Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.DextranaseGlucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.PolysaccharidesReceptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Glycoside HydrolasesTransforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.alpha-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Chicory: A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Lentinan: Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Isomaltose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Medicine, East Asian Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.DextrinsSolubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Sizofiran: A beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Streptococcus sanguis: A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (1/753)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

(1-->3)-beta-D-glucan may contribute to pollen sensitivity. (2/753)

The amount of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in pollen from different plants was evaluated using the Limulus assay with a specific lysate. The amount ranged from 79 to 1800 ng/10(6) pollen. A calculation of the inhaled dose suggests that the amount of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan present during periods with a high pollen content in the air exceeds levels that cause airways inflammation.  (+info)

Promotion of neutrophil chemotaxis through differential regulation of beta 1 and beta 2 integrins. (3/753)

Migration of neutrophils requires sequential adhesive and deadhesive interactions between beta 1 and beta 2 integrins and components of the extracellular matrix. Prompted by reports that describe interaction of soluble beta-glucan with the beta 2 integrin Mac-1, a role for beta-glucan in regulation of integrin-mediated migration was investigated. Neutrophil migration in response to fMLP was assessed using an agarose overlay method with slides precoated with fibronectin (Fn) +/- beta-glucan. On Fn, random migration in excess of directed migration was observed. In contrast, migration on Fn + beta-glucan was directional, with marked diminution of random migration. This conversion of random to directed migration was seen neither when Fn was supplemented with alternative polysaccharides nor when beta-glucan was applied to other components of the extracellular matrix. This effect of beta-glucan was shown to be cation dependent and to be effected by Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides consistent with an integrin-mediated event. mAb inhibition studies demonstrate that beta-glucan effects this shift toward directed migration through suppression of migration mediated by Mac-1 and very late Ag 5 and enhancement of very late Ag 3-mediated migration. Adhesion assays suggest that the prochemotactic influence of beta-glucan is due, in part but not entirely, to modulation of PMN adhesion to Fn. In summary, these data support a novel role for beta-glucan in regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-mediated neutrophil migration on Fn.  (+info)

Airways inflammation among workers in a paper industry. (4/753)

Exposure to organic dusts may cause airways inflammation in a large proportion of exposed persons. Most studies have relied on questionnaires and spirometry for diagnosis. To assess the possibility of determining the presence of inflammation using clinical diagnostic procedures, a study was undertaken among workers in a paper industry. Participants were 83 workers and 44 controls. Airborne endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan levels at the worksites were determined. The effects of this exposure were evaluated using a questionnaire, spirometry and measurements of airway responsiveness (methacholine) and levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum. The workers had a decreased baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and an increased airway responsiveness compared with controls. The concentrations of ECP and MPO were elevated compared with controls. There was a relation between exposure to endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and airway responsiveness as well as ECP levels, when controlling for age, sex, smoking habits, atopy and asthma. The results suggest an increased prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms, and an increased airway responsiveness among exposed workers. There was also a relationship between the serum concentration of eosinophil cationic protein and airway responsiveness. Taken together, the results suggest the presence of airways inflammation in the workers.  (+info)

[Fungal infection in patients with serious disease. Risk analysis of fungal infection]. (5/753)

BACKGROUND: Candidemia is still a major source of high morbidity and mortality in severely disease patients. However, the etiology and risk factor is still unknown. PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk factor of fungal infection in intensive care patients. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 505 patients who stayed in the intensive care unit of the Critical Care Center, Kyorin University more than 10 days between May 1, 1997 to June 31, 1998 were studied. They were divided into 7 groups: 1) trauma (injury severity score<10), 2) burn (burn index<10), 3) cerebro-vascular disease (unconsciousness15), were in a coma, and had severe injury of lung parenchyme with chest AIS 3 or higher. In these serious patients, it is necessary to make a rapid diagnosis and treatment based on the surveillance culture and serological examination of sputum and urine for occult fungal infection.  (+info)

Cyclic organization of the carbohydrate metabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti. (6/753)

The pathways of polysaccharide biosynthesis were investigated in cells of Sinorhizobium meliloti (strain Su47) using a stable isotope approach. The isotopic labeling of the periplasmic beta-1,2-glucans synthesized from glucose labeled at various positions evidenced the involvement of catabolic pathways, namely the pentose-phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff pathways, into the early steps of polysaccharide synthesis. The exopolysaccharides produced at the same time had a labeling pattern similar to that of the beta-glucans, indicating similar early steps for both polysaccharides. The results emphasized a cyclic organization of the carbohydrate metabolism in S. meliloti, in which the carbons of the initial hexose were allowed to re-enter the catabolic pathways many times. The metabolic incidences of such metabolic topology are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of administration of oat beta-glucan on immune parameters of healthy and immunosuppressed beef steers. (7/753)

In order to assess the effect of oat beta-glucan (ObetaG) administration on immune parameters of beef steers, 3 experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, the in vitro effect of ObetaG on the proliferation of blood lymphocytes, with or without the presence of dexamethasone (DXM), was evaluated. In experiment 2, groups of 12 healthy steers were administered ObetaG or saline solution and immunized with ovalbumin (OVA). Immune parameters studied included IgG antibody levels to OVA, proliferation responses of blood lymphocytes to OVA, and blood leukocyte differential cell counts. For experiment 3, groups of 10 steers were treated with ObetaG and DXM, DXM only, or saline solution, and immunized with OVA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Serum antibody responses to OVA and KLH, serum IgG concentration levels, blastogenic responses of blood lymphocytes to OVA and KLH, differential blood leukocyte numbers, and iron and zinc concentration in serum were tested to evaluate the effect of ObetaG to overcome immunosuppression. The in vitro treatment of naive blood lymphocytes with ObetaG did not increase their ability to proliferate; however, when ObetaG was added to cultures of DXM-treated lymphocytes, a significant (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) reversion of the immunosuppressive effect of DXM occurred. Administration of ObetaG to clinically healthy steers did not induce significant changes on any of the immune parameters studied. The administration of ObetaG to DXM-treated steers provoked, on Day 25, a significant increase in IgG anti-OVA (P < 0.01) and anti-KLH (P < 0.05) responses vs the DXM only group. On Day 25, the specific proliferation responses of lymphocytes, to both OVA and KLH, were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in ObetaG+DXM group compared to DXM group. On Day 4, a significant increase in the number of leukocytes (P < 0.01) and neutrophils (P < 0.001), and a significant decrease in the number of monocytes (P < 0.05) were observed in the group treated with DXM only compared to ObetaG+DXM group. No significant differences were observed in iron and zinc concentration between ObetaG+DXM and DXM groups. These results indicated that ObetaG did not influence immune responses of naive cells in vitro or of healthy steers in vivo; however, when cells or animals were treated with DXM, ObetaG significantly restored some of the specific and non-specific immune parameters studied.  (+info)

Clinical evaluation of diagnostic methods using plasma and/or serum for three mycoses: aspergillosis, candidosis, and pneumocystosis. (8/753)

Clinical evaluation was retrospectively made of the results of serological diagnostic methods using plasma and/or sera of patients for the diagnosis of aspergillosis, candidosis, and pneumocystosis. Specimens were drawn from 8 patients with invasive aspergillosis, 3 with aspergilloma, 9 with candidosis, 4 with pneumocystosis, and 15 with no fungal infections. In invasive aspergillosis, the sensitivities of the (1-3)-beta-D-glucan measurement test using chromogenic and turbidimetric methods were 78.6% and 82.1%, with specificities of 75% and 87.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Pastorex Aspergillus test for invasive aspergillosis was 16.7%, with a specificity of 92.3%. In candidosis, the sensitivities of the (1-3)-bata-D-glucan test using the above two methods were 84.2% and 100%, with specificities of 75% and 87.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the CAND-TEC test and the Pastorex Candida test for candidosis were 68.8% and 16.7%, with specificities of 57.1% and 100%, respectively. These results indicate that the (1-3)-bata-D-glucan measurement methods are more reliable in clinical application than the other antigen detection methods, but they still lack efficiency in differentiating fungal infections such as aspergillosis, candidosis and pneumocystosis. For a more exact diagnosis of systemic fungal infections, detailed studies on the clinical symptoms are considered essential.  (+info)

Prebiotics, such as short- and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides are fermented by the microflora colonizing the gastrointestinal tract, and they selectively stimulate the growth or the activity of one or limited number of bacteria within the intestine. Beta-glucans are polysaccharides occurring in the bran of cereal grains, the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria, certain types of fungi, seaweed and many kinds of mushrooms. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the potential prebiotic beta-glucan on the intestinal microflora, the bacterial enzyme activity (beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase) in the faeces, the faecal pH, and the concentration of faecal short-chain fatty acid in polypectomized patients ...
