An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in isomaltose and dextrins produced from starch and glycogen by ALPHA-AMYLASES. EC 3.2.1.10.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.
Indolizines are organic compounds that consist of a condensed pyridine and pyrrole ring structure, which can be found in certain natural and synthetic substances, and have been studied for their potential biological activities.
1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Six-carbon pyranose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of various tissues, particularly in the synthesis of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage and synovial fluid in joints.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are genetic disorders that result from enzyme deficiencies or transport defects in the metabolic pathways responsible for breaking down and processing carbohydrates, leading to accumulation of toxic intermediates or energy deficits, and typically presenting with multisystem clinical manifestations.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.

The DNA binding site of the Dof protein NtBBF1 is essential for tissue-specific and auxin-regulated expression of the rolB oncogene in plants. (1/814)

The Dof proteins are a large family of plant transcription factors that share a single highly conserved zinc finger. The tobacco Dof protein NtBBF1 was identified by its ability to bind to regulatory domain B in the promoter of the rolB oncogene. In this study, we show that the ACT T TA target sequence of NtBBF1 in domain B is necessary for tissue-specific expression of rolB. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) activity of tobacco plants containing a rolB promoter-GUS fusion with a mutated NtBBF1 target sequence within domain B is almost completely suppressed in apical meristems and is severely abated in the vascular system. The ACT T TA motif is shown here also to be one of the cis-regulatory elements involved in auxin induction of rolB. The pattern of NtBBF1 expression in plants is remarkably similar to that of rolB, except in mesophyll cells of mature leaves, in which only NtBBF1 expression could be detected. Ectopic expression of rolB in mesophyll cells was achieved by particle gun delivery if the NtBBF1 binding sequence was intact. These data provide evidence that in the plant, a Dof protein DNA binding sequence acts as a transcriptional regulatory motif, and they point to NtBBF1 as the protein involved in mediating tissue-specific and auxin-inducible expression of rolB.  (+info)

Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional silencing of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase genes involves increased RNA turnover-possible role for ribosome-independent RNA degradation. (2/814)

Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Nicotiana sylvestris plants carrying tobacco class I chitinase (CHN) and beta-1,3-glucanase transgenes differs in incidence, stability, and pattern of expression. Measurements with inhibitors of RNA synthesis (cordycepin, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanitin) showed that both forms of PTGS are associated with increased sequence-specific degradation of transcripts, suggesting that increased RNA turnover may be a general feature of PTGS. The protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and verrucarin A did not inhibit degradation of CHN RNA targeted for PTGS, confirming that PTGS-related RNA degradation does not depend on ongoing protein synthesis. Because verrucarin A, unlike cycloheximide, dissociates mRNA from ribosomes, our results also suggest that ribosome-associated RNA degradation pathways may not be involved in CHN PTGS.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and expression of the novel fungal beta-glucosidase genes from Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei. (3/814)

A novel fungal beta-glucosidase gene (bgl4) and its homologue (bgl2) were cloned from the cellulolytic fungi Humicola grisea and Trichoderma reesei, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of H. grisea BGL4 and T. reesei BGL2 comprise 476 and 466 amino acids, respectively, and share 73.1% identity. These beta-glucosidases show significant homology to plant beta-glucosidases belonging to the beta-glucosidase A (BGA) family. Both genes were expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and the recombinant beta-glucosidases were purified. Recombinant H. grisea BGL4 is a thermostable enzyme compared with recombinant T. reesei BGL2. In addition to beta-glucosidase activity, recombinant H. grisea BGL4 showed a significant level of beta-galactosidase activity, while recombinant T. reesei BGL2 showed weak beta-galactosidase activity. Cellulose saccharification by Trichoderma cellulases was improved by the addition of recombinant H. grisea BGL4.  (+info)

Properties of beta-glucosidase in cultured skin fibroblasts from controls and patients with Gaucher disease. (4/814)

Membrane-bound beta-glucosidase from cultured skin fibroblasts can be solubilized in an active form by treatment of membrane preparations with a mixture of Triton X-100 and sodium taurocholate. Several properties of the solubilized enzyme have been studied in fibroblasts from normal, healthy individuals and from 14 patients with different clinical forms of Gaucher disease. The patients studied were classified as follows: group 1 consisted of 10 chronic patients, all (with one exception) of Ashkenazi Jewish origin; group 2 consisted of three black American patients with severe visceral symptoms, manifest from early childhood, but with no apparent neurological involvement; and group 3 consisted of a single white patient with the classical infantile form of the disease. Specific beta-glucosidase activity ranged from 6.6% to 16.5% mean control value in group 1 patients and from 4.1% to 5.8% in groups 2 and 3. When compared with the enzyme from control fibroblasts, the enzyme from chronic Gaucher patients (group 1) was more rapidly inactivated at 50 degrees C, had an altered pH curve, was less effectively inhibited by deoxycorticosterone-beta-glucoside, and was more effectively inhibited by deoxycorticosterone. The enzyme from patients in groups 2 and 3 was qualitatively indistinguishable from the control enzyme in terms of these parameters. No differences in Km (4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucoside) or sedimentation coefficient were found between the beta-glucosidases from control and Gaucher cells. The results demonstrate that cells from Ashkenazi Jewish patients with the chronic form of Gaucher disease contain a structurally altered form of beta-glucosidase. This enzyme differs both from normal beta-glucosidase and from the residual enzyme in patients of different ethnic origin and with clinically more severe forms of the disease.  (+info)

Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the aryl beta-glucoside salicin requires either salA or salB. (5/814)

The rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum irakense KBC1 is able to grow on pectin and beta-glucosides such as cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. Two adjacent genes, salA and salB, conferring beta-glucosidase activity to Escherichia coli, have been identified in a cosmid library of A. irakense DNA. The SalA and SalB enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed aryl beta-glucosides. A Delta(salA-salB) A. irakense mutant was not able to grow on salicin but could still utilize arbutin, cellobiose, and glucose for growth. This mutant could be complemented by either salA or salB, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes in salicin utilization. In contrast to this functional homology, the SalA and SalB proteins, members of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases, show a low degree of amino acid similarity. Unlike SalA, the SalB protein exhibits an atypical truncated C-terminal region. We propose that SalA and SalB are representatives of the AB and AB' subfamilies, respectively, in glycosyl hydrolase family 3. This is the first genetic implication of this beta-glucosidase family in the utilization of beta-glucosides for microbial growth.  (+info)

Yeast VSM1 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein that may act as a negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. (6/814)

