A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset in infancy of an exaggerated startle response, followed by paralysis, dementia, and blindness. It is caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of the HEXOSAMINIDASE A resulting in lipid-laden ganglion cells. It is also known as the B variant (with increased HEXOSAMINIDASE B but absence of hexosaminidase A) and is strongly associated with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.
An essential cofactor for the degradation of G(M2)GANGLIOSIDE by lysosomal BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES. Genetic mutations resulting in loss of G(M2) activator protein are one of the causes of TAY-SACHS DISEASE, AB VARIANT.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.
A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.
A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.
The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

Nonsense-mediated decay of human HEXA mRNA. (1/5)

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), the loss of mRNAs carrying premature stop codons, is a process by which cells recognize and degrade nonsense mRNAs to prevent possibly toxic effects of truncated peptides. Most mammalian nonsense mRNAs are degraded while associated with the nucleus, but a few are degraded in the cytoplasm; at either site, there is a requirement for translation and for an intron downstream of the early stop codon. We have examined the NMD of a mutant HEXA message in lymphoblasts derived from a Tay-Sachs disease patient homozygous for the common frameshift mutation 1278ins4. The mutant mRNA was nearly undetectable in these cells and increased to approximately 40% of normal in the presence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. The stabilized transcript was found in the cytoplasm in association with polysomes. Within 5 h of cycloheximide removal, the polysome-associated nonsense message was completely degraded, while the normal message was stable. The increased lability of the polysome-associated mutant HEXA mRNA shows that NMD of this endogenous mRNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that expression of an intronless HEXA minigene harboring the frameshift mutation or a closely located nonsense codon resulted in half the normal mRNA level. Inclusion of multiple downstream introns decreased the abundance further, to about 20% of normal. Thus, in contrast to other systems, introns are not absolutely required for NMD of HEXA mRNA, although they enhance the low-HEXA-mRNA phenotype.  (+info)

Evaluation of the risk for Tay-Sachs disease in individuals of French Canadian ancestry living in new England. (2/5)

BACKGROUND: The assessment of risk for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) in individuals of French Canadian background living in New England is an important health issue. In preliminary studies of the enzyme-defined carrier frequency for TSD among Franco-Americans in New England, we found frequencies (1:53) higher than predicted from the incidence of infantile TSD in this region. We have now further evaluated the risk for TSD in the Franco-American population of New England. METHODS: Using a fluorescence-based assay for beta-hexosaminidase activity, we determined the carrier frequencies for TSD in 2783 Franco-Americans. DNA analysis was used to identify mutations causing enzyme deficiency in TSD carriers. RESULTS: We determined the enzyme-defined carrier frequency for TSD as 1:65 (95% confidence interval 1:49 to 1:90). DNA-based analysis of 24 of the enzyme-defined carriers revealed 21 with sequence changes: 9 disease-causing, 4 benign, and 8 of unknown significance. Six of the unknowns were identified as c.748G>A p.G250S, a mutation we show by expression analysis to behave similarly to the previously described c.805G>A p.G269S adult-onset TSD mutation. This putative adult-onset TSD c.748G>A p.G250S mutation has a population frequency similar to the common 7.6 kb deletion mutation that occurs in persons of French Canadian ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: We estimate the frequency of deleterious TSD alleles in Franco-Americans to be 1:73 (95% confidence interval 1:55 to 1:107). These data provide a more complete data base from which to formulate policy recommendations regarding TSD heterozygosity screening in individuals of French Canadian background.  (+info)

Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing and carrier screening for Tay-Sachs and Canavan disease. (3/5)


Introduction of an N-glycan sequon into HEXA enhances human beta-hexosaminidase cellular uptake in a model of Sandhoff disease. (4/5)


Mice doubly-deficient in lysosomal hexosaminidase A and neuraminidase 4 show epileptic crises and rapid neuronal loss. (5/5)


Gangliosidoses are a group of inherited metabolic disorders caused by the accumulation of certain complex lipids called gangliosides in the brain and nervous system. This buildup is due to a deficiency of specific enzymes needed to break down these substances. The three main types of gangliosidoses are:

1. Type 1 - Infantile Neurovisceral or Tay-Sachs Disease: Characterized by the absence of the enzyme hexosaminidase A, leading to severe neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness, blindness, and developmental delay in early infancy, with rapid progression and death usually occurring before age 4.
2. Type 2 - Juvenile or Subacute GM1 Gangliosidosis: Caused by a deficiency of the enzyme beta-galactosidase, resulting in progressive neurological symptoms such as motor and cognitive decline, beginning between ages 6 months and 2 years. Affected individuals may survive into adolescence or early adulthood.
3. Type 3 - Adult or Chronic GM1 Gangliosidosis: Characterized by a deficiency of beta-galactosidase, leading to milder neurological symptoms that appear in late childhood, adolescence, or even adulthood. The progression is slower compared to the other types, and life expectancy varies widely.

