All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A thyroid hormone transport protein found in serum. It binds about 75% of circulating THYROXINE and 70% of circulating TRIIODOTHYRONINE.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Immunizing agent containing IMMUNOGLOBULIN G anti-Rho(D) used for preventing Rh immunization in Rh-negative individuals exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells.
One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
A group of seed storage proteins restricted to the POACEAE family. They are rich in GLUTAMINE and PROLINE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
Specialized proteins that are preferentially expressed during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. It is used mainly in the treatment of anemias. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002), this compound may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.

Evidence for substrate-specific requirement of the splicing factor U2AF(35) and for its function after polypyrimidine tract recognition by U2AF(65). (1/222)

U2 snRNP auxiliary factor (U2AF) promotes U2 snRNP binding to pre-mRNAs and consists of two subunits of 65 and 35 kDa, U2AF(65) and U2AF(35). U2AF(65) binds to the polypyrimidine (Py) tract upstream from the 3' splice site and plays a key role in assisting U2 snRNP recruitment. It has been proposed that U2AF(35) facilitates U2AF(65) binding through a network of protein-protein interactions with other splicing factors, but the requirement and function of U2AF(35) remain controversial. Here we show that recombinant U2AF(65) is sufficient to activate the splicing of two constitutively spliced pre-mRNAs in extracts that were chromatographically depleted of U2AF. In contrast, U2AF(65), U2AF(35), and the interaction between them are required for splicing of an immunoglobulin micro; pre-RNA containing an intron with a weak Py tract and a purine-rich exonic splicing enhancer. Remarkably, splicing activation by U2AF(35) occurs without changes in U2AF(65) cross-linking to the Py tract. These results reveal substrate-specific requirements for U2AF(35) and a novel function for this factor in pre-mRNA splicing.  (+info)

Chromatin modification by DNA tracking. (2/222)

In general, the transcriptional competence of a chromatin domain is correlated with increased sensitivity to DNase I cleavage. A recent observation that actively transcribing RNA polymerase II piggybacks a histone acetyltranferase activity [Wittschieben, B., Otero, G., de Bizemont, T., Fellows, J., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Ohba, R., Li, Y., Allis, C. D., Tempst, P. & Svejstrup, J. Q. (1999) Mol. Cell 4, 123-128] implies that the state of histone acetylation, and hence the ability of chromatin to fold, can be altered by a processive mechanism. In this article, it is proposed that tracking-mediated chromatin modification could create and/or maintain an open configuration in a complete chromatin domain including both intra- and extragenic regions. This mechanism suggests a putative functional role for the extragenic transcription observed at the beta-globin and other loci in vertebrate cells.  (+info)

Globulins in protein supplements promote the development of preimplantation embryos. (3/222)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to investigate the effect of alpha- and beta-globulins contained in protein supplements on the development of preimplantation embryos. METHODS: Mouse one-cell embryos were cultured in medium supplemented with 4 mg/ml human serum albumin (HSA), 4 mg/ml HSA plus human globulins (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/ml) that consisted predominantly of alpha- and beta-globulins, or 10% Plasmanate Cutter (PC). Blastocysts developed in media supplemented with these various protein sources were stained with Hoechst 33342 to determine the number of cells. RESULTS: Supplementation with 0.4 to 1.6 mg/ml globulins or PC significantly increased the rate of blastocyst development compared with that observed with the addition of HSA. Supplementation with globulins significantly increased the hatching rate in a dose-dependent manner. The number of cells in the blastocysts was significantly increased when the embryos were cultured with 0.8 mg/ml of the globulins or PC. CONCLUSIONS: The present observations suggest that alpha- and beta-globulins in protein supplements promote embryo development and hatching.  (+info)

Influence of histochemical and immunohistochemical stains on polymerase chain reaction. (4/222)

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of DNA extracted from tissue sections can be applied to a variety of research and diagnostic protocols. To analyze selectively the specific areas of tissue, a direct microdissection of histochemically or immunohistochemically stained sections, if satisfactory for PCR, is helpful. However, the influence of various staining methods on PCR has been poorly investigated. In this study, paraffin sections of formalin-fixed lymph node samples were histochemically stained with Mayer's hematoxylin, eosin Y, methyl green, or May-Grunwald solution and immunostained for CD45 using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), DAB with cobalt ion (DAB-Co), or new fuchsin as the chromogen. In addition, unstained sections were treated with trypsin, microwave, or pressure cooker, the techniques frequently used in immunostains for antigen unmasking. DNA was extracted from each section, and the PCR efficiency in amplifying a 110 bp portion of the beta-globin gene was evaluated by two parameters: the cycle count in which the first visible band was obtained (CYCLE(min)) and the maximum amount of PCR products (CONC(max)). The hematoxylin stain showed a significantly prolonged CYCLE(min) (P < .01) and lower CONC(max) (P < .05) in comparison with unstained and untreated control sections. The May-Grunwald stain showed a prolonged CYCLE(min) (P < .01), although the CONC(max) was not significantly different from that of the control (P = .051). The eosin and methyl green stains showed no effects against PCR. In immunostains, the DAB-Co method showed a lower CONC(max) (P < .05), whereas the CYCLE(min) was not prolonged. The DAB and new fuchsin methods had no untoward effects. Antigen-unmasking treatments showed deteriorating effects on PCR. The trypsin treatment significantly prolonged the CYCLE(min) (P < .01), and the PCR amplification did not reach the "plateau" level with a maximum of 60 cycles. The PCR efficiency was worse in microwave or pressure cooker treatment, with neither CYCLE(min) nor CONC(max) being obtained. When target areas from sections for subsequent PCR amplification are microdissected, methyl green is most suitable as a dye for nuclear staining. The immunohistochemical visualization with DAB or new fuchsin yields no unfavorable effects. A successful PCR amplification may not be expected in sections that are pretreated in a microwave oven or pressure cooker.  (+info)

Suppression of metastasis by thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor. (5/222)

We developed a novel inhibitor of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), 5-chloro-6-[1-(2-iminopyrrolidinyl) methyl] uracil hydrochloride (TPI), that is about 1000-fold more active than 6-amino-5-chlorouracil, one of the most potent TP inhibitors. TPI inhibited the high chemotactic motility and basement membrane invasion of KB/TP cells, a TP-positive clone transfected with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)/TP, to the levels seen in KB/CV cells, a control clone transfected with RSV. In nude mice, oral administration of TPI suppressed not only macroscopic liver metastases of highly metastatic KB/TP cells but also the level of human beta-globin as a molecular marker of micrometastases in the livers of the mice. These findings demonstrate that TP plays a key role in the invasiveness and metastasis of TP-expressing solid tumors and suggest that TPI might be a novel antimetastatic agent for blood-borne metastasis.  (+info)

Successful application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy. (6/222)

BACKGROUND: In Italy, the autosomal recessive diseases beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia are so widespread that in some regions they can be defined as 'social diseases'. In this study, nine clinical applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) were performed for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia on seven Sicilian couples and carriers of beta-globin gene mutations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The studied mutations were: Cd39, HbS, IVS1 nt1, IVS1 nt6 and IVS1 nt110. ICSI was performed with partner's sperm on 131 out of 147 retrieved oocytes, and this resulted in 72 zygotes; 32 embryos were successfully biopsied on day 3. The biopsied blastomeres were lysed and the beta-globin alleles amplified by nested PCR. The mutation diagnosis was performed by restriction enzyme digestion and reverse dot-blot. The amplification efficacy was 97.2%. The genotype study of non-transferred and surplus embryos showed that the allele drop-out rate was 8.6%. Seventeen embryos were transferred in utero on day 4. All couples received an embryo transfer; of the four pregnancies obtained, three resulted in live births and one miscarried at 11 weeks. Prenatal diagnosis at the 11th week and miscarriage material analysis confirmed the PGD results. CONCLUSIONS: These studies represent the first successful application of PGD for beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia in Italy.  (+info)

Fluorescence PCR quantification of cyclin D1 expression. (7/222)

