Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial: An autosomal dominant inherited form of HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY. It results from any of more than 50 mutations involving genes encoding contractile proteins such as VENTRICULAR MYOSINS; cardiac TROPONIN T; ALPHA-TROPOMYOSIN.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta: A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Beta-Globulins: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Thymosin: Thymosin. A family of heat-stable, polypeptide hormones secreted by the thymus gland. Their biological activities include lymphocytopoiesis, restoration of immunological competence and enhancement of expression of T-cell characteristics and function. They have therapeutic potential in patients having primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases, cancer or diseases related to aging.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta: DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel beta Subunits: The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mice, Inbred BALB CNF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).DioxolesReceptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphotoxin beta Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Characterization of the divergent sacBK and sacAR operons, involved in sucrose utilization by Lactococcus lactis. (1/587)

The divergently transcribed sacBK and sacAR operons, which are involved in the utilization of sucrose by Lactococcus lactis NZ9800, were examined by transcriptional and gene inactivation studies. Northern analyses of RNA isolated from cells grown at the expense of different carbon sources revealed three sucrose-inducible transcripts: one of 3.2 kb containing sacB and sacK, a second of 3.4 kb containing sacA and sacR, and a third of 1.8 kb containing only sacR. The inactivation of the sacR gene by replacement recombination resulted in the constitutive transcription of the sacBK and sacAR operons in the presence of different carbon sources, indicating that SacR acts as a repressor of transcription.  (+info)

Ligand recognition and domain structure of Vps10p, a vacuolar protein sorting receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/587)

Vp10p is a receptor that sorts several different vacuolar proteins by cycling between a late Golgi compartment and the endosome. The cytoplasmic tail of Vps10p is necessary for the recycling, whereas the lumenal domain is predicted to interact with the soluble ligands. We have studied ligand binding to Vps10p by introducing deletions in the lumenal region. This region contains two domains with homology to each other. Domain 2 binds carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), proteinase A (PrA) and hybrids of these proteases with invertase. Moreover, we show that aminopeptidase Y (APY) is a ligand of Vps10p. The native proteases compete for binding to domain 2. Binding of CPY(156)-invertase or PrA(137)-invertase, on the other hand, do not interfere with binding of CPY to Vps10p. Furthermore, the Q24RPL27 sequence known to be important for vacuolar sorting of CPY, is of little importance in the Vps10p-dependent sorting of CPY-invertase. Apparently, domain 2 contains two different binding sites; one for APY, CPY and PrA, and one for CPY-invertase and PrA-invertase. The latter interaction seems not to be sequence specific, and we suggest that an unfolded structure in these ligands is recognized by Vps10p.  (+info)

Novel alleles of yeast hexokinase PII with distinct effects on catalytic activity and catabolite repression of SUC2. (3/587)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose or fructose represses the expression of a large number of genes. The phosphorylation of glucose or fructose is catalysed by hexokinase PI (Hxk1), hexokinase PII (Hxk2) and a specific glucokinase (Glk1). The authors have shown previously that either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for a rapid, sugar-induced disappearance of catabolite-repressible mRNAs (short-term catabolite repression). Hxk2 is specifically required and sufficient for long-term glucose repression and either Hxk1 or Hxk2 is sufficient for long-term repression by fructose. Mutants lacking the TPS1 gene, which encodes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase, can not grow on glucose or fructose. In this study, suppressor mutations of the growth defect of a tps1delta hxk1delta double mutant on fructose were isolated and identified as novel HXK2 alleles. All six alleles studied have single amino acid substitutions. The mutations affected glucose and fructose phosphorylation to a different extent, indicating that Hxk2 binds glucose and fructose via distinct mechanisms. The mutations conferred different effects on long- and short-term repression. Two of the mutants showed very similar defects in catabolite repression, despite large differences in residual sugar-phosphorylation activity. The data show that the long- and short-term phases of catabolite repression can be dissected using different hexokinase mutations. The lack of correlation between in vitro catalytic hexokinase activity, in vivo sugar phosphate accumulation and the establishment of catabolite repression suggests that the production of sugar phosphate is not the sole role of hexokinase in repression. Using the set of six hxk2 mutants it was shown that there is a good correlation between the glucose-induced cAMP signal and in vivo hexokinase activity. There was no correlation between the cAMP signal and the short- or long-term repression of SUC2, arguing against an involvement of cAMP in either stage of catabolite repression.  (+info)