Gangliosidoses are autosomal recessive disorders, meaning an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.

Lipidoses are a group of genetic disorders characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipids (fats or fat-like substances) in various tissues and cells of the body due to defects in lipid metabolism. These disorders include conditions such as Gaucher's disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Fabry disease, and Wolman disease, among others. The accumulation of lipids can lead to progressive damage in multiple organs, resulting in a range of symptoms and health complications. Early diagnosis and management are essential for improving the quality of life and prognosis of affected individuals.

Hexosaminidase A is an enzyme that is responsible for breaking down certain complex molecules in the body, specifically gangliosides. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which are encoded by the genes HEXA and HEXB, respectively.

Deficiency or mutation in the HEXA gene can lead to a genetic disorder called Tay-Sachs disease, which is characterized by an accumulation of gangliosides in the nerve cells, leading to progressive neurological degeneration. The function of hexosaminidase A is to break down these gangliosides into simpler molecules that can be eliminated from the body. Without sufficient levels of this enzyme, the gangliosides build up and cause damage to the nervous system.

Hexosaminidase B is a type of enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of complex lipids called gangliosides in the body. These enzymes are found in lysosomes, which are structures inside cells that break down and recycle various materials.

Hexosaminidase B specifically helps to break down a particular type of ganglioside called GM2 ganglioside, which is abundant in the nervous system. Mutations in the gene that provides instructions for making this enzyme can lead to a condition called Tay-Sachs disease, which is characterized by the accumulation of GM2 gangliosides in the nerve cells, leading to progressive neurological deterioration.

In summary, Hexosaminidase B is an essential enzyme for breaking down certain types of lipids in the body, and its deficiency can lead to serious health consequences.

Hexosaminidases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates, specifically glycoproteins and glycolipids, in the human body. These enzymes are responsible for cleaving the terminal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues from these molecules during the process of glycosidase digestion.

There are several types of hexosaminidases, including Hexosaminidase A and Hexosaminidase B, which are encoded by different genes and have distinct functions. Deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to serious genetic disorders, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease, respectively. These conditions are characterized by the accumulation of undigested glycolipids and glycoproteins in various tissues, leading to progressive neurological deterioration and other symptoms.

Beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases are a group of enzymes that play a role in the breakdown and recycling of complex carbohydrates in the body. Specifically, they help to break down gangliosides, which are a type of molecule found in cell membranes.

There are several different isoforms of beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases, including A, B, and S. These isoforms are formed by different combinations of subunits, which can affect their activity and substrate specificity.

Mutations in the genes that encode for these enzymes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. These conditions are characterized by an accumulation of gangliosides in the brain, which can cause progressive neurological deterioration and death.

Treatment for these conditions typically involves managing symptoms and providing supportive care, as there is currently no cure. Enzyme replacement therapy has been explored as a potential treatment option, but its effectiveness varies depending on the specific disorder and the age of the patient.

Tay-Sachs Disease is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disorder that affects the nervous system's functioning. It results from the deficiency of an enzyme called hexosaminidase A (Hex-A), which is necessary for breaking down gangliosides, a type of fatty substance found in nerve cells. When Hex-A is absent or insufficient, gangliosides accumulate abnormally in the nerve cells, leading to their progressive destruction and severe neurological deterioration.

The classic infantile form of Tay-Sachs Disease manifests within the first six months of life with symptoms such as loss of motor skills, seizures, paralysis, dementia, blindness, and eventually death, usually by age four. Late-onset forms of the disease also exist, which may present in childhood or adulthood with milder symptoms.

Tay-Sachs Disease is more prevalent among individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish, French Canadian, and Cajun descent. Genetic counseling and prenatal testing are recommended for couples at risk of passing on the disease.

