Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
Dextranase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of dextran, a glucose polymer, into smaller oligosaccharides or simple sugars, primarily used in clinical settings to prevent or treat dextran-induced complications such as anaphylaxis and renal dysfunction.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.
An unbranched glucan in starch.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Glycoside Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, resulting in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and oligosaccharides into simpler sugars.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Dextrins are a group of partially degraded and digestible starches, formed through the hydrolysis of starch by heat, acids, or enzymes, consisting of shorter chain polymers of D-glucose units linked mainly by α-(1→4) and α-(1→6) glycosidic bonds.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (1/753)

It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response.  (+info)

(1-->3)-beta-D-glucan may contribute to pollen sensitivity. (2/753)

The amount of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in pollen from different plants was evaluated using the Limulus assay with a specific lysate. The amount ranged from 79 to 1800 ng/10(6) pollen. A calculation of the inhaled dose suggests that the amount of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan present during periods with a high pollen content in the air exceeds levels that cause airways inflammation.  (+info)

Promotion of neutrophil chemotaxis through differential regulation of beta 1 and beta 2 integrins. (3/753)

Migration of neutrophils requires sequential adhesive and deadhesive interactions between beta 1 and beta 2 integrins and components of the extracellular matrix. Prompted by reports that describe interaction of soluble beta-glucan with the beta 2 integrin Mac-1, a role for beta-glucan in regulation of integrin-mediated migration was investigated. Neutrophil migration in response to fMLP was assessed using an agarose overlay method with slides precoated with fibronectin (Fn) +/- beta-glucan. On Fn, random migration in excess of directed migration was observed. In contrast, migration on Fn + beta-glucan was directional, with marked diminution of random migration. This conversion of random to directed migration was seen neither when Fn was supplemented with alternative polysaccharides nor when beta-glucan was applied to other components of the extracellular matrix. This effect of beta-glucan was shown to be cation dependent and to be effected by Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides consistent with an integrin-mediated event. mAb inhibition studies demonstrate that beta-glucan effects this shift toward directed migration through suppression of migration mediated by Mac-1 and very late Ag 5 and enhancement of very late Ag 3-mediated migration. Adhesion assays suggest that the prochemotactic influence of beta-glucan is due, in part but not entirely, to modulation of PMN adhesion to Fn. In summary, these data support a novel role for beta-glucan in regulation of beta 1- and beta 2-mediated neutrophil migration on Fn.  (+info)

Airways inflammation among workers in a paper industry. (4/753)

Exposure to organic dusts may cause airways inflammation in a large proportion of exposed persons. Most studies have relied on questionnaires and spirometry for diagnosis. To assess the possibility of determining the presence of inflammation using clinical diagnostic procedures, a study was undertaken among workers in a paper industry. Participants were 83 workers and 44 controls. Airborne endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan levels at the worksites were determined. The effects of this exposure were evaluated using a questionnaire, spirometry and measurements of airway responsiveness (methacholine) and levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum. The workers had a decreased baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and an increased airway responsiveness compared with controls. The concentrations of ECP and MPO were elevated compared with controls. There was a relation between exposure to endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and airway responsiveness as well as ECP levels, when controlling for age, sex, smoking habits, atopy and asthma. The results suggest an increased prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms, and an increased airway responsiveness among exposed workers. There was also a relationship between the serum concentration of eosinophil cationic protein and airway responsiveness. Taken together, the results suggest the presence of airways inflammation in the workers.  (+info)

[Fungal infection in patients with serious disease. Risk analysis of fungal infection]. (5/753)

BACKGROUND: Candidemia is still a major source of high morbidity and mortality in severely disease patients. However, the etiology and risk factor is still unknown. PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk factor of fungal infection in intensive care patients. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 505 patients who stayed in the intensive care unit of the Critical Care Center, Kyorin University more than 10 days between May 1, 1997 to June 31, 1998 were studied. They were divided into 7 groups: 1) trauma (injury severity score<10), 2) burn (burn index<10), 3) cerebro-vascular disease (unconsciousness15), were in a coma, and had severe injury of lung parenchyme with chest AIS 3 or higher. In these serious patients, it is necessary to make a rapid diagnosis and treatment based on the surveillance culture and serological examination of sputum and urine for occult fungal infection.  (+info)

Cyclic organization of the carbohydrate metabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti. (6/753)

The pathways of polysaccharide biosynthesis were investigated in cells of Sinorhizobium meliloti (strain Su47) using a stable isotope approach. The isotopic labeling of the periplasmic beta-1,2-glucans synthesized from glucose labeled at various positions evidenced the involvement of catabolic pathways, namely the pentose-phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff pathways, into the early steps of polysaccharide synthesis. The exopolysaccharides produced at the same time had a labeling pattern similar to that of the beta-glucans, indicating similar early steps for both polysaccharides. The results emphasized a cyclic organization of the carbohydrate metabolism in S. meliloti, in which the carbons of the initial hexose were allowed to re-enter the catabolic pathways many times. The metabolic incidences of such metabolic topology are discussed.  (+info)

Effect of administration of oat beta-glucan on immune parameters of healthy and immunosuppressed beef steers. (7/753)

In order to assess the effect of oat beta-glucan (ObetaG) administration on immune parameters of beef steers, 3 experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, the in vitro effect of ObetaG on the proliferation of blood lymphocytes, with or without the presence of dexamethasone (DXM), was evaluated. In experiment 2, groups of 12 healthy steers were administered ObetaG or saline solution and immunized with ovalbumin (OVA). Immune parameters studied included IgG antibody levels to OVA, proliferation responses of blood lymphocytes to OVA, and blood leukocyte differential cell counts. For experiment 3, groups of 10 steers were treated with ObetaG and DXM, DXM only, or saline solution, and immunized with OVA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Serum antibody responses to OVA and KLH, serum IgG concentration levels, blastogenic responses of blood lymphocytes to OVA and KLH, differential blood leukocyte numbers, and iron and zinc concentration in serum were tested to evaluate the effect of ObetaG to overcome immunosuppression. The in vitro treatment of naive blood lymphocytes with ObetaG did not increase their ability to proliferate; however, when ObetaG was added to cultures of DXM-treated lymphocytes, a significant (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) reversion of the immunosuppressive effect of DXM occurred. Administration of ObetaG to clinically healthy steers did not induce significant changes on any of the immune parameters studied. The administration of ObetaG to DXM-treated steers provoked, on Day 25, a significant increase in IgG anti-OVA (P < 0.01) and anti-KLH (P < 0.05) responses vs the DXM only group. On Day 25, the specific proliferation responses of lymphocytes, to both OVA and KLH, were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in ObetaG+DXM group compared to DXM group. On Day 4, a significant increase in the number of leukocytes (P < 0.01) and neutrophils (P < 0.001), and a significant decrease in the number of monocytes (P < 0.05) were observed in the group treated with DXM only compared to ObetaG+DXM group. No significant differences were observed in iron and zinc concentration between ObetaG+DXM and DXM groups. These results indicated that ObetaG did not influence immune responses of naive cells in vitro or of healthy steers in vivo; however, when cells or animals were treated with DXM, ObetaG significantly restored some of the specific and non-specific immune parameters studied.  (+info)

Clinical evaluation of diagnostic methods using plasma and/or serum for three mycoses: aspergillosis, candidosis, and pneumocystosis. (8/753)

Clinical evaluation was retrospectively made of the results of serological diagnostic methods using plasma and/or sera of patients for the diagnosis of aspergillosis, candidosis, and pneumocystosis. Specimens were drawn from 8 patients with invasive aspergillosis, 3 with aspergilloma, 9 with candidosis, 4 with pneumocystosis, and 15 with no fungal infections. In invasive aspergillosis, the sensitivities of the (1-3)-beta-D-glucan measurement test using chromogenic and turbidimetric methods were 78.6% and 82.1%, with specificities of 75% and 87.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Pastorex Aspergillus test for invasive aspergillosis was 16.7%, with a specificity of 92.3%. In candidosis, the sensitivities of the (1-3)-bata-D-glucan test using the above two methods were 84.2% and 100%, with specificities of 75% and 87.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the CAND-TEC test and the Pastorex Candida test for candidosis were 68.8% and 16.7%, with specificities of 57.1% and 100%, respectively. These results indicate that the (1-3)-bata-D-glucan measurement methods are more reliable in clinical application than the other antigen detection methods, but they still lack efficiency in differentiating fungal infections such as aspergillosis, candidosis and pneumocystosis. For a more exact diagnosis of systemic fungal infections, detailed studies on the clinical symptoms are considered essential.  (+info)

Glucans are polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are made up of long chains of glucose molecules. They can be found in the cell walls of certain plants, fungi, and bacteria. In medicine, beta-glucans derived from yeast or mushrooms have been studied for their potential immune-enhancing effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their role and effectiveness in human health.

Beta-glucans are a type of complex carbohydrate known as polysaccharides, which are found in the cell walls of certain cereals, bacteria, and fungi, including baker's yeast, mushrooms, and algae. They consist of long chains of glucose molecules linked together by beta-glycosidic bonds.

Beta-glucans have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as boosting the immune system, reducing cholesterol levels, and improving gut health. They are believed to work by interacting with immune cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, and enhancing their ability to recognize and destroy foreign invaders like bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells.

Beta-glucans are available in supplement form and are also found in various functional foods and beverages, such as baked goods, cereals, and sports drinks. However, it is important to note that the effectiveness of beta-glucans for these health benefits may vary depending on the source, dose, and individual's health status. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before taking any dietary supplements or making significant changes to your diet.

Dextranase is an enzyme that breaks down dextran, a type of complex sugar (polysaccharide) consisting of many glucose molecules linked together in a chain. Dextran is produced by certain bacteria and can be found in some foods, as well as in the body during infections or after surgery. Dextranase is used medically to help prevent or treat complications associated with dextran, such as blockages in blood vessels caused by the accumulation of dextran molecules. It may also be used in research and industry for various purposes, including the production of clarified fruit juices and wine.

Glucosyltransferases (GTs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glucose molecule from an activated donor to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, cell wall synthesis, and protein glycosylation. In some cases, GTs can also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by facilitating the attachment of bacteria to host tissues through the formation of glucans, which are polymers of glucose molecules.

GTs can be classified into several families based on their sequence similarities and catalytic mechanisms. The donor substrates for GTs are typically activated sugars such as UDP-glucose, TDP-glucose, or GDP-glucose, which serve as the source of the glucose moiety that is transferred to the acceptor molecule. The acceptor can be a wide range of molecules, including other sugars, proteins, lipids, or small molecules.