We have screened for proteins that interact with v-SNAREs of the late secretory pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A novel protein, designated Vsm1, binds tightly to the Snc2 v-SNARE in the two-hybrid system and can be coimmunoprecipitated with Snc1 or Snc2 from solubilized yeast cell extracts. Disruption of the VSM1 gene results in an increase of proteins secreted into the medium but does not affect the processing or secretion of invertase. In contrast, VSM1 overexpression in cells which bear a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Sec9 t-SNARE (sec9-4 cells) results in the accumulation of non-invertase-containing low-density secretory vesicles, inhibits cell growth and the secretion of proteins into the medium, and blocks rescue of the temperature-sensitive phenotype by SNC1 overexpression. Yet, VSM1 overexpression does not affect yeast bearing a sec9-7 allele which, in contrast to sec9-4, encodes a t-SNARE protein capable of forming a stable SNARE complex in vitro at restrictive temperatures. On the basis of these results, we propose that Vsm1 is a novel v-SNARE-interacting protein that appears to act as negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. Moreover, this regulation appears specific to one of two parallel exocytic paths which are operant in yeast cells.  (+info)

Cellobiose transport by mixed ruminal bacteria from a Cow. (7/814)

The transport of cellobiose in mixed ruminal bacteria harvested from a holstein cow fed an Italian ryegrass hay was determined in the presence of nojirimycin-1-sulfate, which almost inhibited cellobiase activity. The kinetic parameters of cellobiose uptake were 14 microM for the Km and 10 nmol/min/mg of protein for the Vmax. Extracellular and cell-associated cellobiases were detected in the rumen, with both showing higher Vmax values and lower affinities than those determined for cellobiose transport. The proportion of cellobiose that was directly transported before it was extracellularly degraded into glucose increased as the cellobiose concentration decreased, reaching more than 20% at the actually observed levels of cellobiose in the rumen, which were less than 0.02 mM. The inhibitor experiment showed that cellobiose was incorporated into the cells mainly by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system and partially by an ATP-dependent and proton-motive-force-independent active transport system. This finding was also supported by determinations of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase-dependent NADH oxidation with cellobiose and the effects of artificial potentials on cellobiose transport. Cellobiose uptake was sensitive to a decrease in pH (especially below 6.0), and it was weakly but significantly inhibited in the presence of glucose.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus: coordinated expression of divergently oriented genes in response to beta-linked glucose polymers. (8/814)

The genetic organization, expression, and regulation of the celB locus of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus were analyzed. This locus includes the celB gene, which codes for an intracellular beta-glucosidase, and a divergently orientated gene cluster, adhA-adhB-lamA, which codes for two alcohol dehydrogenases and an extracellular beta-1,3-endoglucanase that is transcribed as a polycistronic messenger (the lamA operon). During growth of P. furiosus on either the beta-1,4-linked glucose dimer cellobiose or the beta-1,3-linked glucose polymer laminarin, the activities of both beta-glucosidase and endoglucanase were increased at least fivefold compared with levels during growth on maltose or pyruvate. Northern blot analysis revealed an enhanced transcription of both the celB gene and the lamA operon in the presence of these glucose-containing substrates. The in vivo and in vitro transcription initiation sites of both the celB gene and the lamA operon were identified 25 nucleotides downstream of conserved TATA box motifs. A number of repeating sequences have been recognized in the celB-adhA intergenic region, some of which might be part of a transcriptional regulator-binding site.  (+info)

Beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down certain types of complex sugars, specifically those that contain a beta-glycosidic bond. This enzyme is found in various organisms, including humans, and plays a role in the digestion of some carbohydrates, such as cellulose and other plant-based materials.

In the human body, beta-glucosidase is produced by the lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles found within cells that help break down and recycle various biological molecules. Beta-glucosidase is involved in the breakdown of glycolipids and gangliosides, which are complex lipids that contain sugar molecules.

Deficiencies in beta-glucosidase activity can lead to certain genetic disorders, such as Gaucher disease, in which there is an accumulation of glucocerebrosidase, a type of glycolipid, within the lysosomes. This can result in various symptoms, including enlargement of the liver and spleen, anemia, and bone pain.

Oligo-1,6-glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates by hydrolyzing the α-1,6 glycosidic bonds in oligosaccharides, producing simpler sugars such as glucose. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the digestion of certain types of carbohydrates, particularly those found in plants.

Deficiency or absence of this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV (GSD IV), also known as Andersen's disease. This condition is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycogen molecules in various organs, leading to progressive damage and failure.

It's important to note that oligo-1,6-glucosidase should not be confused with other similar enzymes such as α-glucosidase or lactase, which have different functions and substrate specificities.

Alpha-glucosidases are a group of enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars, such as glucose, by hydrolyzing the alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds in oligosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. These enzymes are located on the brush border of the small intestine and play a crucial role in carbohydrate digestion and absorption.

Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidases, such as acarbose and miglitol, are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes to slow down the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, which helps to reduce postprandial glucose levels and improve glycemic control.

Glucosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, specifically at the non-reducing end of an oligo- or poly saccharide, releasing a single sugar molecule, such as glucose. They play important roles in various biological processes, including digestion of carbohydrates and the breakdown of complex glycans in glycoproteins and glycolipids.

In the context of digestion, glucosidases are produced by the pancreas and intestinal brush border cells to help break down dietary polysaccharides (e.g., starch) into monosaccharides (glucose), which can then be absorbed by the body for energy production or storage.

There are several types of glucosidases, including:

1. α-Glucosidase: This enzyme is responsible for cleaving α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds in oligosaccharides and disaccharides, such as maltose, maltotriose, and isomaltose.
2. β-Glucosidase: This enzyme hydrolyzes β-(1→4) glycosidic bonds in cellobiose and other oligosaccharides derived from plant cell walls.
3. Lactase (β-Galactosidase): Although not a glucosidase itself, lactase is often included in this group because it hydrolyzes the β-(1→4) glycosidic bond between glucose and galactose in lactose, yielding free glucose and galactose.

Deficiencies or inhibition of these enzymes can lead to various medical conditions, such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (an α-glucosidase deficiency), lactose intolerance (a lactase deficiency), and Gaucher's disease (a β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency).

1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is an antagonist of the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which is involved in the digestion of carbohydrates. DNJ is a naturally occurring compound found in some plants, including mulberry leaves and the roots of the African plant Moringa oleifera. It works by binding to the active site of alpha-glucosidase and inhibiting its activity, which can help to slow down the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine. This can help to reduce postprandial glucose levels (the spike in blood sugar that occurs after a meal) and may have potential benefits for the management of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. DNJ is also being studied for its potential anti-cancer effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indolizines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic organic compounds which contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and a carbon-carbon double bond. They are used in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and natural products, but they are not a medical condition or diagnosis.

The Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System, also known as glycogen debranching enzyme or Amy-1, is a crucial enzyme complex in human biochemistry. It plays an essential role in the metabolism of glycogen, which is a large, branched polymer of glucose that serves as the primary form of energy storage in animals and fungi.

The Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System consists of two enzymatic activities: a transferase and an exo-glucosidase. The transferase activity transfers a segment of a branched glucose chain to another part of the same or another glycogen molecule, while the exo-glucosidase activity cleaves the remaining single glucose units from the outer branches of the glycogen molecule.

This enzyme system is responsible for removing the branched structures of glycogen, allowing the linear chains to be further degraded by other enzymes into glucose molecules that can be used for energy production or stored for later use. Defects in this enzyme complex can lead to several genetic disorders, such as Glycogen Storage Disease Type III (Cori's disease) and Type IV (Andersen's disease), which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycogen molecules in various tissues.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and is primarily produced by activated macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli. It is a crucial mediator of the innate immune response and plays a key role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1β is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects by binding to the interleukin-1 receptor, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various transcription factors and the expression of target genes.

Mannosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of mannose residues from glycoproteins, oligosaccharides, and glycolipids. These enzymes play a crucial role in the processing and degradation of N-linked glycans, which are carbohydrate structures attached to proteins in eukaryotic cells.

There are several types of mannosidases, including alpha-mannosidase and beta-mannosidase, which differ in their specificity for the type of linkage they cleave. Alpha-mannosidases hydrolyze alpha-1,2-, alpha-1,3-, alpha-1,6-mannosidic bonds, while beta-mannosidases hydrolyze beta-1,4-mannosidic bonds.

Deficiencies in mannosidase activity can lead to various genetic disorders, such as alpha-mannosidosis and beta-mannosidosis, which are characterized by the accumulation of unprocessed glycoproteins and subsequent cellular dysfunction.

Imino pyranoses are not a recognized medical term or concept. However, in the field of chemistry, imino pyranoses refer to a class of compounds that are derived from pyranose sugars through a chemical reaction known as the Amadori rearrangement. In this reaction, the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) of a reducing sugar reacts with an amine to form a new compound with a carbon-nitrogen double bond (imine).

In the case of pyranose sugars, which are cyclic forms of monosaccharides with six members in the ring, the Amadori rearrangement leads to the formation of imino pyranoses. These compounds can undergo further reactions and modifications, leading to a variety of chemical structures that have been studied for their potential biological activity.

Therefore, while not directly related to medical definitions, imino pyranoses are an area of interest in biochemistry and may have implications for understanding the chemistry of certain biological processes or developing new therapeutic agents.

"Rauwolfia" is the name of a genus of plants in the dogbane family (Apocynaceae). It includes several species that have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. The most well-known species is probably Rauwolfia serpentina, also known as Indian snakeroot or sarpagandha.

Extracts from the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina contain a number of alkaloids with pharmacological activity, including reserpine, which has been used in modern medicine to treat high blood pressure and some psychiatric disorders. However, due to its side effects, it is not commonly used today.

It's important to note that the use of Rauwolfia and its extracts should be done under medical supervision, as they can have significant effects on various body systems, including the heart, blood pressure, and nervous system.

Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is found on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body and is involved in presenting intracellular peptides to T-cells for immune surveillance.

β2M is produced at a relatively constant rate by cells throughout the body and is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, most of the filtrated β2M is reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubules of the nephrons. However, when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, as in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubules becomes overwhelmed, leading to increased levels of β2M in the blood and its subsequent appearance in the urine.

Elevated serum and urinary β2M levels have been associated with various clinical conditions, such as CKD, multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases. Measuring β2M concentrations can provide valuable information for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes in these contexts.

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the body, primarily in the fluid around joints. It is a building block of cartilage, which is the tissue that cushions bones and allows for smooth joint movement. Glucosamine can also be produced in a laboratory and is commonly sold as a dietary supplement.

Medical definitions of glucosamine describe it as a type of amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is often used as a supplement to help manage osteoarthritis symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, by potentially reducing inflammation and promoting cartilage repair.

There are different forms of glucosamine available, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form in supplements and has been studied more extensively than other forms. While some research suggests that glucosamine may provide modest benefits for osteoarthritis symptoms, its effectiveness remains a topic of ongoing debate among medical professionals.

Calnexin is a type I transmembrane protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. It is a chaperone protein involved in the folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Calnexin binds to monoglucosylated oligosaccharides on unfolded or misfolded proteins, facilitating their correct folding and preventing their aggregation. Once the protein is correctly folded, calnexin dissociates from it and it can proceed through the ER for further processing and transport to its final destination in the cell. Calnexin also plays a role in the degradation of misfolded proteins by targeting them for ER-associated degradation (ERAD).

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of interconnected tubules and sacs that are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is a continuous membranous organelle that plays a crucial role in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins and lipids.

The ER has two main types: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is covered with ribosomes, which give it a rough appearance, and is responsible for protein synthesis. On the other hand, SER lacks ribosomes and is involved in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, calcium homeostasis, and steroid hormone production.

In summary, the endoplasmic reticulum is a vital organelle that functions in various cellular processes, including protein and lipid metabolism, calcium regulation, and detoxification.

Swainsonine is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a toxin that can cause a medical condition known as "locoism" in animals. Swainsonine is produced by certain plants, including some species of the genera Swainsona and Astragalus, which are commonly known as locoweeds.

Swainsonine inhibits an enzyme called alpha-mannosidase, leading to abnormal accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in various tissues and organs. This can result in a range of clinical signs, including neurological symptoms such as tremors, ataxia (loss of coordination), and behavioral changes; gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased appetite; and reproductive problems.

Locoism is most commonly seen in grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses that consume large quantities of locoweeds over an extended period. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and prevention through management practices such as rotational grazing and avoiding the introduction of toxic plants into pastures is often the best approach.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down and process carbohydrates, which are sugars and starches that provide energy for the body. These disorders are caused by defects in enzymes or transport proteins that play a critical role in the metabolic pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

There are several types of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism, including:

1. Galactosemia: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose, which is found in milk and other dairy products. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.
2. Glycogen storage diseases: These disorders affect the body's ability to store and break down glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate that serves as a source of energy for the body. There are several types of glycogen storage diseases, each caused by a deficiency in a different enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism.
3. Hereditary fructose intolerance: This disorder affects the body's ability to metabolize the sugar fructose, which is found in fruits and sweeteners. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase B.
4. Pentose phosphate pathway disorders: These disorders affect the body's ability to metabolize certain sugars and generate energy through the pentose phosphate pathway. They are caused by defects in enzymes involved in this pathway.