Sandhoff disease is a rare inherited disorder that affects the nervous system. It's a type of GM2 gangliosidosis, which is a group of conditions characterized by the body's inability to break down certain fats (lipids) called gangliosides.

In Sandhoff disease, deficiencies in the enzymes hexosaminidase A and B lead to an accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in various cells, particularly in nerve cells of the brain. This accumulation results in progressive damage to the nervous system.

The symptoms of Sandhoff disease typically appear between 6 months and 2 years of age and can include developmental delay, seizures, an exaggerated startle response, muscle weakness, loss of motor skills, and vision and hearing loss. The condition is often fatal by around age 3. It's caused by mutations in the HEXB gene, and it's inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the disease.

Acetylglucosaminidase (ACG) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminides, which are found in glycoproteins and glycolipids. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the degradation and recycling of these complex carbohydrates within the body.

Deficiency or malfunction of Acetylglucosaminidase can lead to various genetic disorders, such as mucolipidosis II (I-cell disease) and mucolipidosis III (pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy), which are characterized by the accumulation of glycoproteins and glycolipids in lysosomes, resulting in cellular dysfunction and progressive damage to multiple organs.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that carry genetic information in the form of genes. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes in every cell of the body, except for the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes.

Human chromosomes are numbered from 1 to 22, based on their size, with chromosome 1 being the largest and chromosome 22 being the smallest. The last two pairs of human chromosomes are known as the sex chromosomes because they determine a person's biological sex. These are labeled X and Y, with females having two X chromosomes (44+XX) and males having one X and one Y chromosome (44+XY).

Therefore, "Chromosomes, Human, 4-5" refers to the fourth and fifth pairs of human chromosomes. Chromosome 4 is an acrocentric chromosome, meaning its centromere is located near one end, resulting in a short arm (p) and a long arm (q). It contains about 190 million base pairs and encodes approximately 700 genes.

Chromosome 5 is a submetacentric chromosome, with the centromere located closer to the middle, creating two arms of roughly equal length: the short arm (p) and the long arm (q). It contains about 182 million base pairs and encodes approximately 900 genes.

Both chromosomes 4 and 5 are involved in various genetic disorders when abnormalities occur, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations. Some of the well-known genetic conditions associated with these chromosomes include:

* Chromosome 4: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (deletion), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (duplication)
* Chromosome 5: Cri du Chat syndrome (deletion), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (deletion or mutation in a gene located on chromosome 5)

Sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs), also known as saposins, are a group of small proteins that play a crucial role in the metabolism of sphingolipids, a class of lipids found in cell membranes. These proteins are produced by the cleavage of a precursor protein called prosaposin.

SAPs facilitate the hydrolysis of sphingolipids by activating specific lysosomal hydrolases, enzymes that break down these lipids into simpler molecules. Each SAP has a unique structure and function, and they are named SapA, SapB, SapC, and SapD.

SapA and SapB activate the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, which breaks down glucosylceramide into glucose and ceramide. SapC activates the enzyme galactocerebrosidase, which breaks down galactosylceramide into galactose and ceramide. SapD has multiple functions, including activating the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase, which breaks down sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine.

Deficiencies in SAPs can lead to lysosomal storage disorders, such as Gaucher disease (caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase) and Krabbe disease (caused by a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase). These disorders are characterized by the accumulation of undigested sphingolipids in various tissues, leading to cell dysfunction and tissue damage.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Hymecromone, also known as fladrafinic acid, is an antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory medication that is primarily used to treat biliary tract spasms and cholestasis (a condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is reduced or blocked). It works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the bile ducts, thereby reducing spasms and allowing for improved bile flow. Hymecromone has also been studied for its potential use in treating other conditions such as liver disease and cancer, but more research is needed to confirm its effectiveness in these areas. It's important to note that this medication should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

GM2 gangliosidoses are a group of inherited metabolic disorders caused by the accumulation of harmful amounts of GM2 gangliosides in the body's cells, particularly in the nerve cells of the brain. There are three main types of GM2 gangliosidoses: Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis. These conditions are characterized by progressive neurological degeneration, which can lead to severe physical and mental disabilities, and ultimately death in childhood or early adulthood.