In the context of human health and disease, GTs have been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, inflammation, and microbial infections. For example, some GTs can modify proteins on the surface of cancer cells, leading to increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Additionally, GTs can contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics by modifying the structure of bacterial cell walls or by producing biofilms that protect bacteria from host immune responses and antimicrobial agents.

Overall, Glucosyltransferases are essential enzymes involved in various biological processes, and their dysregulation has been associated with several human diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of GTs is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these enzymes and treat related pathological conditions.

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is a member of the interleukin-1 cytokine family and is primarily produced by activated macrophages in response to inflammatory stimuli. It is a crucial mediator of the innate immune response and plays a key role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. IL-1β is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects by binding to the interleukin-1 receptor, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various transcription factors and the expression of target genes.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glycosyl links in glucans, which are polysaccharides composed of D-glucose units joined by beta-linkages. This enzyme specifically cleaves internal beta-1,3 bonds, resulting in the production of shorter glucan chains with reducing and non-reducing ends.

Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and higher plants. It has attracted significant interest in biotechnological applications due to its potential role in the degradation of cell walls in pathogenic fungi and its ability to generate bioactive glucooligosaccharides with potential health benefits.

In medical contexts, Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase has been studied for its potential role in the treatment of fungal infections, as well as its diagnostic value in detecting and measuring specific types of glucans in biological samples.

The dental pellicle is a thin, acid-resistant salivary film that naturally forms on the surface of teeth. It begins to form within minutes after cleaning and is fully formed in about 2 hours. The pellicle is composed mainly of glycoproteins and helps protect the tooth enamel by acting as a barrier against acids and enzymes found in saliva and food, reducing the risk of dental erosion and caries. It also serves as a conditioning film that facilitates bacterial adhesion, which can lead to plaque formation if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices like brushing and flossing.

Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is found on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body and is involved in presenting intracellular peptides to T-cells for immune surveillance.

β2M is produced at a relatively constant rate by cells throughout the body and is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, most of the filtrated β2M is reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubules of the nephrons. However, when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, as in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubules becomes overwhelmed, leading to increased levels of β2M in the blood and its subsequent appearance in the urine.

Elevated serum and urinary β2M levels have been associated with various clinical conditions, such as CKD, multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases. Measuring β2M concentrations can provide valuable information for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes in these contexts.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that include three distinct subclasses: β1, β2, and β3. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and play important roles in various physiological functions, including cardiovascular regulation, bronchodilation, lipolysis, and glucose metabolism.

β1-adrenergic receptors are primarily located in the heart and regulate cardiac contractility, chronotropy (heart rate), and relaxation. β2-adrenergic receptors are found in various tissues, including the lungs, vascular smooth muscle, liver, and skeletal muscle. They mediate bronchodilation, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. β3-adrenergic receptors are mainly expressed in adipose tissue, where they stimulate lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Agonists of β-adrenergic receptors include catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, as well as synthetic drugs such as dobutamine (a β1-selective agonist) and albuterol (a non-selective β2-agonist). Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors are commonly used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and asthma. Examples of β-blockers include metoprolol (a β1-selective antagonist) and carvedilol (a non-selective β-blocker with additional α1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity).

Integrin β3 is a subunit of certain integrin heterodimers, which are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Integrin β3 combines with either integrin αv (to form the integrin αvβ3) or integrin αIIb (to form the integrin αIIbβ3). These integrins are involved in various cellular processes, including platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis.

Integrin αIIbβ3 is primarily expressed on platelets and mediates platelet aggregation by binding to fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive proteins in the ECM. Integrin αvβ3 is widely expressed in various cell types and participates in diverse functions such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It binds to a variety of ECM proteins, including fibronectin, vitronectin, and osteopontin, as well as to soluble ligands like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

Dysregulation of integrin β3 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, tumor metastasis, and inflammatory diseases.

Amylopectin is a type of complex carbohydrate molecule known as a polysaccharide. It is a component of starch, which is found in plants and is a major source of energy for both humans and other animals. Amylopectin is made up of long chains of glucose molecules that are branched together in a bush-like structure.

Amylopectin is composed of two types of glucose chain branches: outer chains, which are made up of shorter, highly branched chains of glucose molecules; and inner chains, which are made up of longer, less branched chains. The branching pattern of amylopectin allows it to be digested and absorbed more slowly than other types of carbohydrates, such as simple sugars. This slower digestion and absorption can help to regulate blood sugar levels and provide sustained energy.

Amylopectin is found in a variety of plant-based foods, including grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. It is an important source of calories and energy for humans and other animals that consume these types of plants as part of their diet.

The Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System, also known as glycogen debranching enzyme or Amy-1, is a crucial enzyme complex in human biochemistry. It plays an essential role in the metabolism of glycogen, which is a large, branched polymer of glucose that serves as the primary form of energy storage in animals and fungi.

The Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System consists of two enzymatic activities: a transferase and an exo-glucosidase. The transferase activity transfers a segment of a branched glucose chain to another part of the same or another glycogen molecule, while the exo-glucosidase activity cleaves the remaining single glucose units from the outer branches of the glycogen molecule.

This enzyme system is responsible for removing the branched structures of glycogen, allowing the linear chains to be further degraded by other enzymes into glucose molecules that can be used for energy production or stored for later use. Defects in this enzyme complex can lead to several genetic disorders, such as Glycogen Storage Disease Type III (Cori's disease) and Type IV (Andersen's disease), which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycogen molecules in various tissues.

Isoamylase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term used to describe an enzyme. Medically, it may be relevant in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments that involve carbohydrate metabolism. Here's a general definition:

Isoamylase (EC 3.2.1.68) is a type of amylase, a group of enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, specifically starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars. Isoamylase is more precisely defined as an enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) alpha-1,6 glucosidic bonds in isomaltose, panose, and dextrins, yielding mainly isomaltose and limit dextrin. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In humans, isoamylase is involved in the digestion of starch in the small intestine, where it helps convert complex carbohydrates into glucose for energy absorption.

Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase is an enzyme that breaks down 1,3-beta-D-glucans, which are polysaccharides made up of chains of beta-D-glucose molecules linked together by 1,3-beta-glycosidic bonds. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of these glycosidic bonds, releasing individual glucose molecules or smaller oligosaccharides.

Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and higher plants. It has potential applications in biotechnology, such as in the production of biofuels and the degradation of plant material for use in animal feed. Additionally, it has been studied for its potential role in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as fungal infections, where it can help to break down the cell walls of pathogenic fungi.

Amylose is a component of starch, which is a complex carbohydrate found in plants. Amylose is a long, straight chain polymer made up of thousands of glucose molecules linked together by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. It is less abundant than the other major component of starch, amylopectin, which has branched chains due to α-1,6 glycosidic bonds.

Amylose is relatively resistant to digestion by human enzymes, making it less easily absorbed and providing a slower release of glucose into the bloodstream compared to amylopectin. This property has led to its use in some low-glycemic index foods and as a dietary supplement for people with diabetes.

In addition to its role in food, amylose has industrial applications, such as in the production of adhesives, textiles, and paper. It is also used in medical research as a material for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Carbohydrate conformation refers to the three-dimensional shape and structure of a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates, also known as sugars, can exist in various conformational states, which are determined by the rotation of their component bonds and the spatial arrangement of their functional groups.

The conformation of a carbohydrate molecule can have significant implications for its biological activity and recognition by other molecules, such as enzymes or antibodies. Factors that can influence carbohydrate conformation include the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, steric effects, and intermolecular interactions with solvent molecules or other solutes.

In some cases, the conformation of a carbohydrate may be stabilized by the formation of cyclic structures, in which the hydroxyl group at one end of the molecule forms a covalent bond with the carbonyl carbon at the other end, creating a ring structure. The most common cyclic carbohydrates are monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, which can exist in various conformational isomers known as anomers.

Understanding the conformation of carbohydrate molecules is important for elucidating their biological functions and developing strategies for targeting them with drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Glycoside hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds found in various substrates such as polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and glycoproteins. These enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars by cleaving the glycosidic linkages that connect monosaccharide units.

Glycoside hydrolases are classified based on their mechanism of action and the type of glycosidic bond they hydrolyze. The classification system is maintained by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). Each enzyme in this class is assigned a unique Enzyme Commission (EC) number, which reflects its specificity towards the substrate and the type of reaction it catalyzes.

These enzymes have various applications in different industries, including food processing, biofuel production, pulp and paper manufacturing, and biomedical research. In medicine, glycoside hydrolases are used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions, such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, a rare inherited disorder affecting the structure of glycoproteins.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling protein involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). TGF-β plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It also has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

TGF-β exists in multiple isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that are produced by many different cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. The protein is synthesized as a precursor molecule, which is cleaved to release the active TGF-β peptide. Once activated, TGF-β binds to its receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

In summary, Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Alpha-cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides made up of 6 glucose units joined together in a ring structure through alpha-(1,4) glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules, including drugs, steroids, and fatty acids. This property can enhance the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of these compounds in pharmaceutical applications. Alpha-cyclodextrins are produced from starch by enzymatic conversion using cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.

Chicory is a plant species with the scientific name Cichorium intybus. It is a perennial herb that is native to Europe and parts of Asia, but has been naturalized in many other regions of the world, including North America. Chicory is known for its blue or lavender flowers and its long, tapering leaves.

In addition to being used as an ornamental plant, chicory has a number of medicinal uses. The roots and leaves of the plant contain various compounds that have been found to have potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and diuretic properties. Chicory is also sometimes used as a coffee substitute or additive, due to the fact that it contains certain compounds that can mimic the taste of coffee.

It's important to note that while chicory has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and risks. As with any herbal remedy or supplement, it's always a good idea to talk to your doctor before using chicory, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking any medications.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Lentinan is a polysaccharide derived from the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) that has been studied for its potential immune-enhancing and anti-cancer effects. It is a beta-glucan with a complex structure, including both β-(1,3)-D-glucan and β-(1,6)-D-glucan branches.

In the medical context, lentinan is considered an immunomodulator, as it can stimulate various immune cells like macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer (NK) cells. These immune cells play crucial roles in recognizing and eliminating foreign substances, including cancer cells and pathogens.

Lentinan has been investigated for its potential therapeutic benefits in treating several types of cancer, such as gastric, colorectal, and breast cancers. However, most of the research is still preclinical or based on small-scale clinical trials, so more extensive studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety before it can be widely adopted in medical practice.

