They also play a role in cell-to-cell adhesion, intracellular transport, and protection against mechanical stress.

Intermediate filaments are classified into six types based on their protein composition: Type I (acidic keratins), Type II (neutral/basic keratins), Type III (vimentin, desmin, peripherin), Type IV (neurofilaments), Type V (lamins), and Type VI (nestin). Each type of intermediate filament has a specific function and is expressed in different cell types. For example, Type I and II keratins are found in epithelial cells, while vimentin is expressed in mesenchymal cells.

Overall, intermediate filaments play an essential role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells and tissues, and their dysfunction has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and genetic disorders.

Keratin-14 is a type of keratin protein that is specifically expressed in the suprabasal layers of stratified epithelia, including the epidermis. It is a component of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton and plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity and stability of epithelial cells. Mutations in the gene encoding keratin-14 have been associated with several genetic skin disorders, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex and white sponge nevus.

Keratin-10 is a type II keratin protein that is primarily expressed in the differentiated layers of stratified squamous epithelia, including the skin's epidermis. It plays a crucial role in providing structural support and protection to these epithelial tissues. Keratin-10 pairs with keratin-1 to form intermediate filaments, which are essential for maintaining the integrity and stability of epithelial cells. The expression of keratin-10 is often used as a marker for terminal differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes.

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and is primarily produced by activated macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli. It is a crucial mediator of the innate immune response and plays a key role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1β is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects by binding to the interleukin-1 receptor, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various transcription factors and the expression of target genes.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (EBS) is a group of genetic skin disorders characterized by the development of blisters and erosions on the skin following minor trauma or friction. It is caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins responsible for anchoring the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) to the dermis (inner layer of the skin).

There are several subtypes of EBS, which vary in severity and clinical presentation. The most common form is called "Dowling-Meara" EBS, which is characterized by blistering at or near birth, widespread blistering, and scarring. Other forms of EBS include "Weber-Cockayne" EBS, which is characterized by localized blistering and healing with minimal scarring, and "Kobner" EBS, which is characterized by blistering in response to heat or physical trauma.

Treatment for EBS typically involves wound care, prevention of infection, and pain management. In some cases, protein therapy or bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a treatment option. It's important to note that the prognosis for individuals with EBS varies depending on the severity and subtype of the disorder.

Keratin-1 is a type of keratin protein that is primarily expressed in the differentiated cells of epithelial tissues, such as the hair follicles and the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). It is a structural protein that provides strength and rigidity to these cells. In the hair follicle, keratin-1 is found in the cortex of the hair shaft where it contributes to the hair's overall structure and stability. It is also a key component of the outermost layer of the skin (stratum corneum) where it helps to form a protective barrier against external stressors such as chemicals, microorganisms, and physical damage.

Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH) is a rare genetic skin disorder characterized by the abnormal growth and accumulation of keratin, a protein found in the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). This condition results in widespread blistering and peeling of the skin, particularly in areas prone to friction such as the hands, feet, knees, and elbows.

EH is caused by mutations in the KRT1 or KRT10 genes, which provide instructions for making keratin proteins that are essential for maintaining the structure and integrity of the epidermis. When these genes are mutated, the keratin proteins become unstable and form clumps, leading to the formation of blisters and areas of thickened, scaly skin (hyperkeratosis).

EH is typically present at birth or appears in early childhood, and it can range from mild to severe. In addition to the skin symptoms, individuals with EH may also experience nail abnormalities, hair loss, and an increased risk of skin infections. Treatment for EH is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications, and may include topical creams or ointments, wound care, and protection from friction and injury.

Keratin 5 is a type of keratin protein that is primarily expressed in the basal layer of epithelial tissues, including the skin, hair follicles, and nails. It forms heterodimers with keratin 14 and plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and stability of these tissues. Mutations in the gene that encodes keratin 5 (KRT5) can lead to several genetic disorders, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex, which is characterized by blistering of the skin and mucous membranes.

Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is found on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body and is involved in presenting intracellular peptides to T-cells for immune surveillance.

β2M is produced at a relatively constant rate by cells throughout the body and is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, most of the filtrated β2M is reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubules of the nephrons. However, when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, as in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubules becomes overwhelmed, leading to increased levels of β2M in the blood and its subsequent appearance in the urine.

Elevated serum and urinary β2M levels have been associated with various clinical conditions, such as CKD, multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases. Measuring β2M concentrations can provide valuable information for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes in these contexts.

The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, composed mainly of stratified squamous epithelium. It forms a protective barrier that prevents water loss and inhibits the entry of microorganisms. The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and its cells are nourished by diffusion from the underlying dermis. The bottom-most layer of the epidermis, called the stratum basale, is responsible for generating new skin cells that eventually move up to replace dead cells on the surface. This process of cell turnover takes about 28 days in adults.

The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells called squames, which are constantly shed and replaced. The exact rate at which this happens varies depending on location; for example, it's faster on the palms and soles than elsewhere. Melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells, are also located in the epidermis, specifically within the stratum basale layer.

In summary, the epidermis is a vital part of our integumentary system, providing not only physical protection but also playing a crucial role in immunity and sensory perception through touch receptors called Pacinian corpuscles.

Keratin-18 is a type I cytoskeletal keratin protein that is primarily expressed in simple epithelial cells, such as those found in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and skin. It forms intermediate filaments, which are structural proteins that provide support and stability to the cell. Keratin-18 has been identified as a sensitive and specific marker for apoptosis (programmed cell death), making it useful in research and diagnosis of various diseases, including liver disease and cancer.

Keratinocytes are the predominant type of cells found in the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin. These cells are responsible for producing keratin, a tough protein that provides structural support and protection to the skin. Keratinocytes undergo constant turnover, with new cells produced in the basal layer of the epidermis and older cells moving upward and eventually becoming flattened and filled with keratin as they reach the surface of the skin, where they are then shed. They also play a role in the immune response and can release cytokines and other signaling molecules to help protect the body from infection and injury.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that include three distinct subclasses: β1, β2, and β3. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and play important roles in various physiological functions, including cardiovascular regulation, bronchodilation, lipolysis, and glucose metabolism.

β1-adrenergic receptors are primarily located in the heart and regulate cardiac contractility, chronotropy (heart rate), and relaxation. β2-adrenergic receptors are found in various tissues, including the lungs, vascular smooth muscle, liver, and skeletal muscle. They mediate bronchodilation, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. β3-adrenergic receptors are mainly expressed in adipose tissue, where they stimulate lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Agonists of β-adrenergic receptors include catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, as well as synthetic drugs such as dobutamine (a β1-selective agonist) and albuterol (a non-selective β2-agonist). Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors are commonly used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and asthma. Examples of β-blockers include metoprolol (a β1-selective antagonist) and carvedilol (a non-selective β-blocker with additional α1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity).

Integrin β3 is a subunit of certain integrin heterodimers, which are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Integrin β3 combines with either integrin αv (to form the integrin αvβ3) or integrin αIIb (to form the integrin αIIbβ3). These integrins are involved in various cellular processes, including platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis.

Integrin αIIbβ3 is primarily expressed on platelets and mediates platelet aggregation by binding to fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive proteins in the ECM. Integrin αvβ3 is widely expressed in various cell types and participates in diverse functions such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It binds to a variety of ECM proteins, including fibronectin, vitronectin, and osteopontin, as well as to soluble ligands like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

Dysregulation of integrin β3 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, tumor metastasis, and inflammatory diseases.

Medically, hair is defined as a threadlike structure that grows from the follicles found in the skin of mammals. It is primarily made up of a protein called keratin and consists of three parts: the medulla (the innermost part or core), the cortex (middle layer containing keratin filaments) and the cuticle (outer layer of overlapping scales).

Hair growth occurs in cycles, with each cycle consisting of a growth phase (anagen), a transitional phase (catagen), and a resting phase (telogen). The length of hair is determined by the duration of the anagen phase.

While hair plays a crucial role in protecting the skin from external factors like UV radiation, temperature changes, and physical damage, it also serves as an essential aspect of human aesthetics and identity.

Keratin-16 is a type of keratin protein that is specifically expressed in the suprabasal layers of epithelial tissues, including the skin and nails. It belongs to the family of keratins known as "hard keratins" or "intermediate filament proteins," which provide structural support and protection to these tissues.

Keratin-16 is often upregulated in response to stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to the formation of thickened, hardened epithelial structures. This can result in skin conditions such as calluses, corns, and blisters, as well as nail abnormalities like brittle or ridged nails.

In addition, keratin-16 has been implicated in various disease states, including psoriasis, eczema, and certain types of cancer. Its expression is often used as a marker for epithelial differentiation and tissue remodeling.

Intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) are a type of cytoskeletal protein that form the intermediate filaments (IFs), which are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells, along with microtubules and microfilaments. These proteins have a unique structure, characterized by an alpha-helical rod domain flanked by non-helical head and tail domains.

