beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Nuclear Pore: An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins: Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.BoliviaBiotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.EcuadorCasein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)AlabamaEnterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.RNA, Nuclear: RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Jasminum: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides and this is the source of oil of jasmine.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.

Phosphorylation-dependent binding of hepatitis B virus core particles to the nuclear pore complex. (1/444)

Although many viruses replicate in the nucleus, little is known about the processes involved in the nuclear import of viral genomes. We show here that in vitro generated core particles of human hepatitis B virus bind to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in digitonin-permeabilized mammalian cells. This only occurred if the cores contained phosphorylated core proteins. Binding was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin, by antinuclear pore complex antibodies, and by peptides corresponding either to classical nuclear localization signals (NLS) or to COOH-terminal sequences of the core protein. Binding was dependent on the nuclear transport factors importins (karyopherins) alpha and beta. The results suggested that phosphorylation induces exposure of NLS in the COOH-terminal portion of the core protein that allows core binding to the NPCs by the importin- (karyopherin-) mediated pathway. Thus, phosphorylation of the core protein emerged as an important step in the viral replication cycle necessary for transport of the viral genome to the nucleus.  (+info)

Transportin-SR, a nuclear import receptor for SR proteins. (2/444)

The SR proteins, a group of abundant arginine/serine (RS)-rich proteins, are essential pre-mRNA splicing factors that are localized in the nucleus. The RS domain of these proteins serves as a nuclear localization signal. We found that RS domain-bearing proteins do not utilize any of the known nuclear import receptors and identified a novel nuclear import receptor specific for SR proteins. The SR protein import receptor, termed transportin-SR (TRN-SR), binds specifically and directly to the RS domains of ASF/SF2 and SC35 as well as several other SR proteins. The nuclear transport regulator RanGTP abolishes this interaction. Recombinant TRN-SR mediates nuclear import of RS domain- bearing proteins in vitro. TRN-SR has amino acid sequence similarity to several members of the importin beta/transportin family. These findings strongly suggest that TRN-SR is a nuclear import receptor for the SR protein family.  (+info)

GTP hydrolysis links initiation and termination of nuclear import on the nucleoporin nup358. (3/444)

Binding of GTP-bound Ran (RanGTP) to karyopherin beta1 (Kapbeta1) releases import cargo into the nucleus. Using an ultrastructural, biochemical, and functional approach, we have studied the mechanism by which Kapbeta1.RanGTP is recycled at the nuclear pore complex for repeated rounds of import. In vitro, Kapbeta1 bound to the RanBP1-homologous (RBH) domains of Nup358 in the presence of either RanGTP or RanGDP, forming trimeric complexes. The Kapbeta1.RanGTP. RBH complex resisted dissociation by RanBP1 and GTP hydrolysis by Ran GTPase activating protein 1. Ran-dependent binding of gold-conjugated Kapbeta1 to the cytoplasmic fibers of the nuclear pore complex in digitonin-permeabilized cells and RanBP1 competition confirmed the in vitro binding data. Interaction of karyopherin alpha and a classical nuclear localization sequence peptide with the Kapbeta1.RanGTP.RBH complex stimulated GTP hydrolysis by Ran GTPase activating protein 1 both in vitro and in permeabilized cells. This GTP hydrolysis was required for reinitiation of import of a nuclear localization sequence-bearing substrate in permeabilized cells. These data suggest that GTP hydrolysis on the RBH domains of Nup358 couples the termination of one cycle of nuclear import with the initiation of the next.  (+info)

Kap104p-mediated nuclear import. Nuclear localization signals in mRNA-binding proteins and the role of Ran and Rna. (4/444)

Kap104p is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear import receptor for two essential mRNA-binding proteins, Nab2p and Nab4p/Hrp1p. We demonstrate direct binding of Kap104p to each of these substrates. We have defined the nuclear localization signals in both Nab2p and Nab4p/Hrp1p by Kap104p binding in vitro and KAP104-dependent nuclear import in vivo. The nuclear localization signals map to similar arginine/glycine-rich RNA-binding domains in both proteins and are thus termed rg-nuclear localization signals to distinguish them from classical nuclear localization signals. We also demonstrate that Kap104p, like other known beta-karyopherins (or importins), interacts directly with the small GTPase Ran/Gsp1. However, unlike other known import factors, Ran binding is not sufficient to mediate release of substrates from Kap104p; efficient Ran-GTP-mediated substrate release requires RNA. Also, addition of Kap104p to Nab2p and Nab4p/Hrp1p prebound to single-stranded DNA-cellulose stimulated release of both proteins from the resin. We suggest a simple cycle in which Nab2p and Nab4p/Hrp1p, upon import, are released in the nucleus at sites of transcription by the concerted action of Ran-GTP and binding to newly synthesized mRNA. The resulting ribonucleoprotein complexes are exported to the cytoplasm, where Kap104p rebinds to Nab2p and Nab4p/Hrp1p, contributing to their release from mRNA.  (+info)

The karyopherin Kap122p/Pdr6p imports both subunits of the transcription factor IIA into the nucleus. (5/444)

We discovered a nuclear import pathway mediated by the product of the previously identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PDR6 (pleiotropic drug resistance). This gene product functions as a karyopherin (Kap) for nuclear import. Consistent with previously proposed nomenclature, we have renamed this gene KAP122. Kap122p was localized both to the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As a prominent import substrate of Kap122p, we identified the complex of the large and small subunit (Toa1p and Toa2p, respectively) of the general transcription factor IIA (TFIIA). Recombinant GST-Kap122p formed a complex with recombinant His(6)-Toa1p/Toa2p. In wild-type cells, Toa1p and Toa2p were localized to the nucleus. Consistent with Kap122p being the principal Kap for import of the Toa1p-Toa2p complex, we found that deletion of KAP122 results in increased cytoplasmic localization of both Toa1p and Toa2p. Deletion of KAP122 is not lethal, although deletion of TOA1 and TOA2 is. Together these data suggest that Kap122p is the major Kap for the import of Toa1p-Toa2p into the nucleus. Like other substrate-Kap complexes, the Toa1p/Toa2p/Kap122p complex isolated from yeast cytosol or reconstituted from recombinant proteins, was dissociated by RanGTP but not RanGDP. Kap122p bound to nucleoporins, specifically, to the peptide repeat-containing fragments of Nup1p and Nup2p.  (+info)

The importin/karyopherin Kap114 mediates the nuclear import of TATA-binding protein. (6/444)

Two high copy suppressors of temperature-sensitive TATA-binding protein (TBP) mutants were isolated. One suppressor was TIF51A, which encodes eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A. The other high copy suppressor, YGL241W, also known as KAP114, is one of 14 importin/karyopherin proteins in yeast. These proteins mediate the transport of specific macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. Cells lacking Kap114 partially mislocalize TBP to the cytoplasm. Kap114 binds TBP in vitro, and binding is disrupted in the presence of GTPgammaS. Therefore, Kap114 is an importer of TBP into the nucleus, but alternative import pathways must also exist.  (+info)

Mlp2p, a component of nuclear pore attached intranuclear filaments, associates with nic96p. (7/444)

A fraction of the yeast nucleoporin Nic96p is localized at the terminal ring of the nuclear basket. When Nic96p was affinity purified from glutaraldehyde-treated spheroplasts, it was found to be associated with Mlp2p. Mlp2p, together with Mlp1p, are the yeast Tpr homologues, which form the nuclear pore-attached intranuclear filaments (Strambio-de-Castillia, C., Blobel, G., and Rout, M. P. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 144, 839-855). Double disruption mutants of MLP1 and MLP2 are viable and apparently not impaired in nucleocytoplasmic transport. However, overproduction of MLP1 causes nuclear accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNA in a chromatin-free area of the nucleus.  (+info)

Purification of protein A-tagged yeast ran reveals association with a novel karyopherin beta family member, Pdr6p. (8/444)