Evidence for the involvement of the Glc7-Reg1 phosphatase and the Snf1-Snf4 kinase in the regulation of INO1 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/587)

Binding of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) to the promoter is a pivotal step in RNA polymerase II transcription. To identify factors that regulate TBP, we selected for suppressors of a TBP mutant that exhibits promoter-specific defects in activated transcription in vivo and severely reduced affinity for TATA boxes in vitro. Dominant mutations in SNF4 and recessive mutations in REG1, OPI1, and RTF2 were isolated that specifically suppress the inositol auxotrophy of the TBP mutant strains. OPI1 encodes a repressor of INO1 transcription. REG1 and SNF4 encode regulators of the Glc7 phosphatase and Snf1 kinase, respectively, and have well-studied roles in glucose repression. In two-hybrid assays, one SNF4 mutation enhances the interaction between Snf4 and Snf1. Suppression of the TBP mutant by our reg1 and SNF4 mutations appears unrelated to glucose repression, since these mutations do not alleviate repression of SUC2, and glucose levels have little effect on INO1 transcription. Moreover, mutations in TUP1, SSN6, and GLC7, but not HXK2 and MIG1, can cause suppression. Our data suggest that association of TBP with the TATA box may be regulated, directly or indirectly, by a substrate of Snf1. Analysis of INO1 transcription in various mutant strains suggests that this substrate is distinct from Opi1.  (+info)

Yeast VSM1 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein that may act as a negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. (5/587)

We have screened for proteins that interact with v-SNAREs of the late secretory pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A novel protein, designated Vsm1, binds tightly to the Snc2 v-SNARE in the two-hybrid system and can be coimmunoprecipitated with Snc1 or Snc2 from solubilized yeast cell extracts. Disruption of the VSM1 gene results in an increase of proteins secreted into the medium but does not affect the processing or secretion of invertase. In contrast, VSM1 overexpression in cells which bear a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Sec9 t-SNARE (sec9-4 cells) results in the accumulation of non-invertase-containing low-density secretory vesicles, inhibits cell growth and the secretion of proteins into the medium, and blocks rescue of the temperature-sensitive phenotype by SNC1 overexpression. Yet, VSM1 overexpression does not affect yeast bearing a sec9-7 allele which, in contrast to sec9-4, encodes a t-SNARE protein capable of forming a stable SNARE complex in vitro at restrictive temperatures. On the basis of these results, we propose that Vsm1 is a novel v-SNARE-interacting protein that appears to act as negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. Moreover, this regulation appears specific to one of two parallel exocytic paths which are operant in yeast cells.  (+info)

Glycosylation of the overlapping sequons in yeast external invertase: effect of amino acid variation on site selectivity in vivo and in vitro. (6/587)

Yeast invertase contains 14 sequons, all of which are glycosylated to varying degrees except for sequon 5 which is marginally glycosylated, if at all. This sequon overlaps with sequon 4 in a sequence consisting of Asn92-Asn93-Thr94-Ser95(Reddy et al., 1988, J. Biol. Chem., 263, 6978-6985). To determine whether glycosylation at Asn93is sterically hindered by the oligosaccharide on Asn92, the latter amino acid was converted to a glutamine residue by site-directed mutagenesis of the SUC2 gene in a plasmid vector which was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A glycopeptide encompassing sequons 3 through 6 was purified from a tryptic digest of the mutagenized invertase and sequenced by Edman degradation, which revealed that Asn93 of sequon 5 contained very little, if any, carbohydrate, despite the elimination of sequon 4. When Ser and Thr were inverted to yield Asn-Asn-Ser-Thr carbohydrate was associated primarily with the second sequon, in agreement with numerous studies indicating that Asn-X-Thr is preferred to Asn-X-Ser as an oligosaccharide acceptor. However, when the invertase overlapping sequons were converted to Asn-Asn-Ser-Ser, both sequons were clearly glycosylated, with the latter sequon predominating. These findings rule out steric hindrance as a factor involved in preventing the glycosylation of sequon 5 in invertase. Comparable results were obtained using an in vitro system with sequon-containing tri- and tetrapeptides acceptors, in addition to larger oligosaccharide acceptors.  (+info)

Std1 and Mth1 proteins interact with the glucose sensors to control glucose-regulated gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/587)