The underlying cause of GM2 gangliosides is a deficiency in the enzyme hexosaminidase A (Tay-Sachs and AB variant) or both hexosaminidase A and B (Sandhoff disease), which are responsible for breaking down GM2 gangliosides. Without sufficient enzyme activity, GM2 gangliosides accumulate in the lysosomes of cells, leading to cell dysfunction and death.

Symptoms of GM2 gangliosidoses can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the disorder, but often include developmental delay, muscle weakness, loss of motor skills, seizures, blindness, and dementia. There is currently no cure for GM2 gangliosidoses, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

Human chromosomes 13-15 are part of a set of 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the cells of the human body. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, or DNA, that is inherited from each parent. They are responsible for the development and function of all the body's organs and systems.

Chromosome 13 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 114 million base pairs of DNA. It is associated with several genetic disorders, including cri du chat syndrome, which is caused by a deletion on the short arm of the chromosome. Chromosome 13 also contains several important genes, such as those involved in the production of enzymes and proteins that help regulate growth and development.

Chromosome 14 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 107 million base pairs of DNA. It is known to contain many genes that are important for the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, as well as genes involved in the production of immune system proteins. Chromosome 14 is also associated with a number of genetic disorders, including Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, which is caused by a deletion on the short arm of the chromosome.

Chromosome 15 is a medium-sized chromosome and contains an estimated 102 million base pairs of DNA. It is associated with several genetic disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by abnormalities in the expression of genes on the chromosome. Chromosome 15 also contains important genes involved in the regulation of growth and development, as well as genes that play a role in the production of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers of the brain.

It is worth noting that while chromosomes 13-15 are important for normal human development and function, abnormalities in these chromosomes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders and developmental issues.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Saposins are a group of naturally occurring lipid-binding proteins that play an essential role in the metabolism of lipids within cells. They are named after a skin disease called "Niemann-Pick disease," where defects in saposin function lead to an accumulation of lipids in various tissues, including the brain.

There are four types of saposins (SapA, SapB, SapC, and SapD) that are produced by the cleavage of a larger precursor protein called prosaposin. These proteins help to facilitate the breakdown of lipids in lysosomes, which are specialized organelles within cells that break down and recycle various materials.

Saposins play an important role in activating certain enzymes that are involved in breaking down lipids, such as sphingolipids and gangliosides. They do this by binding to these enzymes and presenting them with their lipid substrates in a way that allows the enzymes to efficiently break them down.

Defects in saposin function can lead to a variety of diseases, including Niemann-Pick disease, Gaucher disease, and Krabbe disease, which are characterized by an accumulation of lipids in various tissues and neurological symptoms.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and is primarily produced by activated macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli. It is a crucial mediator of the innate immune response and plays a key role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1β is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects by binding to the interleukin-1 receptor, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various transcription factors and the expression of target genes.

Electrophoresis, starch gel is a type of electrophoretic technique used in laboratory settings for the separation and analysis of large biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. In this method, a gel made from cooked starch is used as the supporting matrix for the molecules being separated.

The sample containing the mixture of biomolecules is loaded onto the gel and an electric field is applied, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode. The starch gel acts as a molecular sieve, with smaller molecules moving more quickly through the gel than larger ones. This results in the separation of the mixture into individual components based on their size and charge.

Once the separation is complete, the gel can be stained to visualize the separated bands. Different staining techniques are used depending on the type of biomolecule being analyzed. For example, proteins can be stained with dyes such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue or silver nitrate, while nucleic acids can be stained with dyes such as ethidium bromide.

Starch gel electrophoresis is a relatively simple and inexpensive technique that has been widely used in molecular biology research and diagnostic applications. However, it has largely been replaced by other electrophoretic techniques, such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which offer higher resolution and can be automated for high-throughput analysis.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is commonly found in the body and plays a crucial role in various biological processes. It is a key component of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex molecules made up of protein and carbohydrate components.

More specifically, acetylglucosamine is an amino sugar that is formed by the addition of an acetyl group to glucosamine. It can be further modified in the body through a process called acetylation, which involves the addition of additional acetyl groups.

Acetylglucosamine is important for maintaining the structure and function of various tissues in the body, including cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. It also plays a role in the immune system and has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions.