It's important to note that lentinan supplements should not replace conventional cancer treatments but may potentially be used as an adjunct therapy under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

The periplasm is a term used in the field of microbiology, specifically in reference to gram-negative bacteria. It refers to the compartment or region located between the bacterial cell's inner membrane (cytoplasmic membrane) and its outer membrane. This space contains a unique mixture of proteins, ions, and other molecules that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as nutrient uptake, waste excretion, and the maintenance of cell shape.

The periplasm is characterized by its peptidoglycan layer, which provides structural support to the bacterial cell and protects it from external pressures. This layer is thinner in gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacteria, which do not have an outer membrane and thus lack a periplasmic space.

Understanding the periplasmic region of gram-negative bacteria is essential for developing antibiotics and other therapeutic agents that can target specific cellular processes or disrupt bacterial growth and survival.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Integrin α5β1, also known as very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) or fibronectin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits: α5 and β1. This integrin is widely expressed in various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

Integrin α5β1 plays a crucial role in mediating cell-matrix adhesion by binding to the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present in the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The interaction between integrin α5β1 and fibronectin is essential for various biological processes, such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, this integrin has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including tumor progression, angiogenesis, and fibrosis.

Dextrans are a type of complex glucose polymers that are formed by the action of certain bacteria on sucrose. They are branched polysaccharides consisting of linear chains of α-1,6 linked D-glucopyranosyl units with occasional α-1,3 branches.

Dextrans have a wide range of applications in medicine and industry. In medicine, dextrans are used as plasma substitutes, volume expanders, and anticoagulants. They are also used as carriers for drugs and diagnostic agents, and in the manufacture of immunoadsorbents for the removal of toxins and pathogens from blood.

Dextrans can be derived from various bacterial sources, but the most common commercial source is Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512(F) or L. dextranicum. The molecular weight of dextrans can vary widely, ranging from a few thousand to several million Daltons, depending on the method of preparation and purification.

Dextrans are generally biocompatible and non-toxic, but they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Therefore, their use as medical products requires careful monitoring and testing for safety and efficacy.

Integrin beta4, also known as ITGB4 or CD104, is a type of integrin subunit that forms part of the integrin receptor along with an alpha subunit. Integrins are transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, signal transduction, and regulation of various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Integrin beta4 is unique among the integrin subunits because it has a large cytoplasmic domain that can interact with several intracellular signaling molecules, making it an important regulator of cell behavior. Integrin beta4 is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells.

Integrin beta4 forms heterodimers with integrin alpha6 to form the receptor for laminins, which are major components of the basement membrane. This receptor is involved in maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell migration during development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. Mutations in ITGB4 have been associated with several human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering.

Isomaltose is a type of disaccharide, which is a complex sugar consisting of two monosaccharides. It is specifically composed of two glucose molecules linked together in a way that forms a straight chain. Isomaltose can be found naturally in some foods such as honey and fermented products, and it can also be produced industrially as a sweetener.

In the medical field, isomaltose may be relevant in the context of carbohydrate metabolism disorders or in relation to certain types of diagnostic tests that measure the ability to digest and absorb specific sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in most areas of medical practice.

Integrin α6β4 is a type of cell surface receptor that is composed of two subunits, α6 and β4. It is also known as CD49f/CD104. This integrin is primarily expressed in epithelial cells and plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, and signal transduction.

Integrin α6β4 specifically binds to laminin-332 (also known as laminin-5), a component of the basement membrane, and forms a stable anchorage complex that links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. This interaction is critical for maintaining the integrity of epithelial tissues and regulating cell behavior during processes such as wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Mutations in the genes encoding integrin α6β4 have been associated with various human diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa, a group of inherited skin disorders characterized by fragile skin and blistering. Additionally, integrin α6β4 has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis, as its expression is often upregulated in tumor cells and contributes to their invasive behavior.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Integrin beta chains are a type of subunit that make up integrin receptors, which are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. These receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell signaling, migration, proliferation, and differentiation.

Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form functional heterodimeric receptors. In humans, there are 18 different alpha subunits and 8 different beta subunits that can combine to form at least 24 distinct integrin receptors. The beta chain contributes to the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin receptor, which is involved in intracellular signaling and cytoskeletal interactions.

The beta chains are characterized by a conserved cytoplasmic region called the beta-tail domain, which interacts with various adaptor proteins to mediate downstream signaling events. Additionally, some integrin beta chains have a large inserted (I) domain in their extracellular regions that is responsible for ligand binding specificity.

Examples of integrin beta chains include β1, β2, β3, β4, β5, β6, β7, and β8, each with distinct functions and roles in various tissues and cell types. Mutations or dysregulation of integrin beta chains have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, fibrosis, and developmental disorders.

East Asian traditional medicine (ETAM) refers to the traditional medical systems that have been practiced in China, Japan, Korea, and other countries in this region for centuries. The most well-known forms of ETAM are Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Kampo (Japanese traditional medicine), and Korean traditional medicine (KTM).

TCM is a comprehensive medical system that includes acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, dietary therapy, tuina (Chinese massage), and qigong (breathing exercises) among its modalities. TCM is based on the concept of balancing the flow of qi (vital energy) through a system of channels or meridians in the body.

Kampo is a Japanese adaptation of Chinese medicine that emphasizes the use of herbal formulas to treat illness and maintain health. Kampo practitioners often prescribe individualized herbal formulas based on the patient's unique pattern of symptoms, which are determined through careful diagnosis and examination.

KTM is a traditional Korean medical system that combines elements of Chinese and Japanese medicine with indigenous Korean practices. KTM includes acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, cupping, and various forms of manual therapy.

While ETAM has been practiced for centuries and has a rich cultural heritage, it is important to note that its safety and efficacy have not always been rigorously studied using modern scientific methods. As such, it is essential to consult with a qualified healthcare provider before pursuing any form of traditional medicine.

Beta 2-glycoprotein I, also known as apolipoprotein H, is a plasma protein that belongs to the family of proteins called immunoglobulin-binding proteins. It has a molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa and is composed of five domains with similar structures.

Beta 2-glycoprotein I is primarily produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it plays a role in several physiological processes, including coagulation, complement activation, and lipid metabolism. It has been identified as an autoantigen in certain autoimmune disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), where autoantibodies against beta 2-glycoprotein I can cause blood clots, miscarriages, and other complications.

In medical terminology, the definition of "beta 2-glycoprotein I" is as follows:

A plasma protein that belongs to the family of immunoglobulin-binding proteins and has a molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa. It is primarily produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it plays a role in several physiological processes, including coagulation, complement activation, and lipid metabolism. Autoantibodies against beta 2-glycoprotein I are associated with certain autoimmune disorders, such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), where they can cause blood clots, miscarriages, and other complications.

Streptococcus sobrinus is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic coccus that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. It's a type of bacteria commonly found in the oral cavity and is one of the primary causative agents of dental caries (tooth decay) along with Streptococcus mutans.

S. sobrinus has the ability to metabolize sugars and produce acid as a byproduct, which can lower the pH of the oral environment and contribute to tooth demineralization and cavity formation. This organism is often found in higher numbers in individuals with a high risk of caries and is associated with a more severe form of the disease.

It's important to note that while S. sobrinus is a significant contributor to dental caries, good oral hygiene practices, such as regular brushing and flossing, limiting sugar intake, and receiving professional dental care can help prevent the negative effects of this bacteria on oral health.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB) Mass Spectrometry is a technique used for determining the mass of ions in a sample. In FAB-MS, the sample is mixed with a matrix material and then bombarded with a beam of fast atoms, usually xenon or cesium. This bombardment leads to the formation of ions from the sample which can then be detected and measured using a mass analyzer. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the sample molecules. FAB-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large, thermally labile, or polar molecules that may not ionize well by other methods.

Integrin α4β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of two subunits, α4 and β1. It is involved in various cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, and signaling. This integrin plays a crucial role in the immune system by mediating the interaction between leukocytes (white blood cells) and the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. The activation of Integrin α4β1 allows leukocytes to roll along and then firmly adhere to the endothelium, followed by their migration into surrounding tissues, particularly during inflammation and immune responses. Additionally, Integrin α4β1 also interacts with extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and helps regulate cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation in various cell types.

Dextrins are a group of carbohydrates that are produced by the hydrolysis of starches. They are made up of shorter chains of glucose molecules than the original starch, and their molecular weight and physical properties can vary depending on the degree of hydrolysis. Dextrins are often used in food products as thickeners, stabilizers, and texturizers, and they also have applications in industry as adhesives and binders. In a medical context, dextrins may be used as a source of calories for patients who have difficulty digesting other types of carbohydrates.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Integrin α2β1, also known as very late antigen-2 (VLA-2) or laminin receptor, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α2 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α2β1 is widely expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some hematopoietic cells. It functions as a receptor for several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, and V), laminin, and fibronectin. The binding of integrin α2β1 to these ECM components mediates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival, thereby regulating various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumor progression.

In addition, integrin α2β1 has been implicated in several diseases, including fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, targeting this integrin with therapeutic strategies may provide potential benefits for treating these conditions.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that are widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the lungs, heart, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and skeletal muscle.

When β2-ARs are activated by catecholamines, they trigger a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle, increased heart rate and contractility, bronchodilation, and inhibition of insulin secretion. These effects are mediated through the activation of intracellular signaling pathways involving G proteins and second messengers such as cyclic AMP (cAMP).

β2-ARs have been a major focus of drug development for various medical conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, hypertension, and anxiety disorders. Agonists of β2-ARs, such as albuterol and salmeterol, are commonly used to treat asthma and COPD by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle and reducing airway obstruction. Antagonists of β2-ARs, such as propranolol, are used to treat hypertension, angina, and heart failure by blocking the effects of catecholamines on the heart and blood vessels.

Chitin is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, which is a derivative of glucose. It is a structural component found in the exoskeletons of arthropods such as insects and crustaceans, as well as in the cell walls of fungi and certain algae. Chitin is similar to cellulose in structure and is one of the most abundant natural biopolymers on Earth. It has a variety of industrial and biomedical applications due to its unique properties, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and adsorption capacity.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sizofiran" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It's possible that you may be referring to "sodium hyaluronate," which is also known as hyaluronan or hyaluronic acid. This is a substance naturally found in the body, particularly in the eyes, joints, and skin where it helps with lubrication and cushioning.

In a medical context, sodium hyaluronate is often used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, where it is injected into the affected joint to help reduce pain and improve mobility. It's also used in various cosmetic and skincare products due to its moisture-retaining properties.