The Std1 protein modulates the expression of glucose-regulated genes, but its exact molecular role in this process is unclear. A two-hybrid screen for Std1-interacting proteins identified the hydrophilic C-terminal domains of the glucose sensors, Snf3 and Rgt2. The homologue of Std1, Mth1, behaves differently from Std1 in this assay by interacting with Snf3 but not Rgt2. Genetic interactions between STD1, MTH1, SNF3, and RGT2 suggest that the glucose signaling is mediated, at least in part, through interactions of the products of these four genes. Mutations in MTH1 can suppress the raffinose growth defect of a snf3 mutant as well as the glucose fermentation defect present in cells lacking both glucose sensors (snf3 rgt2). Genetic suppression by mutations in MTH1 is likely to be due to the increased and unregulated expression of hexose transporter genes. In media lacking glucose or with low levels of glucose, the hexose transporter genes are subject to repression by a mechanism that requires the Std1 and Mth1 proteins. An additional mechanism for glucose sensing must exist since a strain lacking all four genes (snf3 rgt2 std1 mth1) is still able to regulate SUC2 gene expression in response to changes in glucose concentration. Finally, studies with green fluorescent protein fusions indicate that Std1 is localized to the cell periphery and the cell nucleus, supporting the idea that it may transduce signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.  (+info)

A role for Tlg1p in the transport of proteins within the Golgi apparatus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/587)

Members of the syntaxin protein family participate in the docking-fusion step of several intracellular vesicular transport events. Tlg1p has been identified as a nonessential protein required for efficient endocytosis as well as the maintenance of normal levels of trans-Golgi network proteins. In this study we independently describe Tlg1p as an essential protein required for cell viability. Depletion of Tlg1p in vivo causes a defect in the transport of the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y through the early Golgi. Temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of Tlg1p also accumulate the endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi form of carboxypeptidase Y at the nonpermissive temperature (38 degrees C) and exhibit underglycosylation of secreted invertase. Overexpression of Tlg1p complements the growth defect of vti1-11 at the nonpermissive temperature, whereas incomplete complementation was observed with vti1-1, further suggesting a role for Tlg1p in the Golgi apparatus. Overexpression of Sed5p decreases the viability of tlg1 ts mutants compared with wild-type cells, suggesting that tlg1 ts mutants are more susceptible to elevated levels of Sed5p. Tlg1p is able to bind His6-tagged Sec17p (yeast alpha-SNAP) in a dose-dependent manner and enters into a SNARE complex with Vti1p, Tlg2p, and Vps45p. Morphological analyses by electron microscopy reveal that cells depleted of Tlg1p or tlg1 ts mutants incubated at the restrictive temperature accumulate 40- to 50-nm vesicles and experience fragmentation of the vacuole.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Cold-induced repression of the rice anther-specific cell wall invertase gene OSINV4 is correlated with sucrose accumulation and pollen sterility. AU - Oliver, Sandra N.. AU - Van Dongen, Joost T.. AU - Alfred, Sanjeev C.. AU - Mamun, Ezaz A.. AU - Zhao, Xiaochun. AU - Saini, Hargurdeep S.. AU - Fernandes, Sussan F.. AU - Blanchard, Christopher L.. AU - Sutton, Bruce G.. AU - Geigenberger, Peter. AU - Dennis, Elizabeth S.. AU - Dolferus, Rudy. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - Low temperatures during rice (Oryza sativa L.) pollen development cause pollen sterility and decreased grain yield. We show that the time of highest sensitivity to cold coincides with the time of peak tapetal activity: the transition of the tetrad to early uni-nucleate stage (young microspore, YM stage). Low temperatures at this stage of pollen development result in an accumulation of sucrose in the anthers, accompanied by decreased activity of cell wall bound acid invertase and depletion of starch in ...
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis is required for grain-fill in maize and appears to be regulated by cell-wall invertase (CWIN) activity. OsYUC12 is one of three IAA biosynthesis genes we previously reported as expressed during early rice grain development, correlating with a large increase in IAA content of the grain. This work aimed to investigate further the role of OsYUC12 and its relationship to CWIN activity and invertase inhibitors (INVINH). The analysis shows a brief peak of OsYUC12 expression early in endosperm development. Meta-analysis of microarray data, confirmed by quantitative expression analysis, revealed that OsYUC12 is coexpressed with OsIAA29, which encodes an unusual AUX/IAA transcription factor previously reported as poorly expressed. Maximum expression of OsYUC12 and OsIAA29 coincided with maximum CWIN activity, but also with a peak in INVINH expression. Unlike ZmYUC1, OsYUC12 expression is not reduced in the rice CWIN mutant, gif1. Several reports have investigated CWIN
In the process of protein secretion, amino-terminal signal sequences are key recognition elements; however, the relation between the primary sequence of an amino-terminal peptide and its ability to function as an export signal remains obscure. The limits of variation permitted for functional signal sequences were determined by replacement of the normal signal sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase with essentially random peptide sequences. Since about one-fifth of these sequences can function as an export signal the specificity with which signal sequences are recognized must be very low.. ...