Symptoms of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and its severity. Treatment typically involves dietary restrictions, supplementation with necessary enzymes or cofactors, and management of complications. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy or even organ transplantation may be considered.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

Isomaltose is a type of disaccharide, which is a complex sugar consisting of two monosaccharides. It is specifically composed of two glucose molecules linked together in a way that forms a straight chain. Isomaltose can be found naturally in some foods such as honey and fermented products, and it can also be produced industrially as a sweetener.

In the medical field, isomaltose may be relevant in the context of carbohydrate metabolism disorders or in relation to certain types of diagnostic tests that measure the ability to digest and absorb specific sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in most areas of medical practice.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that include three distinct subclasses: β1, β2, and β3. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and play important roles in various physiological functions, including cardiovascular regulation, bronchodilation, lipolysis, and glucose metabolism.

β1-adrenergic receptors are primarily located in the heart and regulate cardiac contractility, chronotropy (heart rate), and relaxation. β2-adrenergic receptors are found in various tissues, including the lungs, vascular smooth muscle, liver, and skeletal muscle. They mediate bronchodilation, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. β3-adrenergic receptors are mainly expressed in adipose tissue, where they stimulate lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Agonists of β-adrenergic receptors include catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, as well as synthetic drugs such as dobutamine (a β1-selective agonist) and albuterol (a non-selective β2-agonist). Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors are commonly used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and asthma. Examples of β-blockers include metoprolol (a β1-selective antagonist) and carvedilol (a non-selective β-blocker with additional α1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity).

Integrin β3 is a subunit of certain integrin heterodimers, which are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Integrin β3 combines with either integrin αv (to form the integrin αvβ3) or integrin αIIb (to form the integrin αIIbβ3). These integrins are involved in various cellular processes, including platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis.

Integrin αIIbβ3 is primarily expressed on platelets and mediates platelet aggregation by binding to fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive proteins in the ECM. Integrin αvβ3 is widely expressed in various cell types and participates in diverse functions such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It binds to a variety of ECM proteins, including fibronectin, vitronectin, and osteopontin, as well as to soluble ligands like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

Dysregulation of integrin β3 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, tumor metastasis, and inflammatory diseases.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Acarbose is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. It is used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acarbose works by slowing down the digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine, which helps to prevent spikes in blood sugar levels after meals.

By blocking the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, acarbose prevents the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, such as glucose, in the small intestine. This results in a slower and more gradual absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, which helps to prevent postprandial hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels after meals).

Acarbose is typically taken orally three times a day, before meals containing carbohydrates. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea. It is important to note that acarbose should be used in conjunction with a healthy diet and regular exercise to effectively manage blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Hexosaminidases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates, specifically glycoproteins and glycolipids, in the human body. These enzymes are responsible for cleaving the terminal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues from these molecules during the process of glycosidase digestion.

There are several types of hexosaminidases, including Hexosaminidase A and Hexosaminidase B, which are encoded by different genes and have distinct functions. Deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to serious genetic disorders, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease, respectively. These conditions are characterized by the accumulation of undigested glycolipids and glycoproteins in various tissues, leading to progressive neurological deterioration and other symptoms.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II, also known as Pompe Disease, is a genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). This enzyme is responsible for breaking down glycogen, a complex sugar that serves as energy storage, within lysosomes. When GAA is deficient, glycogen accumulates in various tissues, particularly in muscle cells, leading to their dysfunction and damage.

The severity of Pompe Disease can vary significantly, depending on the amount of functional enzyme activity remaining. The classic infantile-onset form presents within the first few months of life with severe muscle weakness, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. This form is often fatal by 1-2 years of age if left untreated.

A later-onset form, which can present in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, has a more variable clinical course. Affected individuals may experience progressive muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, and cardiomyopathy, although the severity and rate of progression are generally less pronounced than in the infantile-onset form.

Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA is available for the treatment of Pompe Disease and has been shown to improve survival and motor function in affected individuals.

A trisaccharide is a type of carbohydrate molecule composed of three monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds. Monosaccharides are simple sugars, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, which serve as the building blocks of more complex carbohydrates.

In a trisaccharide, two monosaccharides are linked through a glycosidic bond to form a disaccharide, and then another monosaccharide is attached to the disaccharide via another glycosidic bond. The formation of these bonds involves the loss of a water molecule (dehydration synthesis) between the hemiacetal or hemiketal group of one monosaccharide and the hydroxyl group of another.

Examples of trisaccharides include raffinose (glucose + fructose + galactose), maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose), and melezitose (glucose + fructose + glucose). Trisaccharides can be found naturally in various foods, such as honey, sugar beets, and some fruits and vegetables. They play a role in energy metabolism, serving as an energy source for the body upon digestion into monosaccharides, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells for energy production or storage.