Intermediate filament proteins are classified into six major types based on their amino acid sequence: Type I (acidic) and Type II (basic) keratins, Type III (desmin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and peripherin), Type IV (neurofilaments), Type V (lamins), and Type VI (nestin). Each type of IFP has a distinct pattern of expression in different tissues and cell types.

Intermediate filament proteins play important roles in maintaining the structural integrity and mechanical strength of cells, providing resilience to mechanical stress, and regulating various cellular processes such as cell division, migration, and signal transduction. Mutations in IFP genes have been associated with several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and genetic skin fragility disorders.

Keratoderma, palmoplantar is a medical term that refers to a group of skin conditions characterized by thickening and hardening (hyperkeratosis) of the skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. This condition can affect people of all ages, but it's most commonly seen in children.

The thickening of the skin is caused by an overproduction of keratin, a protein that helps to form the tough, outer layer of the skin. In palmoplantar keratoderma, this excess keratin accumulates in the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis, leading to the formation of rough, scaly, and thickened patches on the palms and soles.

There are several different types of palmoplantar keratoderma, each with its own specific symptoms and causes. Some forms of the condition are inherited and present at birth or develop in early childhood, while others may be acquired later in life as a result of an underlying medical condition, such as atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, or psoriasis.

Treatment for palmoplantar keratoderma typically involves the use of emollients and keratolytic agents to help soften and remove the thickened skin. In some cases, oral retinoids or other systemic medications may be necessary to manage more severe symptoms. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Keratin-1

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling protein involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). TGF-β plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It also has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

TGF-β exists in multiple isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that are produced by many different cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. The protein is synthesized as a precursor molecule, which is cleaved to release the active TGF-β peptide. Once activated, TGF-β binds to its receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

In summary, Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Keratin-2" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. Keratins are a large family of fibrous structural proteins that are a major component in the cells that make up the outer layer of skin, hair, and nails. However, there isn't a specific keratin type that is commonly referred to as "Keratin-2."

If you have any more context or information about where you encountered this term, I'd be happy to help you try to understand it better!

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Integrin beta4, also known as ITGB4 or CD104, is a type of integrin subunit that forms part of the integrin receptor along with an alpha subunit. Integrins are transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, signal transduction, and regulation of various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Integrin beta4 is unique among the integrin subunits because it has a large cytoplasmic domain that can interact with several intracellular signaling molecules, making it an important regulator of cell behavior. Integrin beta4 is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells.

Integrin beta4 forms heterodimers with integrin alpha6 to form the receptor for laminins, which are major components of the basement membrane. This receptor is involved in maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell migration during development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. Mutations in ITGB4 have been associated with several human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering.

Keratin-13 is a type of keratin protein that is primarily found in the differentiated suprabasal layers of the epithelial tissues, including the oral mucosa and the esophageal mucosa. It is a component of the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of the epithelial cells and plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of these tissues.

Mutations in the gene that encodes keratin-13 have been associated with several inherited skin disorders, including epidermolysis bullosa simplex, a group of blistering diseases characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes. These mutations can lead to abnormalities in the structure and stability of keratin-13, resulting in the formation of blisters and sores in response to minor trauma or friction.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A hair follicle is a part of the human skin from which hair grows. It is a complex organ that consists of several layers, including an outer root sheath, inner root sheath, and matrix. The hair follicle is located in the dermis, the second layer of the skin, and is surrounded by sebaceous glands and erector pili muscles.

The hair growth cycle includes three phases: anagen (growth phase), catagen (transitional phase), and telogen (resting phase). During the anagen phase, cells in the matrix divide rapidly to produce new hair fibers that grow out of the follicle. The hair fiber is made up of a protein called keratin, which also makes up the outer layers of the skin and nails.

Hair follicles are important for various biological functions, including thermoregulation, sensory perception, and social communication. They also play a role in wound healing and can serve as a source of stem cells that can differentiate into other cell types.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hoof and Claw" is not a medical term or condition. The term "hoof" refers to the hard covering on the toes of animals such as horses, cows, and other ungulates, while "claw" refers to the sharp nail-like structure found on the toes of animals such as cats, dogs, and birds.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Keratin-15 is a type I keratin protein that is expressed in the basal cells of stratified epithelia, including the hair follicle and the epidermis. It plays a role in maintaining the integrity and stability of these tissues, particularly during periods of stress or injury. Keratin-15 has also been identified as a marker for stem cells in the hair follicle bulge region, which is responsible for hair regeneration. In addition, keratin-15 expression has been linked to various skin disorders, such as psoriasis and certain types of cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma.

Integrin α5β1, also known as very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) or fibronectin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits: α5 and β1. This integrin is widely expressed in various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

Integrin α5β1 plays a crucial role in mediating cell-matrix adhesion by binding to the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present in the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The interaction between integrin α5β1 and fibronectin is essential for various biological processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, this integrin has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including tumor progression, angiogenesis, and fibrosis.

Desmosomes are specialized intercellular junctions that provide strong adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells and help maintain the structural integrity and stability of tissues. They are composed of several proteins, including desmoplakin, plakoglobin, and cadherins, which form complex structures that anchor intermediate filaments (such as keratin) to the cell membrane. This creates a network of interconnected cells that can withstand mechanical stresses. Desmosomes are particularly abundant in tissues subjected to high levels of tension, such as the skin and heart.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Hair diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions affecting the hair shaft, follicle, or scalp. These conditions can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Hair shaft abnormalities: These are conditions that affect the structure and growth of the hair shaft. Examples include trichorrhexis nodosa, where the hair becomes weak and breaks easily, and pili torti, where the hair shaft is twisted and appears sparse and fragile.
2. Hair follicle disorders: These are conditions that affect the hair follicles, leading to hair loss or abnormal growth patterns. Examples include alopecia areata, an autoimmune disorder that causes patchy hair loss, and androgenetic alopecia, a genetic condition that leads to pattern baldness in both men and women.
3. Scalp disorders: These are conditions that affect the scalp, leading to symptoms such as itching, redness, scaling, or pain. Examples include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, and tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp).
4. Hair cycle abnormalities: These are conditions that affect the normal growth cycle of the hair, leading to excessive shedding or thinning. Examples include telogen effluvium, where a large number of hairs enter the resting phase and fall out, and anagen effluvium, which is typically caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
5. Infectious diseases: Hair follicles can become infected with various bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to conditions such as folliculitis, furunculosis, and kerion.
6. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders can affect the hair, such as Menkes syndrome, which is a rare inherited disorder that affects copper metabolism and leads to kinky, sparse, and brittle hair.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of hair diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, often a dermatologist or a trichologist who specializes in hair and scalp disorders.

Integrin α6β4 is a type of cell surface receptor that is composed of two subunits, α6 and β4. It is also known as CD49f/CD104. This integrin is primarily expressed in epithelial cells and plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, and signal transduction.

Integrin α6β4 specifically binds to laminin-332 (also known as laminin-5), a component of the basement membrane, and forms a stable anchorage complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. This interaction is critical for maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell behavior during processes such as wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Mutations in the genes encoding integrin α6β4 have been associated with various human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering. Additionally, integrin α6β4 has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis, as its expression is often upregulated in tumor cells and contributes to their invasive behavior.

Keratin-6 is a specific type of keratin protein that is expressed in the epithelial tissues, including the skin and hair follicles. It is a member of the keratin family of intermediate filament proteins, which provide structural support to cells. There are several subtypes of Keratin-6 (A, B, C, and D), each with distinct functions and expression patterns.

Keratin-6A and -6B are expressed in response to injury or stress in the epithelial tissues, where they play a role in wound healing by promoting cell migration and proliferation. They have also been implicated in the development of certain skin disorders, such as psoriasis and epidermolysis bullosa simplex.

Keratin-6C is primarily expressed in the hair follicles, where it helps to regulate the growth and structure of the hair shaft. Mutations in the gene encoding Keratin-6C have been associated with certain forms of hair loss, such as monilethrix and pili torti.

Keratin-6D is also expressed in the hair follicles, where it plays a role in maintaining the integrity of the hair shaft. Mutations in the gene encoding Keratin-6D have been linked to certain forms of wooly hair and hair loss.

Feathers are not a medical term, but they are a feature found in birds and some extinct theropod dinosaurs. Feathers are keratinous structures that grow from the skin and are used for various functions such as insulation, flight, waterproofing, and display. They have a complex structure consisting of a central shaft with barbs branching off on either side, which further divide into smaller barbules. The arrangement and modification of these feather structures vary widely among bird species to serve different purposes.

Integrin beta chains are a type of subunit that make up integrin receptors, which are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. These receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation.

Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form functional heterodimeric receptors. In humans, there are 18 different alpha subunits and 8 different beta subunits that can combine to form at least 24 distinct integrin receptors. The beta chain contributes to the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin receptor, which is involved in intracellular signaling and cytoskeletal interactions.

The beta chains are characterized by a conserved cytoplasmic region called the beta-tail domain, which interacts with various adaptor proteins to mediate downstream signaling events. Additionally, some integrin beta chains have a large inserted (I) domain in their extracellular regions that is responsible for ligand binding specificity.

Examples of integrin beta chains include β1, β2, β3, β4, β5, β6, β7, and β8, each with distinct functions and roles in various tissues and cell types. Mutations or dysregulation of integrin beta chains have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, fibrosis, and developmental disorders.

Beta 2-glycoprotein I, also known as apolipoprotein H, is a plasma protein that belongs to the family of proteins called immunoglobulin-binding proteins. It has a molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa and is composed of five domains with similar structures.

Beta 2-glycoprotein I is primarily produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it plays a role in several physiological processes, including coagulation, complement activation, and lipid metabolism. It has been identified as an autoantigen in certain autoimmune disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), where autoantibodies against beta 2-glycoprotein I can cause blood clots, miscarriages, and other complications.

In medical terminology, the definition of "beta 2-glycoprotein I" is as follows:

A plasma protein that belongs to the family of immunoglobulin-binding proteins and has a molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa. It is primarily produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it plays a role in several physiological processes, including coagulation, complement activation, and lipid metabolism. Autoantibodies against beta 2-glycoprotein I are associated with certain autoimmune disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), where they can cause blood clots, miscarriages, and other complications.

Integrin α4β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits, α4 and β1. It is involved in various cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, and signaling. This integrin plays a crucial role in the immune system by mediating the interaction between leukocytes (white blood cells) and the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. The activation of Integrin α4β1 allows leukocytes to roll along and then firmly adhere to the endothelium, followed by their migration into surrounding tissues, particularly during inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, Integrin α4β1 also interacts with extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and helps regulate cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation in various cell types.

Vimentin is a type III intermediate filament protein that is expressed in various cell types, including mesenchymal cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cell structure and integrity by forming part of the cytoskeleton. Vimentin is also involved in various cellular processes such as cell division, motility, and intracellular transport.

In addition to its structural functions, vimentin has been identified as a marker for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that occurs during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their polarity and cell-cell adhesion properties and acquire mesenchymal characteristics, including increased migratory capacity and invasiveness. Vimentin expression is upregulated during EMT, making it a potential target for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

In diagnostic pathology, vimentin immunostaining is used to identify mesenchymal cells and to distinguish them from epithelial cells. It can also be used to diagnose certain types of sarcomas and carcinomas that express vimentin.

Integrin α2β1, also known as very late antigen-2 (VLA-2) or laminin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α2 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α2β1 is widely expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some hematopoietic cells. It functions as a receptor for several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, and V), laminin, and fibronectin. The binding of integrin α2β1 to these ECM components mediates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival, thereby regulating various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor progression.

In addition, integrin α2β1 has been implicated in several diseases, including fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, targeting this integrin with therapeutic strategies may provide potential benefits for treating these conditions.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the lungs, heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and skeletal muscle.

When β2-ARs are activated by catecholamines, they trigger a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle, increased heart rate and contractility, bronchodilation, and inhibition of insulin secretion. These effects are mediated through the activation of intracellular signaling pathways involving G proteins and second messengers such as cyclic AMP (cAMP).

β2-ARs have been a major focus of drug development for various medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, hypertension, and anxiety disorders. Agonists of β2-ARs, such as albuterol and salmeterol, are commonly used to treat asthma and COPD by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle and reducing airway obstruction. Antagonists of β2-ARs, such as propranolol, are used to treat hypertension, angina, and heart failure by blocking the effects of catecholamines on the heart and blood vessels.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

CD29, also known as integrin β1, is a type of cell surface protein called an integrin that forms heterodimers with various α subunits to form different integrin receptors. These integrin receptors play important roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and signaling.

CD29/integrin β1 is widely expressed on many types of cells including leukocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. It can bind to several extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, and mediate cell-matrix interactions. CD29/integrin β1 also participates in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

CD29/integrin β1 can function as an antigen, which is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response. Antibodies against CD29/integrin β1 have been found in some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies can contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases by activating complement, inducing inflammation, and damaging tissues.

Therefore, CD29/integrin β1 is an important molecule in both physiological and pathological processes, and its functions as an antigen have been implicated in some autoimmune disorders.

The cytoskeleton is a complex network of various protein filaments that provides structural support, shape, and stability to the cell. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular integrity, intracellular organization, and enabling cell movement. The cytoskeleton is composed of three major types of protein fibers: microfilaments (actin filaments), intermediate filaments, and microtubules. These filaments work together to provide mechanical support, participate in cell division, intracellular transport, and help maintain the cell's architecture. The dynamic nature of the cytoskeleton allows cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions and respond to various stimuli.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Pachyonychia Congenita (PC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by thickened and abnormally shaped nails, painful blisters on the skin, and thickened palms and soles. The condition is caused by mutations in genes responsible for producing keratin proteins, which are essential components of our skin, hair, and nails.

There are two main types of PC: Type 1 (Jadassohn-Lewandowsky syndrome) and Type 2 (Jackson-Lawler syndrome). Both types have similar symptoms but may vary in severity. The symptoms typically appear at birth or within the first few years of life.

The medical definition of Pachyonychia Congenita includes:

1. Nails: Thickening and overcurvature of the nails, often with a yellow-white discoloration.
2. Skin: Formation of blisters and calluses on pressure points such as hands, feet, knees, and elbows. These blisters can be painful and may lead to secondary infections.
3. Palms and soles: Hyperkeratosis (thickening) of the skin on the palms and soles, causing discomfort or pain while walking or performing manual tasks.
4. Mucous membranes: In some cases, the condition can also affect the mucous membranes, leading to oral lesions and thickened vocal cords.
5. Genetics: PC is an autosomal dominant disorder, meaning that only one copy of the mutated gene inherited from either parent is sufficient to cause the disease. However, some cases may result from spontaneous mutations in the affected individual.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Integrins are a type of cell-adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. They are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits, which form more than 24 distinct integrin heterodimers in humans.

Integrins bind to specific ligands, such as ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin), cell surface molecules, and soluble factors, through their extracellular domains. The intracellular domains of integrins interact with the cytoskeleton and various signaling proteins, allowing them to transduce signals from the ECM into the cell (outside-in signaling) and vice versa (inside-out signaling).

These molecular interactions are essential for numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of integrin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

Integrin α6β1, also known as CD49f/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α6 and β1 subunits. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hematopoietic cells. Integrin α6β1 plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesion, particularly to the laminin component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This receptor is involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, integrin α6β1 has been implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in certain cancers.

Keratin-1

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Keratin-9 is not a well-known or widely studied type of keratin. According to available scientific literature, it is one of the many types of keratins that are expressed in certain tissues, such as the nails and hair. However, there is limited information available specifically about Keratin-9's medical definition, structure, or function.

Keratins are a family of fibrous proteins that provide structural support to epithelial cells, which line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels, as well as the inner surfaces of various body structures, such as the respiratory and digestive tracts. They are essential for maintaining the integrity and resilience of these tissues, particularly in areas exposed to mechanical stress or environmental damage.

In summary, while Keratin-9 is a recognized member of the keratin family, there is limited information available about its specific medical definition or role.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

'Dipodomys' is the genus name for kangaroo rats, which are small rodents native to North America. They are called kangaroo rats due to their powerful hind legs and long tails, which they use to hop around like kangaroos. Kangaroo rats are known for their ability to survive in arid environments, as they are able to obtain moisture from the seeds they eat and can concentrate their urine to conserve water. They are also famous for their highly specialized kidneys, which allow them to produce extremely dry urine.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Beta-1 adrenergic receptors (also known as β1-adrenergic receptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. They are activated by the catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine), which are released by the sympathetic nervous system as part of the "fight or flight" response.

When a catecholamine binds to a β1-adrenergic receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to an increase in the rate and force of heart contractions, as well as an increase in renin secretion from the kidneys. These effects help to prepare the body for physical activity by increasing blood flow to the muscles and improving the efficiency of the cardiovascular system.

In addition to their role in the regulation of cardiovascular function, β1-adrenergic receptors have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including lipolysis (the breakdown of fat), glucose metabolism, and the regulation of mood and cognition.

Dysregulation of β1-adrenergic receptor signaling has been linked to several pathological conditions, including heart failure, hypertension, and anxiety disorders. As a result, β1-adrenergic receptors are an important target for the development of therapeutics used in the treatment of these conditions.