If you meant something else by "Sizofiran," could you please provide more context or clarify? I'm here to help!

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

"Paecilomyces" is a genus of filamentous fungi that belongs to the family Aspergillaceae. These fungi are widely distributed in the environment and can be found in various habitats such as soil, decaying vegetation, and insects. Some species of Paecilomyces are known to produce secondary metabolites with potential medicinal applications, while others have been identified as opportunistic pathogens that can cause invasive infections in immunocompromised individuals.

In medical contexts, "Paecilomyces" typically refers to the species P. lilacinus and P. variotii, which are the most commonly encountered human pathogens. These fungi can cause a range of infections, including mycetoma, endocarditis, pneumonia, and disseminated infections. The diagnosis of Paecilomyces infections typically involves microscopic examination of clinical specimens and culture-based methods, while treatment usually requires the use of antifungal agents such as amphotericin B or voriconazole.

It's worth noting that "Paecilomyces" is a complex genus with many species, some of which have been reclassified or renamed in recent years. Therefore, it's important to consult up-to-date taxonomic resources when working with this group of fungi.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Uridine Diphosphate Glucose (UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar that plays a crucial role in the synthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It is formed from uridine triphosphate (UTP) and glucose-1-phosphate through the action of the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

UDP-glucose serves as a key intermediate in various biochemical pathways, including glycogen synthesis, where it donates glucose molecules to form glycogen, a large polymeric storage form of glucose found primarily in the liver and muscles. It is also involved in the biosynthesis of other carbohydrate-containing compounds such as proteoglycans and glycolipids.

Moreover, UDP-glucose is an essential substrate for the enzyme glucosyltransferase, which is responsible for adding glucose molecules to various acceptor molecules during the process of glycosylation. This post-translational modification is critical for the proper folding and functioning of many proteins.

Overall, UDP-glucose is a vital metabolic intermediate that plays a central role in carbohydrate metabolism and protein function.

Integrins are a type of cell-adhesion molecule that play a crucial role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. They are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors composed of non-covalently associated α and β subunits, which form more than 24 distinct integrin heterodimers in humans.

Integrins bind to specific ligands, such as ECM proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin), cell surface molecules, and soluble factors, through their extracellular domains. The intracellular domains of integrins interact with the cytoskeleton and various signaling proteins, allowing them to transduce signals from the ECM into the cell (outside-in signaling) and vice versa (inside-out signaling).

These molecular interactions are essential for numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of integrin function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

CD29, also known as integrin β1, is a type of cell surface protein called an integrin that forms heterodimers with various α subunits to form different integrin receptors. These integrin receptors play important roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and signaling.

CD29/integrin β1 is widely expressed on many types of cells including leukocytes, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. It can bind to several extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, and mediate cell-matrix interactions. CD29/integrin β1 also participates in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

CD29/integrin β1 can function as an antigen, which is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response. Antibodies against CD29/integrin β1 have been found in some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These antibodies can contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases by activating complement, inducing inflammation, and damaging tissues.

Therefore, CD29/integrin β1 is an important molecule in both physiological and pathological processes, and its functions as an antigen have been implicated in some autoimmune disorders.

Rhizobium is not a medical term, but rather a term used in microbiology and agriculture. It refers to a genus of gram-negative bacteria that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia, which can then be used by plants as a nutrient. These bacteria live in the root nodules of leguminous plants (such as beans, peas, and clover) and form a symbiotic relationship with them.

The host plant provides Rhizobium with carbon sources and a protected environment within the root nodule, while the bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen. This mutualistic interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining soil fertility and promoting plant growth.

While Rhizobium itself is not directly related to human health or medicine, understanding its symbiotic relationship with plants can have implications for agricultural practices, sustainable farming, and global food security.

Integrin α6β1, also known as CD49f/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α6 and β1 subunits. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and hematopoietic cells. Integrin α6β1 plays a crucial role in cell-matrix adhesion, particularly to the laminin component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This receptor is involved in various biological processes such as cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, integrin α6β1 has been implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in certain cancers.

Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) are not a medical term, but rather a type of edible mushroom that is commonly used in cooking and has been studied for potential medicinal properties. Here's a brief description:

Shiitake mushrooms are native to East Asia and are widely cultivated and consumed in many countries, including Japan, China, and Korea. They have a distinctive brown cap, a firm texture, and a rich, earthy flavor. Shiitake mushrooms contain various bioactive compounds, such as polysaccharides, terpenoids, and sterols, which are believed to contribute to their potential health benefits. Some of the reported medicinal properties include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and establish the optimal dosage and safety profiles for different applications.

It's important to note that while shiitake mushrooms can be a healthy addition to a balanced diet, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or professional advice. Always consult with a healthcare provider for any health concerns or conditions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Gamma-cyclodextrins (γ-CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides composed of seven α-D-glucopyranose units joined by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a cone-like structure with a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity that can form inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules, making them useful as drug delivery agents or in the removal of toxic substances from the body.

Compared to other cyclodextrins such as α-CDs and β-CDs, γ-CDs have a larger cavity size and can form more stable complexes with larger guest molecules. However, they are less commonly used due to their lower water solubility and higher production cost.

It is important to note that the medical use of cyclodextrins, including γ-CDs, may require approval from regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for specific indications and formulations.

Beta-1 adrenergic receptors (also known as β1-adrenergic receptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. They are activated by the catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine), which are released by the sympathetic nervous system as part of the "fight or flight" response.

When a catecholamine binds to a β1-adrenergic receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to an increase in the rate and force of heart contractions, as well as an increase in renin secretion from the kidneys. These effects help to prepare the body for physical activity by increasing blood flow to the muscles and improving the efficiency of the cardiovascular system.

In addition to their role in the regulation of cardiovascular function, β1-adrenergic receptors have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including lipolysis (the breakdown of fat), glucose metabolism, and the regulation of mood and cognition.

Dysregulation of β1-adrenergic receptor signaling has been linked to several pathological conditions, including heart failure, hypertension, and anxiety disorders. As a result, β1-adrenergic receptors are an important target for the development of therapeutics used in the treatment of these conditions.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

Cyclodextrins are cyclic, oligosaccharide structures made up of 6-8 glucose units joined together in a ring by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic guest molecules. This property allows cyclodextrins to improve the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of drugs, and they are used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. Additionally, cyclodextrins have applications in food, cosmetic, and chemical industries.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Integrin α1β1, also known as Very Late Antigen-1 (VLA-1) or CD49a/CD29, is a heterodimeric transmembrane receptor protein composed of α1 and β1 subunits. It belongs to the integrin family of adhesion molecules that play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

Integrin α1β1 is primarily expressed on various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some immune cells. This integrin binds to several ECM proteins, such as collagens (type I, II, III, IV), laminin, and fibronectin, mediating cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Additionally, α1β1 integrin has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, such as tissue repair, fibrosis, and tumor progression.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Mitosporic fungi, also known as asexual fungi or anamorphic fungi, are a group of fungi that produce mitospores (also called conidia) during their asexual reproduction. Mitospores are produced from the tip of specialized hyphae called conidiophores and are used for dispersal and survival of the fungi in various environments. These fungi do not have a sexual reproductive stage or it has not been observed, making their taxonomic classification challenging. They are commonly found in soil, decaying organic matter, and water, and some of them can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Examples of mitosporic fungi include Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species.

Cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. These enzymes are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. They play an important role in the natural decomposition process and have various industrial applications, such as in the production of biofuels, paper, and textiles.

Cellulases work by hydrolyzing the beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds between the glucose molecules that make up cellulose, breaking it down into simpler sugars like glucose. This process is known as saccharification. The specific type of cellulase enzyme determines where on the cellulose molecule it will cleave the bond.

There are three main types of cellulases: endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and beta-glucosidases. Endoglucanases randomly attack internal bonds in the amorphous regions of cellulose, creating new chain ends for exoglucanases to act on. Exoglucanases (also known as cellobiohydrolases) cleave cellobiose units from the ends of the cellulose chains, releasing cellobiose or glucose. Beta-glucosidases convert cellobiose into two molecules of glucose, which can then be further metabolized by the organism.

In summary, cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose into simpler sugars through hydrolysis. They have various industrial applications and play an essential role in natural decomposition processes.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly basic anhydrous metal hydroxide with the chemical formula NaOH. It is a white solid that is available in pellets, flakes, granules, or as a 50% saturated solution. Sodium hydroxide is produced in large quantities, primarily for the manufacture of pulp and paper, alcohols, textiles, soaps, detergents, and drain cleaners. It is used in many chemical reactions to neutralize acids and it is a strong bases that can cause severe burns and eye damage.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of several cellular processes, including glycogen metabolism, cell signaling, gene transcription, and apoptosis. It was initially discovered as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism due to its ability to phosphorylate and inhibit glycogen synthase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose.

GSK-3 exists in two isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, which share a high degree of sequence similarity and are widely expressed in various tissues. Both isoforms are constitutively active under normal conditions and are regulated through inhibitory phosphorylation by several upstream signaling pathways, such as insulin, Wnt, and Hedgehog signaling.

Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. In recent years, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel drugs to treat these conditions.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It's part of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) and is commonly found in the oral cavity of humans, residing on the surface of teeth and mucous membranes.

S. sanguis is generally considered a commensal organism; however, it can contribute to dental plaque formation and cause endocarditis, particularly in people with pre-existing heart conditions. It's important to note that there are several subspecies of S. sanguis, including S. sanguis I, II, III, and IV, which may have different characteristics and clinical implications.

Medical Definition: Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the viridans group streptococci (VGS). It is commonly found in the oral cavity and can cause endocarditis in susceptible individuals.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

C-type lectins are a family of proteins that contain one or more carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) with a characteristic pattern of conserved sequence motifs. These proteins are capable of binding to specific carbohydrate structures in a calcium-dependent manner, making them important in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, immune recognition, and initiation of inflammatory responses.

C-type lectins can be further classified into several subfamilies based on their structure and function, including selectins, collectins, and immunoglobulin-like receptors. They play a crucial role in the immune system by recognizing and binding to carbohydrate structures on the surface of pathogens, facilitating their clearance by phagocytic cells. Additionally, C-type lectins are involved in various physiological processes such as cell development, tissue repair, and cancer progression.