The location of acid invertase activity and sucrose in the vacuoles of storage roots of beetroot (Beta vulgaris).: Vacuoles were isolated from freshly cut slice
Fig. (6) Staining of invertase activity on the parts of the transverse sections of a maize root tip from the region of the beginning of the elongation zone (A, B) and from the basal part of the meristem (C). The parts of the sections contain rhizodermis (rh), cortex (cor), endodermis (en), pericycle (pc) and stele (A, B) and a region of vascular cylinder (C). The reaction with (A, C) or without (В) sucrose in the incubation medium. Bar - 100 µm (A, B), 25 µm (C). ph - phloem, mx - metaxylem vessel, px - protoxylem vessel. ...
Fig. (7) Staining of invertase activity. (A, B) - cortex cells in the transverse sections in the basal part of the maize root meristem, (C) the border cells liberated from the maize root caps into the medium. All sections were treated with 0.7 M mannitol previously. The reaction with (A, C) or without (B) sucrose in the incubation medium. Bar - 25 µm. ...
Dominant and recessive mutations at the SSN20 locus were previously isolated as extragenic suppressors of mutations in three genes (SNF2, SNF5, and SNF6) that are required in trans to derepress invertase expression. All ssn20 alleles cause recessive, temperature-sensitive lethality. In this study we cloned the SSN20 gene, identified a 4.6-kilobase poly(A)-containing RNA, and showed that disruption of the gene is lethal in a haploid cell. Genetic mapping of SSN20 to a locus on chromosome VII 10 centimorgans distal to cly8 led to the finding that SSN20 is the same gene as SPT6, which affects expression of delta insertions in the 5 noncoding region of HIS4 (F. Winston, D. T. Chaleff, B. Valent, and G. R. Fink, Genetics 107:179-197, 1984). We also showed that an ssn20 mutation restored expression of secreted invertase from deletions of the SUC2 upstream regulatory region; ssn20 restored derepression of SUC2 mRNA in strains with a SUC2 upstream region deletion or a snf2 mutation. Increased or ...
Asturias JA, Ibarrola I, Eraso E, Arilla MC, Martinez A. The major Platanus acerifolia pollen allergen Pla a 1 has sequence homology to invertase inhibitors. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003 Jul;33(7):978-85 ...
Lookchem Provide Cas No.9001-57-4 Basic information: Properties,Safety Data,Sds and Other Datebase. We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 9001-57-4 INVERTASE.
Evidence that high activity of vacuolar invertase Is required for cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root elongation through osmotic dependent and independent pathways, respectively
AB : A ` particulate ` invertase preparation of low activity (sedimenting in the 900 g fraction) was extracted from the stalk and mesocarp tissues of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). The activity o invertase was found to increase linearly with the time of incubation (0 - 3h). Initial velocity was directly proportional to enzyme concentration, only in the low concentration ranges. The initial velocity decreased at enzyme concentrations higher than 0.13 mg protein per 2.0 ml of incubation mixture. Treatment of the particulate enzyme with 0.1 present and 0.5 present (v/v) of the nonionic surface active agent, Triton X - 100, solubilized 71 percent and 76 percent of the invertase. Incorporation of the non-acidic thiol, mercaptoethanol into the reaction mixture, caused significant activation of the invertase. This suggested the possibility of an SH group participating in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. In addition, mercaptoethanol may cause enzyme reactivation by reducing the quinones formed by the ...