In enzymology, a prunasin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.118) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-prunasin + H2O ...
The enzyme vicianin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.119) catalyzes the following chemical reaction: (R)-vicianin + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle ...
Other names in common use include raucaffricine β-D-glucosidase, and raucaffricine glucosidase. This enzyme participates in ... The enzyme raucaffricine β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.125) catalyzes the following chemical reaction: raucaffricine + H2O ⇌ {\ ...
3alpha(S)-strictosidine+beta-glucosidase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ... 3α(S)-strictosidine β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.105) is an enzyme with systematic name strictosidine β-D-glucohydrolase. It ... Hemscheidt T, Zenk MH (February 1980). "Glucosidases involved in indole alkaloid biosynthesis of Catharanthus cell cultures". ... Luijendijk TJ, Stevens LH, Verpoorte R (1998). "Purification and characterisation of strictosidine β-D-glucosidase from ...
The enzyme steryl-β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.104) catalyzes the following chemical reaction: cholesteryl-β-D-glucoside + H2O ⇌ {\ ...
The systematic name is coniferin β-D-glucosidase. It is also called coniferin-hydrolyzing β-glucosidase. It participates in ... Cell-wall bound β-glucosidase for coniferin from spruce (Picea abies) seedlings". Eur. J. Biochem. 87 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1111/j ... Hosel W, Surholt E, Borgmann E (1978). "Characterization of β-glucosidase isoenzymes possibly involved in lignification from ... The enzyme coniferin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.126) catalyzes the following chemical reaction: coniferin + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is amygdalin beta-D-glucohydrolase. Other names in common use include amygdalase, ... The enzyme amygdalin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.117) catalyzes the following chemical reaction: (R)-amygdalin + H2O ⇌ {\ ... amygdalinase, amygdalin hydrolase, and amygdalin glucosidase. It can be completely inhibited by the action of Glucono-δ-lactone ...
... isoflavonoid 7-O-beta-apiosyl-glucoside beta-glucosidase, and furcatin hydrolase. Hosel W, Barz W (1975). "Beta-Glucosidases ... In enzymology, a beta-apiosyl-beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.161) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 7-[beta-D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 7-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]isoflavonoid beta-D- ... beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-D-glucose The 3 substrates of this enzyme are [[7-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-]], [[ ...
... (EC 3.2.1.175, AtBG1, ABA-beta-D-glucosidase, ABA-specific beta-glucosidase, ... Beta-D-glucopyranosyl+abscisate+beta-glucosidase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Kato-Noguchi H, Tanaka Y (May 2008). "Effect of ABA-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester and activity of ABA-beta-D-glucosidase in ... Dietz KJ, Sauter A, Wichert K, Messdaghi D, Hartung W (May 2000). "Extracellular beta-glucosidase activity in barley involved ...
... (EC 3.2.1.168) is an enzyme with systematic name hesperetin 7-(6-O-alpha-L- ... doi:10.1007/s00203-011-0709-6. Hesperidin+6-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-beta-D-glucosidase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... rhamnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside) 6-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following ... rutinose The enzyme exhibits high specificity towards 7-O-linked flavonoid beta-rutinosides. The enzyme is produced by the ...
... specificity in beta -glucosidases is revealed by crystal structures of mutant maize beta -glucosidase-DIMBOA, -DIMBOAGlc, and - ... 4-benzoxazin-2-yl glucoside beta-D-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.182, DIMBOAGlc hydrolase, DIMBOA glucosidase) is an enzyme with ... 4-benzoxazin-2-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside beta-D-glucosidase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (1) (2R)-4- ... 4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-yl+glucoside+beta-D-glucosidase at the U.S. National Library of ...
"Entrez Gene: GBAP glucosidase, beta; acid, pseudogene". Beutler E, West C, Gelbart T (1992). "Polymorphisms in the human ... Glucosidase, beta; acid, pseudogene, also known as GBAP, is a human gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160766 - Ensembl ...
... beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21); beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23); 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.85); 6-phospho-beta- ... glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.86); lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.62), lactase (EC 3.2.1.108); beta-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25); ... myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147). 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase InterPro: IPR005928 GBA3; KL; KLB; LCT; LCTL; GH1 in CAZypedia ...
... produces beta-glucosidase. Kim, MK; Srinivasan, S; Park, MJ; Sathiyaraj, G; Kim, YJ; Yang, DC (November 2009 ... nov., a beta-glucosidase-producing bacterium isolated from soil of a ginseng field". International Journal of Systematic and ...
... produces beta-glucosidase. Parte, A.C. "Dyella". LPSN. "Dyella koreensis". www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles ... nov., a beta-glucosidase-producing bacterium". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55 (Pt 4): ...
... beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21); beta-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37); N-acetyl beta-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52); glucan beta-1,3- ... Varghese JN, Hrmova M, Fincher GB (February 1999). "Three-dimensional structure of a barley beta-D-glucan exohydrolase, a ... glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.58); cellodextrinase (EC 3.2.1.74); exo-1,3-1,4-glucanase (EC 3.2.1). These enzymes are two-domain ...
nov., a beta-glucosidase-producing bacterium in the family Sphingomonadaceae in the alpha-4 subgroup of the Proteobacteria". ... nov., a beta-glucosidase-producing bacterium in the family Sphingomonadaceae in the alpha-4 subgroup of the Proteobacteria". ... Sphingomonas soli produces beta-glucosidase. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de Straininfo of Sphingomonas soli UniProt Deutsche Sammlung von ...
"Entrez Gene: GBA glucosidase, beta; acid (includes glucosylceramidase)". Deegan PB, Cox TM (2012). "Imiglucerase in the ... Proteopedia Acid-beta-glucosidase Portal: Biology (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links ... acid β-glucosidase (bile acid), also EC 3.2.1.45 GBA3: acid β-glucosidase (cytosolic), EC 3.2.1.21 ENSG00000177628 GRCh38: ... Lieberman RL (2011). "A Guided Tour of the Structural Biology of Gaucher Disease: Acid-β-Glucosidase and Saposin C". Enzyme ...
nov., a beta-glucosidase-producing bacterium". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 59 (Pt 9): 2191-4. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.008300-0. PMID ... Castellaniella ginsengisoli is a Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, motile, beta-glucosidase-producing ...