It is important to note that some C-type lectins can also bind to self-antigens and contribute to autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these proteins has important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

Estrogen Receptor beta (ER-β) is a protein that is encoded by the gene ESR2 in humans. It belongs to the family of nuclear receptors, which are transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to hormonal signals. ER-β is one of two main estrogen receptors, the other being Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α), and it plays an important role in mediating the effects of estrogens in various tissues, including the breast, uterus, bone, brain, and cardiovascular system.

Estrogens are steroid hormones that play a critical role in the development and maintenance of female reproductive and sexual function. They also have important functions in other tissues, such as maintaining bone density and promoting cognitive function. ER-β is widely expressed in many tissues, including those outside of the reproductive system, suggesting that it may have diverse physiological roles beyond estrogen-mediated reproduction.

ER-β has been shown to have both overlapping and distinct functions from ER-α, and its expression patterns differ between tissues. For example, in the breast, ER-β is expressed at higher levels in normal tissue compared to cancerous tissue, suggesting that it may play a protective role against breast cancer development. In contrast, in the uterus, ER-β has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects and may protect against endometrial cancer.

Overall, ER-β is an important mediator of estrogen signaling and has diverse physiological roles in various tissues. Understanding its functions and regulation may provide insights into the development of novel therapies for a range of diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Rhizobiaceae is a family of bacteria that have the ability to fix nitrogen. These bacteria are gram-negative, motile, and rod-shaped. They are commonly found in the root nodules of leguminous plants, where they form a symbiotic relationship with the plant. The bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen, while the plant provides the bacteria with carbon and a protected environment.

The most well-known genus of Rhizobiaceae is Rhizobium, which includes several species that are important for agriculture because of their ability to fix nitrogen in the root nodules of legumes. Other genera in this family include Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium.

It's worth noting that while Rhizobiaceae bacteria are generally beneficial, they can sometimes cause disease in plants under certain conditions. For example, some strains of Rhizobium can cause leaf spots on certain crops.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a cytokine that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. It is a multifunctional protein involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix production. TGF-β1 plays crucial roles in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and repair, as well as in pathological conditions such as fibrosis and cancer. It signals through a heteromeric complex of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, primarily the Smad-dependent pathway. TGF-β1 has context-dependent functions, acting as a tumor suppressor in normal and early-stage cancer cells but promoting tumor progression and metastasis in advanced cancers.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

Mannans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a heteropolysaccharide, that are found in the cell walls of certain plants, algae, and fungi. They consist of chains of mannose sugars linked together, often with other sugar molecules such as glucose or galactose.

Mannans have various biological functions, including serving as a source of energy for microorganisms that can break them down. In some cases, mannans can also play a role in the immune response and are used as a component of vaccines to stimulate an immune response.

In the context of medicine, mannans may be relevant in certain conditions such as gut dysbiosis or allergic reactions to foods containing mannans. Additionally, some research has explored the potential use of mannans as a delivery vehicle for drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Beta-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-AR) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are primarily located in the adipose tissue, where they play a role in regulating lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Activation of β3-AR stimulates the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase, which leads to the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of free fatty acids. This process is important for maintaining energy homeostasis and can be activated through exercise, cold exposure, or pharmacological means.

In addition to their role in metabolism, β3-AR have also been implicated in the regulation of cardiovascular function, bladder function, and inflammation. Selective β3-AR agonists are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Agglutination is a medical term that refers to the clumping together of particles, such as cells, bacteria, or precipitates, in a liquid medium. It most commonly occurs due to the presence of antibodies in the fluid that bind to specific antigens on the surface of the particles, causing them to adhere to one another and form visible clumps.

In clinical laboratory testing, agglutination is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of certain antibodies or antigens in a patient's sample. For example, a common application of agglutination is in blood typing, where the presence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells causes them to clump together when mixed with corresponding antibodies.

Agglutination can also occur in response to certain infectious agents, such as bacteria or viruses, that display antigens on their surface. In these cases, the agglutination reaction can help diagnose an infection and guide appropriate treatment.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

The Beta rhythm is a type of brain wave that is typically observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of awake, alert individuals. It has a frequency range of 13-30 Hz (cycles per second) and is most prominent over the frontal and central regions of the scalp. Beta activity is associated with active thinking, problem solving, and focused attention. It can be suppressed during states of relaxation, meditation, or sleep. Additionally, abnormal beta activity has been observed in certain neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and seizure disorders.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

An apoenzyme is the protein component of an enzyme that is responsible for its catalytic activity. It combines with a cofactor, which can be either an organic or inorganic non-protein molecule, to form the active enzyme. The cofactor can be a metal ion or a small organic molecule called a coenzyme.

The term "apoenzyme" is used to describe the protein portion of an enzyme after it has lost its cofactor. When the apoenzyme combines with the cofactor, the active holoenzyme is formed, which is capable of carrying out the specific biochemical reaction for which the enzyme is responsible.

In some cases, the loss of a cofactor can result in the complete loss of enzymatic activity, while in other cases, the apoenzyme may retain some residual activity. The relationship between an apoenzyme and its cofactor is specific, meaning that each cofactor typically only binds to and activates one particular type of apoenzyme.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A ligand, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein or a larger biomolecule, such as an enzyme or a receptor. This binding interaction can modify the function or activity of the target protein, either activating it or inhibiting it. Ligands can be small molecules, like hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger structures, like antibodies. The study of ligand-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes and developing drugs, as many therapeutic compounds function by binding to specific targets within the body.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