A multi-year research on the influence of donor-acceptor relations between photosynthetic and assimilate-consuming organs on regulation of plant photosynthesis has been summarized. Cause and effect relationships between chloroplast photochemical reactions, CO|sub|2|/sub| assimilation and oxygen photosynthetic metabolism, transport of sugars in the phloem, apoplastic invertase and leaf stomata activity have been established. A concept, according to which the regulation of photosynthesis at the level of an assimilate donor leaf with the change of illumination or export of products of photosynthesis is effectuated as follows, has been introduced. In case of deficiency of products of chloroplast photochemical reactions there occurs incomplete regeneration of resulting primary CO|sub|2|/sub| fixation products and rapid accumulation of oxygenated substances in cells, vacuoles and the apoplast of the leaf. Apoplastic fluid pH decrease activates the invertase and intensifies the sucrose splitting in the
A novel cDNA clone, functionally expressed in E. coli, was isolated from a L. temulentum L. cDNA library. The expressed protein hydrolysed sucrose with an apparent Km of approximately 18 mM, and produced equi-molar concentrations of glucose and fructose. Optimum activity was observed at pH 7-7.5; there was little or no activity at pH 5.5. The expressed protein did not hydrolyse raffinose, stachyose or maltose. The activity of the expressed protein was inhibited by fructose (50% at 15 mM) and TRIS (50% at 2.5 mM), but was not affected by MgCl2, CaCl2 or MnCl2. These findings suggest that this cDNA clone encodes for an alkaline/neutral invertase. Sequence analysis revealed little homology with published sequences for acid invertase, however the invertase motif (NDPN) identified in other invertases was present. Expression studies show that the gene encoding for this enzyme is not regulated by sucrose accumulation in leaf ...
Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh
TY - THES. T1 - Arabidopsis 14-3-3 Proteins Control Sucrose Metabolism and Ion Homeostasis. AU - Gao, J.. N1 - Aard- en Levenswetenschappen Naam instelling promotie: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Naam instelling onderzoek: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - 11366. AB - 11366. M3 - PhD Thesis - Research VU, graduation VU. ER - ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Refiners syrup (also called "golden syrup") is made, as the name implies, at a sugar refinery, not at the sugar mill which is where molasses is produced. Its a by product of the making of white sugar, the final "molasses" thats produced when white sugar is centrifuged. It contains mainly sucrose and water when its first spun out, but is treated with acid (or sometimes the enzyme invertase) to create a proportion of invert sugar. For more on sugar refining, see my (now integrated) primer on sugar making.. Refiners syrup can make a fine alternative to either molasses or corn syrup depending on the application, though since it tastes every bit as sweet as table sugar you need to be careful about overloading your recipe with sweetness. READ ON ...
With yeast this hypothesis can easily be tested, because a whole set of temperature-sensitive secretory mutants (Schekman, 1985) with defects at all stages along the secretory pathway of proteins is available. Secretory mutants selected for this study are listed in Table 1. If sphingolipids reach the plasma membrane by a process linked to protein secretion, temperature shift of secretory mutants from 24 to 37°C should not only inhibit protein secretion, but also affect the intracellular translocation of sphingolipids. Again, the kinetic and biochemical properties of cholesterol and marker protein transport to the PM are compared. The t1/2 of cholesterol transport to the PM was approximately 10 min (Kaplan and Simoni, 1985a), a value within the bounds of estimates of bulk membrane flow from the ER to the plasma membrane (Wieland et aL, 1987). This cholesterol transport required metabolic energy, exhibited a dramatic cold-sensitivity as transport ceased at 15°C, and labeled cholesterol ...
Sucrose is one of the main products of photosynthesis in plants, and the most common form of carbohydrate transported from source to sink organs
How do we make salts? What preparations are available to us? Four basic methods for preparing salts are described on this page, with annotated diagrams. Method (a) Making a salt by neutralising a soluble acid with a soluble base (alkali), Method (b) Preparing a salt by reacting an acid with a metal or with an insoluble base, Method (c) Preparing an Insoluble Salt and Method 6d. Making a salt by directly combining its constituent elements
ISKON REMEDIES is on a mission to manufacture the finest and widest range of pharmaceutical injectables at the best rates and ensure best of health, which is the real wealth of the nation. We plan to grow, expand and fulfill client expectations and contribute to welfare of the society. ...
A revealing signature: The glycan structure of intact yeast external invertase, a high-mannose glycoprotein used as biocatalyst, was investigated by using Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy. The conformational preferences present in mannose-containing di- and trisaccharides were found to be preserved in the glycan chains, with secondary polpeptide backbone structure suppressed.. ...
Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.1.1.14) was extracted, as described by Park et al. (2002) and Yamaguchi and Kanayama (1996) with some modifications. 0.5 g frozen sample was homogenized in 2 ml of 200 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.8) containing 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM sodium ascorbate, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), 0.15% (v/v) Triton X-100, 1% (w/v) BSA and 2% (w/v) insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). The homogenate was centrifuged at 13,000×g for 15 min at 4°C. 1 ml of the supernatant was desalted with a Sephadex G25 PD-10 column (GE Healthcare, UK) equilibrated with 125 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.6). SDH activity was measured in a 1 ml reaction mixture containing 500 mM Sorbitol, 1 mM NAD+ and desalted extract in 125 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.0), and NADH production was determined at 340 nm.. For acid invertase (AI, EC 3.2.1.26), neutral invertase (NI, EC 3.2.1.26), sucrose synthase (SS, EC 2.4.1.13), sorbitol oxidase (SOX, EC 1.5.3.1) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) activity, the ...
Sugarcane is the most efficient large-scale crop capable of supplying sufficient carbon substrate, in the form of sucrose, needed during fermentative feedstock production. However, sucrose metabolism in Escherichia coli is not well understood because the two most common strains, E. coli K-12 and B, do not grow on sucrose. Here, using a sucrose utilizing strain, E. coli W, we undertake an in-depth comparison of sucrose and glucose metabolism including growth kinetics, metabolite profiling, microarray-based transcriptome analysis, labelling-based proteomic analysis and 13C-fluxomics. While E. coli W grew comparably well on sucrose and glucose integration of the omics, datasets showed that during growth on each carbon source, metabolism was distinct. The metabolism was generally derepressed on sucrose, and significant flux rearrangements were observed in central carbon metabolism.These included a reduction in the flux of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway branch, an increase in the ...
Carbohydrate profiling in seeds and seedlings of transgenic triticale modified in the expression of sucrose:sucrose-1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan-6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT)
Immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP, GRP-78) associates tightly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with newly synthesized proteins that are incompletely assembled, have mutant structures, or are incorrectly glycosylated. The function of BiP has been suggested to be to prevent secretion of incorrectly folded or incompletely assembled protein, to promote folding or assembly of proteins, or to solubilize protein aggregates within the ER lumen. Here we examine the interaction of BiP with newly synthesized polypeptides in an in vitro protein translation-translocation system. We find that BiP forms tight complexes with nonglycosylated yeast invertase and incorrectly disulphide-bonded prolactin, but does not associate detectably with either glycosylated invertase or correctly disulphide-bonded prolactin. Moreover, BiP associates detectably only with completed chains of prolactin, not with chains undergoing synthesis. We conclude that BiP recognizes and binds with high affinity in vitro to ...
It was found that Concanavalin A (Con A) accelerates the rates of hydrolysis of E. coli beta-galactosidase and yeast invertase by binding to the product (glucose) formed in the reaction. The effect of Con A can be made ...
Microbes emit volatile compounds that affect plant growth and development. However, little or nothing is known about how microbial emissions may affect primary carbohydrate metabolism in plants. In this work we explored the effect on leaf starch metabolism of volatiles released from different microbial species ranging from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to fungi. Surprisingly, we found that all microbial species tested (including plant pathogens and species not normally interacting with plants) emitted volatiles that strongly promoted starch accumulation in leaves of both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Starch content in leaves of plants treated for 2 d with microbial volatiles was comparable with or even higher than that of reserve organs such as potato tubers. Transcriptome and enzyme activity analyses of potato leaves exposed to volatiles emitted by Alternaria alternata revealed that starch overaccumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of sucrose synthase, invertase inhibitors, ...
The consumption of netted muskmelons (Cucumis melo L. Reticulatus group) has raised health concerns due to pathogenic bacteria attaching to sites on the netted rind inaccessible to sanitation. The purpose of this study was to compare 1) the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant capacity between representative cultivars of netted muskmelon and both green- and orange-fleshed honey dew muskmelons during storage for 17 days and 2) levels of non-nutrient phytochemicals between these genotypes in consideration of ultimately substituting netted orange-fleshed with non-netted orange-fleshed muskmelon. Netted muskmelon (`Cruiser), green-fleshed (`Honey Brew), and orange-fleshed (`Orange Dew) muskmelons were harvested in Texas at the beginning (21 May) and at the end (11 June) of the production season in 2004. Fruit were analyzed immediately (day 0) or stored simulating retail conditions for 7 or 14 days at 7 °C and 95% ± 2% relative humidity plus 3 days at 21 °C. Both `Orange Dew and `Honey Brew ...