In summary, acetylglucosamine is a type of sugar that is involved in many important biological processes in the body, and has potential therapeutic applications in various diseases.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

Heterozygote detection is a method used in genetics to identify individuals who carry one normal and one mutated copy of a gene. These individuals are known as heterozygotes and they do not typically show symptoms of the genetic disorder associated with the mutation, but they can pass the mutated gene on to their offspring, who may then be affected.

Heterozygote detection is often used in genetic counseling and screening programs for recessive disorders such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. By identifying heterozygotes, individuals can be informed of their carrier status and the potential risks to their offspring. This information can help them make informed decisions about family planning and reproductive options.

Various methods can be used for heterozygote detection, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based tests, DNA sequencing, and genetic linkage analysis. The choice of method depends on the specific gene or mutation being tested, as well as the availability and cost of the testing technology.

Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is found on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body and is involved in presenting intracellular peptides to T-cells for immune surveillance.

β2M is produced at a relatively constant rate by cells throughout the body and is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, most of the filtrated β2M is reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubules of the nephrons. However, when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, as in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubules becomes overwhelmed, leading to increased levels of β2M in the blood and its subsequent appearance in the urine.

Elevated serum and urinary β2M levels have been associated with various clinical conditions, such as CKD, multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases. Measuring β2M concentrations can provide valuable information for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes in these contexts.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT, or α1-antiproteinase, A1AP) is a protein that is primarily produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream. It belongs to a group of proteins called serine protease inhibitors, which help regulate inflammation and protect tissues from damage caused by enzymes involved in the immune response.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin is particularly important for protecting the lungs from damage caused by neutrophil elastase, an enzyme released by white blood cells called neutrophils during inflammation. In the lungs, AAT binds to and inhibits neutrophil elastase, preventing it from degrading the extracellular matrix and damaging lung tissue.

Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease. The most common cause of AAT deficiency is a genetic mutation that results in abnormal folding and accumulation of the protein within liver cells, leading to reduced levels of functional AAT in the bloodstream. This condition is called alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and can be inherited in an autosomal codominant manner. Individuals with severe AATD may require augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of purified human AAT to help prevent lung damage.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Immunoglobulin alpha-chains (IgA) are a type of immunoglobulin or antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are composed of two heavy chains, known as alpha-chains, and two light chains. IgA is primarily found in secretions such as tears, saliva, breast milk, and respiratory and intestinal mucus, where they provide protection against pathogens that enter the body through these surfaces.

IgA can exist in two forms: a monomeric form, which consists of a single IgA molecule, and a polymeric form, which consists of several IgA molecules joined together by a J chain. The polymeric form is more common in secretions, where it provides an effective barrier against pathogens.

IgA functions by binding to antigens on the surface of pathogens, preventing them from attaching to and infecting host cells. It can also neutralize toxins produced by some bacteria and viruses. Additionally, IgA can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to destroy pathogens, and initiate an immune response by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection.

Deficiencies in IgA are relatively common and usually do not cause any significant health problems. However, in some cases, people with IgA deficiency may develop recurrent infections or allergies.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Integrin α5β1, also known as very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) or fibronectin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits: α5 and β1. This integrin is widely expressed in various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

Integrin α5β1 plays a crucial role in mediating cell-matrix adhesion by binding to the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present in the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The interaction between integrin α5β1 and fibronectin is essential for various biological processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, this integrin has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including tumor progression, angiogenesis, and fibrosis.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Integrins are a type of cell-adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. They are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits, which form more than 24 distinct integrin heterodimers in humans.

Integrins bind to specific ligands, such as ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin), cell surface molecules, and soluble factors, through their extracellular domains. The intracellular domains of integrins interact with the cytoskeleton and various signaling proteins, allowing them to transduce signals from the ECM into the cell (outside-in signaling) and vice versa (inside-out signaling).

These molecular interactions are essential for numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of integrin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

Gangliosides are a type of complex lipid molecule known as sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They are predominantly found in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, particularly in the nervous system. Gangliosides play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion. They are especially abundant in the ganglia (nerve cell clusters) of the peripheral and central nervous systems, hence their name.

Gangliosides consist of a hydrophobic ceramide portion and a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain that contains one or more sialic acid residues. The composition and structure of these oligosaccharide chains can vary significantly among different gangliosides, leading to the classification of various subtypes, such as GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b.