Yeast Beta Glucan Oat Beta Glucan Beta Glucan Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan Beta-1,3/1,4-D-glucan Beta-1,3-D-glucan Yeast Beta Glucan Powder Oat Beta Glucan Powder
250 mg of Beta-Glucans Supports Normal Immune Function* With Larch Arabinogalactan Beta-1,3/1,6 D-Glucan (Beta-Glucans) is a bioactive carbohydrate derived from
β-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, enhance hematopoiesis, amplify killing of opsonized tumor cells and increase neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. In view of these attributes, the β-glucans should be studied for both their therapeutic efficacy in patients with cancer as well as an adjunctive therapy in patients receiving chemotherapy as a maneuver to limit suppression of hematopoiesis. In this study, twenty patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy were given a β-(1,3)/(1,6) D-glucan preparation (MacroForce plus IP6, ImmuDyne, Inc.) and monitored for tolerability and effect on hematopoiesis. Our results lead us to conclude that β-glucan is well-tolerated in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, may have a beneficial effect on hematopoiesis in these patients and should be studied further, especially in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma.
A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers, linked by glycosidic bonds. Many beta-glucans are medically important. They represent a drug target for antifungal medications of the echinocandin class. The following are glucans: (The α- and β- and numbers clarify the type of O-glycosidic bond.) dextran, α-1,6-glucan with α-1,3-branches floridean starch, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan glycogen, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan pullulan, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan starch, a mixture of amylose and amylopectin, both α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucans cellulose, β-1,4-glucan chrysolaminarin, β-1,3-glucan curdlan, β-1,3-glucan laminarin, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan lentinan, a strictly purified β-1,6:β-1,3-glucan from Lentinus edodes lichenin, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan oat beta-glucan, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan pleuran, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus zymosan, β-1,3-glucan Properties of glucans include resistance to oral acids/enzyme and water insolubility. Glucans ...
Soluble fiber known as beta-D-glucan. These compounds are usually referred to as beta-glucans, and they comprise a class of non-digestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in such sources as oats, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fiber located mainly in cell walls that is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the sugar D-glucose. Studies have shown that a healthy diet that includes beta-glucan can aid in maintaining normal levels of blood cholesterol and glucose.. The exact mechanism of beta-glucans possible hypocholesterolemic effect is not clear. It appears to promote increased excretion of bile acids, which could help explain its possible cholesterol moderating activity. Beta-glucan may also promote cholesterol clearance from the plasma via reverse cholesterol transport.. The mechanism of the glucose-regulatory activity of beta-glucan is also not well understood. Beta-glucan may delay gastric emptying time and consequently affect the ...
Soluble fiber known as beta-D-glucan. These compounds are usually referred to as beta-glucans, and they comprise a class of non-digestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in such sources as oats, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fiber located mainly in cell walls that is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the sugar D-glucose. Studies have shown that a healthy diet that includes beta-glucan can aid in maintaining normal levels of blood cholesterol and glucose.. The exact mechanism of beta-glucans possible hypocholesterolemic effect is not clear. It appears to promote increased excretion of bile acids, which could help explain its possible cholesterol moderating activity. Beta-glucan may also promote cholesterol clearance from the plasma via reverse cholesterol transport.. The mechanism of the glucose-regulatory activity of beta-glucan is also not well understood. Beta-glucan may delay gastric emptying time and consequently affect the ...
A search for genes which, at elevated copy number, could suppress the growth defect in a strain disrupted at the KRE9 locus has identified the SKN7 gene. SKN7 was mapped to the right arm of chromosome VIII and is predicted to encode a 70-kDa protein, Skn7p, with a region of homology to the DNA binding domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1p. Skn7p also has a domain which shows similarity to the prokaryotic receiver modules found on an extensive family of two-component response regulators, including the products of the rcsC and barA genes. SKN7 did not suppress other mutations in the (1--,6)-beta-glucan biosynthetic pathway, suggesting that SKN7 does not act as a general bypass suppressor of this glucan. ...
A characterization of the S. cerevisiae KRE6 and SKN1 gene products extends previous genetic studies on their role in (1--,6)-beta-glucan biosynthesis (Roemer, T., and H. Bussey. 1991. Yeast beta-glucan synthesis: KRE6 encodes a predicted type II membrane protein required for glucan synthesis in vivo and for glucan synthase activity in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:11295-11299; Roemer, T., S. Delaney, and H. Bussey. 1993. SKN1 and KRE6 define a pair of functional homologs encoding putative membrane proteins involved in beta-glucan synthesis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:4039-4048). KRE6 and SKN1 are predicted to encode homologous proteins that participate in assembly of the cell wall polymer (1--,6)-beta-glucan. KRE6 and SKN1 encode phosphorylated integral-membrane glycoproteins, with Kre6p likely localized within a Golgi subcompartment. Deletion of both these genes is shown to result in a dramatic disorganization of cell wall ultrastructure. Consistent with their direct role in the assembly of ...
To investigate the role of β-(1-3)-D-glucan on 99mTc labelled Escherichia coli translocation and cytokines secretion in rats submitted to small bowel ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods: Five groups (n=10 each) of Wistar rats were subjected to control(C), sham(S), group IR subjected to 45 min of bowel ischemia/60 min of reperfusion(I/R), and group I/R+glucan subjected to 45 min of bowel ischemia/60 min of reperfusion(I/R) and injected with 2mg/Kg intramuscular. Translocation of labelled bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung and serum was determined using radioactivity/count and colony forming units/g(CFU/g). Serum TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Results: CFU/g and radioactivity/count were higher in I/R than in I/R+glucan rats. In C, S and S+glucan groups, bacteria and radioactivity/count were rarely detected. The I/R+glucan rats had enhancement of IL-10 and suppressed production of serum TNFα, IL-1β and, IL-6, compared to I/R untreated animals. ...
Associates of Cape Cod,Inc.(ACC),manufactures the Fungitell® Assay,the Gold Standard in Rapid Screening For Invasive Fungal Infection (IFI).Fungitell® is the first and only FDA-cleared & CE marked rapid in vitro diagnostic screening test for IFI (including Candida, Aspergillus & Pneumocystis) that detects (1→3)-β-D-Glucan in serum. ACC operates Beacon Diagnostics® Laboratory, a CLIA-certified reference laboratory specializing in (1→3)-β-D-Glucan analysis services to support the diagnosis (IFI).. ...
2. Plasma (1→3)-ß-D-glucan and fungal antigenemia in patients with candidemia, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis.. T Miyazaki, S Kohno, K Mitsutake, S Maesaki, K Tanaka, N Ishikawa, and K Hara. Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan. (1→3)-ß-D-Glucan is one of the major structural components of fungi, and it seems that it can be detected by the fractionated (1→3)-ß-D-glucan-sensitive component from a Limulus lysate, factor G. We evaluated the concentration of (1→3)-ß-D-glucan by using factor G and other fungal antigens in 24 patients with clinical evidence of mycosis and 36 healthy subjects. The mean concentration of (1→3)-ß-D-glucan in the plasma of the healthy subjects was found to be 2.7 +/- 1.9 pg/mL (range, < 6.9 pg/mL), and it was found to be substantially higher in all 11 patients with candidemia (mean, 2,207.4 pg/mL; range, 325.4 to 8,449.0 pg/mL). Eight of those 11 patients with candidemia (73%) were positive for the Cand-Tec ...
NOW® Beta-1,3/1,6-D-Glucan (beta-glukan)je bioaktivni polisaharid, izoliran iz celične stene pivskega kvasa (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Znanstvene študije ...
Read "Structure-function relationships of β- D-glucan endo- and exohydrolases from higher plants, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
Beta-Glucans with ImmunEnhancer (250mg) information including description from Now, supplement facts, and suggested use. Order online for quick delivery at the best prices.