The small GTPase Ran (encoded by GSP1 and GSP2 in yeast) plays a central role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. GSP1 and GSP2 were tagged with protein A and functionally expressed in a gsp1 null mutant. After affinity purification of protein A-tagged Gsp1p or Gsp2p by IgG-Sepharose chromatography, known karyopherin beta transport receptors (e.g. Kap121p and Kap123p) and a novel member of this protein family, Pdr6p, were found to be associated with yeast Ran. Subsequent tagging of Pdr6p with green fluorescent protein revealed association with the nuclear pore complexes in vivo. Thus, functional tagging of yeast Ran allowed the study of its in vivo distribution and interaction with known and novel Ran-binding proteins.  (+info)

beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
Transportin-1 (or Importin-β 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNPO1 gene. This protein is a karyopherin which interacts with nuclear localization sequence to target nuclear proteins to the nucleus. The classical karyopherin receptor complex, such as the complex that uses Importin-β1 (encoded by gene KPNB1), is a heterodimer of an alpha subunit which recognizes the nuclear localization signal and a beta subunit which docks the complex at nucleoporins. However, Transportin-1 can directly bind to the cargo proteins and may not need importin alpha subunit to do it. Transportin-1 is thought to use the same principal mechanism to carry out nuclear transport as other Importins. It mediates docking to the nuclear pore complex through binding to nucleoporin and is subsequently translocated through the pore by an energy requiring mechanism. Then, in the nucleus Ran binds to Transportin-1, it dissociates from cargo, and Transportin-1 is re-exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
This entry represents the N-terminal domain of importin-beta (also known as karyopherins-beta) that is important for the binding of the Ran GTPase protein [(PUBMED:10367892)].. Members of the importin-beta (karyopherin-beta) family can bind and transport cargo by themselves, or can form heterodimers with importin-alpha. As part of a heterodimer, importin-beta mediates interactions with the pore complex, while importin-alpha acts as an adaptor protein to bind the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) on the cargo through the classical NLS import of proteins. Importin-beta is a helicoidal molecule constructed from 19 HEAT repeats. Many nuclear pore proteins contain FG sequence repeats that can bind to HEAT repeats within importins [(PUBMED:12372823), (PUBMED:17161424)], which is important for importin-beta mediated transport.. Ran GTPase helps to control the unidirectional transfer of cargo. The cytoplasm contains primarily RanGDP and the nucleus RanGTP through the actions of RanGAP and RanGEF, ...
View Notes - Lecture 6 10 from BICD 110 at UCSD. Lecture 6 10/10/07 Nuclear Import/Export Nuclear Import Receptors Importins Helps cargo get into nucleus does this by binding to cargo (protein with
BACKGROUND: Expression of the cellular karyopherin TNPO3/transportin-SR2/Tnp3 is necessary for HIV-1 infection. Depletion of TNPO3 expression in mammalian
A late protein is a viral protein that is formed after replication of the virus. One example is VP4 from simian virus 40 (SV40). In Human papillomavirus, two late proteins are involved in capsid formation: a major (L1) and a minor (L2) protein, in the approximate proportion 95:5%. L1 forms a pentameric assembly unit of the viral shell in a manner that closely resembles VP1 from polyomaviruses. Intermolecular disulphide bonding holds the L1 capsid proteins together. L1 capsid proteins can bind via its nuclear localisation signal (NLS) to karyopherins Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) and inhibit the Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) nuclear import pathways during the productive phase of the viral life cycle. Surface loops on L1 pentamers contain sites of sequence variation between HPV types. L2 minor capsid proteins enter the nucleus twice during infection: in the initial phase after virion disassembly, and in the productive phase when it assembles into replicated virions along with L1 major capsid proteins. L2 ...
RNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is fundamental for gene expression. The different RNA species that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) via mobile export receptors. The majority of RNAs, such as tRNAs, rRNAs, and U snRNAs, are transported by specific export receptors, which belong to the karyopherin-beta family proteins. A feature of karyopherins is their regulation by the small GTPase Ran. However, general mRNA export is mechanistically different. Nuclear export of mRNAs is functionally coupled to different steps in gene expression processes, such as transcription, splicing, 3-end formation and even translation ...
RNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is fundamental for gene expression. The different RNA species that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) via mobile export receptors. The majority of RNAs, such as tRNAs, rRNAs, and U snRNAs, are transported by specific export receptors, which belong to the karyopherin-beta family proteins. A feature of karyopherins is their regulation by the small GTPase Ran. However, general mRNA export is mechanistically different. Nuclear export of mRNAs is functionally coupled to different steps in gene expression processes, such as transcription, splicing, 3-end formation and even translation ...
Doctors noted that a number of researchers studying HIV were interested in separate studies on the same gene, as it plays a certain role in transporting the virus inside cells.. They got in contact with the geneticists in Madrid, who did a lab test and infected the blood taken from the members of the same Spanish family with the virus that causes AIDS.. The experiment gave them a big surprise: the lymphocytes of the patients suffering from that ultra-rare muscular disease were naturally resistant to HIV. The virus couldnt penetrate inside them.. "This helps us to understand the transport of the virus in cells much better," explained Jose Alcami, a virologist at the Carlos III Institute of Health in Madrid, who conducts this study. The results were published in the American journal - PLOS Pathogens.. HIV is a well-known virus, the Spanish researcher added, "but there are still many things we know less about. For example, we do not know why 5% of infected patients do not develop AIDS. There are ...
... , Authors: Maria Giubettini, Pauline van der Watt, Annalisa Verrico, Valeria de Turris, Virna Leaner, Patrizia Lavia. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
In a comparison of the nuclear import of model small and large protein cargos by the importin α/β and transportin pathways, we have made the striking observation that the large cargos require both Ran and hydrolyzable GTP for nuclear import. This contrasts with the import requirements for small cargos that were observed previously and also that were noted in this study: Transportin-mediated import requires neither Ran nor GTP (Englmeier et al., 1999; Ribbeck et al., 1999; Fig. 1), and importin α/β-mediated import requires Ran and a GTP analogue but not GTP hydrolysis (Schwoebel et al., 1998; Fig. 1). We determined that RanGTP is required for the large cargos to traverse the central channel of the NPC, but is not required for association with the cytoplasmic side of the NPC. Furthermore, our data indicate that RanGTP acts to promote large cargo import by directly binding to importin β and transportin, at least in part. These findings are most easily explained by a model in which RanGTP ...
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Goat polyclonal NTF97/Importin beta antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Mouse monoclonal NTF97/Importin beta antibody [3E9] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt, ChIP, Inhibition, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in…
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Video: Senior author Dr. Michael Fainzilber and lead author Rotem Ben-Tov Perry describe the new Neuron study in a video abstract.. Finding this evidence was far from simple: Importins are so crucial in the cells nucleus that even the smallest embryo could not survive without them. But Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, a research student at the Weizmann Institute who was lead author of the new study, found a way to distinguish the importin beta1 in the cell body from that in the axon: The axonal protein was apparently made from a longer version of messenger RNA, the cells working recipe for building a protein. To see if they could selectively affect just the axonal version of the protein, the Weizmann researchers worked with Drexels Twiss to take advantage of high precision knock-out technology. Rather than knocking a whole gene out of the system, they managed to remove one little piece of the messenger RNAs recipe for manufacturing importins- just the longer bit that sends the RNA to the axon.. Now they ...
Doplnok stravy určený pre budovanie a udržanie svalovej hmoty v BIO kvalite. Zdravá, komplexná zmes voľných foriem všetkých ôsmich aminokyselín v prírodnej forme.
Mega Arginín podporuje nárast hladiny oxidu dusnatého, rozširuje cievy, a tým podporuje zvýšenie odolnosti a vytrvalosti. Tým sa tiež živiny dostávajú rýchlejšie do svalov, oddiaľuje sa únava a posilňuje sa regenerácia svalstva. Arginín môže urýchliť proces hojenia malých svalových zranení a prispieť k nárastu GH. V jednej kapsule poskytuje až 1300 mg arginínu ...
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Upozornenie: Výrobok nie je určený pre deti do 3 rokov. Uchovávajte na suchom mieste pri teplote do 25 °C, v dobre uzatvorenom obale, mimo dosah malých detí. Výrobok chráňte pred mrazom, priamym slnečným žiarením a sálavým teplom. Ustanovená odporučená denná dávka sa nesmie presiahnuť. Výživový doplnok sa nesmie používať ako náhrada rozmanitej stravy. ...
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Molecular modelling and simulation are powerful methods in providing important in-formation on different biological systems to elucidate their structural and functional proper-ties, which cannot be determined in experiment. These methods are applied to analyse versa-tile biological systems: lipid membrane bilayers stabilized by an intercalated single wall carbon nanotube and retroviral proteins such as HIV protease and integrase. HIV-1 integrase has nuclear localization signals (NLS) which play a crucial role in nuclear import of viral preintegration complex (PIC). However, the detailed mechanisms of PIC formation and its nuclear transport are not known. Previously it was shown that NLSs bind to the cell transport machinery e.g. proteins of nuclear pore complex such as transportins. I investigated the interaction of this viral protein HIV-1 integrase with proteins of the nuclear pore complex such as transportin-SR2 (Shityakov et al., 2010). I showed that the transportin-SR2 in nuclear import is ...