Desmoplakins are important proteins that play a crucial role in the structural integrity and function of certain types of cell-to-cell junctions called desmosomes. Desmosomes are specialized structures that connect adjacent cells in tissues that undergo significant mechanical stress, such as the skin, heart, and gut.

Desmoplakins are large proteins that are composed of several domains, including a plakin domain, which interacts with other desmosomal components, and a spectrin-like repeat domain, which binds to intermediate filaments. By linking desmosomes to the intermediate filament network, desmoplakins help to provide mechanical strength and stability to tissues.

Mutations in the genes that encode desmoplakins have been associated with several human genetic disorders, including arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), a heart condition characterized by abnormal heart rhythms and structural changes in the heart muscle, and epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), a skin disorder characterized by blistering and fragility of the skin.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Integrin α1β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-1 (VLA-1) or CD49a/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α1 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α1β1 is primarily expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some immune cells. This integrin binds to several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, IV), laminin, and fibronectin, mediating cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, α1β1 integrin has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, fibrosis, and tumor progression.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma is a rare genetic skin disorder that affects the palms and soles of the feet. It is characterized by thickening and scaling of the skin in these areas due to abnormal keratinization, which is the process of skin cell formation and shedding.

The term "epidermolytic" refers to the specific type of keratoderma that is caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins involved in keratin filament assembly. These mutations lead to the formation of clumps of keratin protein, which disrupts the normal structure and function of the skin cells.

The symptoms of epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma typically appear in infancy or early childhood and may include:

* Thick, scaly, and fissured skin on the palms and soles
* Blistering and erosions of the affected areas
* Pain, itching, and difficulty walking or using the hands
* Increased susceptibility to infections

The condition is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, de novo mutations can also occur.

Treatment for epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma is primarily focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include:

* Emollients and moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated
* Topical keratolytics, such as salicylic acid or urea, to help exfoliate the thickened skin
* Protective padding or footwear to prevent blistering and injury
* Antibiotics to treat secondary infections

In severe cases, systemic retinoids or other medications may be used to reduce the severity of the symptoms. However, these treatments can have significant side effects and should be used with caution.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of several cellular processes, including glycogen metabolism, cell signaling, gene transcription, and apoptosis. It was initially discovered as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism due to its ability to phosphorylate and inhibit glycogen synthase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose.

GSK-3 exists in two isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, which share a high degree of sequence similarity and are widely expressed in various tissues. Both isoforms are constitutively active under normal conditions and are regulated through inhibitory phosphorylation by several upstream signaling pathways, such as insulin, Wnt, and Hedgehog signaling.

Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. In recent years, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel drugs to treat these conditions.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Estrogen Receptor beta (ER-β) is a protein that is encoded by the gene ESR2 in humans. It belongs to the family of nuclear receptors, which are transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to hormonal signals. ER-β is one of two main estrogen receptors, the other being Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α), and it plays an important role in mediating the effects of estrogens in various tissues, including the breast, uterus, bone, brain, and cardiovascular system.

Estrogens are steroid hormones that play a critical role in the development and maintenance of female reproductive and sexual function. They also have important functions in other tissues, such as maintaining bone density and promoting cognitive function. ER-β is widely expressed in many tissues, including those outside of the reproductive system, suggesting that it may have diverse physiological roles beyond estrogen-mediated reproduction.

ER-β has been shown to have both overlapping and distinct functions from ER-α, and its expression patterns differ between tissues. For example, in the breast, ER-β is expressed at higher levels in normal tissue compared to cancerous tissue, suggesting that it may play a protective role against breast cancer development. In contrast, in the uterus, ER-β has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects and may protect against endometrial cancer.

Overall, ER-β is an important mediator of estrogen signaling and has diverse physiological roles in various tissues. Understanding its functions and regulation may provide insights into the development of novel therapies for a range of diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a cytokine that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. It is a multifunctional protein involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix production. TGF-β1 plays crucial roles in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and repair, as well as in pathological conditions such as fibrosis and cancer. It signals through a heteromeric complex of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, primarily the Smad-dependent pathway. TGF-β1 has context-dependent functions, acting as a tumor suppressor in normal and early-stage cancer cells but promoting tumor progression and metastasis in advanced cancers.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Keratin-19 is a type I acidic keratin that is primarily expressed in simple epithelia, such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and epidermal appendages (e.g., hair follicles, sweat glands). It plays an essential role in maintaining the structure and integrity of these tissues by forming intermediate filaments that provide mechanical support to cells.

Keratin-19 is often used as a marker for simple epithelial differentiation and has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer progression and metastasis. Mutations in the KRT19 gene, which encodes keratin-19, have been associated with certain genetic disorders, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex, a blistering skin disorder.

In summary, Keratin-19 is an important structural protein expressed in simple epithelia that plays a crucial role in maintaining tissue integrity and has implications in various pathological conditions.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Nail diseases, also known as onychopathies, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the nail unit, which includes the nail plate, nail bed, lunula, and surrounding skin (nail fold). These diseases can be caused by various factors such as fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections, systemic diseases, trauma, and neoplasms.

Some common examples of nail diseases include:

1. Onychomycosis - a fungal infection that affects the nail plate and bed, causing discoloration, thickening, and crumbling of the nail.
2. Paronychia - an infection or inflammation of the nail fold, caused by bacteria or fungi, resulting in redness, swelling, and pain.
3. Ingrown toenails - a condition where the nail plate grows into the surrounding skin, causing pain, redness, and infection.
4. Onycholysis - a separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, often caused by trauma or underlying medical conditions.
5. Psoriasis - a systemic disease that can affect the nails, causing pitting, ridging, discoloration, and onycholysis.
6. Lichen planus - an inflammatory condition that can affect the skin and nails, causing nail thinning, ridging, and loss.
7. Melanonychia - a darkening of the nail plate due to pigmentation, which can be benign or malignant.
8. Brittle nails - a condition characterized by weak, thin, and fragile nails that easily break or split.
9. Subungual hematoma - a collection of blood under the nail plate, often caused by trauma, resulting in discoloration and pain.
10. Tumors - abnormal growths that can develop in or around the nail unit, ranging from benign to malignant.

Accurate diagnosis and treatment of nail diseases require a thorough examination and sometimes laboratory tests, such as fungal cultures or skin biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and may include topical or oral medications, surgical intervention, or lifestyle modifications.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Mallory bodies are eosinophilic, hyaline inclusions found in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes (liver cells) that are pathognomonic for alcoholic liver disease. They were first described by Mallory in 1911 and are also known as "Mallory's hyaline." These bodies are composed of aggregates of intermediate filaments, primarily keratin, and are thought to result from the oxidative stress and cellular damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The presence of Mallory bodies is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

Beta-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-AR) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are primarily located in the adipose tissue, where they play a role in regulating lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Activation of β3-AR stimulates the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase, which leads to the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of free fatty acids. This process is important for maintaining energy homeostasis and can be activated through exercise, cold exposure, or pharmacological means.

In addition to their role in metabolism, β3-AR have also been implicated in the regulation of cardiovascular function, bladder function, and inflammation. Selective β3-AR agonists are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Medical definitions of "malformed nails" may vary, but generally, it refers to a condition where the nails are abnormally formed or shaped. This can include various deformities such as:

1. Koilonychia: Also known as "spoon nails," where the nails appear scooped out and concave.
2. Pterygium: A condition where skin grows over the nail, causing it to adhere to the finger.
3. Onychogryphosis: Also known as "ram's horn nails," where the nails become thick, curved, and overgrown.
4. Brachyonychia: Shortened nails that do not grow normally.
5. Onychauxis: Thickening of the nails.
6. Leukonychia: White spots or lines on the nails.
7. Beau's lines: Indentations across the nails, often caused by a previous illness or injury.
8. Pitting: Small depressions or holes in the nails.
9. Cracking or splitting of the nails.

These nail abnormalities can be caused by various factors such as genetics, fungal infections, trauma, nutritional deficiencies, and underlying medical conditions.

The Beta rhythm is a type of brain wave that is typically observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of awake, alert individuals. It has a frequency range of 13-30 Hz (cycles per second) and is most prominent over the frontal and central regions of the scalp. Beta activity is associated with active thinking, problem solving, and focused attention. It can be suppressed during states of relaxation, meditation, or sleep. Additionally, abnormal beta activity has been observed in certain neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and seizure disorders.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Juvenile epithelial corneal dystrophy of Meesmann is a rare hereditary eye condition that affects the cornea, which is the clear front part of the eye. This condition is typically present at birth or appears during infancy and can affect both eyes. It is caused by mutations in the K3 and K12 genes, which provide instructions for making proteins called keratins that are found in the corneal epithelial cells.