Invasive candidiasis is associated with high mortality, particularly in adults. Retrospective studies show that shorter times to treatment are correlated with a lower risk of death. A number of factors can be used to predict which patients would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis or early (pre-emptive or empirical) therapy. Detection of the fungal cell wall component (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (BDG) shows promise as an early biomarker of invasive fungal infection and may be useful in identifying patients who would benefit from early antifungal treatment. To date, no consistent early treatment strategy has evolved. Proof-of-concept studies are needed to assess the role of pre-emptive and empirical therapy in ICU patients and the relevance of BDG as an early marker of infection ...
Three different families of pattern recognition receptors, toll-like (TLRs), Nod-like (NLRs), and RIG-I-like, initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These receptors recognize and bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as viral DNA and RNA, or bacterial and fungal cell wall components. PAMP-receptor binding activates the innate immune response, initiates downstream signaling, and induces expression of inflammatory cytokines as well as the type-I interferon response. The innate immune system attracts immune cells to the site of infection, and activates the adaptive immune response. This initial immune response is essential to combat a novel foreign pathogen. Dysregulation of innate immune processes can lead to widespread infection, sepsis, and immunodeficiencies ...
Three different families of pattern recognition receptors, toll-like (TLRs), Nod-like (NLRs), and RIG-I-like, initiate innate immunity, the inborn host response to common pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These receptors recognize and bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as viral DNA and RNA, or bacterial and fungal cell wall components. PAMP-receptor binding activates the innate immune response, initiates downstream signaling, and induces expression of inflammatory cytokines as well as the type-I interferon response. The innate immune system attracts immune cells to the site of infection, and activates the adaptive immune response. This initial immune response is essential to combat a novel foreign pathogen. Dysregulation of innate immune processes can lead to widespread infection, sepsis, and immunodeficiencies ...
The nutraceutical potential of β-d-glucan is largely dependent on its structure, size and viscosity. The present study analyzed the effect of germination and microwave processing of barley on the structural, size, antioxidant and thermal characteristics of β-d-glucan. The molecular weight and viscosity of β-d-glucan obtained from germinated barley (GGB) were the lowest (144kDa and 37.33cp) as comp ...
A strong immune system is vital to the preservation of your good health. Transfer Points Beta glucan has been subjected to rigorous studies at numerous universities, and is the most potent, best Beta Glucan available on the market today. Beta Glucan has been found to build the immune system. Your immune system is designed to fight off illness and disease, so it is important that you do everything possible to strengthen your immune system. This is the Beta Glucan recommended in the book Cancer Free by Bill Henderson. Beta Glucan also offers health benefits for the cardiovascular system, blood glucose levels, and weight management.Transfer Points Beta Glucan, has been demonstrated repeatedly to be the most potent and efficacious Beta 1,3D glucan available on the market today. ...
Cultivated for more than 1,000 years, these meaty, tender Chinese mushrooms have long served as both food and medicine. They owe their reputation as immunity boosters to a type of carbohydrate called beta-glucans. Unlike other immunity nutrients, beta-glucans dont create or regulate cells within your immune system. Instead, they act as a kind of decoy, boosting your bodys immune response. When you eat shiitakes, your immune system reacts as if a harmful substance is present and kicks into high gear to protect you. In a 2004 animal study of swine influenza virus, the group given beta-glucans before infection developed a much milder case of the flu than those untreated. While the swine flu virus study was not the same strain as the human H1N1 virus, the results show promise for beta-glucans ability to prevent and treat the flu ...
Immune builder is a full spectrum beta glucan formula, combining all of the beta glucan structures known to exist in medicinal mushrooms. This includes Beta 1-3 Glucan, Beta 1-6, 1-3 Glucan, Beta 1-4, 1-3, 1-6 Glucan and Beta 1-6 Glucan.. Each beta glucan utilizes a unique and distinct "signaling pathway" when when triggering or modulating the non-specific immune response. By combining all the known beta glucan configurations, we are utilizing all the known pathways and may be producing a more complex and effective immune response for daily immune support.*. Just one capsule twice a day, AM and PM, on an empty stomach, provides the full prophylactic dose of MaitakeGold, plus an additional 20% (the amount for daily tonic immune support is 4 mg twice a day, Immune Builder contains 5 mg of MaitakeGold in each capsule). Adding the other four beta glucan combinations, in addition to the Beta 1-6, 1-3 Glucan supplied by the Maitake, ensures best effect for daily immune support.*. Immune Builder is the ...
Accepted name: polysaccharide O-methyltransferase. Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (1→4)-α-D-glucooligosaccharide = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + oligosaccharide containing 6-methyl-D-glucose units. Other name(s): polysaccharide methyltransferase; acylpolysacharide 6-methyltransferase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:1,4-α-D-glucan 6-O-methyltransferase. Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:(1→4)-α-D-glucan 6-O-methyltransferase. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 37205-56-4. References: 1. Ferguson, J.A. and Ballou, C.E. Biosynthesis of a mycobacterial lipopolysaccharide. Properties of the polysaccharide methyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 4213-4223. [PMID: 5503262]. ...
... is a fiber-type sugar molecule that can help control cholesterol levels. It is commonly found in bakers yeast, which is the richest concentrated source. It is the key ingredient in the cholesterol-lowering effect proven in oat bran. It is also found in wheat and barley and medicinal mushrooms.. If you have been diagnosed with high cholesterol, you will want-with the help of your doctor, of course-to consider all the possibilities for treatment in reducing those levels. Studies indicate that beta glucans are worth considering. On your own, incorporating them into your diet shouldnt be too difficult. Make the soups a bit more exotic in the variety of mushrooms you use and make them robust and thick with barley. Have oatmeal for breakfast in the cold weather. Try homemade bread with whole grains and let the bakers yeast raise the dough for you.. ...
If you have to cope with severe physical stress - for example, because you train hard - supplementation with beta glucans may at the same time reduce fatigue and keep your immune system strong. An animal study that recently appeared in the Open Biochemistry Journal suggests this.
Altered extent of cross-linking of beta1,6-glucosylated mannoproteins to chitin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with reduced cell wall beta1,3-glucan conten
Beta-Glucan is a polysaccharide naturally found in bakers yeast and other natural foods. Yeast Beta-Glucan has the ability to enhance immune defenses, and may complement other nutrients to promote stronger immune health. Yeast Beta-Glucan helps promote better immunity for your childs continuous learning opportunities. For more information on Wellmune® Beta-Glucan please visit: http://www.wellmune.com/
A healthy component of beta-glucan pasta is able to fight against high cholesterol when consuming 3 grams per day. High cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary heart disease progression. Beta-glucan is a special squeezing of oats, a 100% natural ingredient which prevents heart attack. A niche product is meant to meet the demands of the target audience for the unique properties of a familiar product. The line of tomato, spinach, whole meal and buckwheat pasta was supplemented with oatmeal spaghetti and fusilli. LIVINGOOD are products that help to stay young and to feel good. The macaroni LIVINGOOD ingredients include natural vegetable and cereal supplements and oat beta-glucan. ...
Oats are one of the quintessential foods of the traditional Scottish diet. In terms of health benefits they are best known for their fibre content, particularly their beta-glucan content. Less well known is that this humble grain contains a unique class of more than twenty polyphenols known as avenanthramides, not found in any other foods. In recent…
Beta glucans,is a natural water-soluble fiber (1,3/1,4) β-glucan, It is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose.And its effects on health specifically on both serum cholesterol and blood glucose reduction is proven.
Increasing oats and beta-glucan extract intake has been associated with improved glycemic control, which is associated with the reduction in the development of diabetes. This study aims to assess the different effects between oat (whole and bran) and beta-glucan extract intake on glycemic control an …
Mushrooms contain long-chain polysaccharides, specifically alpha- and beta-glucans. These molecules have beneficial effects on your immune system. In fact, medications like penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are all derived from fungal extracts ...
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of (1-|3)-beta-D-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by (1-|3)-beta-D-glucosidic bonds.
For just-weaned piglets, it is essential to receive protein sources that are highly digestible. Not every source is available everywhere, due to legislation restrictions. Yeast-derived protein does not have harmful side effects and is well-researched.