2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-2-({[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5- ...
formula I or ketoamide intermediates to prepare compounds of formula I is to to add 1- 20 equivalents but most preferably 5 equivalents of a commercially available solution of 32% peracetic acid in dilute aq acetic acid to the reaction flask containing the completed reaction described in Step A. The reaction is typically stirred at the same temperature at which the alkylation reaction was conducted (for the Step A reactions with an acid chloride in THF -78° and for the step A reactions in DMF ~ -42°) for a period of Ih and then allowed to warm to ambient temperature if not already at that tmeperature. The reaction mixture is then either allowed to react further or immediately diluted with saturated aq. ammonium chloride and EtOAc. For relatively insoluble acid products which precipatate, the resultant precipitate is isolated by filtration as the oxoacetyl product ZC(O)C(O)Y. For organic soluble acid products, the acid is extracted into the organic layer and the layers separated. The organic ...
The health benefits of muskmelon or cantaloupe include supply of essential vitamins and minerals, good source of antioxidants, offers eye protection, offer
Superimposition of raffinose-bound complexes of T. maritima invertase and B. subtilis levansucrase. Raffinose-bound structures of T. maritima invertase (blue, 1
TR2 Variation Modulates Ssn6 Solubility and Protein Interactions(A) Identification of Ssn6 interactors. Shared and unique interacting proteins between WT Ssn6 (
78069 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet. Avhandling: Svenska Arbetsgivareföreningen och arbetskraftsinvandringen 1945-1972.
Four monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) were generated against the soluble extracellular acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) (S-AcP) of Leishmania donovani. These were detected in the primary screen using an ELISA with promastigote culture supernatants as antigen. Three of the McAbs demonstrated bound S-AcP from such culture supernatants in an enzyme activity binding assay. All immunoprecipitated metabolically labeled S-AcP but none showed any binding to the promastigote surface by indirect immunofluorescence. Moreover, none reacted with Triton X-100 solubilized plasma membranes by immunoprecipitation or Western blotting. These results demonstrated that the McAbs did not recognize the surface membrane bound acid phosphatase, but were specific for the extracellular soluble enzyme. Further, none of the antibodies immunoprecipitated any of the five human acid phosphatase isozymes or reacted with them in Western blots or the enzyme activity binding assay. Therefore, they are specific for the parasite-derived ...
3.2.1.1 Alpha-amylase 3.2.1.2 Beta-amylase 3.2.1.3 Glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase 3.2.1.4 Cellulase 3.2.1.5 Deleted entry 3.2.1.6 Endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase 3.2.1.7 Inulinase 3.2.1.8 Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase 3.2.1.9 Deleted entry 3.2.1.10 Oligo-1,6-glucosidase 3.2.1.11 Dextranase 3.2.1.12 Transferred entry: 3.2.1.54 3.2.1.13 Transferred entry: 3.2.1.54 3.2.1.14 Chitinase 3.2.1.15 Polygalacturonase 3.2.1.16 Deleted entry 3.2.1.17 Lysozyme 3.2.1.18 Exo-alpha-sialidase 3.2.1.19 Deleted entry 3.2.1.20 Alpha-glucosidase 3.2.1.21 Beta-glucosidase 3.2.1.22 Alpha-galactosidase 3.2.1.23 Beta-galactosidase 3.2.1.24 Alpha-mannosidase 3.2.1.25 Beta-mannosidase 3.2.1.26 Beta-fructofuranosidase 3.2.1.27 Deleted entry 3.2.1.28 Alpha,alpha-trehalase 3.2.1.29 Transferred entry: 3.2.1.52 3.2.1.30 Transferred entry: 3.2.1.52 3.2.1.31 Beta-glucuronidase 3.2.1.32 Endo-1,3-beta-xylanase 3.2.1.33 Amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase 3.2.1.34 Transferred entry: 3.2.1.35 3.2.1.35 Hyaluronoglucosaminidase 3.2.1.36 ...
Golden Syrup - Lyles is the only brand I have ever seen in the U.S. as this is primarily a British product. Golden syrup is a pale version of Treacle. This is a form of inverted sugar. Inverted sugar is created by adding an enzyme (invertase) to a cane sugar/water solution in the presence of an acid... say lemon juice. The enzyme breaks the Glucose-Fructose bond, so you end up with a syrup that has free glucose and free fructose. Golden syrup differs from High-Fructose corn syrup in that the process ends with the breaking of the glucose/fructose bond. HFCS undergoes and extra enzymatic step that actually changes some of the glucose into fructose using Xylose Isomerase. Golden syrup IS sweeter than regular granulated sugar even though its made from cane juice.... this is due to the free fructose, making it similar to honey both in texture and sweetening power. It is often used as a substitute by persons who abstain from honey ...