Molecular modelling and simulation are powerful methods in providing important in-formation on different biological systems to elucidate their structural and functional proper-ties, which cannot be determined in experiment. These methods are applied to analyse versa-tile biological systems: lipid membrane bilayers stabilized by an intercalated single wall carbon nanotube and retroviral proteins such as HIV protease and integrase. HIV-1 integrase has nuclear localization signals (NLS) which play a crucial role in nuclear import of viral preintegration complex (PIC). However, the detailed mechanisms of PIC formation and its nuclear transport are not known. Previously it was shown that NLSs bind to the cell transport machinery e.g. proteins of nuclear pore complex such as transportins. I investigated the interaction of this viral protein HIV-1 integrase with proteins of the nuclear pore complex such as transportin-SR2 (Shityakov et al., 2010). I showed that the transportin-SR2 in nuclear import is ...
The translocation of macromolecules into the nucleus is a fundamental eukaryotic process, regulating gene expression, cell division and differentiation, but which is impaired in a range of significant diseases including cancer and viral infection. The import of proteins into the nucleus is generally initiated by a specific, high affinity interaction between nuclear localisation signals (NLSs) and nuclear import receptors in the cytoplasm, and terminated through the disassembly of these complexes in the nucleus. For classical NLSs (cNLSs), this import is mediated by the importin-alpha (IMP alpha) adaptor protein, which in turn binds to IMP beta to mediate translocation of nuclear cargo across the nuclear envelope. The interaction and disassembly of import receptor: cargo complexes is reliant on the differential localisation of nucleotide bound Ran across the envelope, maintained in its low affinity, GDP-bound form in the cytoplasm, and its high affinity, GTP-bound form in the nucleus. This in ...
The control of the subcellular localization of cell cycle regulators has emerged as a crucial mechanism in cell division regulation. The active transport of proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is mediated by the transport receptors of the β-karyopherin family. In this work we characterized the terminal phenotype of a mutant strain in β-karyopherin Kap95, a component of the classical nuclear import pathway. When KAP95 was inactivated, most cells arrested at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, which is in agreement with the results observed in mutants in the other components of this pathway. However, a number of cells accumulate at G1, suggesting a novel role of Kap95 and the classical import pathway at Start. We investigated the localization of Start transcription factors. It is known that Swi6 contains a classical NLS that interacts with importin α. Here we show that the in vivo nuclear import of Swi6 depends on Kap95. For Swi4, we identified a functional NLS between amino acids 371 and 376
Functions in nuclear protein import, either by acting as autonomous nuclear transport receptor or as an adapter-like protein in association with the importin-beta subunit KPNB1. Acting autonomously, is thought to serve itself as receptor for nuclear localization signals (NLS) and to promote translocation of import substrates through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) by an energy requiring, Ran-dependent mechanism. At the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC, Ran binds to importin, the importin/substrate complex dissociates and importin is re-exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where GTP hydrolysis releases Ran. The directionality of nuclear import is thought to be conferred by an asymmetric distribution of the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Ran between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Mediates autonomously the nuclear import of ribosomal proteins RPL23A, RPS7 and RPL5. Binds to a beta-like import receptor binding (BIB) domain of RPL23A. In association with KPNB1 mediates the nuclear import of H1 histone and the Ran
Expression of TNPO3 (IPO12, LGMD1F, MTR10A, TRN-SR, TRN-SR2) in duodenum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA039555 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of TNPO3 (IPO12, LGMD1F, MTR10A, TRN-SR, TRN-SR2) in breast tissue. Antibody staining with HPA039555 in immunohistochemistry.
Specialized trafficking systems in eukaryotic cells serve a critical role in partitioning intracellular proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic proteins (including chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors) must gain access to the nucleus to exert their functions to properly program fundamental cellular events ranging from cell cycle progression to gene transcription. Knowing that nuclear import mediated by members of the karyopherin α family of transport receptors plays a critical role in regulating development and differentiation, we wanted to determine the identity of proteins that are trafficked by this karyopherin α pathway. To this end, we performed a GST pull-down assay using porcine orthologs of karyopherin α1 (KPNA1) and karyopherin α7 (KPNA7) and prey protein derived from porcine fibroblast cells and used a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach to determine the identity of KPNA1 and KPNA7 interacting proteins. Our screen
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importin-alpha-P1, importin alpha 1, IPOA1, karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1), Karyopherin subunit alpha-2, pendulin, QIP2importin alpha 2, RAG cohort 1, RAG cohort protein 1, RCH1importin subunit alpha-2, SRP1, SRP1alpha, SRP1- ...
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Beta-alanine vytvára vo svaloch karnozín, ktorý zvyšuje silu a vytrvalosť. Zabraňuje svalovej únave, podporuje odbúravanie tukov a nárast svalovej hmoty.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Ayesha S Don-Salu-Hewage, Siu Yuen Chan, Kathleen M McAndrews, Mahandranauth A Chetram, Michelle R Dawson, Danaya A Bethea, Cimona V Hinton].
KPNA3 antibody, C-term (karyopherin alpha 3 (importin alpha 4)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-KPNA3 pAb (GTX26038) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Plasmid pCMVTNT-T7-KPNA2 from Dr. Bryce Paschals lab contains the insert Karyopherin Alpha 2 and is published in BMC Cell Biol. 2010 . 11():63. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
import getopt import sys import csv from itertools import izip_longest from itertools import izip from memoized import memoized # sudo easy_install mpmath import mpmath #mpmath.mp.dps = 20 # decimal digits of precision @memoized def mpmathcdf(g,df,dps=10): mpmath.mp.dps = dps x,k = mpmath.mpf(g), mpmath.mpf(df) cdf = mpmath.gammainc(k/2, 0, x/2, regularized=True) # floating point precision insufficient, use more precision if cdf == 1.0: if dps > 4000: return cdf # give up after a certain point else: cdf = mpmathcdf(g,df,dps*2) return cdf def GtoP(g,df): assert g >= 0, g return float(1-mpmathcdf(g,df)) import math @memoized def flnf(f): return f*math.log(f) if f>0.5 else 0 @memoized def gtest(a,b,c,d): row1 = a+b row2 = c+d col1 = a+c col2 = b+d total = flnf(a+b+c+d) celltotals = flnf(a)+flnf(b)+flnf(c)+flnf(d) rowtotals = flnf(row1)+flnf(row2) coltotals = flnf(col1)+flnf(col2) # abs is necessary to account for float precision errors when doing the subtraction return abs(2*((celltotals + ...
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Titel: Strategic adaptation to non-reward prediction error qualities and irreducible uncertainty in fMRI Termin: Donnerstag, 18. Januar 2018, 16 Uhr s. t. Ort: Seminarraum des IBB, Malmedyweg 15 (Holzhaus hinter der HNO-Klinik). ...
One of Italys most popular cuts, penne rigate has a wider tube than the original penne (quills), but rigate (with ridges) on the outside.
Looking for online definition of karyopherin alpha 5 in the Medical Dictionary? karyopherin alpha 5 explanation free. What is karyopherin alpha 5? Meaning of karyopherin alpha 5 medical term. What does karyopherin alpha 5 mean?
This paper describes the philosophy to design, and a procedure to construct polyrotaxane-type gene carriers, together with the proof of their ability to conjunctively cooperate in order to generate cargo-complexes with dsDNA, able to efficiently transfect cultured cells. The main feature of these entities is Frontiers in Supramolecular and Macromolecular Science symposium
KPNA4 (karyopherin alpha 4), also known as importin alpha 3, is a member of the importin alpha family of proteins which includes KPNA1 (importin alpha…
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There are two types of protein transport processes evident during nucleocytoplasmic exchange being nuclear import and export. The majority of proteins are synthesised in the cytoplasm, therefore nuclear import is a dominant form of protein transportation into the nucleus. Moreover, nuclear export is equally crucial in nucleocytoplasmic transport during later parts of protein processing to return products into the cytoplasm such as tRNA, rRNA and mRNA. In addition, some proteins may be required to move across the NE several times to be fully developed into a functional subunit. In comparison to the nucleus, after importing proteins into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), they cannot exit due to the absence of specific signals to initiate transportation back across the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm. Nucleus therefore has a unique means of transportation, having equally important import and export process. Most protein carriers involving NPCs are the members karyopherins family. This ...