We have used a continuous fluorescence monitoring method to assess cyclin D1 mRNA expression in a variety of hematological and non-hematological processes. We examined 14 cell lines, 11 reactive lymphoid tissues, and 57 primary hematopoietic neoplasms including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (n = 10), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) (n = 11), acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (n = 15), follicular lymphoma (n = 6), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) (n = 3), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (n = 3), hairy cell leukemia (n = 3), Burkitt lymphoma (n = 1), Burkitt-like lymphoma (n = 4), and plasmacytoma (n = 1) for the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA using fluorescently labeled sequence-specific hybridization probes. Fluorescence (F) was plotted against cycle (C) number over 45 cycles. The log-linear portion of the F versus C graph identified a fractional cycle number for threshold fluorescence. A beta-globin mRNA transcript with equivalent amplification efficiency to that of cyclin D1 was used for assessment of RNA integrity and normalization. In general, the MCLs demonstrated substantially higher levels of cyclin D1 mRNA than the other lymphoproliferative processes. Moderately high levels of cyclin D1 mRNA were detected in one PTCL. On average, the CLL/SLL cases showed cyclin D1 mRNA levels two to three orders of magnitude lower than observed in the MCLs. Cell lines derived from non-hematopoietic neoplasms such as fibrosarcoma, small cell carcinoma, and neuroblastoma showed comparable or higher levels of cyclin D1 mRNA than the MCLs. Our results indicate that quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction is a simple, rapid, and accurate technique for assessing cyclin D1 expression, and while it is not specific, it can reliably be used in the distinction of MCL from CLL/SLL.  (+info)

Y14 and hUpf3b form an NMD-activating complex. (8/222)

Messenger RNAs with premature translation termination codons (PTCs) are degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). In mammals, PTCs are discriminated from physiological stop codons by a process thought to involve the splicing-dependent deposition of an exon junction complex (EJC), EJC-mediated recruitment of Upf3, and Upf2 binding to the N terminus of Upf3. Here, we identify a conserved domain of hUpf3b that mediates an interaction with the EJC protein Y14. Tethered function analysis shows that the Y14/hUpf3b interaction is essential for NMD, while surprisingly the interaction between hUpf3b and hUpf2 is not. Nonetheless, hUpf2 is necessary for NMD mediated by tethered Y14. RNAi-induced knockdown and Y14 repletion of siRNA-treated cells implicates Y14 in the degradation of beta-globin NS39 mRNA and demonstrates that Y14 is required for NMD induced by tethered hUpf3b. These results uncover a direct role of Y14 in NMD and suggest an unexpected hierarchy in the assembly of NMD complexes.  (+info)