Ok, question for everyone. I figured out today that whole grain pancakes with a sugar free syrup makes my bg jump. Was at 107 when I got up check level agai...
glucan sulfate: RN given refers to (1-3)-beta-D-glucan hydrogen sulfate; empirical formula of the glucan sulfate repeating unit is(C6-H10-O5)8 3SO3NH4(+) 4H2O; see also curdlan sulfate
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Learn more about Beta-Glucan at Grand Strand Medical Center Alternate Names Oat bran Uses Principal Proposed Uses High Cholesterol Other Proposed Uses Immune...
This powerful immune-boosting supplement helps the body defend against and increase healing from about every kind of disease and stress. Taking Beta-Glucan ...
i spent the past few days in the hospital...i had a dka attack. my bg levels were out of control ( over 700 is all they said when i was admitted. ) i even ha...
Id really like to investigate the effect of protein in a meal on BG levels. I had a bacon & egg sarnie (very naughty) for lunch today. My BG was just under 5 beforehand. 2 hours after the meal, it was 2.8. 2 hours later still, its 12.2! Is that the result of the large amount of protein involved? If not theres something else seriously wrong which Im going to have to determine... thanks, Karen -- * "2002: A Discworld Odyssey" * August 16th-19th, 2002 * * Web: http://www.dwcon.org/ * Email: email @ redacted * ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] help SUPPORT Insulin Pumpers http://www.insulin-pumpers.org/donate.shtml ...
Borland, Jim; Moir, Will; Udall, Rob; Steinkamp, Myrna P.; Root, Peter; Naumann, Tamara; Jennings, Bill; and Kelley, Reed, "Aquilegia, Vol. 14 No. 1, January-February 1990: Newsletter of the Colorado Native Plant Society" (1990). Aquilegia - Colorado Native Plant Society. 51 ...
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Immune response relies on the stimulation of macrophages white blood cells that scour the body on search and destroy missions targeting harmful bacteria. Unfortunately, these special forces are not always on duty - they must first be activated. And that s the role of beta-glucans. They give the go order to the body s macrophages. The more beta-glucans in the system, the more macrophages will be called into action. NOW Beta 1-3 Glucan formula is comprised of the most concentrated sources available Saccharomyces Cerevisae (the inner cell walls of baker s yeast) and Maitake mushroom. As research evolves, consumers are increasingly turning to beta-glucans to give their immune function added firepower ...
Beta Glucan is one of the most powerful immune enhancer known to science. A vital part of a good supplement program, there are many benefits in taking Beta Glucan. It strengthens our immune system, has anti-tumor activity, helps to normalize our blood fats, heals your skin, and supports normal blood sugar and insulin levels.. Beta Glucan is a chain of glucose molecules, found in foods like yeasts, oats, barley and mushrooms. Every time we eat these foods we consume beta glucan. We do not, however, consume enough of it in our daily diets to reap its excellent benefits.. Large white blood cells in our body, destroy bacteria, dead and dying cells, mutated cells, and other dangerous invaders in the blood stream. These white blood cells are the most important thing in our immune system and studies have proven that Beta Glucan strengthens and activates these cells.. Taking beta glucan is an excellent way to ensure you and your children are in the best possible health.. The results of numerous clinical ...
Cytokinesis is a crucial event in the cell cycle of all living cells. In fungal cells, it requires co-ordinated contraction of an actomyosin ring and synthesis of both plasmatic membrane and a septum structure that will constitute the new cell wall end. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains four essential putative (1,3)β-d-glucan synthase catalytic subunits, Bgs1p to Bgs4p. Here we examined the function of Bgs1p in septation by studying the lethal phenotypes of bgs1(+) shut-off and bgs1Delta cells and demonstrated that Bgs1p is responsible and essential for linear (1,3)β-d-glucan and primary septum formation. bgs1(+) shut-off generates a more than 300-fold Bgs1p reduction, but the septa still present large amounts of disorganized linear (1,3)β-d-glucan and partial primary septa. Conversely, both structures are absent in bgs1Delta cells, where there is no Bgs1p. The septum analysis of bgs1(+)-repressed cells indicates that linear (1,3)β-d-glucan is necessary but not sufficient for primary septum ...
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abstract = {The Drosophila immune system discriminates between various types of infections and activates appropriate signal transduction pathways to combat the invading microorganisms. The Toll pathway is required for the host response against fungal and most Gram-positive bacterial infections. The sensing of Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors PGRP-SA and GNBP1 that cooperate to detect the presence of infections in the host. Here, we report that GNBP3 is a pattern recognition receptor that is required for the detection of fungal cell wall components. Strikingly, we find that there is a second, parallel pathway acting jointly with GNBP3. The Drosophila Persephone protease activates the Toll pathway when proteolytically matured by the secreted fungal virulence factor PR1. Thus, the detection of fungal infections in Drosophila relies both on the recognition of invariant microbial patterns and on monitoring the effects of virulence factors on the host ...
Plants are sessile organisms surrounded by a wide range of microorganisms, including plant pathogens. However, infection is established between a limited combination of plants and pathogens because plants can detect the presence of many potential pathogens through common pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or microbe-associated molecular patterns and subsequently mount a defense response called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) (He et al., 2007; Schwessinger and Zipfel, 2008). PAMPs include lipopolysaccharides, flagellin, and translation elongation factor Tu; all of these are released from bacterial pathogens (Nürnberger et al., 2004; Boller and Felix, 2009). Calcium-dependent cell wall transglutaminase and lipid-transfer proteins (elicitins) were identified as PAMPs from oomycetes (Nürnberger et al., 2004; Boller and Felix, 2009). Fungal cell wall components, such as β-glucan, ergosterol, and chitin, are also recognized as PAMPs (Nürnberger et al., 2004; Boller and Felix, 2009). In ...
BETA GLUCAN, CHRISTOPHER HERTZOG, $63.00. Beta Glucan - a 21st Century Miracle? This book is intended as a layman?s guide to Beta Glucan, which perhaps heralds one o...
General Information. Description:. Several types of beta-glucan-type polysaccharides are known, differing in molecular composition and, accordingly, in degree of activity. The most active substances are extracted from yeast, oat bran, barley and various grain crops, which are used most often in syrups form. The source is also often oats and wheat.. Extraction of component is a rather difficult chemical process. Raw materials require high-temperature conditioning to result in insoluble forms of substance. It is worth noting that particles are significantly different in size.. There is also a soluble form of Beta-Glucan. Both forms are actively used in the cosmetic industry. For example, insoluble part can be added to powder, and soluble - in creams, gels, lotions. Beta-glucan absolutely does not interfere with "work" of other elements of remedy. Moreover, it promotes faster absorption of cosmetics into skin.. Pharmachologic Effect:. Beta glucan is found in mushrooms, food yeast and in fiber of ...
In fission yeast, both cell wall growth and actin are somehow localized to the tips of the cell. On page ARTICLE, Katayama et al. report that Mok1 makes 1,3-α-d-glucan, one of the major components of the fission yeast cell wall, and that Mok1 is required for the correct localization of actin to the growing tips.. Katayama et al. isolate mok1 in a screen for temperature-sensitive mutants with aberrant morphology and sensitivity to the protein-kinase inhibitor staurosporine. (Protein kinase C activity is required for normal cell wall synthesis.) Actin is not at the growing tips of mok1ts cells, but in randomly distributed patches in the cortex.. Overproduction of Mok1 is lethal. Dividing cells lyse and single cells swell at one end due to an excess of actin and cell wall material at the cell tip. Whereas β-glucan levels decline somewhat under these conditions, levels of α-glucan rise threefold. In the mok1ts cells α-glucan levels are reduced.. These data are consistent with the sequence of ...
Oats were once considered a weed. And the benefits oat soluble fiber, especially oat beta-glucan, were unknown. These important benefits are discussed.