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) form gateways that control molecular exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. They impose a diffusion barrier to macromolecules and enable the selective transport of nuclear transport receptors with bound cargo. The underlying mechanisms that establish these permeability properties remain to be fully elucidated, but require unstructured nuclear pore proteins rich in Phe-Gly (FG)-repeat domains of different types, such as FxFG and GLFG. While physical modeling and in vitro approaches have provided a framework for explaining how the FG network contributes to the barrier and transport properties of the NPC, it remains unknown whether the number and/or the spatial positioning of different FG-domains along a cylindrical, ~40 nm diameter transport channel contributes to their collective properties and function ...
The results reported here, combined with the theoretical analyses, quantitatively elucidate the energetics of transport through the NPC. In addition, they provide important insights regarding the strength of FG-NTR interactions and the spatial distribution of the FG‐Nup density within the NPC. Though central to fully understanding the energetics of transport, it is difficult to estimate the true transportin-FG interaction strength from the values discussed above since it is masked by other components of the free energy, that is, the cost associated with the displacement of the FG‐Nups or other conformational changes and the potential costs of breaking any FG-FG interactions. In principle, the change in barrier height with the transportin concentration provides a measure of the binding energy of the additional NTR(s). However, it is unclear whether the change in barrier height from low to high transportin concentration is due to the binding of an additional 1, 2, or 3 transportin molecules. ...
is a type of protein that moves other protein molecules into the nucleus by binding to a specific recognition sequence, called the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Importin is classified as a karyopherin.…
The importin-alpha/beta complex and the GTPase Ran mediate nuclear import of proteins with a classical nuclear localization sigl. The protein encoded…
Importin and nucleoplasmin complex, molecular model. Nucleoplasmin tags proteins for entry to the cell nucleus, while importin transports the protein across the nuclear membrane. - Stock Image C025/1566
Digitonin permeabilized cell import assay. Complete import assays were carried out using HeLa cells permeabilized by incubation with digitonin. Cells were incub
In a few weeks Ill be joining some friends to knit hats with Kaps For Kendall. Kaps For Kendall was created in memory of Kendall to raise money to fight Fanconi anemia, the disease that took the life of our sister, and to provide special hats for kids and adults, who have lost their hair…
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Former military president General Ibrahim Babangida has said the prevailing security challenges require the collective efforts of all Nigerians.
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Satellite cells are stem cells with an essential role in skeletal muscle repair. Precise regulation of gene expression is critical for proper satellite cell quiescence, proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal. Nuclear proteins required for gene expression are dependent on the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery to access to nucleus, however little is known about regulation of nuclear transport in satellite cells. The best characterized nuclear import pathway is classical nuclear import which depends on a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS) in a cargo protein and the heterodimeric import receptors, karyopherin alpha (KPNA) and beta (KPNB). Multiple KPNA1 paralogs exist and can differ in importing specific cNLS proteins required for cell differentiation and function. We show that transcripts for six Kpna paralogs underwent distinct changes in mouse satellite cells during muscle regeneration accompanied by changes in cNLS proteins in nuclei. Depletion of KPNA1, the most ...
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Proteins that carry a nuclear localization signal (NLS) are transported into the nucleus by the importin-alpha/beta heterodimer. Importin-alpha binds the NLS, while importin-beta mediates translocation through the nuclear pore complex. After translocation, RanGTP binds importin-beta and displaces importin-alpha. Importin-alpha must then be returned to the cytoplasm, leaving the NLS protein behind. The protein encoded by this gene binds strongly to NLS-free importin-alpha, and this binding is released in the cytoplasm by the combined action of RANBP1 and RANGAP1. In addition, the encoded protein may play a role both in apoptosis and in cell proliferation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012 ...
CU928166.PE408 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS 805761..809039 FT /locus_tag="KLTH0B09768g" FT /old_locus_tag="KLTH-ORF14534" FT /product="KLTH0B09768p" FT /note="similar to uniprot,P32337 Saccharomyces cerevisiae FT YMR308C PSE1 Karyopherin/importin that interacts with the FT nuclear pore complex acts as the nuclear import receptor FT for specific proteins including Pdr1p Yap1p Ste12p and FT Aft1p" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Gn:KLTH0B09768g" FT /db_xref="EnsemblGenomes-Tr:CAR21773" FT /db_xref="GOA:C5DDB2" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR016024" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR034085" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR040122" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR040928" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR041389" FT /db_xref="InterPro:IPR041653" FT /db_xref="UniProtKB/TrEMBL:C5DDB2" FT /protein_id="CAR21773.1" FT /translation="MSALPDEVNTTLVNVLHGFSSPDNGIRAAAEETLNKDWITPDNIE FT VLLIFLSEQAAYSPEPTLAALSAVLFRKLALRAPPSSKTVIIAKNITHISESALNQIRE FT TLLKGFVTERQGGIRHKLSDAIAECAQEDLPEWPALLQGLFEAIKNPDANFRESSFRIF FT ...
The cell nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, lacks protein synthesis and therefore imports each and every protein from the cytosol. Conversely, the nucleus supplies the cytoplasm with nuclear products, such as ribosomes, tRNAs and mRNAs. The permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes controls all this exchange. This permeability barrier is an "intelligent" hydrogel with truly remarkable properties. It excludes inert macromolecules, but permits an up to 20 000-fold faster entry of cargoes, when these are bound to appropriate nuclear transport receptors. (in German) more ...
1EE5: Crystallographic analysis of the specific yet versatile recognition of distinct nuclear localization signals by karyopherin alpha.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Upozornenie: Nie je určený pre deti do 3 rokov. Ustanovená odporúčaná denná dávka sa nesmie presiahnuť. Výživový doplnok nie je náhradou pestrej stravy. Skladovať mimo dosahu detí. Uchovávajte na suchom mieste pri teplote do 25°C, v dobre uzatvorenom obale. Výrobok chráňte pred mrazom, priamym slnečným žiarením a sálavým teplom ...
Chondroitin Glucosamine - maisto papildas sąnariams su gliukozaminu ir chondroitinu, papildytas mineralinėmis medžiagomis kalciu, magniu ir manganu.
View Notes - A04 from BIO 3101 at Worcester. iBB 3101 Quiz 3, Sept. 17 2004 Name_ANSWERS box#_email_ 27 questions, 2 points each. Gibsons rule: 2 blanks on the same line count as one question, i.e.,
package { import alternativa.engine3d.controllers.SimpleObjectController; import alternativa.engine3d.core.Camera3D; import alternativa.engine3d.core.Object3D; import alternativa.engine3d.core.Resource; import alternativa.engine3d.core.View; import alternativa.engine3d.lights.AmbientLight; import alternativa.engine3d.lights.DirectionalLight; import alternativa.engine3d.loaders.ParserCollada; import alternativa.engine3d.loaders.ParserMaterial; import alternativa.engine3d.loaders.TexturesLoader; import alternativa.engine3d.materials.StandardMaterial; import alternativa.engine3d.objects.Mesh; import alternativa.engine3d.objects.Surface; import alternativa.engine3d.resources.ExternalTextureResource; import flash.display.Sprite; import flash.display.Stage3D; import flash.display3D.Context3D; import flash.events.Event; [SWF(width = 800, height = 800, backgroundColor = 0x303030, frameRate = 100)] public class GorgylDemo extends Sprite { [Embed(resources/model.dae, ...
usr/bin/python # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- import sys from elementtree.ElementTree import parse import getopt from odf.opendocument import OpenDocumentText from odf.style import FontFace from odf.style import ListLevelProperties from odf.style import ParagraphProperties from odf.style import Style from odf.style import TextProperties from odf.text import List from odf.text import ListItem from odf.text import ListLevelStyleBullet from odf.text import ListStyle from odf.text import P from odf.text import Span import string class ResumeModel: def __init__(self): self.name = None self.address = None self.phone = None self.email = None self.contacts = [] self.objective_title = None self.objectives = [] self.skillarea_title = None self.skillset_titles = [] self.skillsets = [[]] self.jobs_title = None self.job_titles = [] self.job_employers = [] self.job_periods = [] self.job_descriptions = [] self.job_achievements = [[]] self.academics_title = None self.academics = [] self.awards_title = None self.awards ...
Catherine Satzke is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Of kapsül Serotipleme, Bir kullanma Pnömokok Kolonizasyon üzerinde Probiyotiklerin Etkileri incelenmesi, Kapsüler Serotipleme
deeper cnn model for mnist from numpy import mean from numpy import std from matplotlib import pyplot from sklearn.model_selection import KFold from keras.datasets import mnist from keras.utils import to_categorical from keras.models import Sequential from keras.layers import Conv2D from keras.layers import MaxPooling2D from keras.layers import Dense from keras.layers import Flatten from keras.optimizers import SGD # load train and test dataset def load_dataset(): # load dataset (trainX, trainY), (testX, testY) = mnist.load_data() # reshape dataset to have a single channel trainX = trainX.reshape((trainX.shape[0], 28, 28, 1)) testX = testX.reshape((testX.shape[0], 28, 28, 1)) # one hot encode target values trainY = to_categorical(trainY) testY = to_categorical(testY) return trainX, trainY, testX, testY # scale pixels def prep_pixels(train, test): # convert from integers to floats train_norm = train.astype(float32) test_norm = test.astype(float32) # normalize to range 0-1 train_norm = ...