Looking for Beta-globulins? Find out information about Beta-globulins. any of a large family of proteins protein, any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant... Explanation of Beta-globulins
Cytosol-binding proteins for L-thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) were studied in human liver specimens obtained at autopsy from 5 male and 2 female subjects. The liver cytosol containing 131I-T4 or T3, together with or without added stable hormones, was fractionated by Pevikon thin-layer electrophoresis at pH 8.6, 8.0, and7.4. It was demonstrated in all the specimens that besides a small amount of serum T4-binding globulin, there existed three T4-binding proteins, termed hT4-1, hT4-2 and hT4-3, with the electrophoretic mobilities of alpha2- and beta-globulins, and two T3-binding proteins, termed hT3-1 and hT3-2, with the mobilities of gamma-globulin. Binding of hormones by the cytosol proteins was pH-dependent, and a preliminary dialysis had no effect on the hormone binding. The major band of T4, hT4-2, bound more than half the tracer T4, and possessed the maximal binding capacity of 110 mug/100 ml of 33% cytosol at pH 7.4. However, it showed no apparent affinity for T3, because the ...
Abstract: Content of primary, secondary and final products of lipid peroxidation as well as the rate of the antioxidant activity were studied within various periods following thermic burns. At the same time, these patterns were estimated in vivo and in vitro after treatment with BITO preparation containing mainly alpha- and beta-globulins, ceruloplasmin and ...
A β2-microglobulin with molecular weight of 12,600 daltons was initially isolated from the urine and serum of patients with renal tubular insufficiency (1). Smithies and Poulik (2) determined the partial amino acid sequence of this globulin and found that 24 of the first 46 amino acid residues were homologous with the amino acid sequence of parts of the heavy chain of the G-1 myeloma protein. This suggested that a structural relationship existed between the β2-microglobulin and the constant region of human IgG immunoglobulins. In spite of this structural relatedness, specific antisera against all known immunoglobulin chains (including secretory piece and J-chain) did not react with this protein. Subsequently, Peterson et al. (3) established the complete sequence of this protein and found that 28 amino acid residues of the β2-microglobulin were homologous with the CH3 domain of the myeloma protein. An homologous protein was also isolated recently from the dog (4), and its partial amino acid ...
Take 4 capsules once a day. Optimal timing is 45 minutes before a training session, preferably on an empty stomach. Can load at 6 capsules a day for the first week.. ALLERGEN INFORMATION ...
Plasma beta-thromboglobulin is correlated with platelet adhesiveness to bovine endothelium in patients with diabetes mellitus.: We measured simultaneous plasma
There is an increasing demand for biomarkers in clinical treatment trials to demonstrate target engagement and to support disease modification claims. To be able to detect treatment related effects, a prerequisite is that the levels of the biomarker are stable over time or that the change over time is known. In the present study, the stability of alpha- and beta-cleaved soluble amyloid-beta protein precursor (sA beta PP alpha and sA beta PP beta), A beta(1-40) together with the phosphorylated form of neurofilament heavy/medium (pNfH/M) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analyzed in a cohort of 51 patients with Alzheimers disease. In addition, the stability of A beta(1-40), beta(1-42), and sA beta PP beta in plasma was explored. Plasma and CSF was sampled at baseline and after 6-months follow up, and all patients were on stable treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. During this 6-month longitudinal follow-up, we saw a small, but consistent and statistically significant increase in CSF ...
beta 2 microglobulin - General Practice Notebook, Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease - Lab Tests Online-UK, Beta-2 Microglobulin - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics, Beta 2-mikroglobulin u krvi i urinu | Kompetentno o , Beta2-Microglobulin: Reference Range, Interpretation
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β2-MICROGLOBULIN BİOSİSTEM SAĞLIK ÜRÜNLERİ LTD.ŞTİ., İnsan yada farklı veterinerlik uygulamaları için kullanıcı dostu gelişmiş hematoloji sistemleri, kan sayım sistemleri, kan sayım cihazları
Beta-thromboglobulin (β-thromboglobulin, also called Pro-Platelet basic protein) is a protein that is stored in alpha-granules of platelets and released in large amounts after platelet activation. It is a type of Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7. It is a chemoattractant, strongly for fibroblasts and weakly for neutrophils. It is a stimulator of mitogenesis, extracellular matrix synthesis, glucose metabolism, and plasminogen activator synthesis in human fibroblasts. Beta-Thromboglobulin also affects megakaryocyte maturation, and thus helps in regulating platelet production. Levels of Beta-Thromboglobulin is used to index platelet activation. It is measured by ELISA in blood plasma or urine, and often in conjunction with Platelet factor 4) It is elevated in diabetes mellitus. Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia --> Beta-Thromboglobulin Retrieved on August 17, 2009 Pillai MM, Iwata M, Awaya N, Graf L, Torok-Storb B (May 2006). Monocyte-derived CXCL7 peptides in the marrow ...
Background: Beta-trace protein (BTP) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) are novel markers of renal dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease. We evaluated their relationship with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a representative sample of US adults.. Methods: 6,642 participants aged 20 or above were included in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. They were recruited from 1988 to 1994 and followed up through 2006. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used, with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, serum uric acid, C-reactive protein, vitamin D, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, hemoglobin, white blood cell count and eGFR.. Results: The mean (95% CI) serum BTP and B2M levels were 0.581 mg/L (0.571-0.592) and 1.93 mg/L (1.89-1.97) respectively. Within an average 12.1 years follow-up, 2,540 all-cause and 1,157 cardiovascular deaths occurred. The ...
Background. Beta-trace protein (BTP) has been proposed as an alternative endogenous marker of the glomerular filtration rate. However, possible determinants of BTP in ESRD patients undergoing regular renal replacement therapy have not been evaluated. Methods. Serum levels of BTP, beta-2-microglobulin, creatinine and urea were analysed before and after dialysis treatment in 73 patients [haemodialysis (HD) n = 52; haemodiafiltration (HDF) n = 21]. Patients were categorized into four groups with residual diuresis (RD) n = 24), 0.5â€Â1 l/day (group 2; n = 18), 1.1â€Â1.5 l/day (group 3; n = 12) and >1.5 l/day (group 4; n = 19). Subsequently RD was compared to pre-treatment levels of BTP. Results. HD treatment did not affect BTP serum levels [pre-treatment 8.1 ± 4.1 mg/l (mean) vs post-treatment 7.7 ± 4.1 mg/l; âˆÂ0.6 ± 16.1%; ns]. However, in 6 out of 21 patients undergoing HDF BTP levels were reduced by more than 20%. Overall, the resulting decrease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyclonal gammopathies associated with chronic diseases in nonhuman primates.. AU - Osburn, Bennie. AU - Holmberg, C. A.. AU - Terrell, T. G.. AU - Codington, J.. AU - Greeley, K.. AU - Henrickson, R. V.. PY - 1977/5/1. Y1 - 1977/5/1. N2 - Serum samples collected from clinically healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were compared with serums from animals diagnosed as having malignant lymphoma, atypical tuberculosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or more than 1 of these. Electrophoretic analyses of serum proteins (in grams per deciliter) indicated that mean values in a clinically normal group were as follows--total protein, 8.30; albumin, 4.07; alpha-globulin, 0.85; beta-globulin, 2.23; and gamma-globulin, 1.15. In macaques with malignant lymphoma, mean values were--total protein, 7.60; albumin, 2.72; alpha-globulin, 0.91; beta-globulin, 1.71; and gamma-globulin, 2.23. In macaques with atypical tuberculosis, these values were 8.47, 2.92, 0.84, 2.18, and 2.52, ...
Molecules containing the 33-kDa plasma protein alpha1-microglobulin were isolated from human plasma by anti-(alpha1-microglobulin) affinity chromatography. Five major bands could be seen after electrophoretic separation of the alpha1-microglobulin-containing proteins under native conditions. Immunoblotting demonstrated alpha1-microglobulin in all five bands. Two of these have been described previously: free alpha1-microglobulin and alpha1-microglobulin complexed with IgA (IgA x alpha1-microglobulin). The other three bands were identified as prothrombin alpha1-microglobulin, albumin x alpha1-microglobulin and dimeric alpha1-microglobulin. Prothrombin x alpha1-microglobulin were 1:2 and 1:1 complexes which carried approximately 1% of total alpha1-microglobulin, had molecular masses of about 145 kDa and 110 kDa upon SDS/PAGE and dissociated completely to free alpha1-microglobulin and prothrombin (72 kDa) when reducing agents were added, suggesting that the complexes were stabilized by disulfide ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human beta 2 microglobulin antibody, clone 2213|/strong| recognizes native human beta 2 microglobulin, a 119 amino acid component of MHC class I molecules present on all nucleated c…
Active rheumatoid arthritis and kidney disease can be partially diagnosed with a B2 microglobulin test. Visit RapidTest for kit details. Order online.
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human beta 2 microglobulin (B2MG), Tracer (HRP Labeled), Clone D3A2Collection: AntibodySub Category: Matched Antibody
specificalPrinciple of the Assay: The test principle applied in this kit is Sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Beta-Thromboglobulin (bTG). Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Beta-Thromboglobulin (bTG). Next, Avidin conjugated to Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is added to each microplate well and incubated. After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Beta-Thromboglobulin (bTG), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of sulphuric acid solution and the color change is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450nm ± 10nm. The concentration of Beta-Thromboglobulin (bTG) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve. ...
Alpha globulins are serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during electrophoresis. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha1 and alpha2-globulins.Proteins are the most abundant compounds in your serum. Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins. In turn proteins are the building blocks of all cells and body tissues. They are the basic components of enzymes, many hormones, antibodies and clotting agents. Proteins act as transport substances for hormones, vitamins, minerals, lipids and other materials. In addition, proteins help balance the osmotic pressure of the blood and tissue.Medical Tests Analyzer labtest bloodtest What does the test result mean?