In this condition, there is a abnormal accumulation of these misfolded keratin proteins in the corneal epithelium, leading to the formation of tiny opaque bumps or microcysts on the surface of the cornea. These microcysts can cause visual symptoms such as photophobia (light sensitivity), tearing, and decreased vision. The severity of the condition can vary widely among affected individuals, ranging from mild to severe.

The progression of juvenile epithelial corneal dystrophy of Meesmann is generally slow, but in some cases, it may lead to more serious complications such as corneal erosions, scarring, and loss of vision. Currently, there is no cure for this condition, and treatment is mainly focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. This may include the use of artificial tears, ointments, or bandage contact lenses to protect the cornea and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, a corneal transplant may be necessary.

Beta-keratins are a type of keratin proteins that are mainly found in the cells of reptiles, birds, and some mammals such as marsupials. These proteins make up the scales, feathers, claws, beaks, and other hard structures of these animals. Beta-keratins have a different molecular structure compared to alpha-keratins, which are the predominant type of keratins found in mammalian skin, hair, and nails.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

DNA polymerase beta is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the repair and maintenance of DNA in cells. It is a member of the DNA polymerase family, which are enzymes responsible for synthesizing new strands of DNA during replication and repair processes.

More specifically, DNA polymerase beta is involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, which is a mechanism for correcting damaged or mismatched bases in DNA. This enzyme functions by removing the damaged or incorrect base and replacing it with a new, correct one, using the undamaged strand as a template.

DNA polymerase beta has several key features that make it well-suited to its role in BER. It is highly processive, meaning that it can add many nucleotides to the growing DNA chain before dissociating from the template. It also has a high catalytic rate and is able to efficiently incorporate new nucleotides into the DNA chain.

Overall, DNA polymerase beta is an essential enzyme for maintaining genomic stability and preventing the accumulation of mutations in cells. Defects in this enzyme have been linked to various human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "wool" is not a term that has a medical definition. Wool refers to the thick coat of hair that is characteristic of sheep and some other animals. It is often used to create textiles and clothing due to its warmth and durability. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and stimulate beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skeletal muscles. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and play a role in regulating various physiological processes such as heart rate, blood pressure, and airway diameter.

When beta-2 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), relaxation of smooth muscle, and increased heart rate and force of contraction. These effects make them useful in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and premature labor.

Examples of adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists include albuterol, terbutaline, salmeterol, and formoterol. These medications can be administered by inhalation, oral administration, or injection, depending on the specific drug and the condition being treated.

It's important to note that while adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects such as tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and headaches. In addition, long-term use of some beta-2 agonists has been associated with increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations and even death in some cases. Therefore, it's important to use these medications only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Griseofulvin is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including those affecting the skin, hair, and nails. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi, particularly dermatophytes, which cause these infections. Griseofulvin can be obtained through a prescription and is available in oral (by mouth) and topical (on the skin) forms.

The primary mechanism of action for griseofulvin involves binding to tubulin, a protein necessary for fungal cell division. This interaction disrupts the formation of microtubules, which are crucial for the fungal cell's structural integrity and growth. As a result, the fungi cannot grow and multiply, allowing the infected tissue to heal and the infection to resolve.

Common side effects associated with griseofulvin use include gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, dizziness, and skin rashes. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking griseofulvin, as improper usage may lead to reduced effectiveness or increased risk of side effects.

It is important to note that griseofulvin has limited use in modern medicine due to the development of newer and more effective antifungal agents. However, it remains a valuable option for specific fungal infections, particularly those resistant to other treatments.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

... alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. Alpha-keratin is seen in humans and other mammals, beta-keratin is present in birds and ... "beta-keratins" in recent works is replaced by "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins." β-keratins add ... Beta-keratin (β-keratin) is a member of a structural protein family found in the epidermis of reptiles and birds. Beta-keratins ... Beta-keratin is harder than alpha-keratin. Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical coiled coil structure while beta- ...
These keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets. However, beta sheets are also found in α-keratins. Recent scholarship has ... The harder beta-keratins (β-keratins) are found only in the sauropsids, that is all living reptiles and birds. They are found ... The new term corneous beta protein (CBP) has been proposed to avoid confusion with α-keratins. Keratins (also described as ... Alpha-keratin (α-keratin) is a type of keratin found in vertebrates. It is the key structural material making up scales, hair, ...
Mansbridge JN, Hanawalt PC (March 1988). "Role of transforming growth factor beta in the maturation of human epidermal ... Is co-expressed with and binds to Keratin 10, a Type I keratin, to form a coiled coil heterotypic keratin chain. Keratin 1 and ... This difference is likely due to Keratin 9, rather than Keratin 10, being the major binding partner of Keratin 1 in acral (palm ... In contrast, basal layer keratinocytes express little to no Keratin 1. Mutations in KRT1, the gene encoding Keratin 1, have ...
It has been found, that beta-keratins aid in formation of scales, as the keratin proteins produce a pre-corneous layer of ... Toni, Mattia; Alibardi, Lorenzo (2007-02-01). "Alpha- and beta-keratins of the snake epidermis". Zoology. 110 (1): 41-47. doi: ... Snakeskin is composed of a soft, flexible inner layer (alpha-layer), as well as a hard, inflexible outer surface (beta-layer). ... The regions between snake scales is made of soft integument called an alpha-layer, which is composed of alpha-keratin that ...
Ishida M, Kushima R, Okabe H (2009). "Aberrant expression of class III beta-tubulin in basal cell carcinoma of the skin". Oncol ... Keratin 20, often abbreviated CK20, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT20 gene. Keratin 20 is a type I ... "New consensus nomenclature for mammalian keratins". J. Cell Biol. 174 (2): 169-74. doi:10.1083/jcb.200603161. PMC 2064177. PMID ... Keratins, All stub articles, Human chromosome 17 gene stubs). ...
Scales mostly consist of hard beta keratins which are basically transparent. The colours of the scale are due to pigments in ... Snake scales are made of keratin, the same material that hair and fingernails are made of. They are cool and dry to touch. ... Anatomical terms of location Canthus (snake) Fish scale Keratin Moult Reptile scale Snake Scale (zoology) from Latin mentum " ...
Werner S, Munz B (January 2000). "Suppression of keratin 15 expression by transforming growth factor beta in vitro and by ... Whittock NV, Eady RA, McGrath JA (January 2000). "Genomic organization and amplification of the human keratin 15 and keratin 19 ... Keratin 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT15 gene. It has also been referred to as cytokeratin 15, K1CO and ... Keratin 15 is a type I cytokeratin. It is well-expressed in the basal layer of complex epithelia. However, acral keratinocytes ...
They often have prominent, lumpy ridges and are covered in hard-wearing beta-keratin. The head and jaws lack actual scales and ... The outer surface of the scutes consists of the relatively rigid beta-keratin while the hinge region between the scutes ... contains only the more pliable alpha-keratin. Many of the scutes are strengthened by bony plates known as osteoderms, which are ...
Schweitzer, M. H.; Watt, J. A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin specific ... and immunohistochemical studies and found that they consisted of beta-keratin, which is the primary protein in feathers. The ...
Greenwold, Matthew J.; Sawyer, Roger H. (15 December 2011). "Linking the molecular evolution of avian beta (β) keratins to the ... Alibardi, L.; Knapp, L. W.; Sawyer, R. H. (June 2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers ... Alibardi, L; Knapp, LW; Sawyer, RH (2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers in relation ... Feathers and scales are made up of two distinct forms of keratin, and it was long thought that each type of keratin was ...
Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin specific ... In particular, a fossil of the Alvarezsauridae Shuvuuia has a version of keratin consistent with that of avian feathers. Many ...
HTML abstract) Schweitzer, M.H.; Watt, J.A.; Avci, R.; Knapp, L.; Chiappe, L.; Norell, M.; Marshall, M. (1999). "Beta-keratin ...
1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ...
... the absence of alpha-keratin. While beta-keratin is found in all integumentary (skin and feather) cells of reptiles and birds, ... 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ... biochemical analyses later showed that these structures contain decay products of the protein beta-keratin, and more ... only bird feathers completely lack alpha-keratin. These findings show that, though poorly preserved, Shuvuuia likely possessed ...
This is conferred by the presence of beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer. In the human forearm, about ... Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing ... Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol ... which allows the cells to concentrate keratin and toughen them before they rise into a typically thicker, more cohesive SC. The ...
... is composed of several layers of overlapping sheets of beta keratin . Each keratin sublayer is between 2 and 10 micrometers ... The keratin shell can therefore be considered transversely isotropic. The fracture modes of the keratin shell demonstrate a ... From testing the keratin-layer of the beak, it was found the mean value of the Yield Strength is 30 MPa. Further, the yield ... Keratin in the rhamphotheca of the toucan beak has a much lower abundance of sulfur, and therefore the amino acid, cystine, ...
2018). A study on the putative beta-keratin antibodies reported in a fossil specimen of Shuvuuia deserti by Schweitzer et al. ( ... M.H. Schweitzer; J.A. Watt; R. Avci; L. Knapp; L. Chiappe; M. Norell; M. Marshall (1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological ...
July 1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous alvarezsaurid, ...
... alpha-keratin can even change into beta-keratin, a stronger keratin formation that has a secondary structure of beta-pleated ... Alpha-keratin, or α-keratin, is a type of keratin found in mammalian vertebrates. This protein is the primary component in ... a type I alpha-keratin, to form the alpha-keratin complex of the epidermis layer of cells in the skin. Hard alpha-keratins, ... Alpha-keratins proteins can be one of two types: type I or type II. There are 54 keratin genes in humans, 28 of which code for ...
1999). "Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the Cretaceous Alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia ... Alibardi, Lorenzo; Knapp, Loren W.; Sawyer, Roger H. (2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and ... Fossils of keratin-based skin coverings or bony skin coverings are known from most major groups of dinosaurs. Dinosaur fossils ... Of these, skin coverings based on keratin proteins are most easily preserved because of their cross-linked, hydrophobic ...
The naming convention for these keratins follows that for protein structures: alpha keratin is helical and beta keratin is ... Alpha keratin is found in mammalian hair, skin, nails, horn and quills, while beta keratin can be found in avian and reptilian ... Keratin is a structural protein located at the hard surfaces in many vertebrates. Keratin has two forms, α-keratin and β- ... This tensile strength is an order of magnitude higher than human nails (20MPa), because human hair's keratin filaments are more ...
Fossil feathers from the dinosaur Sinosauropteryx contain traces of beta-proteins (formerly called beta-keratins), confirming ... Crocodilians also possess beta keratin similar to those of birds, which suggests that they evolved from common ancestral genes ... Alibardi, L.; Knapp, L. W.; Sawyer, R. H. (1 June 2006). "Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers ... Diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins". Journal of Experimental Zoology ...
... and subsequent demonstration that beta-keratin is made of beta sheets consigned the alpha sheet proposal to obscurity. However ... they suggested that it agreed well with fiber diffraction results from beta-keratin fibers. However, since the alpha sheet did ... For example, amyloid beta is a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, and ... Most beta sheets in known proteins are "twisted" about 15° for optimal hydrogen bonding and steric packing; however, some ...
... all made of tough beta-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier, especially regarding the passage of chemicals via skin ... The epidermis of birds and reptiles is closer to that of mammals, with a layer of dead keratin-filled cells at the surface, to ... The epidermis of fish and of most amphibians consists entirely of live cells, with only minimal quantities of keratin in the ... between each other and secreting keratin proteins and lipids which contribute to the formation of an extracellular matrix and ...
The beta activity was extremely high, with beta/gamma ratio reaching 10-30[clarification needed] and beta energy high enough to ... Due to the keratin in the epidermal layer of the skin, external alpha burns are limited to only mild reddening of the outermost ... Beta burns tend to be shallow as beta particles are not able to penetrate deeply into a body; these burns can be similar to ... Most energies of beta emissions are at about a third of the maximum energy. Beta emissions have much lower energies than what ...
They are made of alpha and beta-keratin and are formed from the epidermis (contrary to fish, in which the scales are formed ...
The addition of beta-keratin, a strong protein, would indeed allow the plates to bear more weight, suggesting they may have ...
... true epidermal scales are composed of a mix of alpha and beta keratin). This, along with their unique structure, has led to the ... The scales of birds are composed of keratin like their beaks and claws, and are found mainly on the toes and metatarsus, though ... rhamphotheca The outer surface of the beak consisting of a thin horny sheath of keratin, which can be subdivided into the ... The outer surface is covered in a thin, horny sheath of keratin called rhamphotheca specially called rhinotheca in the upper ...
However, histological and evolutionary developmental work in this area revealed that these structures lack beta-keratin (a ... The scales of birds are composed of keratin, like beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and tarsi (lower ... hallmark of reptilian scales) and are entirely composed of alpha-keratin. This, along with their unique structure, has led to ...
While it is true that feather beta keratin is present in crocodilian scales in embryonic development, it fails to support the ... diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins". Journal of Experimental Zoology ... Greenwold, Matthew J.; Sawyer, Roger H. (June 6, 2013). "Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian β-keratins: ...
... alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. Alpha-keratin is seen in humans and other mammals, beta-keratin is present in birds and ... "beta-keratins" in recent works is replaced by "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins." β-keratins add ... Beta-keratin (β-keratin) is a member of a structural protein family found in the epidermis of reptiles and birds. Beta-keratins ... Beta-keratin is harder than alpha-keratin. Structurally alpha-keratin have alpha-helical coiled coil structure while beta- ...
These keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets. However, beta sheets are also found in α-keratins.[11] Recent scholarship ... The harder beta-keratins (β-keratins) are found only in the sauropsids, that is all living reptiles and birds. They are found ... keratin 8 keratin 18, keratin 20 simple epithelium Cornification[edit]. Cornification is the process of forming an epidermal ... Alpha-keratin (α-keratin) is a type of keratin found in vertebrates. It is the key structural material making up scales, hair, ...