STAFF REPORT ISB: The imports of mobile phones into Pakistan remained up by 6.15 per cent to $282.87 million during first five months (July-Nov) of fiscal year 2014-15 as compared to the imports of $266.47 million during the same period of last year. The data of Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS) shows that on month basis the mobile phone imports during the month of November 2014 also increased by 19.17 per cent and decreased by 0.54pc when compared to the imports in November 2013 and…Read More. ...
Feed Import is a module that allows you to import content into entities from various file types (like XML, HTML, CSV). In this page we will find how to import taxonomy terms.
According to Economy Watch, the island nation of Japan imports commodities primarily, with the largest import being that of petroleum. Japan is known as a processing nation, importing raw materials...
usr/bin/env python import numpy import scipy from scipy import optimize wt_CD = scipy.array([-46.396, -46.43 , -46.082, -46.159, -46.169, -45.949, -45.896, -45.78 , -45.7 , -45.434, -45.19 , -45.084, -44.374, -43.963, -43.265, -42.12 , -40.694, -38.897, -36.468, -33.651, -30.485, -26.564, -23.369, -21.652, -20.149, -18.564, -17.223, -15.661, -14.473, -13.155, -12.688, -11.335, -11.297, -10.525, -10.013, -9.199, -8.816, -8.388, -8.499, -7.707, -7.329, -7.355, -6.688, -6.782, -6.789, -6.37 , -5.944, -5.817, -5.719, -5.545, -5.651, -5.692, -4.971, -5.184]) wt_m0 = scipy.array([ 0. , 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2. , 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 3. , 3.2, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4. , 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, 5. , 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 6. , 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7. , 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 8. , 8.1]) def denmeltfit(CDsignal, m0): import numpy import scipy from scipy import optimize # define equation for denaturant melt fit # m0 = denaturant ...
China has promised to ease restrictions on imports of U.S. beef and speed up work on opening its market for government purchases of software and other goods.
China wants to import more to solve its trade imbalances instead of parking windfall revenues in U.S. and euro zone government bonds, the chairman of Chinas largest lender said on Thursday.
Ran-GTPases regulate the nuclear pore trafficking. Ran-GTPases are involved in both import and export of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, by creating the Ran-GTP/Ran-GDP gradients needed for this transport, and it is in the creation to these gradients where energy is consumed. Ran molecules can be in three states: Ran-GTP, Ran-GDP and Ran. The state of a Ran molecule depends on several enzymes. In the nucleoplasm, Ran-GDP is more abundant, whereas Ran-GTP is concentrated in the cytoplasm (see figure on the left) Proteins that need to be imported into the nucleus have an particular amino acid sequence, known as entrance signal peptide, and those that need to be exported to the cytoplasm have an exit signal peptide. These sequences of amino acids are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. Nucleoporins do not interact directly with the transported molecules but with importins and exportins. The importin-transported molecule and exportin-transported molecule complexes use ...
A nuclear receptor likely involved in nuclear protein import is described. Purified ATP-depleted yeast nuclei show saturable high-affinity binding of the yeast nuclear protein Mcm1. The dissociation constant for the binding is 0.5 microM, and the number of binding sites is approximately 3,500 per nucleus, equivalent to 10-30 binding sites per nuclear pore. Mcm1 competes with other yeast nuclear proteins Ste12 and Swi5, but not with Rap1 or Nop1, indicating that there may be different types of import receptors. Bound Mcm1 is resistant to extraction by nucleases, salt, and non-ionic detergent, but can be released by 5 M urea, suggesting that Mcm1 binds to a yeast equivalent of the nuclear pore complex-lamina fraction of higher eukaryotes ...
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Computer models are relevant to cell biology only to the extent that they can generate testable predictions, and provide new insights into cellular processes. They can suggest unexpected relationships between steps in a process, or expose flaws in our understanding by failing to correctly simulate an experimental outcome. We believe that our model of nuclear protein import satisfies both of these requirements. The model nicely describes the general features of Impα-Impβ-mediated import, in terms of rates and the requirement for a Ran-gradient but, more importantly, it made several unanticipated predictions about the response of the system to changes in the concentrations of certain factors. Moreover, it fails to account for certain experimental observations, which illuminates our ignorance of the functions of some of these factors. Specifically, it did not predict the observed increase in cargo import in response to an elevation in RanBP1 concentration. This failure suggests that RanBP1 ...
Das 26S Proteasom führt die letzen Schritte des essentiellen, Ubiquitin abhängigen Proteinabbaus durch, indem es ubiquitinierte und fehlgefaltete Proteine erkennt und eliminiert. Da es in S. cerevisiae während allen Stadien der Zellteilung vornehmlich im Zellkern lokalisiert ist, ist der Importweg dieses 2,5 MDa umfassenden proteolytischen Komplexes in den Zellkern von besonderem Interesse. Das 26S Proteasom unterteilt sich in das katalytisch aktive 20S Proteasom sowie den 19S Regulatorkomplex. Für 20S Proteasomen konnten Lehmann und Mitarbeitende (2002, JMB, 317, 401) zeigen, dass Vorläuferkomplexe über den Karyopherin alpha/beta abhängigen Importweg in den Zellkern gelangen und dort zu 20S Proteasomen heranreifen. In dieser Arbeit wird gezeigt, dass die nukleäre Lokalisation der 19S Regulatorkomplexe ebenfalls von Karyopherin alpha/beta abhängt. Die Untersuchung der potentiellen klassischen Kernlokalisationssequenzen (cNLS) in den Untereinheiten des 19S Base Subkomplex ergab, dass ...
In a factory, someone has to stand on the loading dock, checking the goods going out. By recognizing labels like bar codes on each shipment, the loading dock supervisor makes sure that the products get where they are supposed to go. A cell is like a factory: one of its most important jobs is to produce proteins, like transcription factors and nuclear transport receptors. But in cellular factories, the sorting task is complicated by the fact that proteins are used by the cell itself as well as delivered to outside "customers". Scientists are succeeding at deciphering the cells complex bar-coding system. But, surprisingly, they have never managed to get at the loading dock itself to see how HIV genome is actually shipped to their destinations.. Regulation of HIV-1 infectivity and pathogenesis of AIDS remain central interests of the laboratory. Unlike the typical animal-oncoretroviruses, lentiviruses such as HIV have the ability to infect and replicate within non-cycling cells. Nucleo-cytoplasmic ...
Thus even big pharma is directing more R&D expenditures toward biotechnology products.. YTD performance with ETFs in the sector as of March 4 are: IBB 85 up 9%, PBE 19 up 8%; BBH was at 195 down 3% as smaller cap issues outperformed large cap stocks such as DNA and AMGN which were both down about 7% YTD. Among the larger biotech funds Fidelity (FBIOX 68.26) is up 8.9% and the more diversified T. Rowe Price Health Sciences (26.9) is up 7.3%.. IBB (85) has exceeded its post 2001 bubble high of 84 but has not approached its all time high of 102. IBB needs to stay above 70 during the usually weak March-April period to confirm a longer term track that could exceed all time highs achieved in late 2000. The larger cap weighted BBH (194) hit an intermediate bottom in March of 2005 of 136 (almost a triple bottom from August 04 low) of 130, then soared to a high around 210 in November of 05. All time high was 240 in Sep00.. Scientific breakthroughs , strategic partnerships and positive clinical ...
Import Data And Price Of minute , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of minute Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this minute import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for minute import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign ...
Import Data And Price Of Luteolin , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of Luteolin Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this Luteolin import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for Luteolin import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign ...
Quoth Leazen: , Im having some trouble understanding how __import__ works. , From the docs I read that from spam.ham import eggs results in , __import__(spam.ham, globals(), locals(), [eggs]) rendering the , later function call eggs, what ever that is, but I actually get ham! Ive just read the blurb on __import__ in section 2.1 of the Library Reference, and I dont see anything to indicate that it returns the things named in the last argument. On the contrary: When the name variable is of the form package.module, normally, the top-level package (the name up till the first dot) is returned, not the module named by name. However, when a non-empty fromlist argument is given, the module named by name is returned. The last sentence indicates that __import__(spam.ham, globals(), locals(), [eggs]) will return the module named spam.ham, as you have found. , [...] So I wonder what the last argument is for since it seams rather , useless. [...] Some implementations of __import__ might ...
package com.company.my; import java.io.IOException; import java.util.Collections; import org.eclipse.emf.common.util.URI; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EAttribute; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EClass; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EClassifier; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EPackage; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EReference; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EcoreFactory; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EcorePackage; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.resource.Resource; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.resource.ResourceSet; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.resource.impl.ResourceSetImpl; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.xmi.impl.EcoreResourceFactoryImpl; public class MyEMFGenerator { public void generate(final String pathToDDLEcore, final String pathToOutputFile) throws IOException { // it is very important that we do everything through ResourceSets ResourceSet resourceSet = new ResourceSetImpl(); Resource ddlResource = createAndLoadDDLResource(resourceSet, pathToDDLEcore); // of course, in production code we would fail here ...