Abnormalities in ganglioside metabolism or expression have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and various lysosomal storage diseases like Tay-Sachs and Gaucher's diseases. Additionally, certain bacterial toxins, such as botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, target gangliosides to gain entry into neuronal cells, causing their toxic effects.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hybrid cells" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "hybrid" is used in various scientific and medical contexts to describe combinations or mixtures of different elements, such as hybridoma cells (a type of fusion cell used in research, created by combining a B cell and a tumor cell) or hybridization (in genetics, the process of combining DNA from two different sources).

Without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for "hybrid cells." If you could provide more information about the context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help you further!

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

A point mutation within exon 5 of beta-hexosaminidase alpha chain gene was identified earlier in a Puerto Rican patient with ... A point mutation within exon 5 of beta-hexosaminidase alpha chain gene was identified earlier in a Puerto Rican patient with ... GM2-gangliosidosis B1 variant: a wide geographic and ethnic distribution of the specific beta-hexosaminidase alpha chain ... GM2-gangliosidosis B1 variant: a wide geographic and ethnic distribution of the specific beta-hexosaminidase alpha chain ...
beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain/deficiency. Tay-Sachs Disease. beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain/deficiency. Sandhoff Disease. ...
Proia RL, Soravia E (April 1987). "Organization of the gene encoding the human beta-hexosaminidase alpha-chain". The Journal of ... Even though the alpha and beta subunits of hexosaminidase A can both cleave GalNAc residues, only the alpha subunit is able to ... Hexosaminidase A is a heterodimer composed of an alpha subunit (this protein) and a beta subunit. The alpha subunit polypeptide ... "Isolation of cDNA clones coding for the alpha-subunit of human beta-hexosaminidase. Extensive homology between the alpha- and ...
HEXA disorders are best considered as a disease continuum based on the amount of residual beta-hexosaminidase A (HEX A) enzyme ... "hexosaminidase A") is a heterodimer comprising a single alpha chain and a single beta chain. The alpha chain is encoded by HEXA ... A deletion involving Alu sequences in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha-chain gene of French Canadians with Tay-Sachs disease. J ... a wide geographic and ethnic distribution of the specific beta-hexosaminidase alpha chain mutation originally identified in a ...
beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain [D08.811.277.450.483.180.750.500] * beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain [D08.811.277.450.483.180. ... Hexosaminidase A, alpha Chain beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase alpha Chain Registry Number. EC Previous Indexing. beta-N- ... beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain Preferred Concept UI. M0508010. Registry Number. EC Scope Note. The alpha subunit of ... beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain Preferred Term Term UI T694233. Date03/23/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ...
beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain [D08.811.277.450.483.180.750.500] * beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain [D08.811.277.450.483.180. ... Hexosaminidase A, alpha Chain beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase alpha Chain Registry Number. EC Previous Indexing. beta-N- ... beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain Preferred Concept UI. M0508010. Registry Number. EC Scope Note. The alpha subunit of ... beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain Preferred Term Term UI T694233. Date03/23/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ...
... beta-Glucosidase N0000178805 beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain N0000178806 beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain N0000175112 beta- ... beta-Chains N0000183519 HLA-DQ alpha-Chains N0000171105 HLA-DQ Antigens N0000183520 HLA-DQ beta-Chains N0000183453 HLA-DR alpha ... alpha-Amylases N0000166818 alpha-Chlorohydrin N0000169036 alpha-Crystallin A Chain N0000169037 alpha-Crystallin B Chain ... N0000169031 beta-Crystallin A Chain N0000169030 beta-Crystallin B Chain N0000169029 beta-Crystallins N0000168523 beta- ...