... and beta-glucan, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and beta-glucan. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, ... a beta-glucan-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.42) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + beta-glucanin ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (beta-glucan-exporting). Fath MJ, Kolter R (1993). "ABC ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + beta-glucanout The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, H2O, ...
Beta-glucans, β-glucans comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides (glucans) naturally occurring in the cell walls of ... Each type of beta-glucan comprises a different molecular backbone, level of branching, and molecular weight which affects its ... beta-Glucans at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ... 1995). "Plasma (13)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes". Lancet. 345 ( ...
1160/2011 of the Commission, foodstuffs through which 3 g/day of oat beta-glucan are consumed (1 g of oat beta-glucan per ... oat beta-glucans can achieve up to 95% extraction purity. In oats, β-glucan makes up the majority of the soluble fibre; however ... In November 2011, the EU Commission published its decision in favour of oat beta-glucans with regard to Article 14 of the EC ... Oat β-glucans are linear and linked at the 1,3 and 1,4 carbon sites. Oat β-glucans can form into a random coil structure and ...
... is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi. It serves as a ... 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34.) also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer ... The reaction catalysed is: UDP-glucose + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N) = UDP + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N+1). Echinocandin glucan ... Karnezis T, Epa VC, Stone BA, Stanisich VA (2003). "Topological characterization of an inner membrane (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan ( ...
In enzymology, a 1,3-beta-D-glucan phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.97) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (1,3-beta-D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1,3-beta-D-glucan:phosphate alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common use ... Albrecht GJ, Kauss H (1971). "Purification, crystallization and properties of a beta-(1->3)-glucan phosphorylase from ... 3-beta-D-glucosyl)n and phosphate, whereas its two products are (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n-1 and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. This ...
Glucans are noted in two forms: alpha glucans and beta glucans. Many beta-glucans are medically important. They represent a ... 3-glucan from Lentinus edodes lichenin, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan oat beta-glucan, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan pleuran, β-1,3- and β- ... 6-glucans cellulose, β-1,4-glucan chrysolaminarin, β-1,3-glucan curdlan, β-1,3-glucan laminarin, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan ... 6-glucan with α-1,3-branches floridean starch, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan glycogen, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan pullulan, α-1,4- and α ...
Taylor PR, Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Gordon S (January 2004). "The role of SIGNR1 and the beta-glucan ... Willment JA, Marshall AS, Reid DM, Williams DL, Wong SY, Gordon S, Brown GD (May 2005). "The human beta-glucan receptor is ... Taylor PR, Brown GD, Reid DM, Willment JA, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S, Wong SY (October 2002). "The beta-glucan receptor, ... Willment JA, Gordon S, Brown GD (November 2001). "Characterization of the human beta -glucan receptor and its alternatively ...
Sandle T (August 2013). "Pharmaceutical product impurities: considering beta glucans". American Pharmaceutical Review. 16 (5 ... The LAL cascade is also triggered by (1,3)-β-D-glucan, via a different Factor G. Both bacterial endotoxins and (1,3)-β-D-glucan ... Since it does not contain factor G, (1,3)-β-D-glucan will not cause false-positives. As of 2018, available evidence shows that ...
... beta 1.3-glucans are complex glucose homopolymers binding together in a beta-1,3 configuration. The following are beta glucans ... 2004). "Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance ... Polyglucan's are a source of beta-glucans. Structurally, ... 3 Beta-D-Glucan Detection in non-HIV Immunocompromised ... The detection of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan in blood is also used as a means of identifying invasive or disseminated fungal ...
beta-glucan b-glucans have an important role in food supplement while b-glucans are also promising in health-related issues, ... specifically glucan synthase. Several forms of glucan synthase from CSLF and CSLH have been identified. All of them are ... The conformation of the mixed linkage glucan chains usually contains blocks of β-(1→4) D-Glucopyranose separated by single β-(1 ... The population of β-(1→4) and β-(1→3) are about 70% and 30%. These glucans primarily consist of cellotriosyl (C18H32O16) and ...
... is a water-insoluble linear beta-1,3-glucan, a high-molecular-weight polymer of glucose. Curdlan consists of β-(1,3)- ... Karnezis T, Epa VC, Stone BA, Stanisich VA (2003). "Topological characterization of an inner membrane (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan ( ... beta-D-glucans". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 68 (2): 163-73. doi:10.1007/s00253-005-1959-5. PMID 15818477. S2CID 13123359. ... Curdlan is a neutral β-(1,3)-glucan, perhaps with a few intra- or interchain 1,6-linkages, produced as an exopolysaccharide by ...
This theory also coincides with that of other beta-glucans. High doses of schizophyllan are not the primary determinant of an ... Schizophyllan is a β-1,3 beta-glucan with β-1,6 branching. Schizophyllan is also known as sizofiran. Schizophyllan has a ... With its classification as a beta-glucan, schizophyllan is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the United States FDA. While ... Studies have validated that 10 mg (or less) of a high quality, adequately processed chemically similar beta-glucan is a ...
Beijer L, Thorn J, Rylander R (June 2002). "Effects after inhalation of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and relation to mould exposure in ... Siebers R, Parkes A, Crane J (July 2006). "Beta-(1,3)-glucan on pillows". Allergy. 61 (7): 901-2. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006. ... beta-D glucan". Archives of Toxicology. 84 (3): 205-20. doi:10.1007/s00204-009-0481-4. PMID 19904525. S2CID 27458617. Dambuza ... glucan, which can cause inflammatory responses. The authors concluded that these and related results suggest feather bedding ...
It has been found to contain anti-inflammatory beta-glucans. The mushroom has a sweet nutty flavor and should not be eaten in ... 2006). A bioactive (1→3)-, (1→4)-β-D-glucan from Collybia dryophila and other mushrooms. Mycologia. 98(2): 180-5. Index ...
Manzi P, Pizzoferrato L, (2000) Beta glucans in edible mushrooms. Food Chem 68, 315-318. Manzi P, Aguzzi A, Pizzoferrato L, ( ...
3-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex in susceptible fungi to disturb fungal cell glucan synthesis. Beta-glucan destruction ... In vitro and mouse models show echinocandins may also enhance host immune responses by exposing highly antigenic beta-glucan ... Douglas CM (2001). "Fungal beta(1,3)-D-glucan synthesis". Medical Mycology. 39 (Suppl 1): 55-66. doi:10.1080/mmy.39.1.55.66. ... β-glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross-linked with other fungal cell wall components, the fungal equivalent to ...
Beta-glucan Chitin fungi includes other edible mushrooms. Lentinan fruit body of shiitake (Lentinula edodes mycelium (LEM)) and ... beta Sitosterol avocado, rice bran, wheat germ, corn oils, fennel, peanuts, soybeans, hawthorn, basil, buckwheat. gamma ...
β-glucan Cellulose Chitin Bacic A, Fincher GB, Stone BA (2009). Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Biology of 1-3 Beta Glucans and ... The experimentally determined composition of cellulin is 39% glucan (composed of beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-linked glucose units) ... Lee, H. Y.; Aronson, J. M. (1975-03-10). "Composition of cellulin, the unique chitin-glucan granules of the fungus, Apodachlya ... Cellulin granules are composed of β-glucan and chitin. ...
Examples are beta-glucans (in oats, barley, and mushrooms) and raw guar gum. Psyllium - a soluble, viscous, nonfermented fiber ... Regular intake of soluble fibers, such as beta-glucans from oats or barley, has been established to lower blood levels of LDL ... Viscous fiber sources gaining FDA approval are: Psyllium seed husk (7 grams per day) Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, or ... Eligible sources of soluble fiber providing beta-glucan include: Oat bran Rolled oats Whole oat flour Oatrim Whole grain barley ...
3 linkages or beta-1,4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. ... Oat beta-glucan is a polysaccharide of high viscosity made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is ... Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in ... In comparison, the indigestible polysaccharide cellulose is also a beta-glucan, but is not soluble because of its (1→4)-beta-D- ...
These include beta-glucan (β-glucan) and partially acylated α-glucan. Partially acylated α-glucan, produced by the patented ... Approximately 20% of the make up of AHCC is α-glucans. Glucans are saccharides, of which some are known to have immune ... AHCC is an alpha-glucan rich nutritional supplement produced from shiitake (Lentinula edodes). The product is a subject of ...
Tsuchiya, M.; Asahi, N.; Suzuoki, F.; Ashida, M.; Matsuura, S. (September 1996). "Detection of peptidoglycan and beta-glucan ... involvement in beta-defensin-1 expression". Infection and Immunity. 73 (11): 7133-7141. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.11.7133-7141.2005. ...
This species can trigger asthmatic reactions due to the presence of allergens and beta-glucans on its spore surface. In mice, ... "Surface availability of beta-glucans is critical determinant of host immune response to Cladosporium cladosporioides". Journal ...
Daou, Cheickna; Zhang, Hui (2012-06-12). "Oat Beta-Glucan: Its Role in Health Promotion and Prevention of Diseases". ... The cholesterol-lowering effect (hypocholesterolaemia) of β-glucans derived from oat and barley (β-(1→3)(1→4)-linked D-glucans ... β-glucan, a branched (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucan with single glucose repeat branches (frequency of 18%), and a glycogen-like (1→4)(1→6 ... d-glucan type and a β-(1→3;1→6)-d-glucan produced by strains of Botryosphaeria rhodina isolated from rotting tropical fruit". ...
Glucan+1,3-beta-glucosidase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 3.2.1) ... 3-glucan exo-hydrolase, exo (1→3)-glucanohydrolase, 1,3-β-glucan glucohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name 3-β-D-glucan ... It catalyses the successive hydrolysis of β-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of (1→3)-β-D-glucans, releasing α- ... Barras DR, Stone BA (November 1969). "β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. II. Purification and properties of the β-1 ...
Glucan+1,4-beta-glucosidase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 3.2.1) ... The enzyme glucan 1,4-β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.74), also known as 4-β-D-glucan glucohydrolase, catalyses the hydrolysis of (1→4 ... 4-β-D-glucan glucohydrolase. β-glucosidase Barras DR, Moore AE, Stone BA (1969). "Enzyme-substrate relations among β-glucan ... linkages in 1,4-β-D-glucans and related oligosaccharides, removing successive glucose units. This is one of the cellulases, ...
The soluble fiber portion contains the richest source of beta-glucans compared to any other grain; these can aid immune ...
For instance, oats and barley have high amounts of beta-glucans, fruit and berries contain pectins, seeds contain gums, onions ... Common prebiotics used in food manufacturing include beta-glucan from oats, resistant starch from grains and beans, and inulin ... Other dietary fibers also fit the definition of prebiotics, such as pectin, beta-glucans, and xylooligosaccharides. The ... Arena MP, Caggianiello G, Fiocco D, Russo P, Torelli M, Spano G, Capozzi V (February 2014). "Barley β-glucans-containing food ...
3 beta-glucan with β-1,6 branching. It has a molecular weight of 500,000 Da and specific rotation of +14-22° (NaOH). An in ... July 2009). "Efficacy of Orally Administered Superfine Dispersed Lentinan (β-1,3-Glucan) for the Treatment of Advanced ... 2009). "Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (β-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". ...
Sandle, T. (2013). Pharmaceutical Product Impurities: Considering Beta Glucans, American Pharmaceutical Review, 16 (5) ... Glucans from carbohydrate chromatography matrices can also lead to false positives. Since 2003, a synthetic substitute for the ...
... and beta-glucan, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and beta-glucan. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, ... a beta-glucan-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.42) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + beta-glucanin ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (beta-glucan-exporting). Fath MJ, Kolter R (1993). "ABC ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + beta-glucanout The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, H2O, ...
Shop iHerb for beta glucan, a soluble fiber found in many plants, such as oats, wheat and barley, all of which may improve ... California Gold Nutrition, Beta Glucan 1-3D with Beta-ImmuneShield, 125 mg, 120 Veggie Capsules. ... NOW Foods, Beta-Glucans, with ImmunEnhancer, Extra Strength, 250 mg, 60 Veg Capsules. ... NOW Foods, Beta-1,3/1,6-D-Glucan, 100 mg, 90 Veg Capsules. ... Life Source Basics (WGP Beta Glucan), Immune System Activator, ...
... 01 DEC 2015 Tuesday Format: PDF file , Document type: Technical / White Paper , ... It summarizes the latest research on the scientifically substantiated effect of its active component, oat beta-glucan, on both ...
... has rejected a 13.5 health claim linking Leibers beta glucan Yestimun to defence against the common cold, but the company is ... EFSA rejects Leibers beta-glucan common cold health claim. By Oliver Nieburg 08-Apr-2013. - Last updated on 09-Apr-2013 at 12: ... The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected a 13.5 health claim linking Leibers beta glucan Yestimun to defence ...