package com.company.my; import java.io.IOException; import java.util.Collections; import org.eclipse.emf.common.util.URI; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EAttribute; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EClass; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EClassifier; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EPackage; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EReference; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EcoreFactory; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.EcorePackage; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.resource.Resource; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.resource.ResourceSet; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.resource.impl.ResourceSetImpl; import org.eclipse.emf.ecore.xmi.impl.EcoreResourceFactoryImpl; public class MyEMFGenerator { public void generate(final String pathToDDLEcore, final String pathToOutputFile) throws IOException { // it is very important that we do everything through ResourceSets ResourceSet resourceSet = new ResourceSetImpl(); Resource ddlResource = createAndLoadDDLResource(resourceSet, pathToDDLEcore); // of course, in production code we would fail here ...
... was last measured at 76.71 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Manufactures comprise the commodities in SITC sections 5 (chemicals), 6 (basic manufactures), 7 (machinery and transport equipment), and 8 (miscellaneous manufactured goods), excluding division 68 (nonferrous metals).This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Manufactures imports (% of merchandise imports) in Rwanda.
The IPO is priced at 20.7 times its FY17 annualised earnings. Given the strong earnings growth and its growth potential, the IPO appears attractive.
LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable #-} -- Handles indentation in the keymaps. Includes: -- * (TODO) Auto-indentation to the previous lines indentation -- * Tab-expansion -- * Shifting of the indentation for a region of text module Yi.Buffer.Indent where import Yi.Buffer.Basic import Yi.Buffer.Misc import Yi.Buffer.HighLevel import Yi.Prelude import Yi.Buffer.Normal import Yi.Buffer.Region import Prelude () import Data.Char import Data.List (span, length, sort, nub, break, reverse, filter, takeWhile, dropWhile) import Yi.String {- , Return either a \t or the number of spaces specified by tabSize in the IndentSettings. Note that if you actually want to insert a tab character (for example when editing makefiles) then you should use: @insertB \[email protected] -} tabB :: BufferM String tabB = do indentSettings ,- indentSettingsB return $ if expandTabs indentSettings then replicate (tabSize indentSettings) else "\t" {-, Retrieve the current indentation settings for the buffer. -} indentSettingsB :: BufferM ...
Seair Exim provides Import product list. Get imports products data India and shipment records of your selected product. View importers details of your desire product.
Ran-guanosine triphosphatase orchestrates mitotic spindle assembly by modulation of the interaction between Importin-α/-β and spindle assembly factors (SAFs). The inhibition of SAFs performed by importins needs to be done without much sequestration from abundant nuclear localization signal (NLS) -containing proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine NLS-binding selectivity and that inhibit activity of Importin-β-regulated SAFs (e.g., nuclear mitotic apparatus protein [NuMA]) remain undefined. Here, we present a crystal structure of the Importin-α-NuMA C terminus complex showing a novel binding pattern that accounts for selective NLS recognition. We demonstrate that, in the presence of Importin-α, Importin-β inhibits the microtubule-binding function of NuMA. Further, we have identified a high-affinity microtubule-binding region that lies carboxyl-terminal to the NLS, which is sterically masked by Importin-β on being bound by Importin-α. Our study provides mechanistic ...
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) regulate all cargo traffic across the nuclear envelope. The transport conduit of NPCs is highly enriched in disordered phenylalanine/glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups), which form a permeability barrier of still elusive and highly debated molecular structure. Here we present a microfluidic device that triggered liquid-to-liquid phase separation of FG-Nups, which yielded droplets that showed typical properties of a liquid state. On the microfluidic chip, droplets were perfused with different transport-competent or -incompetent cargo complexes, and then the permeability barrier properties of the droplets were optically interrogated. We show that the liquid state mimics permeability barrier properties of the physiological nuclear transport pathway in intact NPCs in cells: that is, inert cargoes ranging from small proteins to large capsids were excluded from liquid FG-Nup droplets, but functional import complexes underwent facilitated import into droplets. ...
Globally, dengue fever is the most common vector-borne viral infection in the current century [24]. It tends to be of urban and peri-urban distribution, though it occurs in rural areas [25]. With the increasing incidence of dengue outbreaks in Yemen, the present study describes the KAPs of at-risk populations pertaining to dengue fever in three urban districts of Taiz. KAP surveys are of utmost importance in determining effective evidence-based prevention and control strategies through changing poor KAPs. Up to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the KAPs of Yemeni people in urban areas towards dengue.. In the present study, most urban community respondents were able to correctly identify fever, headache, joint pain, muscle pain, pain behind the eyes and bleeding as prominent signs and symptoms of dengue fever. However, skin rash was the least frequent symptom correctly recognized by the respondents. This is in agreement with a recent study on the KAPs of rural communities that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear pore protein NUP88 activates anaphasepromoting complex to promote aneuploidy. AU - Naylor, Ryan M.. AU - Jeganathan, Karthik B.. AU - Cao, Xiuqi. AU - Van Deursen, Jan. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - The nuclear pore complex protein NUP88 is frequently elevated in aggressive human cancers and correlates with reduced patient survival; however, it is unclear whether and how NUP88 overexpression drives tumorigenesis. Here, we show that mice overexpressing NUP88 are cancer prone and form intestinal tumors. To determine whether overexpression of NUP88 drives tumorigenesis, we engineered transgenic mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of Nup88. Surprisingly, NUP88 overexpression did not alter global nuclear transport, but was a potent inducer of aneuploidy and chromosomal instability. We determined that NUP88 and the nuclear transport factors NUP98 and RAE1 comprise a regulatory network that inhibits premitotic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ...
We previously discovered that nuclear import of low risk HPV11 E7 is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via a pathway that is independent of karyopherins/importins (Piccioli et al., 2010. Virology 407, 100-109). In this study we mapped and characterized a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), 76IRQLQDLLL84, within the zinc-binding domain that mediates the nuclear export of HPV11 E7 in a CRM1-dependent manner. We also identified a mostly hydrophobic patch 65VRLVV69 within the zinc-binding domain that mediates nuclear import of HPV11 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG-repeats domain of Nup62. Substitutions of hydrophobic residues to alanine within the 65VRLVV69 sequence disrupt the nuclear localization of 11E7, whereas the R66A mutation has no effect. Overall the data support a model of nuclear entry of HPV11 E7 protein via hydrophobic interactions with FG nucleoporins at the nuclear pore complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
"Entrez Gene: KPNB1 karyopherin (importin) beta 1". Köhler M, Speck C, Christiansen M, Bischoff FR, Prehn S, Haller H, Görlich D ... KPNB1 has been shown to interact with: KPNA3, Karyopherin alpha 1, Karyopherin alpha 2, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog ... a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits. Each of these subunits are part of the karyopherin family of proteins. ... "Ran binding domains promote the interaction of Ran with p97/beta-karyopherin, linking the docking and translocation steps of ...
"Karyopherin beta 2B participates in mRNA export from the nucleus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. United States. 99 (22): 14195- ...
Shamsher MK, Ploski J, Radu A (October 2002). "Karyopherin beta 2B participates in mRNA export from the nucleus". Proc Natl ... "Entrez Gene: TNPO2 transportin 2 (importin 3, karyopherin beta 2b)". Fontoura, B M; Blobel G; Yaseen N R (October 2000). "The ... 2006). "Rules for nuclear localization sequence recognition by karyopherin beta 2". Cell. 126 (3): 543-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... nucleoporin Nup98 is a site for GDP/GTP exchange on ran and termination of karyopherin beta 2-mediated nuclear import". J. Biol ...
Shamsher MK, Ploski J, Radu A (2002). "Karyopherin beta 2B participates in mRNA export from the nucleus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Ran is involved in the transport of proteins across the nuclear envelope by interacting with karyopherins and changing their ... Kutay U, Izaurralde E, Bischoff FR, Mattaj IW, Görlich D (1997). "Dominant-negative mutants of importin-beta block multiple ... Percipalle P, Clarkson WD, Kent HM, Rhodes D, Stewart M (1997). "Molecular interactions between the importin alpha/beta ...
"Rules for nuclear localisation sequence recognition by karyopherin beta 2". Cell. 126 (3): 543-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.05. ... A protein translated with a NLS will bind strongly to importin (aka karyopherin), and, together, the complex will move through ... also known as transportin or karyopherin β2), which then translocates the cargo protein into the nucleus. The structural basis ... "Crystallographic analysis of the recognition of a nuclear localisation signal by the nuclear import factor karyopherin alpha". ...