... of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... One alpha subunit joins with one beta subunit (produced from the HEXB gene) to form a functioning beta-hexosaminidase A enzyme. ... Dersh D, Iwamoto Y, Argon Y. Tay-Sachs disease mutations in HEXA target the alpha chain of hexosaminidase A to endoplasmic ... of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A. Specifically, the protein produced from the HEXA gene forms the alpha subunit of ...
The Hex A alpha subunit (2gjx:A) is shown in green, the beta subunit (2gjx:B) in blue. P182 is highlighted in orange. As can be ... The struture of this Uniprot entry is found in the alpha-chains of the PDB-IDs and 2gjx and 2gk1 both form the same publication ... ref name="hexa_pdb_ref",Lemieux, M., Mark, B., & Cherney, M. (2006). Crystallographic Structure of Human beta-Hexosaminidase A ... This is the side of alpha subunit, which interacts with the beta-subunit of Hex A and is therefore important to consider, ...
... platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha and Ig alpha-1 chain C region. Three proteins were less abundant ... Involvements of Rho-kinase and TGF-beta pathways in aldosterone-induced renal injury. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:2193-2201. ... mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit alpha, and mitochondrial Enoyl-CoA hydratase domain-containing protein 2. ...
... of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... One alpha subunit joins with one beta subunit (produced from the HEXB gene) to form a functioning beta-hexosaminidase A enzyme. ... Dersh D, Iwamoto Y, Argon Y. Tay-Sachs disease mutations in HEXA target the alpha chain of hexosaminidase A to endoplasmic ... of an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A. Specifically, the protein produced from the HEXA gene forms the alpha subunit of ...
... beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain UI - D054820 MN - D8.811.277.450.483.180.750.500 MS - The alpha subunit of hexosaminidase A. ... comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the ... A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due ... HN - 2008 MH - beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain UI - D054821 MN - D8.811.277.450.483.180.750.750 MN - D8.811.277.450.483.180. ...
Hexosaminidases * Neuraminidase * Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase * glycopeptide alpha-N- ... indicating that the GRP-R has four oligosaccharide chains. Treatment of unlabeled membranes with PNGase F followed by affinity ... Endo-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-glycanase) digestion subsequent to neuraminidase treatment showed no additional effect on ... Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta- glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F (PNGase F) digestion increased the mobility of the original band ...
beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain. Cadena alfa de beta-Hexosaminidasa. Cadeia beta da beta-Hexosaminidase. beta-Hexosaminidase ... beta Chain. Cadena beta de beta-Hexosaminidasa. Complexo da Sintase dos Ácidos Graxos Tipo I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, ... Hexosaminidase B. Hexosaminidase B. Hexosaminidasa B. Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase. Nicotinamide ... Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate. Inmunoglobulina de Cadenas Ligeras Subrogadas. Canais KATP. KATP Channels. Canales KATP ...
... beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain UI - D054820 MN - D08.811.277.450.483.180.750.500 MS - The alpha subunit of hexosaminidase A. ... comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the ... A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due ... HN - 2008 MH - beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain UI - D054821 MN - D08.811.277.450.483.180.750.750 MN - D08.811.277.450.483.180. ...
IgE-mediated release of leukotriene C4, chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan, beta-hexosaminidase, and histamine from cultured ... Human melanoma cell lines of primary and metastatic origin express the genes encoding the chains of platelet-derived growth ... Myristyl acylation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha precursor on specific lysine residues. Stevenson, F.T., Bursten, S.L., ... and either alpha-rANP(3-28) [ANF(8-33)] or alpha-rANP(1-28) (ANF) [41]. ...
HexA is composed of two similar, non-identical subunits, the alpha and the beta, which must interact with the GM2 activator ... β-oxidation inhibition#Decanoic Acid#MCL-PHA#Poly-hydroxydecanoate#Fed-batch#Fermentation#Medium-chain-length Poly-3- ... Sandhoff Disease#GM2 gangliosidoses#Tay-Sachs Disease#Hexosaminidase#Gene Therapy#AAV adeno-associated virus ... Process development for fed-batch production of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) from decanoic acid. Gao, Jie ...
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. *Gaucher disease. Beta-glucocerebrosidase. *Tay-Sachs disease. Beta-hexosaminidase ... quantitative polymerase chain reaction, qPCR; or chromosomal microarray, CMA) ... Alpha-mannosidosis. Alpha-mannosidase. *Schindler/Kanzaki disease. ...