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Looking for online definition of beta2 microglobulin in the Medical Dictionary? beta2 microglobulin explanation free. What is beta2 microglobulin? Meaning of beta2 microglobulin medical term. What does beta2 microglobulin mean?
The N Latex BTP (Beta-trace Protein) assay is a screening method for analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and estimation of residual renal function (RRF)
Mouse monoclonal Beta 2 Microglobulin Antibody. Tested Applications; Development of assay kits when used in conjunction with clone C21
Mouse Monoclonal beta-2 Microglobulin antibody AA 21-100 for IC, FACS, IHC, ELISA, WB. Order anti-beta-2 Microglobulin antibody ABIN2207569.
beta 2 Microglobulin (F21-21), 0.25 mg. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian MHC Class I molecules (also known as B-F antigens) consist of a highly polymorphic alpha-chain (Mr approx.
Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is a protein shed by cells into the blood, including tumor cells. The B2M test can be used as a tumor marker for some people with blood cell cancers (multiple myeloma, lymphoma) to give information about their likely prognosis.
Sekisui Diagnostics has a broad product portfolio to meet your diagnostics needs. Systems, reagents, tests, enzymes and specialty biochemicals. Quality products for laboratory and research environments.
Background. An altered renal function is an essential component of the patho-physiology of pre-eclampsia. The plasma levels of low molecular mass proteins, e. g. beta-trace protein, beta-2-microglobulin and cystatin C, are increased in the third trimester of normal pregnancy. The plasma levels of cystatin C and beta-2-microglobulin are further increased in preeclampsia, and the cystatin C level has been reported to be a reliable marker for the disease. The aim of this investigation was to study the plasma levels of beta-trace protein, beta-2-microglobulin and cystatin C in pre-eclampsia, and to determine the diagnostic performance of these proteins compared to that of urate and creatinine. Methods. A case-control study of 57 women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia, and 218 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies in the third trimester. Women in the catchment area of Lund, Sweden, were included during an 18-month period from October 2003 to April 2005. Venous blood samples were drawn ...
Referring to uremic toxicity profile, â2-microglobulin levels are reported to be lower in on-line hemofiltration/hemodiafiltration (33,36) with respect to low/high-flux hemodialysis, the reduction rate increasing from 58% to 73% due to the higher clearances. Of course these results, may, at least in part, be influenced by the quality of water in conventional/high-flux dialysis on the amount of â2-microglobulin production through the generation of inflammatory mediators triggered by endotoxins and pyrogens. These data are relevant from a clinical point of view: in fact, it has been reported that patients undergoing hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration have a risk for tunnel carpal syndrome that is 44% lower than those on standard dialysis (RR=0.56; 95% C.I. 0.34-0.92; p=0.02) (20). The relationship between the amount of substitution fluids and the risk of developing dialysis-related amyloidosis has been further confirmed by the Japanese Registry, where it was found to be progressively lower (the ...
Measurement of urinary beta core fragment of human chorionic gonadotrophin in women with vulvovaginal malignancy and its prognostic significance
Human β2microglobulin is cytophilic for mouse, rat, and to a lesser extent guinea pig lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes but not for human, rabbit, chicken, frog, and turtle cells, nor for any mature erythrocytes tested. Mouse splenic lymphocytes bind 5- 7-fold more β2microglobulin than thymocytes although hydrocortisoneresistant thymocytes resemble spleen cells in this regard. The β2microglobulin binding by B and T cells in mouse spleen is similar. The structure responsible for β2 microglobulin binding to the surface of cells is distinct from the Fc receptor specific for aggregated IgG.. ...
MAA370Ra22, Monoclonal Antibody to Beta-Thromboglobulin (bTG), β-血小板球蛋白(bTG)单克隆抗体, CXCL7; PPBP; PBP; B-TG1; CTAP-III; CTAP3; CTAPIII; LA-PF4; LDGF; MDGF; NAP2; SCYB7; TC1; TC2; TGB1; THBGB1; Pro-Platelet Basic Protein; Chemokine C-X-C-Motif Ligand 7 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Two measurements of Gamma(b ($) over bar b)/Gamma(had) are presented. Both measurements use 250000 Z decays taken with the DELPHI detector in 1991 and rely mainly on the precision of the microvertex detector. One tagging method is as simple as possible so that background rates can be reliably predicted by simulation. The other one uses a more involved tagging technique and reduces the dependence on simulation as much as possible. Combining both results, Gamma(b ($) over bar b)/Gamma(had) is found to be 0.2209 +/- 0.0041 (stat.) +/- 0.0042(syst.) +/- 0.0018 (Gamma(c ($) over bar c)).. MEASUREMENT OF THE GAMMA(B-B-OVER-BAR)/GAMMA(HAD) BRANCHING RATIO OF THE Z BY DOUBLE HEMISPHERE TAGGING / ABREU P; ADAM W; ADYE T; AGASI E; AJINENKO I; ALEKSAN R; ALEKSEEV GD; ALLPORT PP; ALMEHED S; ALMEIDA FMI; ALVSVAAG SJ; AMALDI U; ANDREAZZA A; ANTILOGUS P; APEL WD; APSIMON RJ; ARNOUD Y; ASMAN B; AUGUSTIN JE; AUGUSTINUS A; BAILLON P; BAMBADE P; BARAO F; BARATE R; BARBIELLINI G; BARDIN DY; BARKER GJ; BARONCELLI A; ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-alpha 1-Microglobulin Antibody (3F1) [PE]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Mouse monoclonal Alpha 1 microglobulin antibody [BN11.10] validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, RIA, Other and tested in Human and Rat. Referenced in 1…
Hypocomplementemic Vasculitis (Urticarial Vasculitis): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Looking for online definition of Beta-2-microglobulin or what Beta-2-microglobulin stands for? Beta-2-microglobulin is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
These multidisciplinary research projects involve a dedicated research team and extensive intra- and inter-institutional collaboration with other centers in Israel and around the world.. 2. Quantitive in situ SA Beta Gal (QBGAL Ver 1.0). 3. Matlab application for TRF Blot analysis. 4. Cheek Swab DNA Sampling. 5. Preliminary Report: Missense mutations in the APOL gene family are associated with end stage kidney disease risk previously attributed to the MYH9 gene (June 2010).. Shay Tzur, Saharon Rosset, Revital Shemer, Guennady Yudkovsky, Sara Selig, Ayele Tarekegn, Endashaw Bekele, Neil Bradman, Walter G Wasser, Doron M Behar, Karl Skorecki. ...
Super Serum is a hydrating antioxidant serum. Its unique new formula combines two of DMKs signature serums - Beta Gel & Direct Delivery Vitamin C. This transdermal serum is packed with potent betaglucan, plus vitamins B and C for maximum performance. Betaglucan stimulates the skins inbuilt immune system and works
You can add a fourth component to the color by using glColor4f(). The fourth component, known as alpha, is not used in the default drawing mode, but it is possible to configure OpenGL to use it as the degree of transparency of the color, similarly to the use of the alpha component in the 2D graphics APIs that we have looked at. You need two commands to turn on transparency ...
Alteration within a discrete region of the H-2Ld alpha 1 helix upon association with human beta 2 microglobulin.: The utilization of the beta 2-microglobulin (B
Objectives: To investigate the genetic features of three plasmids recovered from an MCR-1 and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strain, HYEC7, and characterize the transmission mechanism of mcr-1. Methods: The genetic profiles of three plasmids were determined by PCR, S1-PFGE, Southern hybridization and WGS analysis. The ability of the mcr-1-bearing plasmid to undergo conjugation was also assessed. The mcr-1-bearing transposon Tn6330 was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing. Results: Complete sequences of three plasmids were obtained. A non-conjugative phage P7-like plasmid, pHYEC7-mcr1, was found to harbour the mcr-1-bearing transposon Tn6330, which could be excised from the plasmid by generating a circular intermediate harbouring mcr-1 and the ISApl1 element. The insertion of the circular intermediate into another plasmid, pHYEC7-IncHI2, could form pHNSHP45-2, the original IncHI2-type mcr-1-carrying plasmid that was reported. The third plasmid, pHYEC7-110, harboured two replicons, IncX1 and ...
Serial determinations of beta 2-microglobulin, lactoferrin and lysozyme in CSF were performed in 14 patients with acute cerebrovascular lesions. Marked elevations were noted in patients with cerebral bleeding or hemorrhagic infarction. Patients with infarction without signs of bleeding or with cerebrovascular lesions undetectable by computed tomography also had an increase in these proteins. The increases in CSF of beta 2-microglobulin, lactoferrin and lysozyme could not be explained by a damaged blood-brain barrier but was believed to be a local product of the central nervous system. Peak levels of lactoferrin and lysozyme were noted on day 2-3 after onset of symptoms. Lactoferrin then declined while lysozyme remained elevated for another few days. beta 2-microglobulin gradually increased reaching peak levels on day 4-5 and remained elevated even 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms. We suggest that the increases of lactoferrin, lysozyme and beta 2-microglobulin reflect various inflammatory ...
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Sera and questionnaire data from a population-based random sample of healthy adults was used to evaluate factors influencing neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) values. Both neopterin and beta 2m levels increased with age and were higher among white than blacks (mean values for whites and blacks: neopterin, 5.06 vs 4.49 nmol/L; beta 2m, 1.36 vs 1.28 mg/L). Gender
The G beta-gamma complex (Gβγ) is a tightly bound dimeric protein complex, composed of one Gβ and one Gγ subunit, and is a component of heterotrimeric G proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, also called guanosine nucleotide-binding proteins, consist of three subunits, called alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, or Gα, Gβ, and Gγ. When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated, Gα dissociates from Gβγ, allowing both subunits to perform their respective downstream signaling effects. One of the major functions of Gβγ is the inhibition of the Gα subunit. The individual subunits of the G protein complex were first identified in 1980 when the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase was successfully purified, yielding three polypeptides of different molecular weights. Initially, it was thought that Gα, the largest subunit, was the major effector regulatory subunit, and that Gβγ was largely responsible for inactivating the Gα subunit and enhancing membrane binding. However, ...