Beta-glucan is not so under the radar that skincare brands arent using it. Everyone from REN Skincare and Vieve to Caudalie ... "Beta-glucan would be best in a serum or moisturiser so it can sit on your skin," says Cynthia, rather than being rinsed off (as ... Cynthia says that beta-glucan is shown to have intensive skin repairing and wound healing properties. If youve damaged your ... Also try the Nutrient-C Eye Cream, £90, which combines hydrating beta-glucan with highly moisturising vitamin E and caffeine, ...
As you may recall from nursery songs, Mares eat oats and Does eat oats-and so do many athletes. (FYI, the song is actually Mairzy Doats.) Questions arise about oatmeal: Is ...
Learn how a proprietary source of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, is a unique, yeast-free beta-glucan that delivers immune health ... Not all beta-glucans provide the same immune health benefit. Key Learning Objectives:. • Understand the growing consumer ... In this webcast, learn about how beta-glucans work in the immune system and how Euglena gracilis has been demonstrated to prime ... Learn how a proprietary source of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, is a unique, yeast-free beta-glucan that delivers immune health ...
Beta glucan. A naturally occurring skin component, beta glucan promotes the renewal of the skins upper layers ... sodium carboxymethyl beta-glucan, citric acid, nymphaea alba extract / nymphaea alba flower extract ...
Beta Glucans, SKU: af93, for only $43.00 USD at Shamans Market! FREE US Shipping over $75* ...
Fermented Beta Glucans When your immune system is strong, youre better able to stay healthy and enjoy life. A strong and ... Fermented Beta Glucans can help you balance and support your immune system.* Plus, it can help you build your immune defenses ... 1,3 beta-D-glucan from Euglena algae that is easily recognized by your immune system and directly interacts with key immune ... Fermented Beta Glucans can help:. *Increase IgA (Immunoglobulin A) antibodies to help protect against year- round environmental ...
The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in research presented is from various sources in varying amounts; none involving or determined by ... 6 glucan nor endorsement of the presented research studies. ... website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1 ...
A beta-glucan content of up to 56% in oats could be achieved with certain processing steps, researcher claims. Related tags ... Defatting oats for higher beta-glucan content: Study. By Kacey Culliney 15-Oct-2014. - Last updated on 16-Oct-2014 at 13:55. ... The beta-glucan enriched oat fractions developed by using a combination of processing steps could be used to develop functional ... The beta-glucan content would also enable many to make EU-approved health claims on cholesterol lowering, he added. ...
HiPet USA, medicinal mushroom beta glucan for pets Natural supplements for dogs and cats ... 2023 HiPet USA, medicinal mushroom beta glucan for pets. All Rights Reserved. ...
Beta-glucans work as humectants to keep your skin moisturized and prevent signs of aging. Click here to learn what more they ... Oat beta-glucan, mushroom beta-glucan, yeast beta-glucan are powerful natural ingredients that have gained significant ... What Are Beta-Glucans?. Beta-glucans or β-glucans are polysaccharides found in the cell walls of yeast, bacteria, fungi, ... You can use beta-glucans for your skin as creams or consume foods such as oats or barley. Beta-glucans are ideal for people ...
3-glucan is obtained from purified yeast and stimulates the immune system by contacting a specific receptor on the surface of ... Beta 1,3 Glucan. Beta-1,3-glucan is obtained from purified yeast and stimulates the immune system by contacting a specific ... the most active of which is beta-1,3-glucan from the cell wall of yeast. Medicinal mushrooms also contain beta-glucan. ... Beta 1, 3-glucan is commercially extracted and found in the common yeast. It is also found in oats and oat or rye sprouts. It ...
Muesli with 4 g oat beta-glucans lowers glucose and insulin responses after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Download Prime ... Muesli with 4 g oat beta-glucans lowers glucose and insulin responses after a bread meal in healthy subjects.. Eur J Clin Nutr ... The effect of beta-glucan on the glycemic and insulin index.. *Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects ... A total of 4 g of beta-glucans from oats seems to be a critical level for a significant decrease in glucose and insulin ...
... glucan. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... beta-D-glucans, galacto- and rhamnomannans, (1,3;1,4)-beta-D- ... Beta(1--,6)-glucan interconnects mannoprotein, beta(1--,)3-glucan, and chitin. ... glucan in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall.. *Heteronuclear NMR studies of 13C-labeled yeast cell wall beta-glucan ... the Linkage Between Chitin and Beta(1--,3)-glucan." The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 270, no. 3, 1995, pp. 1170-8. ...
How Does Beta-Glucan Help The Immune System?. We just spoke about some of the other benefits of beta-glucan, but its essential ... What Is Beta-Glucan?. In short, beta-glucan is a soluble fiber found in certain types of grains. You likely know that fiber is ... What Foods Contain Beta-Glucan?. Beta-glucan is exclusively produced by grains and mushrooms, meaning that you need to eat ... Not only does beta-glucan itself not contain any gluten, but many supplements are made with the mushroom forms of beta-glucan ...
The Harmony of Beta Glucans and Skincare. When beta glucans are incorporated into skincare goods, a synergy develops between ... Embracing the Beta Glucan Transformation. As the world grows more attuned to the advantages of organic compounds, beta glucans ... Cordyceps Extract Beta Glucan, Hericium Erinaceus Extract Beta Glucan, and Ganoderma Lucidum spore oil softgel. ... The Potency of Beta Glucans: Nurturing Health and Beauty Through Natural Extracts. Beta polysaccharides are a class of ...
Save today on Beta Glucan 1,3 1,6 100MG 30 caps from SOURCE NATURALS, VitaNet carries a large selection of SOURCE NATURALS ... Beta, Glucan, 100MG, Find more SOURCE NATURALS Beta Glucan 1,3 1,6 100MG ... Beta Glucan 1,3/1,6 is a highly potent form of beta glucan. It is purified using a process that removes the mannoprotein and ... Beta Glucan. Purified Beta Glucan 1,3/1,6 * 100 mg and 250 mg ... Beta Glucan is a unique polysaccharide derived from bakers ...
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... for the measurement and analysis of 1-3-1-4-beta-D-glucan in cereal grains milling fractions wort and beer - Buy… ... The Beta-Glucan test kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of Beta-Glucan (Mixed Linkage). ... β-Glucan (Barley; High Viscosity) P-BGOM - β-Glucan (Oat; Medium Viscosity) P-BGCFA - β-Glucan CFA Standard P-MWBGS - β-Glucan ... β-D-glucan commonly termed barley β-glucan. Barley β-glucan forms highly viscous aqueous solutions and gelatinous suspensions. ...
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  • Defatting oats creates more concentrated levels of dietary fiber, particularly beta-glucan, research suggests. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Beta-glucans or β-glucans are polysaccharides found in the cell walls of yeast, bacteria, fungi, cereals, and oats. (stylecraze.com)
  • A total of 4 g of beta-glucans from oats seems to be a critical level for a significant decrease in glucose and insulin responses in healthy people. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Determination of β-glucan in barley and oats by streamlined enzymic method: summary of collaborative study. (megazyme.com)
  • A collaborative study was conducted involving 8 laboratories (including the authors' laboratories) to validate the streamlined enzymatic method for determination of β-D-glucan in barley and oats. (megazyme.com)
  • The streamlined enzymatic method for determination of β-D-glucan in barley and oats has been adopted first action by the AOAC INTERNATIONAL. (megazyme.com)
  • Derived from broken cell walls of yeast, mushrooms, barley and oats, Beta Glucans are capable of reducing unhealthy amounts of serum cholesterol and boosting the immune system. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • Quaker Oats, the cereal manufacturer, has a wonderful website clearly explaining how the abundant beta glucan in oatmeal provides remarkable cholesterol lowering power. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • Please remember you would have to eat 32 bowls of Quaker Oats to get the same amount of beta glucan you get in one of our 200 mg capsules. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • When it pertains to improving both well-being and attraction, few natural compounds possess as much promise as Reishi Mushroom Extract Beta-D-Glucan, Cordyceps Extract Beta Glucan, Hericium Erinaceus Extract Beta Glucan, and Ganoderma Lucidum spore oil softgel . (ac-company.org)
  • The Hericium Erinaceus Extract Beta Glucan sourced from these mushrooms encompasses erinacines and hericenones, compounds that stimulate the production of nerve growth factor (NGF). (ac-company.org)
  • Nowadays we use Hericium Erinaceus Extract Beta Glucan to improve circulation and lower wide spread inflammation. (ypsielbow.com)
  • Medicinal mushrooms also contain beta-glucan. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Beta-glucan is exclusively produced by grains and mushrooms, meaning that you need to eat plenty of whole grains in order to enjoy the full benefit of this form of fiber. (agapepress.org)
  • Reishi Mushroom Extract Beta-D-Glucan, obtained from these mushrooms, is a rich source of antioxidants, polysaccharides, and triterpenes. (ac-company.org)
  • Our formula combines shiitake, maitake and chaga mushrooms, along with a patented -glucan, to help maintain a healthy, balanced immune response. (vitaminlife.com)
  • Lentinan, a type of beta glucan found in shiitake mushrooms, is believed to reduce tumor activity and lessen the side effects of cancer treatment. (zenearth.com)
  • Cordyceps Extract Beta Glucan is renowned for its immune-modulating properties. (ac-company.org)
  • Beta Glucan 1,3/1,6 is a highly potent form of beta glucan. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Insoluble form of Beta-glucan derived from the cell wall of yeast for enhanced bioavailability. (shoprightwayhealth.com)
  • There are no absolutes for determining the exact amount of Beta glucan taken to maximize and potentiate your immune system . (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Competition and advances in extraction technology have reduced the cost of products shown to contain Beta glucan to a much more accessible level. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • What Foods Contain Beta-Glucan? (agapepress.org)
  • Oat beta-glucan, mushroom beta-glucan, yeast beta-glucan are powerful natural ingredients that have gained significant attention in the beauty and cosmetics industry for their potential skincare benefits. (stylecraze.com)
  • Not only does beta-glucan itself not contain any gluten, but many supplements are made with the mushroom forms of beta-glucan instead of the grain forms, which provides extra protection for people with Celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. (agapepress.org)
  • To assess the use of global gene expression analysis for screening of candidate IS we applied lentinan, a P-glucan from the mushroom Lentinula edodes, as a model. (nofima.no)
  • Celebrity aesthetician and skincare expert Cynthia Franco explains: "Beta-glucan is a nice big molecule composed of many smaller sugar molecules called polysaccharides. (refinery29.com)
  • Beta-1,3- glucan is different from energy-storing glucose-containing polysaccharides because the connection between the glucose units is different, more specifically, it is the beta-1,3-linkage, which makes this compound so unique. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Beta polysaccharides are a class of complicated carbohydrates found in the cellular walls of fungi, plants, and grains. (ac-company.org)
  • Purity, bioavailability and potency of the beta glucans taken are key in this step. (zenearth.com)
  • Each capsule only contains 10 mg of Beta Glucan, only 5% the potency of a single capsule of Supplement Spot Maximum Beta Glucan! (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • In short, beta-glucan is a soluble fiber found in certain types of grains. (agapepress.org)
  • In the method, the flour sample is cooked to hydrate and gelatinize β-glucan, which is subsequently hydrolyzed to soluble fragments with the lichenase enzyme. (megazyme.com)
  • Patients in the intervention group received two 10-mg capsules of soluble 1-3, 1-6, D-beta glucan daily and the control group receiving placebo during 21 days, the interval between two courses of chemotherapy. (betaglucan.com)
  • The term "beta-glucan" refers to a class of soluble fibers found in many plant sources. (foundhealth.com)
  • While the well-loved polyglutamic acid and hyaluronic acid (both deeply hydrating and great for dry skin) made the list, Dr Granite said that beta-glucan is going to increase in popularity in the coming year especially. (refinery29.com)
  • It's not unusual to find skincare products which combine hyaluronic acid and beta-glucan for maximum hydration and plumping benefits. (refinery29.com)
  • Although they are often referred to as the cousins of hyaluronic acid, many consider beta-glucans a better alternative. (stylecraze.com)
  • For example, local health food stores in US and Canada often sell a highly promoted brand of Beta Glucan, where 30 capsules often retail in excess of $70! (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • As shown in many studies concerning the activity of beta-glucan as an immune stimulator and biological defense modifier, there are benefits to be obtained as an anti-aging supplement. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Glucan as stimulator of hematopoiesis in normal and gamma-irradiated mice. (betaglucan.com)
  • Beta Glucan is a powerful immune stimulator, activating the macrophages in the immune system. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • Beta-1,3-glucan is obtained from purified yeast and stimulates the immune system by contacting a specific receptor on the surface of macrophages. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Since beta glucans are often a part of bacteria and fungi, the body responds to them by activating and enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function. (sunwarrior.com)