Linking the molecular evolution of avian beta keratins to the evolution of feathers. J. Exp. Zool (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 316B: 609- ... archosaurian b‐keratins: Diversification and expansion of archosaurian β‐keratins and the origin of feather β‐keratins. J. Exp ... Knapp, R.H. Sawyer. 2006. Beta-keratin localization in developing alligator scales and feathers in relation to the development ... The epidermal appendages of extant reptiles and birds, such as scales, claws and feathers, are constructed of beta (β) keratin ...
... lightweight protein called beta-keratin. We use keratin, a related protein, to form skin, hair, and fingernails, but beta- ... Beta-keratin is more durable than keratin and produces a feather that is light but wont easily break under the aerodynamic ... keratin is only found in birds and reptiles.. Feathers are part of the largest organ in a birds body. They need to be light, ...
The setae are made of the protein beta keratin. At the nanoscopic level, the intermolecular forces of the setae result in an ...
Among the biomaterials under consideration to date, beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has emerged as a promising material for ... Among the biomaterials under consideration to date, beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has emerged as a promising material for ... Rahmany, M. B., Hantgan, R. R., and Van Dyke, M. (2013). A Mechanistic Investigation of the Effect of Keratin-Based Hemostatic ... B Beta Glu397 and B Beta Asp398 but Not B Beta Asp432 Are Required for "B:b" Interactions. Biochemistry 43, 2465-2474. doi: ...
14] Low-molecular-weight keratins such as Cam 5.2 are positive in both syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts. Placental ... and pregnancy-specific beta-1 glycoprotein (SP1), whereas cytotrophoblasts are negative for all of these markers. [ ...
It also found in beta-keratin. This is the main protein found in hair, skin, and nails. This amino acid is only found in trace ...
Solaray Collagen Keratin 60 Capsules , Type I, II, and III Keratin Collagen Solaray Collagen Keratin is a supplement designed ... Solaray L-Lysine & Beta Glucan 1000mg 60 Caps , Immunity Enhancement Supplement 30 Servings Lysine is one of the essential ...
... and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least ... whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, ... Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, ... Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; ...
It contains Mineral Oil, Petrolatum and Beta Keratin . It has worked for many years.. I add a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar ...
Frequent beta catenin and glutamine synthetase in the epithelial fetal (except the well differentiated and low mitotic subtype ...
For example, crocodiles have a beta-keratin gene so some may jump to the conclusion that that crocodiles are somehow related to ... The problem is that the non-coding regions determine the structure of the beta-keratin. Therefore the non-coding portion has to ... For example, crocodiles have a beta-keratin gene so some may jump to the conclusion that that crocodiles are somehow related to ...
PORTLAND, 5933 NE WIN SILVERS DRIVE, UNITED STATES, November 7, 2023 /EINPresswire.com/ -- Keratin is a type of molecule ... The current market is quantitatively analyzed to highlight the growth scenario keratin products market. ... There are two types of keratin products available in the market: alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. Alpha-keratin is a type of ... Keratin Products Market Report Highlights. By Product Type. • Alpha-keratin. • Beta-keratin ...
There are two types of keratin products available in the market, alpha-keratin products and beta-keratin products. Alpha- ... Beta-keratin provides vitamin A and is used for healthy skin and eyes. Keratin products are used in tissue culture and have ... 5.2 Alpha-Keratin. 5.2.1 Market Size & Forecast (Value & Volume). 5.3 Beta-Keratin. 5.3.1 Market Size & Forecast (Value & ... The global keratin market size is projected to reach USD 2.03 billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 6% during the forecast ...
Pure natural water, and pure mineral silicone, which help the keratin to permeate the hair to repair and rebuild the structure ... Keratin Pure line is designed for hair that is damaged, bleached, or very thin. This formula will not overwhelm already damaged ... Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract. * Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Bark/ Leaf/ Twig Extract ... COCOCHOCO Pure Brazilian Keratin Hair Treatment For blonde / thin hair - Keratin Pure line is specially designed for hair that ...
Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in garden beets (Beta vulgaris) PHYTOCHEMISTRY Rubenstein, E., Zhou, H., Krasinska, K. M., Chien, A ... In many species, including man, L-Aze is misincorporated into protein in place of proline, altering collagen, keratin, ... Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze) 1 is a non-protein amino acid present in sugar beets and in table beets (Beta vulgaris). It ... Herein we report the presence of L-Aze in the garden or table beet (Beta vulgaris). ...
There is no charge to parents accepted into a beta upgrade program; however, the beta upgrade program should not be viewed as a ... Thicker Skin: Homo neanderthalensis-Neanderthals-produced far more keratin (a fibrous protein) than Homo sapiens. Compared to ... Our current beta upgrade programs include:. • Respiratory Upgrade: Each lung is made up of smaller lobes, three on the right ... Which beta upgrade programs are available during my IVG cycle?. Its always best to check with your genetic architect to learn ...
Its a beta-hydroxy acid (known as a BHA) which is a type of gentle exfoliator. Its also considered keratolytic, which means ... it breaks down the keratin in your skin -the protein that makes up your skin barrier - and exfoliates for a smoother, more ...
Fibrinogen beta chain precursor. 233. 23. 45.10 %. 54719. 6.69. 0.383466. 4. 6755207. Proteasome subunit beta Type-7 precursor ... were found after the elimination of high abundance proteins such as keratin. Among them, 5 protein spots were closely related ... Proteasome subunit beta type-7 and proteasome subunit alpha type-1 transformed by proteasome subunit beta type-7 precursor are ... Fibrinogen Beta Chain Precursor) decreased by 38 %, protein spot 4 (Proteasome Subunit Beta Type-7 Precursor) increased by 3.27 ...
Hair System Ws Keratin Silk Shampoo 500ml cleanses the hair and nourished the scalp while rebalancing moisture, for smooth, ... Hydrolyzed Keratin. Butylene Glycol, Glycerin. Trametes Versicolor Extract. Sodium Acetate, Beta Vulgaris (Beet) Root Extract. ... For best results, follow with Hair System by Watsons Keratin Silk Conditioner. ...
Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA) Gently exfoliates the scalp to remove loose dandruff flakes. ... Watermelon, Lychee and Edelweiss Flower defend hair from oxidative stress, photoaging and the deterioration of natural keratin ... Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA) Gently exfoliates the scalp to remove loose dandruff flakes. ... Watermelon, Lychee and Edelweiss Flower defend hair from oxidative stress, photoaging and the deterioration of natural keratin ...
Hydrolyzed wheat protein is well-known for its strengthening properties and its ability to replenish the void of keratin with ... Currently this is a Beta Version of Livysh website. If you find any issues or difficulties using the website, please email us ... La Decus India Keratin Smooth Conditioner infused with natural hydrolyzed wheat keratin,argan oil & almond oil. " ... "Hydrolyzed wheat protein is well-known for its strengthening properties and its ability to replenish the void of keratin with ...
Beta Carotene Forte 15 mg ( beta carotene ) 20 capsules. 15EGP *+ Add to compare ... HAIRTONIC ( THIAMINE 60 MG + BIOTIN 0.15 MG + PANTOTHENATE 55 MG + SELENIUM 110 MCG + L-CYSTEINE 20 MG + KERATIN 20 MG + P- ... HAIRTONIC ( THIAMINE 60 MG + BIOTIN 0.15 MG + PANTOTHENATE 55 MG + SELENIUM 110 MCG + L-CYSTEINE 20 MG + KERATIN 20 MG + P- ... HAIRTONIC ( THIAMINE 60 MG + BIOTIN 0.15 MG + PANTOTHENATE 55 MG + SELENIUM 110 MCG + L-CYSTEINE 20 MG + KERATIN 20 MG + P- ...
... is beta-keratin. ... which is keratin, thats a keratinocytes, produces keratin. ... So you slow down keratin production, you work on the thickness of the sebum and the hyper-secretion of the sebum, and you work ... When a skin cell is hyper-proliferating and is producing lots of keratin, it can cause little plugs. This only happens to ... So to me, if youre gonna work with bacteria, I love salicylic acid, because salicylic acid also has an anti-keratin effect, ...
Transformative: Astaxanthins antioxidant action is over 50x more powerful than common antioxidants like Vitamin C & Beta ... Daily Value of probiotic-fermented Biotin to support your natural production of keratin ...
Echosline Seliár Keratin crema hranitoare pentru varfuri despicate. Echosline Seliár Keratin crema hranitoare pentru varfuri ... Medavita Beta Refibre B-Nectar Reconstructive Hair Cream tratament pentru reconstituirea fibrei părului pentru par sensibil. ... Medavita Beta Refibre B-Nectar Reconstructive Hair Cream tratament pentru reconstituirea fibrei părului pentru par sensibil 50 ...
Amyloid beta protein deposits in the brain contribute to Alzheimer disease Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease causes ... Rarely, other locally produced proteins cause amyloidosis, such as keratin isoforms that can form deposits locally in the skin ... Amyloid deposits are composed of small (about 10 nm diameter), insoluble fibrils that form congophilic beta-pleated sheets that ... Amyloidosis caused by aggregation of beta-2-microglobulin can occur in patients on long-term hemodialysis, but the incidence ...
Beta-Keratin : 449 microgram. *Lutein Zeaxanthin : 2477 microgram. *Thiamine (B1) : 0.266 mg ...
  • The benefits of keratin-based dressings are expected to drive the global keratin market to grow during the forecast period. (beautyring.info)
  • The global keratin market size was valued at USD 1.2 billion in 2021. (my.id)
  • The global keratin market size is projected to reach USD 2.03 billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 6% during the forecast period (2022-2030). (my.id)
  • In birds, the β-keratin multigene family has diverged into four major subfamilies, scale, claw, feather-like, and feather (Presland et al. (sc.edu)
  • The human genome encodes 54 functional keratin genes , located in two clusters on chromosomes 12 and 17. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US FDA, European Union, Australian, and New Zealand regulatory authorities have all authorized Replicine Functional Keratin advanced wound dressings. (beautyring.info)
  • For best results, follow with Hair System by Watsons Keratin Silk Conditioner. (watsons.ae)
  • La' Decus India Keratin Smooth Conditioner infused with natural hydrolyzed wheat keratin,argan oil & almond oil. (livysh.com)
  • The scales, beaks, claws and feathers of birds contain β-keratin of the avian family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duplication and divergence events then led to claw β-keratin genes, and further recombination resulted in new feather and feather-like avian β-keratin genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study using molecular dating methods to link the evolution of avian β-keratin genes in general to that of feathers specifically reveals that the avian β-keratin family began diverging from the crocodile family about 216 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, feathered relatives of birds such as Anchiornis and Archaeopteryx, whose flight capabilities have been questioned, would have had avian, but not feather, β-keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of the avian β-keratin genes from the chicken and zebra finch genomes have shown that the avian scale β-keratin subfamily is closely related to the β-keratins of crocodilians and basal to the claw β-keratin subfamily, which is basal to the feather-like and feather β-keratin subfamilies (Greenwold and Sawyer, 2010). (sc.edu)
  • Presently we are using molecular dating approaches, such as BEAST, to gain a better understanding of the how the molecular evolution of the avian β-keratins relates to the evolutionary origin of feathers. (sc.edu)
  • Our approach is to combine molecular dating techniques with knowledge of the sauropsid fossil record, feather development, molecular evolution of the avian β-keratins, and the biophysical properties of feathers to gain a better understanding of feather evolution. (sc.edu)