Six consecutive hemodialysis (HD) sessions are evaluated per patient, altogether 10 - 12 stable HD patients (or at least 48 HD sessions altogether). During these six sessions, AN69ST and Fx8 are used on alternate days. Dalteparin is given intravenously as a single bolus dose at start of HD (50% of the conventional dose). Clinical clotting is evaluated visually each hour of HD after blood draining of the venous air trap: 1=no clot, 2=a fibrinous ring, 3=a clot ,1 cm, 4=a clot ,1 cm and 5=coagulated system (stop in HD).. Blood specimens are taken at start and after each hour of HD. Markers of coagulation (prothrombin 1+2) and of platelets (beta-thromboglobulin) are evaluated as well as anti FXa-activity.. The two filters are going to be compared statistically with respect to the degree of clinical clotting and of intravascular coagulation and platelets activation. ...
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When I was growing up, the word cancer was a taboo word spoken in hushed tones. More often it was referred to as the big C.
Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds). *7S globulin family (seeds) ... The protein is composed of alpha helices and beta sheets that form two domains.[8] The N- and C- terminal sequences are ... In nephrotic syndrome, urinary loss of transferrin, along with other serum proteins such as thyroxine-binding globulin, ... Alpha globulins. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. serpins:. *alpha-1 (Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha 1- ...
Other globulins. *Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds) ... Chemical similarities to polypetide chains of myeloma globulins and normal gamma-globulins". J. Exp. Med. 116 (2): 207-227. doi ... Rho(D) immune globulin antibodies are specific for human RhD antigen.[67] Anti-RhD antibodies are administered as part of a ... Rho(D) Immune Globulin treatment prevents sensitization that can lead to Rh disease, but does not prevent or treat the ...
Other globulins. *Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds) ...
Other globulins. *Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds) ... Beta-lactoglobulin. References[edit]. 1. Influence Of Dietary Lactalbumin Hydrolysate On The Immune System Of Mice And ... There are alpha and beta lactalbumins; both are contained in milk.. Scientific studies suggest that certain types of ...
Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds). *7S globulin family (seeds) ... Alpha globulins. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. serpins:. *alpha-1 (Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha 1- ...
Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds). *7S globulin family (seeds) ... plasma alpha-globulin glycoprotein and is modulated by two polymorphic genes. It is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and ... Alpha globulins. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. serpins:. *alpha-1 (Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha 1- ...
... and in Alpha 1 globulins, Alpha 2 globulins, Beta globulins and Gamma globulins) are long peptide-chains, precursors for ... "A haemoglobin-binding beta-globulin in human serum". Nature. 186 (4730): 1055-6. doi:10.1038/1861055b0. PMID 13838734. Kenneth ... Edestin is similar to serum globulin (blood plasma), and the biologically active protein of edestin is metabolized in the human ... it is much more efficient for the body to make globulins from locally digestible globular proteins. Edestin has the unique ...
Cinader, B.; Weitz, B. (1950-11-04). "Beta- and gamma-globulin tetanus antitoxin of the hyperimmune horse". Nature. 166 (4227 ...
Putnam, F. W. (1993). "Alpha-, beta-, gamma-globulin-Arne Tiselius and the advent of electrophoresis". Perspectives in Biology ...
Beta globulini. noseći proteini: Seks hormon-vezujući globulin • Transferin. drugi: Angiostatin • Hemopeksin • Beta-2 ... gama globulin.. Kao što možemo da vidimo na grafikonu, gama globulin je najširi i razlog tome je što se gama globulin sastoji ... Antiadrenergici • Antihipertenzivi • Antihiperlipidemici (Statin, Fibrati, Sekvestranti žučne kiseline) • Beta-adrenergički ...
"Serum levels of pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha 2-globulin (alpha 2-PEG), a glycosylated beta-lactoglobulin homologue, ... "Multiple forms of mRNA encoding human pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha 2-globulin, a beta-lactoglobulin homologue". ... bovine and buffalo beta-lactoglobulin. For example, there are 13 identities out of 22 possible matches with horse beta- ... Bell SC, Keyte JW, Waites GT (Nov 1987). "Pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha 2-globulin, the major secretory protein of the ...
... such as bovine growth hormone or rabbit beta-globulin polyadenylation sequences. Polycistronic vectors (ones located at ... An E. coli inner core and poly(beta-amino ester) outer coat function synergistically to increase efficiency by addressing ...
Other globular proteins are the alpha, beta and gamma (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM) globulin. See protein electrophoresis for ... more information on the different globulins. Nearly all enzymes with major metabolic functions are globular in shape, as well ...
... it is stored as hemosiderin or ferritin in tissues and transported in plasma by beta globulins as transferrins. When the ... Globulin is metabolised into amino acids that are then released into circulation. Hemoglobin deficiency can be caused either by ... However, the level of Hb F can be elevated in persons with sickle-cell disease and beta-thalassemia. Variant forms that cause ... "HBB - Hemoglobin subunit beta - Pan paniscus (Pygmy chimpanzee) - HBB gene & protein". Retrieved 2020-03-10. " ...
... alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta 1 and 2 globulins, and gamma globulins. ... Beta zone[edit]. Transferrin and beta-lipoprotein (LDL) comprises the beta-1. Increased beta-1 protein due to the increased ... Beta-gamma interzone[edit]. C-reactive protein is found in between the beta and gamma zones producing beta/gamma fusion. IgA ... Alpha-2 - beta interzone[edit]. Cold insoluble globulin forms a band here which is not seen in plasma because it is ...
The result was a 45 g/l human albumin solution containing small amounts of gamma and beta globulins which was stable between 0 ... by extracting heat labile fibrinogen and gamma globulins from plasma to give a plasma protein fraction (PPF) solution. The ...
... it is stored as hemosiderin or ferritin in tissues and transported in plasma by beta globulins as transferrins. When the ... However, the level of Hb F can be elevated in persons with sickle-cell disease and beta-thalassemia. ... Globulin is metabolised into amino acids that are then released into circulation. ... Protein alignment of human hemoglobin proteins, alpha, beta, and delta subunits respectively. The alignments were created using ...
... (ABP) is a glycoprotein (beta-globulin) produced by the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) Bardin CW, Musto N, Gunsalus G, Kotite N, Cheng SL, Larrea F, Becker R (1981). " ... ABP has the same amino acid sequence as sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG); the difference is the site of production and the ... the testis that binds specifically to testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17-beta-estradiol. Because ABP binds to ...
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein Alpha-1-fetoprotein alpha2-macroglobulin Gamma globulins Beta-2 microglobulin Haptoglobin ... Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones, and lipids assisting in immune function. Fibrinogen ... All blood proteins are synthesized in liver except for the gamma globulins. Examples of specific blood proteins: Prealbumin ( ...
Beta-1-metal- binding globulin) RAB11A Ras-related protein Rab-11A GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198774 - Ensembl, May ...
... alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta 1 and 2 globulins, and gamma globulins. Proteins are separated by both electrical ... Transferrin and beta-lipoprotein (LDL) comprises the beta-1. Increased beta-1 protein due to the increased level of free ... resulting in a visible fibrinogen band between the beta and gamma globulins. C-reactive protein is found in between the beta ... Decreased beta-1 protein occurs in acute or chronic inflammation. Beta-2 comprises C3 (complement protein 3). It is raised in ...
Use of high flux dialyzers Use of Beta 2 globulin absorber Preserve the residual kidney functions Early kidney transplant In ... September 1993). "beta 2-Microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products is a major component of hemodialysis- ...
There are several clusters, the first being albumin, the second being the alpha, the third beta and the fourth gamma ( ... Alpha-1 antitrypsin is the main protein of the alpha-globulin 1 region. Another name used is alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (α1- ... Like all serine protease inhibitors, A1AT has a characteristic secondary structure of beta sheets and alpha helices. Mutations ... immunoglobulins). The non-albumin proteins are referred to as globulins. The alpha region can be further divided into two sub- ...
... follicle-stimulating hormone and sex-hormone-binding globulin during simultaneous vaginal administration of 17 beta-oestradiol ... Odlind V, Milsom I, Persson I, Victor A (June 2002). "Can changes in sex hormone binding globulin predict the risk of venous ... Lobo RA, Cassidenti DL (January 1992). "Pharmacokinetics of oral 17 beta-estradiol". J Reprod Med. 37 (1): 77-84. PMID 1548642 ... Estradiol increases the production and by extension circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), corticosteroid- ...
Examples of beta globulins include: beta-2 microglobulin plasminogen angiostatins properdin sex hormone-binding globulin ... Beta globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma that are more mobile in alkaline or electrically charged solutions ... "Examples of Protein Electrophoretograms" at Beta-globulins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... than gamma globulins, but less mobile than alpha globulins. ...
Beta-thalassemia (β-thalassemia) is an inherited mutation of the β-globulin gene which causes the reduced synthesis of the β- ... Hb S beta thalassemia is the least common and is experienced in patients who have inherited beta thalassemia hemoglobin from ... Fetuses have a non-alpha chain called gamma and after birth it is then called beta. The beta chain will pair with the alpha ... Hemoglobin A is the most common adult form of hemoglobin and exists as a tetramer containing two alpha subunits and two beta ...
Alpha 1 globulins Alpha 2 globulins Beta globulins Gamma globulins (one group of gamma globulins is the immunoglobulins, which ... Globulins exist in various sizes. The lightest globulins are the alpha globulins, which typically have molecular weights of ... but are not globulins. All other serum globular proteins are globulins. All globulins fall into one of the following four ... Some globulins are produced in the liver, while others are made by the immune system. Globulins, albumins, and fibrinogen are ...
... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ... beta-2 microglobulin - beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta- ... transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor beta receptor - transient receptor potential - translation ( ... interferon-beta - interleukin receptor - interleukin-1 receptor - interleukin-2 receptor - interleukin-3 - interleukin-3 ...
Beta globulins. *Blood proteins. *Bovine serum albumin. C. *Cholesterylester transfer protein. *Conalbumin ...
Alpha2-Globulin. 5,9…11,1 % Beta-Globulin. 7,9…13,9 % ...
Massive overdose can be associated with increased sympathetic activity and thus require treatment with beta-blockers.[18] ... Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound to plasma proteins including thyroxine-binding globulin, ...
Effects of the anti-androgen TSAA-291 (16 beta-ethyl-17 beta-hydroxy-4-oestren-3-one) on the secretion of gonadotrophins". Acta ... by decreasing free concentrations of androgens via increasing the hepatic production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and ...
Globulins (proteins). *Beta-conglycinin. *Glycinin. PHAs (Lectins). *Soybean agglutinin (lectin). Enzymes. *Beta-amylase ...
Antihemofíliás globulin A (VIII) · Christmas-faktor (IX) · Stuart-Prower-faktor (X) · Rosenthal-faktor (XI) · Hageman-faktor ( ... evidence for identification of residue 63 as beta-hydroxyaspartic acid". Biochemistry 22 (12), 2875-84. o. DOI:10.1021/ ...
Lipid-transporteerend Beta-Lipoproteine: Lipidtransport. *Transferrin: Iesentransport. *Fibrinogen: Vörstoop vun't Fibrin. * ... Vun „" ...
GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) - bilirubin - bioavailability - biological response modifiers (BRMs) - biopsy - biotechnology - ... globulins - glycoprotein - gonorrhea - gp120 (gp120) - gp160 (gp160) - gp41 (gp41) - granulocyte - granulocyte macrophage- ...
3 linkages or beta-1, 4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. ... Oats are the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%) storage protein.[18] ... Oat beta-glucan is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is composed of ... Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in ...
Globulins (proteins). *Beta-conglycinin. *Glycinin. PHAs (Lectins). *Soybean agglutinin (lectin). Enzymes. *Beta-amylase ...
Blood sugar levels are regulated within fairly narrow limits.[33] In mammals the primary sensors for this are the beta cells of ... α-2-globulin called angiotensinogen. This decapeptide is known as angiotensin I.[51] It has no known biological activity. ... Here blood sugar regulation is unable to function because the beta cells of the pancreatic islets are destroyed and cannot ... the pancreatic islets.[34][35] The beta cells respond to a rise in the blood sugar level by secreting insulin into the blood, ...
An example is polydipsia found in patients with autoimmune chronic hepatitis with severely elevated globulin levels. Evidence ... a sympatholytic beta blocker Vasopressin receptor antagonists, such as conivaptan Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ...
Dalakas MC, Fujii M, Li M, Lutfi B, Kyhos J, McElroy B (December 2001). "High-dose intravenous immune globulin for stiff-person ... "Compartmentalization of GABA synthesis by GAD67 differs between pancreatic beta cells and neurons". PLOS One. 10 (2): e0117130 ...
Beta-glukan[12]. Literatura[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *↑ Thomas J. Kindt, Richard A. Goldsby, Barbara Anne Osborne, Janis ... Anti-timocit globulin • Anti-limfocit globulin. -cept (Fuzija). CTLA-4 (Abatacept, Belatacept) • TNF inhibitor (Etanercept, ... vakcine (BCG vakcina, Melanoma vakcina) • beta-glukan (Lentinan) • Mifamurtid • tiazolidin (Pidotimod) • heterociklična ... Antiadrenergici • Antihipertenzivi • Antihiperlipidemici (Statin, Fibrati, Sekvestranti žučne kiseline) • Beta-adrenergički ...
... beta 1 and beta 2,[27][28] fibroblast growth factors,[29] epidermal growth factor,[30] granulocyte-macrophage-stimulating ... "Acceleration of the absorption of unchanged globulins in the new-born calf by factors in colostrum". J. Physiol. 160 (2): 234- ... "Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in human milk". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 94 (1): 220-4. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1993. ... Tokuyama Y, Tokuyama H (February 1993). "Purification and identification of TGF-beta 2-related growth factor from bovine ...
Timus: Timozin (Timozin α1, Timozin beta) • Timopoietin • Timulin Organi za varenje: Želudac: gastrin • grelin • Duodenum: CCK ... poput seks hormon-vezujući globulin ili kortikosteroid-vezujući globulin. Dalje konverzije i katabolizam se odvijaju u jetri, ...
Patients in the early stage of disease showed a decrease in coagulation factors (e.g. platelets, prothrombin, and globulin) and ... Beta. *Human herpesvirus 6/Roseolovirus *Exanthema subitum. *Roseola vaccinia. *Cytomegalic inclusion disease ...
The globulins are classified by their banding pattern (with their main representatives): The alpha (α) band consists of two ... The beta (β) band - transferrin, LDL, complement The gamma (γ) band - immunoglobulin (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM). Paraproteins ... Traditionally, two classes of blood proteins are considered: serum albumin and globulin. They are generally equal in proportion ...
Globulins (proteins). *Beta-conglycinin. *Glycinin. PHAs (Lectins). *Soybean agglutinin (lectin). Enzymes. *Beta-amylase ...
Globulins (proteins). *Beta-conglycinin. *Glycinin. PHAs (Lectins). *Soybean agglutinin (lectin). Enzymes. *Beta-amylase ...
"Varizig™ as the Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin for the Prevention of Varicella In At-Risk Patients". Canada Communicable ... Beta. *Human herpesvirus 6/Roseolovirus *Exanthema subitum. *Roseola vaccinia. *Cytomegalic inclusion disease ... complications who have had significant exposure to the virus may be given intra-muscular varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG ...
... interaction of 70 drugs with testosterone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in human plasma". J. Clin. ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta" ... The distribution half-life of DES is 80 minutes.[1] It has no affinity for SHBG or corticosteroid-binding globulin, and hence ... it stimulates hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production, thereby increasing circulating levels of SHBG and ...
... to 3-fold increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and a consequent decrease in free testosterone levels caused ... "Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta". ...
Peanuts, for instance, contain 20% 2S albumin but only 6% 7S globulin and 74% 11S.[35] It is the high 2S albumin and low 7S ... Beta-carotene (μg) 97 0 5 1 8 0 8,509 83 0 457 10,500 ... Shutov, A.D. (2011). "Evolution of seed storage globulins and ... All spermatophytes, except for the grass-cereal family, contain 7S (vicilin) and 11S (legumin) soy protein-like globulin ... contains the 7S globulin, which contributes to cocoa/chocolate taste and aroma;,[29][30][31] whereas coffee beans (coffee ...
Todd and Naylor, New chromosomal mapping assignments for argininosuccinate synthetase pseudogene 1, interferon-beta 3 gene, and ... Anti-timocit globulin • Anti-limfocit globulin. -cept (Fuzija). CTLA-4 (Abatacept, Belatacept) • TNF inhibitor (Etanercept, ...
In the mid-1990s Beutler, in collaboration with Jack Sipe, a neurologist at Scripps, ran several clinical trials exploring the utility of cladribine in multiple sclerosis, based on the drug's immunosuppressive effects. Sipe's insight into MS, and Beutler's interest in MS due to his sister having it, led a very productive collaboration.[18]:17[22] Ortho-Clinical, a subsidiary of J&J, filed an NDA for cladribine for MS in 1997 but withdrew it in the late 1990s after discussion with the FDA proved that more clinical data would be needed.[23][24] Ivax acquired the rights for oral administration of cladribine to treat MS from Scripps in 2000,[25] and partnered with Serono in 2002.[24] Ivax was acquired by Teva in 2006,[26][27] and Merck KGaA acquired control of Serono's drug business in 2006.[28] An oral formulation of the drug with cyclodextrin was developed[29]:16 and Ivax and Serono, and then Merck KGaA conducted several clinical studies. Merck KGaA submitted an application to the European ...
the square box applies to epoetin alfa, beta and theta, darbepoetin alfa, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta,and their ... Rho(D) immune globulin (anti-D immunoglobulin). *Anti-rabies immunoglobulin. *Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin ...
Examples of beta globulins include: beta-2 microglobulin plasminogen angiostatins properdin sex hormone-binding globulin ... Beta globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma that are more mobile in alkaline or electrically charged solutions ... "Examples of Protein Electrophoretograms" at Beta-globulins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... than gamma globulins, but less mobile than alpha globulins. ...
Beta-Agonists. Class Summary. Many patients with viral pneumonia have bronchospasm, which is relieved or improved with the use ... Immune Globulins. Class Summary. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin has been used successfully in conjunction with ... Albuterol is a beta-agonist used to treat bronchospasm. It relaxes bronchial smooth muscle with its action on beta2-receptors. ... Immune globulin IV (Gamimune, Gammagard, Sandoglobulin, Gammar-P). *View full drug information ...
... separation of serum proteins migrate faster toward the anode than gamma globulins but more slowly than alpha globulins. Beta ... nounAny of a group of globulins in blood plasma that in an electrophoretic ... beta globulin. beta globulin. noun. Any of a group of globulins in blood plasma that in an electrophoretic separation of serum ... "beta globulin." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 17 August 2018. ,,. ...
Intimacy counselling. Find out more about our free, confidential counselling with medical specialists trained in intimacy, body image, sexual confidence and relationships. Available to all those facing cancer and their partners, including members of the LGBTQI community. ...
Find out information about beta globulin. A heterogeneous fraction of serum globulins containing transferrin and various ... Related to beta globulin: gamma globulin, alpha globulin, albumin. beta globulin. [′bād·ə ′gläb·yə·lən] (biochemistry) A ... Beta globulin , Article about beta globulin by The Free Dictionary ... The alpha and beta globulins are synthesized exclusively in the liver.. Blood pressure, alkaline phosphatase, serum globulin, A ...
The research teams found that a blood-borne molecule (beta-2 microglobulin, or B2M, a component of a larger molecule called MHC ... beta-2 micro globulin, B2M, MHC, Nature Medicine ...
... into the component albumin and globulins. Electrophoresis is indicated for determination of the underlying nature of a ... Beta (b) globulins These migrate between g- and a-globulins. They are usually produced in the liver and include fibrinogen ( ... There are three globulin fractions: alpha, beta and gamma. Total protein This is measured on the Modular P using the biuret ... Like a-globulins, b-globulins can be divided into two major components (b1 and b2) in most species, although further ...