Phycocyanin is composed of two subunits: alpha and beta. The molecular weights (MWs) of the alpha and beta subunits are 18 and ... Hexosaminidase release assay. A β-hexosaminidase release assay, a surrogate assay for measuring histamine release, was used to ... in the gel and blot represent the IgG heavy chain from αPC antibody. *p , 10-5 by unpaired Students t-test. ... This result indicates that the MC(-) lysate could induce β-hexosaminidase release and confirms the functional relevance of the ...
... alpha/beta/alpha domain, Aconitase family (aconitate hydratase) [InterProScan].","protein_coding" "AGT24695","N559_3032"," ... "Respiratory nitrate reductase beta chain [Ensembl]. 4Fe-4S dicluster domain, Respiratory nitrate reductase beta C-terminal [ ... "beta-hexosaminidase [Ensembl]. tRNA synthetases class I (I, Anticodon-binding domain of tRNA, Zinc finger found in FPG and ... alpha chain PheS [Ensembl]. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase class II, tRNA synthetases class II core domain (F) [Interproscan]."," ...
hexosaminidase subunit alpha [S.... HN1. 51155. JPT1. Jupiter microtubule associated .... HOXA1. 3198. HOXA1. homeobox A1 [ ... crystallin beta-gamma domain co.... ALG2. 85365. ALG2. ALG2 alpha-1,3/1,6-mannosyltran.... ... collagen type II alpha 1 chain .... COPS4. 51138. COPS4. COP9 signalosome subunit 4 [Sou.... ...
spectroscopic studies suggested that sanguinarine binds to type II PtdIns 4-kinases alpha and beta isoforms with a K-d of 2.4 ... sanguinarine also inhibited IgE induced degranulation and 0 hexosaminidase release in RBL 2H3 cells. In vitro assays showed ... that the cells had successfully differentiated into cardiac myocytes by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain ... CONCLUSIONS: Expression of activated LXR alpha blocks proliferati. Posted on July 29, 2021. by admin ...
Pre-beta-lipoprotein was increased and alpha- and beta-lipoprotein were decreased. Phospholipid and cholesterol levels were ... alpha thalassemia and to possible multiple alpha-chain loci. PMID- 5097571 TI - Glutathione synthesis in human erythrocytes. II ... Enrichment and characterization of 2 forms of human N-acetyl-beta-D hexosaminidase]. PMID- 5098351 TI - [The behavior of ... These minor components appear to have abnormal alpha-chains and are also present in the maternal grandmother, the mother, a ...
Hb Beta Chain-related Hemoglobinopathy (including Beta Thalassemia And Sickle Cell Disease) ... Hexosaminidase A Deficiency (including Tay-Sachs Disease). Holocarboxylase Synthetase Deficiency. Holocarboxylase Synthetase ... Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due To 17-Alpha-Hydroxylase Deficiency. Congenital Adrenal Insufficiency (CYP11A1-related) ...
Alpha-2 globin (HBA2) database Belinda Giardine and Joseph Borg HBB hemoglobin, beta 141900 Beta globin (HBB) database Belinda ... hexosaminidase A (alpha polypeptide) 606869 Hexosaminidase A; Tay-Sachs Disease Feige Kaplan, Manyphong Phommarinh, McGill Univ ... hydroxyacid oxidase 2 (long chain) 605176 Hydroxyacid oxidase 2 (long chain) (HAO2) database Belinda Giardine and Joseph Borg ... Alpha-1 globin (HBA1) database Belinda Giardine and Joseph Borg HBA2 hemoglobin, alpha 2 141850 HbVar: A Database of Human ...
We measured the activities of lysosomal enzymes, alpha-galactosidase, beta-galactosidase, and beta-hexosaminidase and examined ... Hepatic gene expression was examined by deoxyribonucleic acid microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. ... An alpha/beta-hydrolase protein, DWARF14 (D14), has been recognized to be an essential component of plant SL signalling, ... The D53 gene product shares predicted features with the class I Clp ATPase proteins and can form a complex with the alpha/beta ...
Cadeia alfa da beta-Hexosaminidase/genética , Cadeia alfa da beta-Hexosaminidase/metabolismo ... BACKGROUND: Mucolipidosis alpha/beta is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficiency of GlcNAc-1- ... A polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism test was established to assist with the clinical ... CASE PRESENTATION: We report the clinical, biochemical and genetic diagnosis of mucolipidosis III alpha/beta in a two-year-old ...
beta-hexosaminidase NP_904396 n/a normal 1 Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 Bacteria -. ... DNA polymerase III, alpha subunit NP_904390 n/a normal 1 Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 Bacteria -. ... peptide chain release factor 1 NP_904424 n/a normal 1 Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 Bacteria -. ... beta-mannosidase, putative NP_904387 n/a normal 1 Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 Bacteria -. ...

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