NOW® Beta-1,3/1,6-D-Glucan (Beta-Glucan) is a bioactive carbohydrate derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as Bakers yeast. Scientific studies have shown that Beta-Glucan supports immune function through its ability to stimulate macrophage activity. NOW Beta-Glucan is blended into a synergistic base of Maitake Mushrooms for added power.*
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Beta glucan is a polysaccharide molecule found in several sources. For health purposes, its primary sources include oats, barley, mushrooms and yeast. Researchers have studied all forms of beta glucan, which is found in more than one linkage type. Linkages of (1-3), (1-4) and (1-6) linkages are known to occur. No one knows for sure…
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Virtually no-one has heard of Beta Glucan, yet it’s one of the only products in the world known to fight both viral and bacterial infections. Beta Glucan
In the hospital system around the world, huge costs of hospitalization are connected to hibernation of the wound healing process. Biotec Pharmacon has found the solution, which they in collaboration with WeThink will raise awareness about on the international medical market.. Chronic wounds cost a lot of resources every day in home care and hospitals. A part from the economic perspective, the long duration of the wound treatment also has psychological consequences for the patients.. Norwegian Biotec Pharmacon ASA has, with their active substance Soluble Beta-Glucan (SBG), found a natural solution to treatment of chronic wounds. A solution that will save money for hospitals and improve the quality of life for patients. Copenhagen based WeThink will be in charge of the international branding of Soluble Beta-Glucan (SBG) and the wound care product Woulgan, which contains SBG.. Natures miracle cure - from fish pond to wound care. It all started in a fish pond in Tromsø, Norway back in 1987. In ...
Cell-free extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed the incorporation of glucosyl residues from UDP-[U-14C]glucose into beta-1,3-glucans which contained a significant proportion of beta-1,6-glycosidic linkages. When GDP-[U-14C]glucose was used
Lectin that functions as pattern receptor specific for beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked glucans, such as cell wall constituents from pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Induces phosphorylation of SCIMP after binding beta-glucans (PubMed:27288407). Necessary for the TLR2-mediated inflammatory response and for TLR2-mediated activation of NF-kappa-B. Enhances cytokine production in macrophages and dendritic cells. Mediates production of reactive oxygen species in the cell. Mediates phagocytosis of C.albicans conidia. Binds T-cells in a way that does not involve their surface glycans and plays a role in T-cell activation. Stimulates T-cell proliferation. Induces phosphorylation of SCIMP after binding beta-glucans (PubMed:27288407).
Beta GlucanTM. This Beta GlucanTM has the highest proven immunological benefits: Eight (8) times more effective than any mushroom based beta glucan, including the prescription products used thoughtout Asia, and 160 times more effective than many of the popular Internet products being sold.. This independent published research confirm the 3,000+ published studies on Beta GlucanTM over the past 30 years. The active ingredients in "Beta GlucanTM" are the 1,3 and 1,6 terminal linked glucose molecules. This is why advanced immune system products made from "Beta GlucanTM" are correctly known as "Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan". The effectiveness of a Beta GlucanTM product is determined by the actual amount of the 1,3 and1,6 terminal linked glucose molecules (know as Active Linkage) that are in the product. Only the 1,3 and 1,6 linkages have been proven to bind/dock with the CR3 immune system receptors that activate the tumoricidal (literally, "tumor-killing") activities of the innate cells of the immune system, ...
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of a ß-(1,3)(1,6)-D-glucan derived from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on growth performance parameters and intestinal functionality in mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and on progression of a chronic, pre-existing mycobacteriosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The 1st experiment revealed that mirror carp fed diets containing 1% and 2% ß-glucan showed significant improvements in growth performance compared to fish fed both the control and the 0.1% ß-glucan containing diet. Equally, fish fed diets supplemented with 1% and 2% ß-glucan displayed significantly higher infiltration of leukocytes into the epithelial layer of in the anterior intestine. This effect was not observed in the posterior intestine. There were no significant differences in the intestinal absorptive surface area and number of goblet cells in either intestinal region. Compared to control fed fish, the haematocrit value was significantly ...
Beta Glucan from Jarrow Formulas offers branched ß1, 3 / ß 1, 6 glucans with 250 mg per serving. It helps support immune function by stimulation of NK cells, granu...
The impacts of molecular weight (MW), viscosity, and solubility of β-glucan on the rate of in vitro starch digestion and estimated glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Extracted oat starch and β-glucan suspensions with high, medium, and low-MW were
Ingredients:Beta Glucan(1-3/1-6 with 1-4 linkages) (From the yeast [Saccharomyces cervisiae] cell wall), Other Ingredients: Rice flour, gelatin (capsule), stearic acid Directions:As a dietary supplement, take 1 capsule daily with water, preferably on an empty stomach.
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Skin regenerating beta glucan is blended with organic botanicals and vitamin c to create a pollution fighting moisturiser that protects skin from daily environmental stress.
Shop for Source Naturals Beta Glucan at Pick n Save. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order online for Delivery or Pickup.
Africa Beta Glucan Market analysis offers latest trends, growth prospects, top players, market size, investment opportunities, future scope to 2023
ចំណាំ: ការប្រើប្រាស់ ម៉ាហ៊ូ បេតាគ្លូខិន ១.៣/១.៦​ ​(Maho Beta glucan 1.3/1.6) ដែលជាផលិតផលតែមួយគត់ របស់ប្រទេសជប៉ុន ពិតជាពុំមានប្រតិកម្ម ការឈឺចុកចាប់អ្វីទាំងអស់ដល់រាងកាយ។ ...
CLS Technology , 22-Aug-2016 , Technical / White Paper CLS Technology Betox-93™ Oyster Mushroom derived beta 1,3/1,6 D-glucan.At 93% purity level, Betox-93™ beta glucan offers better bio-availability and effectiveness.... ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Beta-glucan Market, By Source Type (Cereals-(Oats, Barley), Fungal & Microbial-(Mushroom, Yeast and Algae) & Others-(Dates, Peas etc.)), Application (Food & Beverage, Pharmaceutical, Cosmetics and Animal Feed) and By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa) - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global beta-glucan market is expected to expand by 7.2% CAGR during 2017-2025.. Browse the full Beta-glucan Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/beta-glucan-market. Market Insights. Diets with high fibre levels are recommended through various researches as they results in reduced heart diseases & diabetes coupled with improved digestion. According to WHO, dietary fibre intake should be 25 gm. per day as worldwide recommendation. The growing concern for physiological health benefits ...
Effects of long term dietary administration of β-Glucan on the growth, survival and some blood parameters of striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae)
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EMPERORS BLEND SUPER HEALTH & LONGEVITY If you want real results, you need a real product with lab certified Beta D-Glucan levels. Our Exclusive Emperors Blend Medicinal Mushrooms: Minimum 25% Beta D-Glucans. No fillers,starch or mycelium.
Dietary Supplement Purified Beta-1,3/1,6-Glucan Beta-glucan is a complex polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules extracted and purified from the cell wall of common bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Beta-glucan is used to maintain or stimulate
Dectin-1 & Mincle Agonists Dectin-1 is a specific receptor of beta-glucans, which are glucose polymers found in the cell walls of fungi, including the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. All Dectin-1 ligands are tested for Dectin-1 stimulation using Raw-Blue reporter cells. Mincle
Source Naturals Beta-Glucan 1,3/1,6 250mg 60 tablet Beta -glucan is a complex polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules extracted and purified from t...
We prospectively investigated whether early-life exposure to endotoxins, (1,3)-β-d-glucan and EPS, measured in settled dust from living rooms, plays a role in asthma and atopy development in children up to 10 years of age using data from three European birth cohorts. The birth cohort samples comprised children living in predominantly (sub)-urban areas. The results of our analysis are inconsistent; both positive and negative associations were observed. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is among only a few that have prospectively investigated associations between early exposure to bio-contaminants and respiratory and allergic health outcomes during later childhood, using data which covers different geographical regions in Europe.. Currently, the long-term effects of early exposure to bio-contaminants in relation to health and allergy development at later ages are under investigated, especially for populations living in (sub)-urban environments. Only a few studies can be considered ...