Moroianu J, Hijikata M, Blobel G, Radu A (1995). "Mammalian karyopherin alpha 1 beta and alpha 2 beta heterodimers: alpha 1 or ... Shamsher MK, Ploski J, Radu A (October 2002). "Karyopherin beta 2B participates in mRNA export from the nucleus". Proc. Natl. ... Nuclear import of hnRNP A1 is mediated by a novel cellular cofactor related to karyopherin-beta. Journal of Cell Science 1997 ... "Nuclear import of hnRNP A1 is mediated by a novel cellular cofactor related to karyopherin-beta". J. Cell Sci. 110 (11): 1325- ...
Zhang C, Sweezey NB, Gagnon S, Muskat B, Koehler D, Post M, Kaplan F (Apr 2000). "A novel karyopherin-beta homolog is ... "Paired-type homeodomain transcription factors are imported into the nucleus by karyopherin 13". Molecular and Cellular Biology ... "Paired-type homeodomain transcription factors are imported into the nucleus by karyopherin 13". Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
For example, the beta-karyopherin superfamily consists of alpha solenoid proteins formed from HEAT repeats; importin beta is a ... Like beta propellers, alpha solenoids are a form of solenoid protein domain commonly found in the proteins comprising the ... A large number of the conserved nucleoporin proteins forming the NPC are either alpha solenoid proteins or consist of a beta ... Most distinctively, a shared domain architecture consisting of an N-terminal beta propeller and a C-terminal alpha solenoid has ...
"The nucleoporin Nup98 is a site for GDP/GTP exchange on ran and termination of karyopherin beta 2-mediated nuclear import". J. ... karyopherin alpha3/Qip". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (14): 10099-104. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.14.10099. PMID 10744690. Nemergut ME, Macara ...
"The nucleoporin Nup98 is a site for GDP/GTP exchange on ran and termination of karyopherin beta 2-mediated nuclear import". J. ... "The nucleoporin Nup98 is a site for GDP/GTP exchange on ran and termination of karyopherin beta 2-mediated nuclear import". J. ... Bonifaci N, Moroianu J, Radu A, Blobel G (May 1997). "Karyopherin beta2 mediates nuclear import of a mRNA binding protein". ... Yaseen NR, Blobel G (1997). "Cloning and characterization of human karyopherin beta3". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (9): ...
... a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits also known as karyopherins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in ... Interactions between importin beta and the FG repeats of nucleoporins are essential in translocation through the pore complex. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the importin beta family. Nuclear transport, a signal- and energy-dependent ... Chook YM, Blobel G (2002). "Karyopherins and nuclear import". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11 (6): 703-15. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X( ...
... a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits also known as karyopherins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in ... "Entrez Gene: KPNA6 karyopherin alpha 6 (importin alpha 7)". Bukrinsky MI, Haffar OK (2004). "HIV-1 nuclear import: in search of ... Importin alpha enters the nucleoplasm with its passenger protein and importin beta remains at the pore. The protein encoded by ... Chook YM, Blobel G (2002). "Karyopherins and nuclear import". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11 (6): 703-15. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X( ...
Moroianu, J; Blobel, G; Radu, A (1996-06-25). "The binding site of karyopherin alpha for karyopherin beta overlaps with a ... "Previously identified protein of uncertain function is karyopherin alpha and together with karyopherin beta docks import ... Importin alpha, or karyopherin alpha refers to a class of adaptor proteins that are involved in the import of proteins into the ... They are a sub-family of karyopherin proteins. Importin α is known to bind to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of ...
... karyopherins MeSH D12.776.157.530.750.500.100 -- alpha karyopherins MeSH D12.776.157.530.750.500.249 -- beta karyopherins MeSH ... gtp-binding protein beta subunits MeSH D12.776.157.325.332.730 -- gtp-binding protein gamma subunits MeSH D12.776.157.325. ... large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel beta subunits MeSH D12.776.157.530.400.600.150.750 -- small-conductance ...
... karyopherins MeSH D12.776.543.585.750.500.100 -- alpha karyopherins MeSH D12.776.543.585.750.500.249 -- beta karyopherins MeSH ... beta-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.070.300.300.340.725 -- receptors, adrenergic, beta-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.070.300.300.340.900 -- ... beta-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.150.300.340.725 -- receptors, adrenergic, beta-2 MeSH D12.776.543.750.100.150.300.340.900 -- ... beta MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.300.300.300.340.100 -- receptors, adrenergic, beta-1 MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.300.300.300.340.200 ...
Importin beta is a specific type of karyopherin that facilitates the transport of cargo proteins into the nucleus. First, it is ... Once inside the nucleus, the cargo dissociates from the karyopherins. Importin beta can also carry proteins into the nucleus ... Most proteins require karyopherins to traverse the nuclear pore. Karyopherins can act as importins (i.e. helping proteins get ... Karyopherins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Illustrations at berkeley.edu Karyopherin ...
Moroianu J, Hijikata M, Blobel G, Radu A (1995). "Mammalian karyopherin alpha 1 beta and alpha 2 beta heterodimers: alpha 1 or ... "Previously identified protein of uncertain function is karyopherin alpha and together with karyopherin beta docks import ... Karyopherin alpha 1 has been shown to interact with KPNB1 and UBR5. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000114030 - Ensembl, May ... 1996). "Role of the karyopherin pathway in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nuclear import". J. Virol. 70 (2): 1027-32. PMC ...
Moroianu J, Hijikata M, Blobel G, Radu A (Jul 1995). "Mammalian karyopherin alpha 1 beta and alpha 2 beta heterodimers: alpha 1 ... "Entrez Gene: KPNA2 karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1)". Lin CY, Huang PH, Liao WL, Cheng HJ, Huang CF, Kuo JC ... KPNA2 also may play a role in V(D)J recombination Karyopherin alpha 2 has been shown to interact with: ARL4A ITK, KPNB1, PLAG1 ... Braem CV, Kas K, Meyen E, Debiec-Rychter M, Van De Ven WJ, Voz ML (May 2002). "Identification of a karyopherin alpha 2 ...
Another protein, importin (beta) binds to the helical rod section of p62, which also binds NTF2 suggesting the formation of a ... Karyopherin beta2 (transportin), a riboprotein transporter also interacts with p62. P62 also interacts with Nup93, and when ... Yaseen NR, Blobel G (1997). "Cloning and characterization of human karyopherin β3". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (9): 4451- ... Yaseen NR, Blobel G (1997). "Cloning and characterization of human karyopherin β3". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (9): 4451- ...
The ARM domain, Armadillo/ beta-catenin-like-repeat, is about a 40 amino acid long tandem repeat that forms superhelix of ... The SRP1 domain is Karyopherin(importin) alpha. This is involved in the exchange of molecules from the nucleus and the ... The ARM domains play a role in mediating the interaction of beta-catenin with its ligand. They are responsible for transduction ... The exchange involves the active transport by a carrier protein called karyopherins. A di-leucine motif is also abundant in ...
... : IPO4, IPO5, IPO7, IPO8, IPO9, IPO11, IPO13 Karyopherin-α: KPNA1, KPNA2, KPNA3, KPNA4, KPNA5, KPNA6 Karyopherin-β: ... "Structural basis for the interaction between FxFG nucleoporin repeats and importin-beta in nuclear trafficking". Cell. 102: 99- ... Importin-β is the typical structure of a larger superfamily of karyopherins. The basis of their structure is 18-20 tandem ... CAS (cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein) is part of the importin-β superfamily of karyopherins and is defined as a ...
... beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, alpha 1 Dystrophin- ... alpha 1 Karyopherin alpha 1 Laminin, alpha 1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1 Major histocompatibility ...
It also acts as the docking site of an importing karyopherin. On the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, Nup358 fulfills an analogous ... Ben-Efraim I, Gerace L (2001). "Gradient of increasing affinity of importin beta for nucleoporins along the pathway of nuclear ... Yaseen NR, Blobel G (1997). "Cloning and characterization of human karyopherin beta3". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (9): ... Ben-Efraim, I; Gerace L (January 2001). "Gradient of increasing affinity of importin beta for nucleoporins along the pathway of ...
Braem CV, Kas K, Meyen E, Debiec-Rychter M, Van De Ven WJ, Voz ML (2002). "Identification of a karyopherin alpha 2 recognition ... "Promoter swapping between the genes for a novel zinc finger protein and beta-catenin in pleiomorphic adenomas with t(3;8)(p21; ... PLAG1 has been shown to interact with Karyopherin alpha 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000181690 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "Identification of a karyopherin alpha 2 recognition site in PLAG1, which functions as a nuclear localization signal". J. Biol. ...
The VP1 protein monomer is primarily composed of beta sheets folded into a jelly roll fold. Interactions between VP1 molecules ... This nuclear import process, mediated by karyopherins, acts on assembled VP1 pentamers in complex with VP2 or VP3; ... within a pentamer involve extensive binding surfaces, mediated in part by interactions between edge beta-strands. The VP1 C- ...
Ben-Efraim I, Gerace L (Jan 2001). "Gradient of increasing affinity of importin beta for nucleoporins along the pathway of ... Bonifaci N, Moroianu J, Radu A, Blobel G (May 1997). "Karyopherin beta2 mediates nuclear import of a mRNA binding protein". ... Ben-Efraim I, Gerace L (Jan 2001). "Gradient of increasing affinity of importin beta for nucleoporins along the pathway of ... Each domain of RanBP2 selectively and directly interacts with distinct proteins such as Ran GTPase, importin-beta, exportin-1/ ...
... beta-mediated nuclear protein import". Cell. 110 (3): 349-60. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(02)00836-x. PMID 12176322.. ... Karyopherin. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000082898 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