6-phospho-beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.86); 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.122); alpha-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.22); alpha- ... D-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.139). 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase requires both NAD(H) and divalent metal (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, or Ni2+ ... dependent 6-phospho-alpha-glucosidase. Assignment to family 4 of the glycosylhydrolase superfamily". The Journal of Biological ...
y[ _]9 Glycoside hydrolase family 17 CAZY GH_17 comprises enzymes with several known activities; endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase (EC ...
Beta glucosidase activity is regulated via circadian rhythms. Fluorescence studies have shown that the binding sites of leaf ... which is inactivated by hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond via beta glucosidase. In Lespedeza cuneata the leaf opening factor, ...
as the fungus produces a potent beta-glucosidase. trans-Piceid is the glucoside formed with trans-resveratrol, while cis-piceid ... "Purification and characterization of piceid-β-d-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae". Process Biochemistry. 42: 83-88. doi: ...
"Entrez Gene: GBA2 glucosidase, beta (bile acid) 2". Land A, Braakman I (2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus ... Matern H, Boermans H, Lottspeich F, Matern S (Oct 2001). "Molecular cloning and expression of human bile acid beta-glucosidase ... This gene encodes a microsomal beta-glucosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides as endogenous ... Matern H, Heinemann H, Legler G, Matern S (1997). "Purification and characterization of a microsomal bile acid beta-glucosidase ...
Cytosolic beta-glucosidase, also known as cytosolic beta-glucosidase-like protein 1, is a beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) enzyme ... Cytosolic beta-glucosidase is a predominantly liver enzyme that efficiently hydrolyzes beta-D-glucoside and beta-D-galactoside ... 2010). "The cytosolic beta-glucosidase GBA3 does not influence type 1 Gaucher disease manifestation". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 46 ... Beutler E, Beutler L, West C (2004). "Mutations in the gene encoding cytosolic beta-glucosidase in Gaucher disease". J. Lab. ...
Nova Hedwigia 44, 121-124, (1987). Beta-glucosidase of a white-rot fungus Trametes gibbosa. Biochem. Internat. 28(5), With ...
USA (2019-05-06). "Trifolium repens mRNA for non-cyanogenic beta-glucosidase - Nucleotide - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved ...
"Screening of carbon sources for beta-glucosidase production by Aspergillus saccharolyticus". International Biodeterioration & ...
nov., with Beta-Glucosidase Activity Isolated from Soil of a Ginseng Field". Current Microbiology. 74 (12): 1417-1424. doi: ...
... is a potent irreversible inhibitor of beta-glucosidases. It is a cyclitol mimic of beta-glucose with an epoxide ... Gloster, T. M., Madsen, R. and Davies, G. J. (2007) 'Structural basis for cyclophellitol inhibition of a β-glucosidase', ... 1990) 'Production, isolation and structure determination of a novel β-glucosidase Inhibitor, cyclophellitol, from phellinus sp ...
In enzymology, a prunasin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.118) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-prunasin + H2O ...
Beta-glucosidase A(2~{S},3~{S},4~{R})-2-[[4-[4-(2-ethoxyethoxy)phenyl]-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]methyl]pyrrolidine-3,4-diol ... 6QWI: Structure of beta-glucosidase A from Paenibacillus polymyxa complexed with multivalent inhibitors. ...
Bet-glucosidase, Aspergillus niger, Fungal culture, Wheat bran Abstract. The experiment was conducted to isolate and screen ... Among all the isolates the isolate which exhibited highest β-glucosidase potential was identified and assigned the code as ... Evaluation of agricultural byproducts for the production of betaglucosidase by Aspergillus niger MBT-2 using solid state ... The physicochemical and nutritional parameters were optimized for enhanced production of β-glucosidase from higher producer. ...
What are the symptoms for acid beta-glucosidase deficiency?. Mental retardations symptom was found in the acid beta-glucosidase ... Gene Therapys efficiency in treating Acid Beta-Glucosidase deficiency may be a future step. ...
NX73725 Chemical Name beta-Glucosidase 1A from Thermotoga maritima Specification Product Notes beta-Glucosidases are enzymes ... non-reducing beta-D-glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose. Family: GH1. E.C.:3.2.1.21. Architecture: GH1. ... beta-Glucosidases are enzymes that participate in the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-glucosyl residues with ... release of beta-D-glucose. Family: GH1. E.C.:3.2.1.21. Architecture: GH1. Main Activity:-1,4-beta-glucosidase. ...
... beta-Glucosidase in Aspergillus nidulans was found to be both intracellular and extracellular. The intracellular beta- ... glucosidase was synthesized after the exhaustion of carbon source in the medium ... Regulation of beta-glucosidase biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans.在哪里下载?这篇文献在哪里可以阅读?: ... Regulation of beta-glucosidase biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans.. Abstract:. :beta-Glucosidase in Aspergillus nidulans
beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase gave optimum activity at pH 2.0-2.5 and 3.0, respectively. These enzymes presented maximal ... beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase production by a yeast-like Aureobasidium sp. was carried out during solid-state and ... beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase production by a yeast-like Aureobasidium sp. was carried out during solid-state and ... beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase gave optimum activity at pH 2.0-2.5 and 3.0, respectively. These enzymes presented maximal ...
The GBA gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called beta-glucocerebrosidase. Learn about this gene and related ... glucosidase, beta; acid (includes glucosylceramidase). *glucosphingosine glucosylhydrolase. *glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase ... Beta-glucocerebrosidase is a housekeeping enzyme that helps break down a large molecule called glucocerebroside into a sugar ( ... Most of the GBA gene mutations responsible for Gaucher disease change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in beta- ...
Gomes, D. J., Gomes, J., & Steiner, W. (1996). Factors influencing the activity and stability of extracellular beta-glucosidase ... Gomes, DJ, Gomes, J & Steiner, W 1996, Factors influencing the activity and stability of extracellular beta-glucosidase from ... Factors influencing the activity and stability of extracellular beta-glucosidase from Thermoascus aurantiacus. / Gomes, D.J.; ... Factors influencing the activity and stability of extracellular beta-glucosidase from Thermoascus aurantiacus. In: Bangladesh ...
Beta glucosidase 3AHX.png 640 × 480; 291 KB. * Beta Glucuronidase Active Site Pocket.jpg 1,417 × 1,160; 948 KB. ... Alpha-glucosidase in complex with maltose and NAD+.png 725 × 450; 59 KB. ...
GLUCOSIDASE CEL3A FROM THE MODERATELY THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS RASAMSONIA EMERSONII - 4D0J , canSARS ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASE FAMILY 3 BETA- GLUCOSIDASE CEL3A FROM THE MODERATELY THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS RASAMSONIA ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASE FAMILY 3 BETA- GLUCOSIDASE CEL3A FROM THE MODERATELY THERMOPHILIC FUNGUS RASAMSONIA ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASE FAMILY 3 BETA- ...