Fermented Mushroom Complex boosts your immune function using beta-glucans and other bio-active compounds from different kinds of organic mushroom.*
RAW Meal goes beyond organic by providing live probiotics and enzymes, vitamins and minerals, as well as nutrients including beta-glucans, SOD, glutathione and CoQ10.It also contains 26 superfoods from RAW organic seeds, sprouts and greens, 34 grams of protein, 9-16 grams of fiber (depending on flavor) and a healthy 2.5 grams of fat making it an excellent choice for "weight conscious" individuals. Just as important is whats NOT included in RAW Meal. It is gluten-free, dairy-free and lactose-free. It has no fillers, no synthetic nutrients, no artificial flavours or sweeteners and no preservatives. Our staff and our customers love it!. Raw Protein - If you are interested in Raw Meal but are looking for a protein shake instead of a meal, try Raw Protein! It has the same great quality as the raw meal but focuses on protein support. Its great pre or post workout, or as a supplement to a low protein meal.. Vega Sport - For the athletic among us, the Vega sport line is a lovely addition to a healthy ...
One precursor, three apolipoproteins: The relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. 1841:1700-1708. 2014 ...
Non-Commercial Beta Glucan Research and History, Plus How to Compare Glucans Research Indexed by Health Condition such as Cancer, Infection, Fungus, etc. Be Educated to Differentiate by Knowledge Beta Glucan Abilitiy to Potentiate the Immune Response
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Here you will find high quality raw materials and end-products for the pharmaceutical and food-health industries, as follows: BREWERS YEAST InterYeast® Brewers yeast is a high quality product…. Read More ...
This topic has 40 study abstracts on Beta-glucan indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of High Cholesterol, Hypercholesterolemia, and Cholesterol: LDL/HDL ratio
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C10. Oat β-Glucan - Liquid-VITAL-CHEM ZHUHAI CO., LTD.-Oats are rich in glucan, obtained with advanced bio-extraction and separation techniques from the oat β-polysaccharides. Oat β-glucan can stimulate macrophages, activation of the immune system, resulting in promotion of wound-healing cytokines to protect the cells.It is a good candidate to prevent skin aging process.
β-glucan induced mRNA expression of cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were exposed to β-glucan at various concentrations, or LPS. After an 8 h
The picture is a little blurry, but this is the receiver showing a 191 steady sugar level. The arrow is pointing to the right. The arrow gives us the trend. We can see the arrow going straight up with one or two arrows, diagonal up, steady, diagonal down, or one or two arrows straight down. The change in sugar levels between each 5 minute check determines which way this arrow is pointing. If The Superheros BG level is falling fast, his arrows will be pointing down and his Dexie will alarm. It vibrates first and then if ignored, it beeps. Each reason for alarming sounds different. It took me a few weeks to differentiate between "High BG" (above 240, we have it set at this number) and the "dropping" or "low" alarms ...
Having a cold can be awful, but a cold combined with diabetes is even worse. It messes with your sugar levels making them difficult to manage. Blood glucose levels can become extremely high. These high BG levels are due to a release of stress hormone which occurs when the body is fighting an illness. Glucose…
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Taylor PR, Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Gordon S (2004). "The role of SIGNR1 and the beta-glucan receptor ( ... Willment JA, Marshall AS, Reid DM, Williams DL, Wong SY, Gordon S, Brown GD (2005). "The human beta-glucan receptor is widely ... Taylor PR, Brown GD, Reid DM, Willment JA, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S, Wong SY (2002). "The beta-glucan receptor, dectin-1, ... A new receptor for beta-glucans". Nature. 413 (6851): 36-7. doi:10.1038/35092620. PMID 11544516. Willment JA, Gordon S, Brown ...
Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, oatrim, or rolled oats (3 grams per day) ... 3 g or more per day of beta-glucan soluble fiber from either whole oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley ... Some viscous fibers may also be partially or fully fermented within the intestinal tract (guar gum, beta-glucan, glucomannan ... Beta-glucan from whole grain or dry-milled barley (3 grams per day) ...
... beta 1.3-glucans are complex glucose homopolymers binding together in a beta-1,3 configuration. The following are beta glucans ... 2004). "Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance ... Polyglucan's are a source of beta-glucans. Structurally, ... 3 Beta-D-Glucan Detection in non-HIV Immunocompromised ... 2005). "Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3)β-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans". ...
"Beta 1,3 glucan synthase catalytic subunit, UniProtKB/TrEMBL Q7D3X8 (Q7D3X8_AGRT5)". Ruffing AM, Chen RR (February 2012). " ... Curdlan is a linear beta-1,3-glucan, a high-molecular-weight polymer of glucose. Curdlan consists of β-(1,3)-linked glucose ... Karnezis T, Epa VC, Stone BA, Stanisich VA (2003). "Topological characterization of an inner membrane (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan ( ... McIntosh M, Stone BA, Stanisich VA (2005). "Curdlan and other bacterial (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 68 ...
Rop O, Mlcek J, Jurikova T (2009). "Beta-glucans in higher fungi and their health effects". Nutrition Reviews. 67 (11): 624-31 ... an effect linked to their content of beta-glucans. Oyster mushrooms produce the cholesterol lowering drug lovastatin.[citation ...
... is a β-1,3 beta-glucan with β-1,6 branching. Schizophyllan is also known as sizofiran. Schizophyllan has a ... With its classification as a beta-glucan, schizophyllan is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the United States FDA. While ... Studies have validated that 10 mg (or less) of a high quality, adequately processed chemically similar beta-glucan is a ... Stuyven, E (2010). "Oral administration of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan to dogs temporally changes total and antigen-specific IgA and ...
Oat products also contain beta-glucan. Muesli Oat milk Oat bran Oatcake Oatmeal Porridge "Types of Oats". The Whole Grain ...
Zorreguieta, A.; Ugalde, R.A.; Leloir, L.F. (January 1985). "An intermediate in cyclic beta 1-2 glucan biosynthesis". Biochem. ...
3-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex in susceptible fungi to disturb fungal cell glucan synthesis. Beta-glucan destruction ... Beta glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross-linked with other fungal cell wall components (The bacterial equivalent ... In vitro and mouse models show echinocandins may also enhance host immune responses by exposing highly antigenic beta-glucan ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Douglas, CM (2001). "Fungal beta(1,3)-D-glucan synthesis". Med Mycol. 39 (Suppl ...
Beta glucan. *Disodium wheat germamido PEG-2-sulfosuccinate. *Fermented grain extract. *AMP-Isostearoyl ...
Beta-glucan Chitin fungi includes other edible mushrooms. Lentinan fruit body of shiitake (Lentinula edodes mycelium (LEM)) and ... beta Sitosterol avocado, rice bran, wheat germ, corn oils, fennel, peanuts, soybeans, hawthorn, basil, buckwheat. gamma ...
... and Biology of 1-3 Beta Glucans and Related Polysaccharides. Academic Press. p. 408. ISBN 9780080920542. Retrieved 12 June 2017 ... β-glucan Cellulose Chitin Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Stone, Bruce A. (2009). Chemistry, Biochemistry, ...
Lentinex is a beta-glucan formulation containing lentinan which is marketed as a novel food in the EU. Medicinal mushrooms ... Lentinan is a β-1,3 beta-glucan with β-1,6 branching. It has a molecular weight of 500,000 Da and specific rotation of +14-22 ... July 2009). "Efficacy of Orally Administered Superfine Dispersed Lentinan (β-1,3-Glucan) for the Treatment of Advanced ... 2009). "Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (β-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". ...
3 linkages or beta-1, 4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. ... Oat beta-glucan is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of ... Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in ... In comparison, the indigestible polysaccharide cellulose is also a beta-glucan, but is not soluble because of its (1→4)-beta-D- ...
... evidence for beta-1,6-glucan synthesis inhibition by caspofungin". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 50 (9): 3160-1. doi: ... Fungi are unusual among the eukaryotes in having a cell wall that, in addition to glucans (e.g., β-1,3-glucan) and other ... The fungal cell wall is composed of glucans and chitin; while glucans are also found in plants and chitin in the exoskeleton of ...
These include beta-glucan (β-glucan) and acetylated α-glucan. AHCC is used in Japan as a supplement. It is available to the ... Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an alpha-glucan (=starch) rich nutritional supplement produced from the mycelia of ...
Kim YW, Kim KH, Choi HJ, Lee DS (2005). "Anti-diabetic activity of beta-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed ... Hong L, Xun M, Wutong W (2007). "Anti-diabetic effect of an alpha-glucan from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa) on KK-Ay ...
This species can trigger asthmatic reactions due to the presence of allergens and beta-glucans on its spore surface. In mice, ... "Surface availability of beta-glucans is critical determinant of host immune response to Cladosporium cladosporioides". Journal ...