... this family is further subdivided to the karyopherin-α and the karyopherin-β subfamilies. Other nuclear transport receptors ... About half of the nucleoporins typically contain solenoid protein domains-either an alpha solenoid or a beta-propeller fold, or ... The largest family of nuclear transport receptors are karyopherins, which includes dozens of both importins and exportins; ...
Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. ... Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN ... GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta. ... transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the ... Karyopherin beta; Karyopherin-beta Subunit; beta Importins; p92 nuclear protein; Importin beta; Importins, beta; Karyopherin ...
... beta 3 RNAi available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Karyopherin (importin) beta 3 RNAi catalog backed by our Guarantee+ ... Karyopherin (importin) beta 3 RNAi. We offer Karyopherin (importin) beta 3 RNAi for use in common research applications. Each ... Alternate Names for Karyopherin (importin) beta 3 RNAi. Karyopherin (importin) beta 3 RNAi, IPO5 RNAi, DKFZp686O1576 RNAi, ... beta 3 RNAi can be used in a variety of model species: Human. Use the list below to choose the Karyopherin (importin) beta 3 ...
... beta 1), Authors: Maria Giubettini, Pauline van der Watt, Annalisa Verrico, Valeria de Turris, Virna Leaner, Patrizia Lavia. ... Human importin beta 1 belongs to the karyopherin beta family of nuclear transport factors, within which 15 evolutionarily ... Biological overview: Importin beta 1 is a prominent member of the karyopherin beta family of transport receptors (reviewed by ... KPNB1 (karyopherin (importin) beta 1). Written. 2013-04. Maria Giubettini, Pauline van der Watt, Annalisa Verrico, Valeria de ...
offers a broad range of karyopherin beta 3 CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout plasmids and karyopherin beta 3 Double Nickase Plasmids. ... karyopherin beta 3 gene silencers are available as karyopherin beta 3 CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout plasmids and karyopherin beta 3 ... karyopherin beta 3 Antibodies for analysis of cellular responses to karyopherin beta 3 CRISPR Products ... karyopherin beta 3 CRISPR Knockout, HDR and Nickase Knockout Plasmids PRODUCT NAME. CATALOG #. Species. APPLICATIONS. MARKER. ...
Karyopherin Subunit Beta 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... KPNB1 (Karyopherin Subunit Beta 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Regulation of cholesterol ... At the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC, Ran binds to importin-beta and the three components separate and importin-alpha and -beta ... At the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC, Ran binds to importin-beta and the three components separate and importin-alpha and -beta ...
Recombinant Human karyopherin Beta 1 RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS \ pro-1001 for more molecular products just contact us ... Recombinant Human karyopherin Beta 1 RECOMBINANT & NATURAL PROTEINS. Related products : Recombinant Human karyopherin Beta 1 ... WP1045: TGF-beta Receptor Signaling Pathway. WP1048: TGF Beta Signaling Pathway. WP105: Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation 2. WP1058: ... WP113: TGF Beta Signaling Pathway. WP1161: TGF-beta Receptor Signaling Pathway. WP1164: TGF Beta Signaling Pathway. WP1177: ...
beta Karyopherins. *Signal Transduction. *Virus Replication. *EZH2. *Up-Regulation. *Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein ...
Mouse monoclonal NTF97/Importin beta antibody [3E9] validated for WB, IP, Flow Cyt, ChIP, Inhibition, ICC/IF & tested in Human ... The first step, docking at the nuclear pore complex, requires a 54/56 kDa nuclear localization signal receptor (a-karyopherin, ... At the nucleoplasmic side of the NPC, Ran binds to importin-beta and the three components separate and importin-alpha and -beta ... Anti-NTF97/Importin beta antibody [3E9]. See all NTF97/Importin beta primary antibodies. ...
Karyopherin (importin) beta 2. *Karyopherin beta 2. *Karyopherin beta-2. *KPN B2 ... Binds to a beta-like import receptor binding (BIB) domain of RPL23A. In vitro, mediates nuclear import of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 ... Belongs to the importin beta family.. Contains 8 HEAT repeats.. Contains 1 importin N-terminal domain. ...
Karyopherin beta 4; SWI4; Swi4p: transcription factor; USS1; Uss1p: core protein of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein; YER113C; ...
"Entrez Gene: KPNB1 karyopherin (importin) beta 1". Köhler M, Speck C, Christiansen M, Bischoff FR, Prehn S, Haller H, Görlich D ... KPNB1 has been shown to interact with: KPNA3, Karyopherin alpha 1, Karyopherin alpha 2, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog ... a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits. Each of these subunits are part of the karyopherin family of proteins. ... "Ran binding domains promote the interaction of Ran with p97/beta-karyopherin, linking the docking and translocation steps of ...
... which belong to the karyopherin-beta family proteins. A feature of karyopherins is their regulation by the small GTPase Ran. ...
"Karyopherin beta 2B participates in mRNA export from the nucleus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. United States. 99 (22): 14195- ...
transportin 2 (importin 3, karyopherin beta 2b). MGI:2384849 Go Annotations as Summary Text (Tabular View) (GO Graph). ...
Xu, D., Farmer, A., and Chook, Y. M. (2010). Recognition of nuclear targeting signals by Karyopherin-beta proteins. Curr. Opin ... Beaulieu, J. M., Sotnikova, T. D., Marion, S., Lefkowitz, R. J., Gainetdinov, R. R., and Caron, M. G. (2005). An Akt/beta- ... For example, it has been shown that DARPP-32 binds directly to the splicing factor transformer 2-beta 1 (tra2-beta1) and ... Wang, B., Li, Z., Xu, L., Goggi, J., Yu, Y., and Zhou, J. (2004). Molecular cloning and characterization of rat karyopherin ...
Importins, including IPO11, are a members of the karyopherin/importin-beta family of transport receptors (see KPNB1; 602738) ... IBN_N; Importin-beta N-terminal domain. sd00044. Location:466 → 499. HEAT; HEAT repeat [structural motif]. ...
... we show that these necleoporins can be isolated from yeast extracts by affinity chromatography on karyopherin Kap95p-coated ... we show that these necleoporins can be isolated from yeast extracts by affinity chromatography on karyopherin Kap95p-coated ...
beta Karyopherins/genetics*. Minor. *Base Sequence. *Blotting, Western. *Exome/genetics. *Female. *Fluorescent Antibody ...
Soniat, M., and Chook, Y. M. (2015). Nuclear localization signals for four distinct karyopherin-beta nuclear import systems. ... The PY-NLS is recognized for nuclear import by karyopherin-β2 (Kapβ2) in humans and by its ortholog Kap104 in yeast (Lee et al ... The results suggest that the P. sojae karyopherins that presumably bind to these NLSs do so more weakly than in other ... Chook, Y. M., and Suel, K. E. (2011). Nuclear import by karyopherin-βs: recognition and inhibition. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1813 ...
karyopherin (importin) beta 1. 3842. 3842. TNPO1. transportin 1. 3843. 3843. IPO5. importin 5. ...
"Remodeling of the pioneer translation initiation complex involves translation and the karyopherin importin beta." Genes & ... "A beta zero-thalassemic beta-globin RNA that is labile in bone marrow cells is relatively stable in HeLa cells." Nucleic acids ... "Novel metabolism of several beta zero-thalassemic beta-globin mRNAs in the erythroid tissues of transgenic mice." The EMBO ... "Unstable beta-globin mRNA in mRNA-deficient beta o thalassemia." Cell.. 1981 Dec 0; 27(3 Pt 2):543-53. ...
KPNB1 (karyopherin (importin) beta 1). CREATED 2013-04 CNR (National Research Council), Institute of Molecular Biology, ... ACTB (Actin, beta). CREATED 2005-03 Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden. ... CTNNB1 (Catenin, beta-1). CREATED 2002-03 Service de Biochimie et Biologie moléculaire, Hôpital Universitaire Paul Brousse, ... ESR2 (Estrogen Receptor 2 (ER beta)). CREATED 2008-04 Department of Biosciences, Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, S-141 ...
Karyopherin beta 2B participates in mRNA export from the nucleus. Shamsher, M.K., Ploski, J., Radu, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ...
2006). Rules for nuclear localization sequence recognition by karyopherin beta 2. Cell 126: 543-558. ... that is recognized by karyopherin β in yeast and humans (Lee et al., 2006; Bai et al., 2011). Nevertheless, the splice variants ...
Yaseen, N. R. and Blobel, G. (1997). Cloning and characterization of human karyopherin beta 3. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, ... Futterer, A., Mink, K., Luz, A., Kosco-Vilbois, M. H. and Pfeffer, K. (1998). The lymphotoxin beta receptor controls ... Defective lymphotoxin-beta receptor-induced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in NIK-deficient mice. Science 291, 2162-2165. ...
  • Pubmed ID: 11909949 To further our understanding of how the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery interfaces with its cargoes and how this affects cellular physiology, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of phenotypes associated with mutations in karyopherin Kap121p. (jove.com)
  • The molecular weight of the beta type was approximately 100 kDa, and the alphas weighed approximately 60 kDa. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Here, we report the detection of mutations in breast, lung carcinomas and melanomas in the genes of both alpha (PPP2R1A) and beta isoforms. (genes2cognition.org)
  • We detected mRNA of the four karyopherins in normal 3rd day of 5th instar larvae, and in larvae injected with Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and fungi using real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and found that the four karyopherins were widely distributed, but their expression levels were related to tissues type, the microbe injected, and the time point. (geneticsmr.com)
  • at mitotic onset nucleo-cytoplasmic transport ceases and importin beta 1 assumes new functions as an inhibitor of mitotic factors with which it interacts and participating in many mitotic steps (see below). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • V-ski sarcoma viral oncogene homolog ( Ski ) and SKI-like oncogene ( SnoN ) modulate the nuclear activity of SMAD and function as corepressors antagonize TGF-beta signaling [ 4 ], [ 8 ]. (bio-rad.com)