Dependence of reversibility and progression of mouse neuronopathic Gaucher disease on acid beta-glucosidase residual activity ... Dependence of reversibility and progression of mouse neuronopathic Gaucher disease on acid beta-glucosidase residual activity ... Requirement for beta-catenin in anterior-posterior axis formation in mice. J. Huelsken; R. Vogel; V. Brinkmann; B. Erdmann; C. ... Requirement for beta-catenin in anterior-posterior axis formation in mice. J. Huelsken; R. Vogel; V. Brinkmann; B. Erdmann; C. ...
Glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase I/II (EC 3.2.1.58) (Exo-1,3-beta-glucanase I/II) (Soluble cell wall protein 6) ... Glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase (EC 2.4.1.-) (EC 3.2.1.58) (Exo-1,3-beta-glucanase) ... Mannan endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase 4 (EC 3.2.1.78) (Beta-mannanase 4) (Endo-beta-1,4-mannanase 4) (LeMAN4a) (LeMAN4i) ... Mannan endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase A (EC 3.2.1.78) (Endo-beta-1,4-mannanase A) (Man5A) ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE INACTIVE DOUBLE MUTANT OF THE MAIZE BETA-GLUCOSIDASE ZMGLU1-E191D-F198V IN COMPLEX WITH DIMBOA- ... BETA-GLUCOSIDASE. Oligo-state. monomer. SMTL ID. 1h49.2. Ligands. 2,4-DIHYDROXY-7-(METHYLOXY)-2H-1,4-BENZOXAZIN-3(4H)-ONE; beta ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE INACTIVE DOUBLE MUTANT OF THE MAIZE BETA-GLUCOSIDASE ZMGLU1-E191D-F198V IN COMPLEX WITH DIMBOA- ... 2,4-DIHYDROXY-7-(METHYLOXY)-2H-1,4-BENZOXAZIN-3(4H)-ONE; beta-D-glucopyranose. Polypeptides. ...
Coston, M. B., and Loomis, W. F. (1969). Isozymes of beta-glucosidase in Dictyostelium discoideum. J. Bacteriol. 100, 1208-1217 ... During growth, loss of cln5 decreased β-glucosidase and NagA activity and increased the activity of α-glucosidase (Figure 6A). ... α-glucosidase (α-Glu), β-glucosidase (β-Glu), α-mannosidase (α-Man), and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NagA). Raw enzymatic values ... Two α-glucosidases (gaa, modA) are encoded by the D. discoideum genome with modA being expressed more than gaa during the life ...
The second theory states that cancer cells contain more beta-glucosidase activity than normal cells and, as in the first theory ... It was discovered that animals experienced more side effects when beta-glucosidase was given concurrently with amygdalin than ... Newmark J, Brady RO, Grimley PM, et al.: Amygdalin (Laetrile) and prunasin beta-glucosidases: distribution in germ-free rat and ... Newmark J, Brady RO, Grimley PM, et al.: Amygdalin (Laetrile) and prunasin beta-glucosidases: distribution in germ-free rat and ...
PDB Compounds: (B:) beta-glucosidase a. SCOP Domain Sequences for d2cetb1:. Sequence, based on SEQRES records: (download). > ... Fold c.1: TIM beta/alpha-barrel [51350] (33 superfamilies). contains parallel beta-sheet barrel, closed; n=8, S=8; strand order ... PDB Description: beta-glucosidase from thermotoga maritima in complex with phenethyl-substituted glucoimidazole ... d2cetb1 c.1.8.4 (B:3-445) Beta-glucosidase A {Thermotoga maritima [TaxId: 2336]} ...
PDB Description: beta-glucosidase from thermotoga maritima in complex with glucoimidazole. PDB Compounds: (A:) beta-glucosidase ... Fold c.1: TIM beta/alpha-barrel [51350] (34 superfamilies). contains parallel beta-sheet barrel, closed; n=8, S=8; strand order ... Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349] (148 folds). *. ...
The economical benefits of adding beta-glucosidase significantly increase with decreases in beta-glucosidase cost and increases ... was obtained compared to that obtained without beta-glucosidase addition in all cases except one where highest beta-glucosidase ... beta-glucosidase, is also added to completely hydrolyze the glucose oligomers obtained during the hydrolysis of beta-glucans in ... With this model, we were able to show that under almost all market conditions, the use of beta glucosidase, an expensive enzyme ...
A few are evolved beta-galactosidase (EBG), beta-glucosidase, 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase, beta-mannosidase, and lactase- ... proposed a new isoform for beta-galactosidase with optimum activity at pH 6.0 (Senescence Associated beta-gal or SA-beta-gal)[ ... "Glycoside hydrolase, family 1, beta-glucosidase (IPR017736) , InterPro , EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-11.. ... "Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase is lysosomal beta-galactosidase". Aging Cell. 5 (2): 187-95. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ...
beta-Glucosidase and beta-galactosidase from the periplasmic space of Rhizobium trifolii cells ... Biochemical characterization and mechanism of action of a thermostable beta-glucosidase purified from Thermoascus aurantiacus ... Comparative studies on beta-glucan hydrolases. Isolation and characterization of an exo(1 yields 3)-beta-glucanase from the ...
Controlling simultaneous production of endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase by Fusarium oxysporum in submerged culture. ... Villettaz, J.-C.; Steiner, D.; Trogus, H. The Use of a Beta Glucanase as an Enzyme in Wine Clarification and Filtration. Am. J ... 1,4-α-d-Glucan glucohydrolase AMG 300L™ Exo-1,4-α-glucosidase Glucoamylase. Amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger ≥260 U/mL, ... Almeida, J.M.; Lima, V.A.; Giloni-Lima, P.C.; Knob, A. Passion fruit peel as novel substrate for enhanced β-glucosidases ...
Lallzyme Beta™ Weißwein. Roséwein. Aroma. Beta glucosidase et polygalacturonase. Sicherheitsdatenblatt Lallzyme BETA™ is ... Lallzyme BETA™ is a blend of pectinases with beta-glucosidase, rhamnosidase, apiosidase and arabinofuranosidase. The sequential ... Mild maceration enzymes and beta glucosidase. Sicherheitsdatenblatt Lallzyme CUVÉE BLANC™ was developed by Lallemand for use on ... Beta-glucanase, pectinase. Sicherheitsdatenblatt Lallzyme MMX™ is a beta-glucanase and pectinase blend sourced from Trichoderma ...
The disorder results from the deficiency of a specific lysosomal hydrolase, glucocerebrosidase (also termed acid beta- ... also termed acid beta-glucosidase, glucosylceramidase). The disease is best characterized as a continuum of phenotypes. The ...
misc.beta 1,3 glucan hydrolases.glucan endo-1,3-beta-glucosidase Type. mapman. MapMan. description. genes. species. aly. ath. ...
Co-beta-glucosidase; Glucosylceramidase activator; Sphingolipid activator protein 2; SAP-2; Contains: Saposin-D; Component C; ... Co-beta-glucosidase; Glucosylceramidase activator; Sphingolipid activator protein 2; SAP-2; Contains: Saposin-D; Component C; ...
Similar to Saposin-C; Co-beta-glucosidase; Glucosylceramidase activator; Sphingolipid activator protein 2; SAP-2;. ...
glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase activity. 4.9497656520055. bayes_pls_golite062009. *hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl ...
These lipids are then hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases (GCDase) to regenerate ceramide. Similarly, ...
  • The disorder results from the deficiency of a specific lysosomal hydrolase, glucocerebrosidase (also termed acid beta-glucosidase, glucosylceramidase). (medscape.com)
  • An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. (umassmed.edu)