Find out information about Beta-globulins. any of a large family of proteins protein, any of the group of highly complex ... organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant... Explanation of Beta-globulins ... Beta-globulins , Article about Beta-globulins by The Free Dictionary ... globulin. (redirected from Beta-globulins). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. globulin,. any of a large family of ...
Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds). *7S globulin family (seeds) ... The protein is composed of alpha helices and beta sheets that form two domains.[8] The N- and C- terminal sequences are ... In nephrotic syndrome, urinary loss of transferrin, along with other serum proteins such as thyroxine-binding globulin, ... Alpha globulins. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. serpins:. *alpha-1 (Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, Alpha 1- ...
Other globulins. *Beta-lactoglobulin *Lactoferrin. *Thyroglobulin. *Alpha-lactalbumin. *11S globulin family (seeds) ... Chemical similarities to polypetide chains of myeloma globulins and normal gamma-globulins". J. Exp. Med. 116 (2): 207-227. doi ... Rho(D) immune globulin antibodies are specific for human RhD antigen.[67] Anti-RhD antibodies are administered as part of a ... Rho(D) Immune Globulin treatment prevents sensitization that can lead to Rh disease, but does not prevent or treat the ...
Globulin is vital for the normal function of the human body and its tissues and organs. ... Globulin is one of three serum proteins found in the blood. The others are fibrinogen and albumin. ... However, there are four different groups of globulin; these are alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and gamma globulins, so the medic must ... All about High Globulin Levels the side effects of Gamma Globulin and Infusions of gamma globulin. ...
... alpha-globulins; beta-globulins; gamma-globulins; coagulation proteins; complement proteins; and interferons. ... Dried, sterilized, gamma-globulin-fixed column and a process for preparing the same. ... Preparation of intravenous human and animal gamma globulins and isolation of albumin. ... globulins, such as immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE; and the like. A preferred group of blood proteins includes Factor I ( ...
globulin: One of the major classifications of proteins, which may be further divided into the euglobulins and the ... Three types of globulin have been identified-alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha and beta globulins are transport proteins, serve as ... Three types of globulin-alpha, beta, and gamma-have been identified; alpha and beta globulins are transport proteins and serve ... Globulins are an important source of protein in seed plants and are found in minute amounts in cereals. Globulins found in ...
This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha1 and alpha2-globulins.Proteins are the most abundant ... Alpha globulins are serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during electrophoresis. ... There are four major groups that can be identified: gamma globulins, beta globulins, alpha-2 globulins, and alpha-1 globulins. ... but less mobile than alpha globulins. Examples of beta globulins include: ·. beta-2 microglobulin ...
The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid part of a blood sample. ... Globulins are roughly divided into three groups: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Gamma globulins include various types of ... The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid part of a blood sample. ... This test is done to look at globulin proteins in the blood. Identifying the types of globulins can help diagnose certain ...
And, my Alpha 2 and Beta globulins are low now. Any feedback??? ... And, my Alpha 2 and Beta globulins are low now. Any feedback ... High Elevated B12 and Folate, Low Iron and Globulin. Hi, I am 7 months out from having a transduodenal sphincteroplasty where ... The iron/ ferritin and globulin levels could be related to low dietary intake/ malsorption or secondary to a few systemic ... The iron/ ferritin and globulin levels could be related to low dietary intake/ malsorption or secondary to a few systemic ...
Latent TGF-beta binding protein. *Major urinary proteins. *Membrane transport protein. *Odorant binding protein ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to androgens and ... Testosterone-estradiol binding globulin (TeBG, TEBG). References. *↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 ... interaction of 70 drugs with testosterone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in human plasma". J. Clin. ...
respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous synonyms, respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous ... English dictionary definition of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous. n. 1. Any of a class of proteins that ... pronunciation, respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous translation, ... Blood serum globulins are divided into several groups, including the alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. ...
Haptoglobin - alpha 2 globulin - synth. By liver Hemopexin - beta globulin - synth. By liver ...
beta-1-H-globulin. *beta-1H. *C3b inactivator accelerator. *CFAH_HUMAN. *CFHL3 ...
Parola on low serum globulin levels: Must get on a higher dose of synthroid (thyroxine). This can be life threatening, get ... Protein, beta globulin, monocytes, bun/creatin low mcv-mch, vit d-possible causes? ... Total protein 8.3, serum albumin 4.2 , serum globulin 3.8, albumin globulin ratio 1.2.. Is this abnormal? ... Globulins are other proteins usually made to fight diseases like infections- perhaps youve been fighting an illness for a few ...
beta-globulin, antigen, antiserum, control. Regulation Description. Beta-globulin immunological test system.. ...
Alpha-1/2 globulins. Beta-globulins. Gamma-globulins 63 How do you interpret SPEP results? ...
Beta-globulins. Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS. ...
A calculated ratio of albumin to globulins (A/G ratio) may also be reported. ... These proteins are larger than albumin and are divided into alpha, beta and gamma globulins. ... The remaining 40% of proteins in the plasma are referred to as globulins. The globulin proteins are a varied group. They ... Globulins are all the proteins in the blood other than albumin, and this group is comprised of hundreds of different types. ...
Beta-1 metal-binding globulin ELISA Kit; DKFZp781D0156 ELISA Kit; PRO1400 ELISA Kit; PRO1557 ELISA Kit; PRO2086 ELISA Kit; ... Ϊ???? ??ת?? (TF) ELISA Kit,Apotransferrin ELISA Kit; Beta 1 metal binding globulin ELISA Kit; ... Apotransferrin ELISA Kit; Beta 1 metal binding globulin ELISA Kit; Beta-1 metal-binding globulin ELISA Kit; DKFZp781D0156 ELISA ... TGF-beta signaling pathway Wnt signaling pathway view all pathways ...
Beta-globulin, a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 15,000 +/- 1,000, undergoes denaturation in alkaline pH (7.0-13.0 ... Structural stability of beta-globulin, the low molecular weight protein fraction from sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) in ... Structural stability of beta-globulin, the low molecular weight protein fraction from sesa ...
866.5160 Beta-globulin immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta -globulin immunological test system is a device ... Beta -globulin proteins include beta -lipoprotein, transferrin, glycoproteins, and complement, and are rarely associated with ... that consists of reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques beta globulins (serum protein) in serum and other body ...
  • Beta globulins include transferrin and other transport proteins. (
  • A heterogeneous fraction of serum globulins containing transferrin and various complement components. (
  • Beta -globulin proteins include beta -lipoprotein, transferrin, glycoproteins, and complement, and are rarely associated with specific pathologic disorders. (
  • Examples are transferrin, a beta 1 -globulin that transports iron, and alpha 1 -antitrypsin, an acute phase reactant that inhibits serum proteases. (
  • The introduction of electrophoresis during the 1930s permitted subdivision of the globulins into alpha, beta, and gamma globulins on the basis of relative mobility at alkaline pH (8.6). (
  • Thus the α 2 -globulins, for example, as defined by moving boundary or paper electrophoresis, contain proteins ranging in molecular weight from approximately 50,000 to approximately 1,000,000 (α 2 -macroglobulin), each with differing functions. (
  • The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid part of a blood sample. (
  • The specific profile of the globulins is determined by protein electrophoresis (SPEP), which separates the proteins according to size and charge. (
  • The plasma globulins are separated into five fractions by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE). (
  • Serum globulin can be separated into several subgroups by serum protein electrophoresis. (
  • Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) is an analytical technique that provides separation of serum protein into six fractions: Albumin, Alpha-1, Alpha-2, Beta-1, Beta-2 and Gamma. (
  • The pattern of serum protein electrophoresis results depends on the fractions of two major types of protein: albumin and globulins. (
  • Gamma globulins include various types of antibodies such as immunoglobulins (Ig) M, G, and A. (
  • the immune system produces gamma globulins, also called immunoglobulins and antibodies. (
  • Edestin is similar to serum globulin (blood plasma), and the biologically active protein of edestin is metabolized in the human body and capable of biosynthesizing: hormones (which regulate all the body processes), hemoglobin (which transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitric oxide), enzymes (which catalyze and control biochemical reactions), antibodies (immunoglobulins which fend off invading bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, as well as toxins or antigens as they enter the body). (
  • Treatment for a whole year seems surprising even if your immunoglobulins (gamma globulin) are low. (
  • 3,5,6) The alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta globulin fractions of the EPH contain most of the acute-phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A, whereas the gamma fraction contains antibodies to viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens. (
  • There are three globulin fractions: alpha, beta and gamma. (
  • Antibodies are produced by mature B lymphocytes called plasma cells, while most of the other proteins in the alpha and beta fractions are made in the liver. (
  • In order of decreasing electrophoretic mobility these fractions are the alpha 1 -, alpha 2 -, beta 1 -, and beta 2 -globulins, and the gamma globulins. (
  • The aim of the method described here is to remove hemoglobin, the major contaminant in the bovine plasma obtained from slaughterhouses, by adding a mixture of 19% cold ethanol and 0.6% chloroform, followed by fibrinogen and globulin precipitation by the Cohn method and nonspecific hemagglutinin by thermocoagulation. (