  • Genomic organization, transcriptomic analysis, and functional characterization of avian alpha- and beta-keratins in diverse feather forms. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Keratin is extremely insoluble in water and organic solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid deposits are composed of small (about 10 nm diameter), insoluble fibrils that form congophilic beta-pleated sheets that can be identified by x-ray diffraction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Keratin is insoluble in water, so it provides hair with waterproofing properties. (juliasbeautyblog.com)
  • Using the source a bit more to explain what each gene and each zone of genes mean will be helpful, as we currently have no particular examples of a hair keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-keratins were named so because they are components of epidermal stratum corneum rich in stacked beta sheets, in contrast to alpha-keratins, intermediate-filament proteins also found in stratum corneum and rich in alpha helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the accurate use of the term keratin is limited to the alpha-keratins, the term "beta-keratins" in recent works is replaced by "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratin ( / ˈ k ɛr ə t ɪ n / [1] [2] ) is one of a family of structural fibrous proteins also known as scleroproteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins that make up the amyloids are abnormal versions of proteins called keratins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alpha-keratin is a type of protein that helps to keep hair, nails, and skin supple and wrinkle-free. (beautyring.info)
  • Alpha-keratin is a type of protein that is mostly used for hair, nails, and making skin soft and wrinkle-free. (my.id)
  • ULMW SPRITZ essence is the first step in the Green Keratin skincare routine for all those who want soft, hydrated and healthy-looking skin. (greenkeratin.fr)
  • β-keratins found in modern feathers have increased elasticity, a factor that may have contributed to their role in flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidermal appendages of extant reptiles and birds, such as scales, claws and feathers, are constructed of beta (β) keratin, a unique fibrous protein, in which a filament-matrix structure is formed by each single β-keratin molecule, unlike the situation in mammalian epidermal appendages where alpha (α) keratin molecules interact with distinct matrix molecules to form cornified appendages, such as hair (see Fraser and Parry, 2008, 2010). (sc.edu)
  • Thus the evolutionary origin of feathers does not coincide with the molecular evolution of feather β-keratins found in modern birds. (sc.edu)
  • Recent biophysical studies of the β-keratins in today's feathers support the view that the appearance of the subfamily of feather β-keratins altered the biophysical nature of the feather establishing its role in powered flight. (sc.edu)
  • Feathers are made of a strong, lightweight protein called beta-keratin . (raptorresource.org)
  • Astaxanthin's antioxidant action is over 50x more powerful than common antioxidants like Vitamin C & Beta Carotene (as shown in preclinical lab testing). (dillons.com)
  • Beta carotene is a nutrient, but it surely simply freaks all people out when the stools come out yellow or orange. (tennesseemag.com)
  • Beta-keratin (β-keratin) is a member of a structural protein family found in the epidermis of reptiles and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratin monomers assemble into bundles to form intermediate filaments , which are tough and form strong unmineralized epidermal appendages found in reptiles , birds , amphibians , and mammals . (wikipedia.org)
  • The harder beta-keratins (β-keratins) are found only in the sauropsids , that is all living reptiles and birds . (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acid sequence (31-32 residues) of the central filament region of β-keratins is highly conserved throughout all reptiles and birds suggesting that this domain has changed little in ~285 Ma of evolution (Fraser and Parry, 2010). (sc.edu)
  • We use keratin, a related protein, to form skin, hair, and fingernails, but beta-keratin is only found in birds and reptiles. (raptorresource.org)
  • The scale β-keratins form the basal group in avians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greenwold and Sawyer (2011) demonstrate that the basal β-keratins of birds began diverging from their archosaurian ancestor ~216 million years ago, while the subfamily of feather β-keratins, as found in living birds, began diverging ~143 million years ago. (sc.edu)
  • Keratins (also described as cytokeratins ) are polymers of type I and type II intermediate filaments that have been found only in chordates ( vertebrates , amphioxus , urochordates ). (wikipedia.org)
  • PORTLAND, 5933 NE WIN SILVERS DRIVE, UNITED STATES, November 7, 2023 / EINPresswire.com / - Keratin is a type of molecule present in glands and internal organs that is required for skin, nail, and hair growth. (beautyring.info)
  • It also found that the feather β-keratin family did not begin diverging until 125 million years ago, a date consistent with the adaptive radiation of birds during the Cretaceous. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the genomes of birds become available (i.e., chicken, turkey, and zebra finch), comparative studies of the genomic organization of the β keratin subfamilies provide information on how the genotype influences phenotype (Greenwold and Sawyer, 2010). (sc.edu)
  • Dynamic evolution of the alpha and beta keratins has accompanied integument diversification and the adaptation of birds into novel lifestyles. (sc.edu)
  • β-keratins add much more rigidity to reptilian skin than alpha-keratins alone do to mammalian skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for these duplication events comes from the correlation of feather β-keratin clade structure with their genomic loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chicken frizzle feather is due to an alpha-keratin (KRT75) mutation that causes a defective rachis. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Topographical mapping of alpha- and beta-keratins on developing chicken skin integuments: Functional interaction and evolutionary perspectives. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • The new term corneous beta protein (CBP) has been proposed to avoid confusion with α-keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic studies of β-keratin sequences show that feather β-keratins evolved from scale β-keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-keratins are impregnated into the stratum corneum of the reptilian skin, providing waterproofing and the prevention of desiccation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I, II, and III Keratin Collagen Solaray Collagen Keratin is a supplement designed to support healthy hair, healthy skin, and healthy aging. (supplementwarehouse.com)
  • Keratin products are typically utilized on the outside of the skin as a protective layer, to preserve flexibility & compactness, to control cell proliferation through skin regeneration & softening, and to reduce wrinkles. (beautyring.info)
  • Beta-keratin is a precursor to vitamin A and is important for maintaining healthy skin and eyes. (beautyring.info)
  • New York, United States, Oct. 25, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - Keratin is a biochemical that is used in developing and producing personal care products, specifically for nails, skin, and hair. (my.id)
  • Beta-keratin provides vitamin A and is used for healthy skin and eyes. (my.id)
  • It's also considered 'keratolytic,' which means it breaks down the keratin in your skin -the protein that makes up your skin barrier - and exfoliates for a smoother, more refined appearance, loosening dead skin cells and removing them swiftly. (sheerluxe.com)
  • Kola seeds: interact with the skin's keratin to give the skin a distinctive bright brown color. (yalladealnow.com)
  • Keratin also acts as a component of the skin and nails. (juliasbeautyblog.com)
  • Allantoin: An anti-inflammatory moisturizer that aids the keratin found in your skin. (redfacesolutions.com)
  • Watermelon, Lychee and Edelweiss Flower defend hair from oxidative stress, photoaging and the deterioration of natural keratin while protecting from the drying, damaging and color-depleting effects of the elements. (oribe.com)
  • Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease causes progressive cognitive deterioration and is characterized by beta-amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex and subcortical gray matter. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 2013 . Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian b ‐ keratins: Diversification and expansion of archosaurian β ‐ keratins and the origin of feather β ‐ keratins. (sc.edu)
  • Beet juice (Beta Vulgaris extract): It is very rich in vitamin C, betanin, silicone, rutin and B vitamins. (greenkeratin.fr)
  • The horns of the impala are made of keratin covering a core of bone . (wikipedia.org)
  • COCOCHOCO Pure Brazilian Keratin Hair Treatment For blonde / thin hair - Keratin Pure line is specially designed for hair that is damaged, bleached, or very thin. (cocochoco.eu)
  • Ingredients include pure natural water, and pure mineral silicone, which help the keratin to permeate the hair to repair and rebuild the structure, leaving you with healthier-looking and feeling hair. (cocochoco.eu)
  • Hair is composed mainly of keratin, a strong protein. (juliasbeautyblog.com)
  • Besides its important role in forming the structure of the hair, keratin helps the hair to be elastic. (juliasbeautyblog.com)
  • Although hair varies in density, thickness, and color, it is composed primarily of keratin. (juliasbeautyblog.com)
  • Replenishing lost nutrients & keratin to dry damaged, thirsty hair from the inside out. (curlsfusion.com)
  • The ingredients penetrate the hair shaft to improve keratin production. (curlsfusion.com)
  • [10] These keratins are formed primarily in beta sheets . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a rare hereditary form of beta-2-microglobulin amyloidosis due to a mutation to the relevant gene. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Keratin also protects epithelial cells from damage or stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells react with antibodies for keratin 5, keratin 8, and keratin 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • The market has grown due to changes in lifestyle, increased preference for better personal care products, and increased usage of keratin products in medicine administration, wound treatments, and tissue culture. (beautyring.info)
  • Keratin products are used in tissue culture and have several biomedical applications due to biocompatible and biodegradable nature. (my.id)
  • Spider silk is classified as keratin, [9] although production of the protein may have evolved independently of the process in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratin bars and shakes are often ingested in order to increase keratin production in the body. (beautyring.info)
  • Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. (curehunter.com)
  • Alpha-keratin (α-keratin) is a type of keratin found in vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-keratins (α-keratins) are found in all vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. (curehunter.com)
  • There are two types of keratin products available in the market: alpha-keratin and beta-keratin. (beautyring.info)
  • There are two types of keratin, namely alpha and beta keratin. (juliasbeautyblog.com)
  • Alpha keratin is the strongest type. (juliasbeautyblog.com)
  • Amyloidosis caused by aggregation of beta-2-microglobulin can occur in patients on long-term hemodialysis, but the incidence has declined with use of modern high-flow dialysis membranes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • [4] The baleen plates of filter-feeding whales are also made of keratin. (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Recent scholarship has shown that sauropsid β-keratins are fundamentally different from α-keratins at a genetic and structural level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolyzed wheat protein is well-known for its strengthening properties and its ability to replenish the void of keratin with its cystine content. (livysh.com)