  • In enzymology, a prunasin β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.118) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-prunasin + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-glucose + mandelonitrile It belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those glycosidases that hydrolyse O- and S-glycosyl compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GBA gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called beta-glucocerebrosidase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Beta-glucocerebrosidase is a housekeeping enzyme that helps break down a large molecule called glucocerebroside into a sugar (glucose) and a simpler fat molecule (ceramide). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the GBA gene mutations responsible for Gaucher disease change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in beta-glucocerebrosidase, altering the structure of the enzyme and preventing it from working normally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations result in the production of an altered beta-glucocerebrosidase enzyme. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With this model, we were able to show that under almost all market conditions, the use of beta glucosidase, an expensive enzyme, resulted in lower-cost production of the fuel ethanol. (usda.gov)
  • 2008). In this process, in addition to beta-glucanases, which is added to reduce the viscosity of the barley mash for efficient mixing, another enzyme, beta-glucosidase, is also added to completely hydrolyze the glucose oligomers obtained during the hydrolysis of beta-glucans in barley grains by beta-glucanases to the fermentable sugar glucose. (usda.gov)
  • β-galactosidase , also called lactase , beta-gal or β-gal , is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides through the breaking of a glycosidic bond . (wikidoc.org)
  • Many adult humans lack the lactase enzyme, which has the same function of beta-gal, so they are not able to properly digest dairy products. (wikidoc.org)
  • Beta-galactose is used in such dairy products as yogurt, sour cream, and some cheeses which are treated with the enzyme to break down any lactose before human consumption. (wikidoc.org)
  • A few are evolved beta-galactosidase (EBG), beta-glucosidase , 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase, beta-mannosidase, and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. (wikidoc.org)
  • What is acid beta-glucosidase deficiency? (diabeteshealthmatters.com)
  • What are the symptoms for acid beta-glucosidase deficiency? (diabeteshealthmatters.com)
  • The assay uses 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates to measure the activities of acid sphingomyelinase, alpha-iduronidase, beta-glucosidase, and alpha-mannosidase. (ggc.org)
  • beta-Glucosidases are enzymes that participate in the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose. (innexscientific.com)
  • Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. (who.int)
  • Production, characterization and properties of beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase from a strain of Aureobasidium sp. (unesp.br)
  • Differences were found in the expression of glucosidase II, beta-glucosidase PYK10, two glutathione- S -transferases and several so-far uncharacterized proteins. (ufz.de)
  • Gomes, DJ, Gomes, J & Steiner, W 1996, ' Factors influencing the activity and stability of extracellular beta-glucosidase from Thermoascus aurantiacus ', Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology , vol. 13, pp. 75-81. (elsevierpure.com)
  • beta-Glucosidase in Aspergillus nidulans was found to be both intracellular and extracellular. (shengsci.com)
  • Among all the isolates the isolate which exhibited highest β-glucosidase potential was identified and assigned the code as Aspergillus niger MBT-2. (banglajol.info)
  • The Aspergillus niger MBT-2 has promising potential of bioconversion of low-cost material into valuable product like β-glucosidase. (banglajol.info)
  • beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase production by a yeast-like Aureobasidium sp. (unesp.br)
  • The first step involves the removal of one of the two -D-gluco pyranosyl groups from amygdalin through the action of beta-glucosidase to form the cyanogenic glycoside, prunasin. (cdc.gov)
  • Beta-galactosidase has many homologues based on similar sequences. (wikidoc.org)
  • Thus, beta-glucosidase synthesis in A. nidulans is subject to carbon catabolite repression. (shengsci.com)
  • The optimum β-glucosidase production was obtained in M5 medium containing wheat bran after 72 hrs of incubation at 40°C, pH 6 and 20 ml of moisture contents. (banglajol.info)
  • beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase gave optimum activity at pH 2.0-2.5 and 3.0, respectively. (unesp.br)
  • Catalytic and structural properties of IRT-21 beta-lactamase (TEM-77) from a co-amoxiclav-resistant Proteus mirabilis isolate. (shengsci.com)
  • The chemical composition of U.S.-patented Laetrile (mandelonitrile-beta-glucuronide), a semisynthetic derivative of amygdalin, is different from the laetrile/amygdalin produced in Mexico (mandelonitrile beta-D-gentiobioside), which is made from crushed apricot pits. (cancer.gov)
  • The experiment was conducted to isolate and screen fungal strain and optimization of solid-state fermentation conditions for enhanced production of β-glucosidase. (banglajol.info)
  • Different fungal cultures were isolated and screened for β-glucosidase production. (banglajol.info)
  • The physicochemical and nutritional parameters were optimized for enhanced production of β-glucosidase from higher producer. (banglajol.info)
  • A sensitivity study was also performed to examine the effects of alpha-glucosidase and barley costs on the final ethanol production cost. (usda.gov)
  • Lower ethanol production cost was obtained compared to that obtained without beta-glucosidase addition in all cases except one where highest beta-glucosidase cost allowance and lowest barley cost were used. (usda.gov)
  • After 4 lactamase production in a Salmonella en- days of incubation, bacterial growth terica serotype Typhi strain from the Phil- ippines. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutations in the GBA gene greatly reduce or eliminate the activity of beta-glucocerebrosidase in cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In recent years, beta-galactosidase has been researched as a potential treatment for lactose intolerance through gene replacement therapy where it could be placed into the human DNA so individuals can break down lactose on their own. (wikidoc.org)
  • MarkerGeneTM in vivo lacZ beta_Galactosidase Intracellular Detection Kit, Allows ultra_sensitive detection of ß_galactosidase activity in live mammalian, yeast, bacterial, or plant cells. (clonagen.com)
  • Hippocampal long-time period potentiation that is elicited by perforant path stimulation or that happens along side spatial studying is tightly managed by beta-adrenoreceptors and the locus References coeruleus metabolic disease associates patient portal [url=http://www.mhcurling.com/drugstore/purchase-cheap-micronase/]micronase 2.5 mg without prescription[/url]. (ehd.org)
  • The intracellular beta-glucosidase was synthesized after the exhaustion of carbon source in the medium. (shengsci.com)
  • Microbial beta-glucosidases have been used for the enhancement of wine aroma. (unifesp.br)
  • Biosynthesis of beta-glucosidase was not induced by various carbohydrates but repressed to varying extents in the presence of glucose, glycerol, and 2-deoxyglucose. (shengsci.com)
  • The results of this study clearly demonstrate the economic benefit of adding beta-glucosidase. (usda.gov)
  • Both dust samples showed activities of beta-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase and arylsulfatase, which are related to cellulose degradation, phosphorus and sulfur mineralization in soil, respectively. (usda.gov)
  • It gets broken down by beta-glucocerebrosidase when cells die, and the components are reused as new cells are formed. (medlineplus.gov)