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin ( SHBG ) or sex steroid-binding globulin ( SSBG ) is a glycoprotein that binds to androgens and estrogens . (
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin is homodimeric, meaning it has two identical peptide chains making up its structure. (
  • SHBG (Sex Hormone-binding Globulin), also known as ABP (Androgen-binding Protein), is a variably glycosylated, secreted, non-disulfide-linked homodimer. (
  • Globulins found in animal fluids are enzymes, antibodies, and fibrous and contractile proteins usually contained in the blood plasma . (
  • In humans and many of the other mammals, antibodies, when they are formed, occur in the gamma globulins. (
  • Globulins are proteins that include gamma globulins (antibodies) and a variety of enzymes and carrier/transport proteins. (
  • The initial increase in gamma globulins closely paralleled the appearance of antibodies. (
  • hyperimmune globulin any of various immune globulin preparations especially high in antibodies against certain specific diseases. (
  • The alpha and beta globulins are synthesized exclusively in the liver. (
  • If a test finds abnormally high globulin levels, this could be an indicator of the following diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, leukaemia, various chronic inflammatory diseases (e.g. syphilis and tuberculosis), liver diseases such as cirrhosis and jaundice, ulcerative colitis, various autoimmune disorders, plus chronic viral and bacterial infections (e.g. hepatitis and HIV). (
  • Some globulins are made by the liver, while others are made by the immune system. (
  • This procedure separates the proteins in serum and body fluids (e.g. peritoneal fluid, urine) into the component albumin and globulins. (
  • The electrophoretogram splits the protein fraction of serum or plasma into its constituent components this includes albumin and globulins. (
  • The major measured serum proteins are divided into two groups, albumin and globulins. (
  • Because the total protein represents the sum of albumin and globulins, it is more important to know which protein fraction is high or low than what is the total protein. (
  • Identifying the types of globulins can help diagnose certain medical problems. (
  • There are four major types of globulins, each with specific properties and actions. (
  • The insoluble form that was formerly called cold-insoluble globulin is a large complex of cross-linked subunits. (
  • A typical blood panel will provide four different measurements - the total protein, albumin, globulins, and the albumin globulin ratio. (
  • low total protein-5.7, low gamma globulin-.5, low IgG quantitative -621 worry? (
  • Some laboratories report total protein, albumin, and the calculated ratio of albumin to globulins, termed the A/G ratio. (
  • The A/G ratio is calculated from measured total protein, measured albumin, and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin). (
  • Additionally, since total protein can be low, increased, or the component globulin proteins altered with many different diseases and disorders, total protein and albumin tests may be ordered in a variety of settings to help diagnose disease, to monitor changes in health status, and as a screen that may indicate the need for various follow-up tests. (
  • A test for total serum protein reports separate values for total protein, albumin, and globulin. (
  • A total serum protein test is a blood test that measures the amounts of total protein , albumin, and globulin in the blood. (
  • What causes high globulin, but low globulin albumin ratio? (
  • Normally, there is a little more albumin than globulins, giving a normal A/G ratio of slightly over 1. (
  • Because disease states affect the relative amounts of albumin and globulin, the A/G ratio may provide a clue as to the cause of the change in protein levels. (
  • The amounts of albumin and globulin also are compared (albumin/globulin ratio). (
  • Normally, there is a little more albumin than globulin and the ratio is greater than 1. (
  • After adjusting for sex and age as confounding factors, only beta globulin was found to be associated with Coats' disease in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-3.1, P =0.02). (
  • Antithymocyte globulin (e.g. (
  • The START trial aims to determine whether antithymocyte globulin (ATG) treatment can halt the progression of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes when given within 12 weeks of disease diagnosis. (
  • The medication being tested in the START trial is antithymocyte globulin (e.g. (
  • Beta-globulin immunological test system. (
  • A beta -globulin immunological test system is a device that consists of reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques beta globulins (serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. (
  • All about High Globulin Levels the side effects of Gamma Globulin and Infusions of gamma globulin. (
  • Beta globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma that are more mobile in alkaline or electrically charged solutions than gamma globulins, but less mobile than alpha globulins. (
  • When speaking of globulin, the term globular protein is sometimes used, but it should be noted that albumin is another form of globular protein, so it is important to understand that globulin and globular protein are not interchangeable terms. (
  • Though the human body can manufacture globular proteins from any protein source, it is much more efficient for the body to make globulins from locally digestible globular proteins. (
  • Globular proteins found in edestin (and in Alpha 1 globulins, Alpha 2 globulins, Beta globulins and Gamma globulins) are long peptide-chains, precursors for biological proteins essential for life. (
  • And globulins along with albumins are classified as globular proteins. (
  • Since the gamma fraction usually makes up the largest portion of the globulins, antibody deficiency should always come to mind when the globulin level is low. (
  • However, later in the course of the infections there appeared to be little correlation between the gamma globulin and antibody levels. (
  • Ideally, whey protein is a mixture of beta-lacto globulin, alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, immunoglobins and Glycomacropeptide. (
  • Structural stability of beta-globulin, the low molecular weight protein fraction from sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) in alkaline solution. (
  • Beta-globulin , a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 15,000 +/- 1,000, undergoes denaturation in alkaline pH (7.0-13.0), thereby affecting the hydrodynamic properties of the protein , viz. (
  • Gamma globulins have a vital role in natural and acquired immunity to infection. (
  • Other globulins transport metals, such as iron, in the blood and help fight infection. (
  • On the other hand, globulins are salted out (i.e., precipitated) by half-saturation with ammonium sulfate. (
  • The term globulin is a partly procedural one, used in classifying an otherwise diverse group of proteins that are soluble in water or dilute salt solutions. (
  • There is an increase in a-2 globulins (arrowhead), indicating an acute phase reactant response, and a polyclonal gammopathy (arrow). (
  • Hyperimmune globulin is used primarily for passive immunization in some viral illnesses. (
  • In fact, the globulins are a heterogeneous array of proteins of widely varying structure and function, only a few of which will be mentioned here. (
  • A rapid immunoassay of the serum beta 1C globulin can be easily performed. (
  • The Increase of Thyroid Abnormalities, Elevated Serum Beta Globulins and Type A Blood Group in Paget's Disease. (
  • Serum beta globulin levels appear to be elevated in patients with Coats' disease. (
  • [4] They constitute most of the gamma globulin fraction of the blood proteins . (
  • subgroup of the blood proteins called globulins. (
  • The iron/ ferritin and globulin levels could be related to low dietary intake/ malsorption or secondary to a few systemic causes. (
  • Globulin is made up of different proteins called alpha, beta, and gamma types. (
  • Complement factor H (CFH), originally known as beta-1H globulin, is a serum glycoprotein that regulates the function of the alternative complement pathway in fluid phase and on cellular surfaces. (
  • When testing for the possibility of quite a large number of different diseases and disorders, establishing globulin levels is an important part of a doctor's diagnosis. (
  • On the other hand, low globulin levels could ring a different set of alarm bells, being a possible indicator of things like celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, anaemia, and some kidney diseases. (
  • Globulins are other proteins usually made to fight diseases like infections- perhaps you've been fighting an illness for a few weeks/months that explain this pattern. (
  • Any of a group of globulins in blood plasma that in an electrophoretic separation of serum proteins migrate faster toward the anode than gamma globulins but more slowly than alpha globulins. (
  • The research teams found that a blood-borne molecule (beta-2 microglobulin, or B2M, a component of a larger molecule called MHC) which plays an important role in the adaptive immune system, greatly increases as we age, and can act adversely in the brain , in ways not related to immunity-blocking the regeneration of brain cells, thus promoting cognitive decline . (
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. (
  • Globulins are an important source of protein in seed plants and are found in minute amounts in cereals. (
  • It also measures the amounts of two major groups of proteins in the blood: albumin and globulin. (
  • Alpha and beta globulins are transport proteins, serve as substrates upon which other substances are formed, and perform other diverse functions. (
  • There are different reasons why globulin levels may become raised, but it should be noted that meddling with things like anabolic steroids, preparations containing Human Growth Hormone (HGH), and progesterone may all have the effect of raising levels of globulin in the blood. (
  • these are alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and gamma globulins, so the medic must identify which of these, if any, has abnormal levels, which in turn might point to an underlying problem. (
  • It is also known that elevated levels of oestrogen and extended use of oral contraceptives may both have an impact on globulin levels. (
  • You can bet that testing for globulin levels is one guaranteed way that the doctor can get to the bottom of what is ailing you and so you should set up a consultation as a matter of urgency. (
  • Elevated gamma globulin levels tended to persist if clinical evidence of immunity was present but decreased rapidly to normal levels if evidence of immunity was lacking. (
  • In general, alpha and gamma globulin protein levels increase when there is inflammation in the body. (
  • Other globulins are involved in the transport of a variety of substances, including lipids lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. (