Rice bran also contains a high level of dietary fibres (beta-glucan, pectin and gum). In addition, it also contains ferulic ... gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol; all these constituents may contribute to the lowering of the plasma levels of the various ...
In addition to beta glucans, the mushroom's effect on the immune system is believed to be due to other polysaccharides, such as ... Because Agaricus subrufescens contains a high level of beta glucans, compounds known for stimulating the immune system, the ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb10433.x. Hetland, Geir; Sandven, P. (2002). "beta-1,3-Glucan reduces growth of Mycobacterium ... beta}-1,3-D-Glucan and Other Immunomodulators in Murine Cells". Cancer Research. 45 (4): 1496-501. PMID 3156669. Amino, M; ...
The soluble fiber portion contains the richest source of beta-glucans compared to any other grain; these can aid immune ...
Formation of beta-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and beta-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138 (2): 620 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-glucose:1,4-beta-D-glucan 4-beta-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common ... 4-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GDP-glucose and (1,4-beta-D-glucosyl)n, whereas its two ... 4-beta-glucan glucosyltransferase, and guanosine diphosphoglucose-cellulose glucosyltransferase. This enzyme participates in ...
... belongs to a group of glucose polymers commonly called beta-glucans demonstrating biological response modifier ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Bergendiova, K; Tibenska, E, Majtan, J (2011-01-20). "Pleuran (β-glucan from ... Bobovčák, M; Kuniaková, R, Gabriž, J, Majtán, J (December 2010). "Effect of Pleuran (β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) ... doi:10.1016/0144-8617(94)90019-1. Di Luzio, NR (1985). "Update on the immunomodulating activities of glucans". Springer ...
"A circularly permuted alpha-amylase-type alpha/beta-barrel structure in glucan-synthesizing glucosyltransferases". FEBS Letters ... This glucose is added to a growing glucan chain. Glucansucrase uses the energy released from bond cleavage to drive glucan ... These extracellular homopolysaccharides are called α-glucan polymers. Glucansucrase enzymes can synthesize a variety of glucans ... Glucan polymers stick to teeth in the human mouth and cause tooth decay. There is hope to make dental caries a thing of the ...
Other dietary fibers also fit the definition of prebiotics, such as resistant starch, pectin, beta-glucans, and ... "Barley β-Glucans-Containing Food Enhances Probiotic Performances of Beneficial Bacteria". International Journal of Molecular ...
1,3-Beta-glucan synthase. *Ceramide glucosyltransferase. *N-glycosyltransferase. Galactosyl-. *Lactose synthase ...
1,3-Beta-glucan synthase is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi. It serves as a ... 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34.) also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer ... This is the glycosyltransferase 48 family, which consists of various 1,3-beta-glucan synthase components including Gls1, Gls2, ... UDP-glucose + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N) = UDP + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N+1). ...
... yeast beta-glucans is grossly similar to the background intake of beta-glucans from other dietary sources. Data provided on ( ... yeast beta-glucans is not higher than the risk from other products containing bakers yeast. Beta-glucans from other sources ... Yeast beta-glucans consists of complex, high molecular mass polysaccharides derived from the cell wall of bakers yeast ... The applicant intends to market yeast beta-glucans in food supplements at dose levels of up to 375 mg per day and in foods ...
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to beta glucans and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol ...
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Mushroom beta-glucans are linked by 1,3 glycosidic bonds with 1,6 branches.[citation needed] β-Glucans found in the cell walls ... Each type of beta-glucan comprises a different molecular backbone, level of branching, and molecular weight which affects its ... 1995). "Plasma (13)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes". Lancet. 345 ( ...
This family consists of the beta-glucan synthesis-associated proteins KRE6 and SKN1. Beta1,6-Glucan is a key component of the ... Beta-glucan synthesis-associated, SKN1 (IPR005629). Short name: SKN1 Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Concanavalin A-like ... It has been postulated that the synthesis of beta1,6-glucan begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the formation of protein- ... Localization of synthesis of beta1,6-glucan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. J. Bacteriol. 181 7414-20 1999 ...
The use of beta-13D glucan as a supplement is an exciting prospect as yeast-derived beta glucans are noted for their ability to ... Both Epicor and Beta-13D Glucan are yeast extracts promoted as immune system enhancers. However, Beta-13D Glucan has an ... Effects of Beta-13D Glucan. Phagocytosis increases after consumption of beta-13D glucan. Additionally, the number of phagocytes ... What Is Beta-13D Glucan?. This compound is found in the cell wall of bakers yeast. Its commercial form is a highly purified ...
Topic: Health Related: barley, beta glucan, cholesterol, flax seeds, heart disease, heart smart, oats, psyllium, soluble fiber ... Topic: Health Related: antioxidant, beta glucan, fall, green tea, immune booster, mushrooms, probiotics, seafood, vitamin c, ... Topic: Cooking, Health Related: antioxidant, beta glucan, crimini, grocery aisle, healthy every month, mushrooms, ... Numerous studies showed that a diet high in beta-glucan from oats help … [Read more...] about Oats Benefit High Cholesterol and ...
1160/2011 of the Commission, foodstuffs through which 3 g/day of oat beta-glucan are consumed (1 g of oat beta-glucan per ... Recently, the wound healing effectiveness of both yeast and oat beta-glucan were tested on carp. After 14 days, beta-glucan ... and more recently in low molecular weight oat beta-glucans, but high molecular weight oat beta-glucans are hindered by their ... "A critical review on production and industrial applications of beta-glucans". Food Hydrocolloids. "CP Oat Beta Glucan - Oat ...
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Shop Solgar Beta Glucans Immune Complex Capsules at Holland & Barrett. Nutritional support for your bodys natural immune ... Beta Glucans & Elderberry Immune+ Complex, containing Ester-C®, zinc and vitamin D. Nutritional support for your bodys natural ... An advanced combination including Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucans, Elderberry and Selenium, along with Ester-C®, Vitamin D3 and Zinc. ... Vitamin C (as Ester-C, calcium ascorbate), Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucans, Vegetable Capsule Shell (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose), ...
... and beta-glucan, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and beta-glucan. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, ... a beta-glucan-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.42) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + beta-glucanin ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (beta-glucan-exporting). Fath MJ, Kolter R (1993). "ABC ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + beta-glucanout The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, H2O, ...
Dietary beta-glucans lower the blood concentrations of cholesterol in animals and humans. Recent studies have uncovered ... mechanisms by which dietary beta-glucans may regulate cholesterol homeostasis. There is evidence that beta-glucans sequester ... The effects of diets enriched in beta-glucans on blood lipoprotein concentrations.. Chen J1, Huang XF. ... provide an additive effect in suppressing hepatocyte cholesterol to that produced by enhancing its depletion with beta-glucans ...
How Beta Glucan Can Help. While not an essential nutrient, beta glucans are shown to activate white blood cells, particularly ... The amounts of beta glucans in studies have ranged from about 3,000 to 15,000 mg per day. Fortunately, there are no known side ... Beta glucan is a fiber-type sugar molecule that can help control cholesterol levels. It is commonly found in bakers yeast, ... Studies indicate that beta glucans are worth considering. On your own, incorporating them into your diet shouldnt be too ...
A yeast beta glucan ingredient called Wellmune WGP and a fermented black bean extract have won novel foods approval for use in ... beta​-glucans is not higher than the risk from other products containing bakers yeast.​​Beta​-glucans from other sources have ... beta​-glucans is grossly similar to the background intake of​​beta​-glucans from other dietary sources."​ ... Beta glucan; Touchi win novel foods approval. 11-May-2011. - Last updated on 13-May-2011 at 08:00. GMT ...
Beta Glucan is a type of soluble fiber that is believed to play a role in lowering cholesterol. According to an article in the ... Beta Glucan is a type of soluble fiber that is believed to play a role in lowering cholesterol. According to an article in the ... Medicinal Food News: Beta Glucan in Oats Lowers Blood Cholesterol * Nutrition Reviews: Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Oat β- ... This is due to the high concentration of soluble fiber from beta glucan contained in oats. According to a review in the June ...
Glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.58, exo-1,3-beta-glucosidase, beta-1,3-glucan exo-hydrolase, exo (1->3)-glucanohydrolase ... 1,3-beta-glucan glucohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name 3-beta-D-glucan glucohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the ... Glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... following chemical reaction Successive hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of (1->3)-beta-D-glucans, ...
... exo-beta-1,4-glucosidase, exo-beta-1,4-glucanase, beta-1,4-beta-glucanase, exo-1,4-beta-glucanase, and 1,4-beta-D-glucan ... Glucan 1,4-beta-glucosidase (or 4-beta-D-glucan glucohydrolase) is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of (1->4)-linkages ... "Enzyme-substrate relations among β-glucan hydrolases". Adv. Chem. Ser. 95: 105-138. Glucan 1,4-beta-glucosidase at the US ... 4-beta-D-glucans and related oligosaccharides, removing successive glucose units. This is one of the cellulases, enzymes ...
In a solubilized form, beta-glucan binds to a lectin site within complement receptor 3 (CR3) on leukocytes, priming the ... beta-glucan A polysaccharide isolated from the cell walls of bacteria, plants, and fungi with immunostimulant and ... Thus, the attachment of beta-glucan to CR3 of circulating leukocytes simulates leukocytes to kill iC3b-coated tumor cells in ... In a solubilized form, beta-glucan binds to a lectin site within complement receptor 3 (CR3) on leukocytes, priming the ...
In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that most of the trials investigating the effects of oat beta-glucan at ... Oat beta-glucan is sufficiently characterised. Lowering blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological ... The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of oat beta-glucan and ... Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to oat beta glucan and lowering blood cholesterol and ...
In enzymology, a 1,3-beta-D-glucan phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.97) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (1,3-beta-D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1,3-beta-D-glucan:phosphate alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common use ... Albrecht GJ; Kauss H (1971). "Purification, crystallization and properties of a beta-(1->3)-glucan phosphorylase from ... 3-beta-D-glucosyl)n and phosphate, whereas its two products are (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n-1 and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. This ...
6-beta-glucanase, beta-(1->6)-beta-D-glucanase, beta-1,6-glucanase-pustulanase, beta-1,6-glucan hydrolase, beta-1,6-glucan 6- ... 6-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name 6-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the ... beta-D-glucans This enzyme acts on lutean, pustulan and 1,6-oligo-beta-D-glucosides. Reese, E.T.; Parrish, F.W.; Mandels, M. ( ... Glucan endo-1,6-beta-glucosidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...
2-beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.71, endo-1,2-beta-glucanase, beta-D-1,2-glucanase, endo-(1->2)-beta-D-glucanase, 1,2-beta-D-glucan ... Glucan endo-1,2-beta-glucosidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Random hydrolysis of (1->2)-glucosidic linkages in (1->2)-beta-D-glucans ... is an enzyme with systematic name 2-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. ...
This topic has 40 study abstracts on Beta-glucan indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of High ... 2 Abstracts with Beta-glucan & Influenza Research. [x] Remove Focus on Influenza. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...
Beta glucan is found in mushrooms, food yeast and in fiber of some cereals. Beta glucans are natural polysaccharides, ... Beta glucan produced from fungi have the best immunomodulatory effects. The main mechanism of action of beta glucan is ... Beta-glucan absolutely does not interfere with "work" of other elements of remedy. Moreover, it promotes faster absorption of ... Several types of beta-glucan-type polysaccharides are known, differing in molecular composition and, accordingly, in degree of ...
  • Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal sources contain a mixture of beta-1,3-glucan and beta-1,6-glucan. (grandstrandmed.com)
  • Medical doctors are even using (1-3)-β-D glucan as a non-invasive way to determine if patients have been affected with fungal infections. (natural-holistic-health.com)
  • 3)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes. (nih.gov)
  • 3)-beta-D-glucan is a characteristic fungal cell-wall constituent. (nih.gov)
  • 3)-beta-D-glucan with factor G is a highly sensitive and specific test for invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes, and will substantially benefit immunocompromised patients. (nih.gov)
  • Fungal and particulate B-glucans…can be taken up by the M cells of Peyer's patches, and interact with macrophages or dendritic cells and activate systemic immune responses to overcome the fungal infection. (betaglucan.org)
  • Dectin-1 receptor systems have been incorporated as the PRRs of B-glucans in the innate immune cells of higher animal systems, which function on the front line against fungal infection, and have been exploited in cancer treatments to enhance systemic immune function. (betaglucan.org)
  • Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelog. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • 3)- beta-D-glucan (BG) detection assay (Associates of Cape Cod) was studied as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections (IFIs). (nih.gov)
  • As a member of this receptor family, dectin-1 recognizes β-glucans and carbohydrates found in fungal cell walls, some bacteria and plants, but may also recognize other unidentified molecules (endogenous ligand on T-cells and ligand on mycobacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune-modulation action of polyglucans has been known for over 40 years, after experiments showed that they stimulated the activation of macrophages through the activation of the complement system.The detection of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is also used as a means of identifying invasive or disseminated fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross-linked with other fungal cell wall components (The bacterial equivalent is peptidoglycan). (wikipedia.org)
  • It inhibits the production of beta-1,3-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fucose and mannose fragments of fungal cell wall are antagonists of VEGF-receptors Alexander Fleming led the way to the beta-lactam antibiotics with the Penicillium mold and penicillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • "The key findings of the present study demonstrate that beta-glucan may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session," ​wrote the researchers. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta Glucans is also used for strengthening immunity, fighting bacterial and viral infections and against syndroms such as Lupus and arthritis. (allhealthguides.com)
  • Yet another study showed that Beta glucans protected lymphocyte blood cells (important in the immune system) from undergoing DNA damage by free radicals. (hipetusa.com)
  • The integrity of beta-1,3-D-glucan taken orally differs from other food substances. (tldp.com)
  • Beta-1,3-glucan is not only orally effective, completely non-toxic and safe, but is one of the most potent stimulators of the immune response. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • While no distinction has been made specifically for schizophyllan, schizophyllan and other β-glucans have been orally administered safely in a variety of vertebrate species showing immunomodulation: mice, canines, horses, and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been an increased interest in the past 20 years of the nutritional benefits of beta-glucans. (breadbeckers.com)
  • While there is a wealth of clinical research supporting the safety, efficacy and benefits of beta glucans, it is crucial to use the right processing methods for extraction. (wellmune.com)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the potential prebiotic beta-glucan on the intestinal microflora, the bacterial enzyme activity (beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase) in the feces, the fecal pH and the concentration of fecal short-chain fatty acid in polypectomized patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Natures Own Immune Support Beta 1-3, 1-6 Glucan provides a role in activating the immune system, alerting the body to help defend itself against viral and bacterial invaders. (bodykind.com)
  • Both bacterial endotoxins and (1,3)-β-D-glucan are considered "Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns", or PAMPs, substances which elicit inflammatory responses in mammals One of the most time consuming aspects of endotoxin testing using LAL is pretreating samples to overcome assay inhibition and enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tertiary structure of CBDN1 is strikingly similar to that of the bacterial 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanases, as well as other sugar-binding proteins with jelly-roll folds. (wikipedia.org)
  • We provide evidence that yeast-derived beta-glucan has a beneficial effect on ileal barrier function by inhibiting stress effects on the epithelium. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "Our results provide important and novel knowledge, and highlight the possible application of yeast-derived beta-glucan in health disorders and diseases characterised by intestinal barrier dysfunction, such as CD," ​ Keita added. (nutraingredients.com)
  • According to Dr Levine, the algal-sourced beta-glucan has several advantages compared to yeast-derived products, including being a more concentrated source, with over 95% beta-glucan, compared with 60-80% in purified yeast products. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Scientific studies have shown that yeast-derived Beta-Glucan can interact with certain immune cells‚ including those present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (pureformulas.com)
  • Based on these largely theoretical findings, as well a small number of very preliminary human trials, 29-31 various beta-glucan products have been advocated for the treatment of conditions as diverse as allergic rhinitis , cancer , infections, and sepsis (overwhelming infection following major trauma, illness, or surgery). (grandstrandmed.com)
  • However, forecasting the market in terms of various beta-glucan segments, and regions is more a matter of quantifying expectations and identifying opportunities rather than rationalising them after the forecast has been completed. (sbwire.com)