  • After Beta(1,3)-glucans are absorbed, they begin to interact with macrophages to support immune function. (zenearth.com)
  • Beta(1,3)-glucans help support the immune system without over-stimulating it by interacting and activating macrophages and other cells in the body. (zenearth.com)
  • Beta glucan is a product derived from the cell walls of yeast, bacteria, and fungi. (pauseandoomph.com)
  • The timing and possible mechanism of formation of the chitin-glucan linkage is discussed. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Beta-Glucan test kit is suitable for the measurement and analysis of Beta-Glucan (Mixed Linkage). (megazyme.com)
  • It is a complex polysaccharide (a molecule made up of many sugar molecules) with a beta-1,3 linkage. (pauseandoomph.com)
  • The iUnik Beta Glucan Edition Skincare Set intensively moisturizes the skin, helps to keep it inside the epidermis and protects the skin from dehydration. (meliorabeautyshop.ee)
  • Beta-Glucan by Professional Formulas is a supplement that may possibly help improve immune system response and strength. (shoprightwayhealth.com)
  • While mannan or polymannose from the aloe vera plant has some macrophage activating potential, it is slight compared to that of glucan. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Scientific studies have shown that Beta-1,3/1,6-D-Glucan supports a healthy immune system through its ability to maintain and modulate several aspects of immune function, including macrophage activity and immunoglobulin production. (professionalsupplementcenter.com)
  • Compared to radiation controls, glucan-treated mice consistently exhibited a more rapid recovery of pluripotent stem cells and committed granulocyte, macrophage, and erythroid progenitor cells. (betaglucan.com)
  • Beta Glucan has been found to stimulate or modulate macrophage cells (leukocytes, or white blood cells). (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • Animal and human cell culture studies have shown that beta glucan can stimulate several aspects of immune function, such as phagocytosis and interleukin production. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Kow, CS, Ramachandram, DS & Hasan, SS 2021, ' Ingestion of beta‐glucans could stimulate longer‐lasting cellular immunity upon administration of COVID‐19 vaccines ', Journal of Food Biochemistry , vol. 45, no. 11, e13959. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Beta glucans possess potent antioxidant properties, which enable them to neutralize these hazardous molecules. (ac-company.org)
  • Due to its high antioxidant capacity, beta-glucan helps to protect the skin from oxidative processes that destroy epidermal cells, replenishes the lack of moisture and abundantly saturates the skin with moisturizing components. (meliorabeautyshop.ee)
  • In addition, elevated levels of beta-D-glucan, a biomarker of fungal infection, have been detected in the CSF of at least six patients. (cdc.gov)
  • A fungal etiology is suspected based on elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the fungal biomarker (1,3)-beta-D-glucan in at least one patient. (cdc.gov)
  • however, CSF values were notable for significantly elevated white blood cell counts and, in one patient, elevated levels of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan, a biomarker for fungal infection. (cdc.gov)
  • It's important to note that like many other nutrients, beta-glucan is often damaged or removed by heavy processing, so the less processed your grains, the more likely you are to get enough fiber. (agapepress.org)
  • Beta Glucans - Just like barley is the unsung hero of grains, beta glucans are the unsung heroes of barley. (sunwarrior.com)
  • For the measurement of 1,3:1,4-β-D-glucan in cereal grains, milling fractions, wort, beer and other food products. (megazyme.com)
  • NSC 24 Immunition NSC ImmuCleanse w/MG Beta Glucan! (nsc24.com)
  • Best Buy Online Immunition NSC 24 immunition cleanse w/MG Beta Glucan! (nsc24.com)
  • Immunition NSC CoQ10 with MG Beta Glucan! (nsc24.com)
  • Clinically Proven Immune Support, Dietary Supplement, Bakers Yeast Beta Glucan, Life Source Basics with BetaRight WGP, BetaRight WGP is a natural ingredient that human clinical research shows can safely enhance immune system function. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • Learn how a proprietary source of microalgae, Euglena gracilis, is a unique, yeast-free beta-glucan that delivers immune health results. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • In this webcast, learn about how beta-glucans work in the immune system and how Euglena gracilis has been demonstrated to prime key immune cells, resulting in reduced upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • Although derived from baker's yeast , properly extracted Beta-1, 3 glucan is a pure isolate and does not contain enough yeast proteins to cause a reaction in those allergic to yeast. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Beta Glucan is a unique polysaccharide derived from baker's yeast. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Concentrations of culturable fungi and bacteria, total fungi determined by microscopic count and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, endotoxin, and (1-->3)-B-D-glucan were determined before and after the house was treated with ClO2. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum beta-D glucan assays are nonspecific but can support the diagnosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It summarizes the latest research on the scientifically substantiated effect of its active component, oat beta-glucan, on both serum cholesterol and blood glucose reduction as well as providing regulatory guidance. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Beta-1,3-glucan is not only orally effective, completely non-toxic and safe, but is one of the most potent stimulators of the immune response. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Beta Glucan is a safe, non-toxic, and orally effective supplement for those who wish to enhance their immune system and lower cholesterol levels. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • Beta-glucan is classified as a polysaccharide (a large molecule made up of multiple sugar molecules). (zenearth.com)
  • Fibers like beta-glucan ensure that you digest your food slowly, which prevents large blood sugar spikes and regulates insulin levels better. (agapepress.org)
  • The beta-glucan enriched oat fractions developed by using a combination of processing steps could be used to develop functional foods, Sibakov said. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • In enzymology, a beta-glucan-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.42) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + beta-glucanin ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + phosphate + beta-glucanout The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, H2O, and beta-glucan, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and beta-glucan. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the best skincare products with beta-glucan? (refinery29.com)
  • No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nor endorsement of the presented research studies. (betaglucan.org)
  • Using products with beta-glucans may help keep your skin hydrated from within. (stylecraze.com)
  • In dermatology, beta-glucans are used in personal care products. (stylecraze.com)
  • Muesli enriched with 4 g of beta-glucans reduces postprandial glucose and insulin levels to a breakfast based on high glycaemic index products. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • the evidence for benefit is strong enough that the FDA has allowed a "heart healthy" label claim for food products containing substantial amounts of beta-glucan. (foundhealth.com)
  • 1 Much weaker evidence supports the potential use of certain beta-glucan products for modifying the activity of the immune system. (foundhealth.com)
  • For those with a healthy immune system following a gluten-free diet, an immune support pill with beta-glucan is a great idea, as they can't eat wheat, barley, or rye. (agapepress.org)
  • One immune-support product has been on my radar for years, and it's called Beta Glucan. (completehealthnow.com)
  • He is an immunologist and pathologist who has not only extensively researched Beta Glucan as it relates to immune function, but he has independently tested a vast number of immune-support supplements, concluding that a particular brand of Beta Glucan (Transfer Point Glucan 300) is superior to any other immune supplement on the market. (completehealthnow.com)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected a 13.5 health claim linking Leiber's beta glucan Yestimun to defence against the common cold, but the company is gearing up for another application after claiming the regulator has been inconsistent. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The beta-glucan content would also enable many to make EU-approved health claims on cholesterol lowering, he added. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Beta glucans found in ganoderma lucidum spore oil offer a natural and efficient way to support both the immune system and skin health. (ac-company.org)
  • There's some evidence that beta-glucan may offer a number of health benefits, such as stimulation of the immune system. (zenearth.com)
  • Beta glucans are believed to have several health benefits. (pauseandoomph.com)
  • Used daily, Maximum Beta Glucan is your key to optimum good health! (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • It is thought that beta-glucan reduces cholesterol levels by increasing excretion of cholesterol from the digestive tract. (foundhealth.com)
  • Beta Glucan is the only glucan found effective in preventing coronary heart disease by SIGNIFICANTLY lowering LDL blood cholesterol and increasing HDL (good) cholesterol levels. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • Yeast glucan is a kind of polysaccharid exist in the cell wall of yeast, which can fortify the immunity of human being. (comwin-china.com)
  • Orally administered marine (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan Phycarine stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity. (betaglucan.com)
  • Beta Glucan is a unique, natural substance that has been shown to support immunity. (pauseandoomph.com)
  • Maximum Beta Glucan is a natural immunity-enhancing and cholesterol-lowering supplement. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • No significant differences in airborne endotoxin and (1-->3)-B-D-glucan concentrations were measured in the house before and after ClO2 treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • This might be true, but it can be difficult to determine exactly how much beta-glucan you're actually getting from your foods, and there is also no predetermined daily requirement for this particular fiber. (agapepress.org)
  • Procedures for the measurement of starch, starch damage (gelatinised starch), resistant starch and the amylose/amylopectin content of starch, β-glucan, fructan, glucomannan and galactosyl-sucrose oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) in plant material, animal feeds and foods are described. (megazyme.com)
  • Beta-glucan, as a substance widely present in foods, is thought to have a high margin of safety. (foundhealth.com)
  • Higher beta-glucan concentrations enabled manufacturers to use less defatted oat endosperm flour in expanded snacks for the same nutritional punch as regular wholegrain oat flour, he explained. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Since the 1940s researchers have investigated the nutritional benefits of Beta Glucan. (mydiscountvitaminsonline.com)
  • Air-jet milling also showed promise in further enriching beta-glucan cell walls from protein and starch particles. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Beta-glucan is not so under the radar that skincare brands aren't using it. (refinery29.com)
  • What are the skincare benefits of beta-glucan? (refinery29.com)
  • When beta glucans are incorporated into skincare goods, a synergy develops between external care and internal energy. (ac-company.org)
  • From cleansers to serums, the inclusion of beta glucans in skincare formulations presents a comprehensive method that addresses not just surface-level concerns but also the underlying factors that contribute to skin vitality. (ac-company.org)
  • Originally, the cost for high purity Beta-1, 3 glucan was astronomical and out of the reach of most people. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Experiments with appropriate mutants showed that synthesis of the chitin combined with glucan is catalyzed by chitin synthetase 3. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thus, enhanced extracellular matrix or beta-glucan synthesis during biofilm growth might prevent antifungals, such as azoles and polyenes, from reaching biofilm cells, thus limiting their toxicity to these cells and the associated transcriptional responses. (who.int)
  • "After supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, oat beta-glucan and protein were enriched into higher concentrations than in any existing commercial dry fractionation process," ​ author Juhani Sibakov wrote. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • While the defatting step yielded the largest increase in beta-glucan content, a combination of steps - grinding, air-jet milling, air classification and separation - heightened levels further, he said. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • A beta-glucan content of up to 56% could be achieved, he added. (bakeryandsnacks.com)
  • Results: In both groups white blood cell counts decreased after 21 days of the intervention, however in the beta glucan group, WBC was less decreased non significantly than the placebo group. (betaglucan.com)
  • There are several different glucans with different levels of activity, the most active of which is beta-1,3-glucan from the cell wall of yeast . (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Effect of beta glucan on white blood cell counts and serum levels of IL-4 and IL-12 in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. (betaglucan.com)
  • Healthcare providers can consider ordering bacterial and fungal cultures of CSF fluid, as well as serum and CSF levels of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan. (cdc.gov)