Invertase was immobilised on microporous montmorillonite K-10 via adsorption and covalent binding. The immobilised enzymes were tested for sucrose hydrolysis activity in a batch reactor. Km for immobilised systems was greater than free enzyme. The immobilised forms could be reused for 15 continuous cycles without any loss in activity. After 25 cycles, 85% initial activity was retained. A study on leaching of enzymes showed that 100% enzyme was retained even after 15 cycles of reuse. Leaching increased with reaction temperature. Covalent binding resisted leaching even at temperatures of 70 °C ...
invertase (EC 3.2.1.26); endo-inulinase (EC 3.2.1.7); β-2,6-fructan 6-levanbiohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.64); endo-levanase (EC 3.2.1.65); exo-inulinase (EC 3.2.1.80); fructan β-(2,1)-fructosidase/1-exohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.153); fructan β-(2,6)-fructosidase/6-exohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.154); sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99); fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.100); sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.10); fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.243); levan fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); [retaining] sucrose:sucrose 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SST) (EC 2.4.1.-); cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
invertase (EC 3.2.1.26); endo-inulinase (EC 3.2.1.7); β-2,6-fructan 6-levanbiohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.64); endo-levanase (EC 3.2.1.65); exo-inulinase (EC 3.2.1.80); fructan β-(2,1)-fructosidase/1-exohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.153); fructan β-(2,6)-fructosidase/6-exohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.154); sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99); fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.100); sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.10); fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.243); levan fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.-); [retaining] sucrose:sucrose 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SST) (EC 2.4.1.-); cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.- ...
Introduction. Biology coursework Investigation- Affect of sucrose concentration on the rate of respiration. Planning Aim and Background information The aim of this investigation is to find out how the affect of changing the sucrose concentration affects the rate of respiration of yeast. The reaction can be measured by the amount of carbon dioxide given of by yeast and ethanol is also produced as a result of the reaction. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a unicellular fungus, which is frequently used in baking. The precise classification is a field that uses the characteristics of the cell, ascospore and colony. Physiological characteristics are also used to identify species. One of the better-known characteristics is the ability to ferment sugars for the production of ethanol. Budding yeasts are true fungi of the phylum Ascomycetes, class Hemiascomycetes. The true yeasts are separated into one main order Saccharomycetales. Yeasts multiply as single cells that divide by budding (eg ...
Effect of varying sucrose concentration on macrobehavioral aspects of licking in the rat.: Rats (eight male, eight female) were trained to lick 32% and 4% sucro
(a) Apoplasmic transport (figure) Figure 5.32 Mechanistic model for plasma membrane transport of sucrose from the coat and into the cotyledons of a developing legume seed.
En växande andel äldre i befolkningen i kombination med en minskande andel arbetskraft ställer allt tuffare krav på utveckling av vård och omsorg. För att klara dessa utmaningar och utveckla framtidens välfärdtjänster krävs nya innovativa arbetssätt. Vi arbetar nu med ett projekt som handlar om verksamhets- och serviceutveckling inom området äldre och vuxna med funktionsnedsättning. Projektet drivs i samarbete med ett tvärvetenskapligt forskarteam från Karolinska institutet, Göteborgs universitet och Luleå tekniska universitet och pågår från november 2009 till och med december 2012.. Syftet med projektet är att i regionen Sörmland utveckla och testa arbetssätt som kan stödja innovativ verksamhets- och serviceutveckling inom området äldre och vuxna med funktionsnedsättning. Projektet involverar flera organisatoriska nivåer och huvudmän, inklusive landsting och kommuner. Den teoretiska basen bygger på lärdomar från kvalitetsutveckling, organisatoriskt lärande, ...
Avhandlingar om BIBLIOTEKS- OCH INFORMATIONSVETENSKAP. Sök bland 78317 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
상세정보: D-(+)-Sucrose. 당사는 제품 선택, 서비스, 공정 우수성을 통해 과학을 지원하며 고객이 과학의 가능성을 확장하도록 돕습니다.
... En samling av tusentals informativa artiklar om viktiga kristna, protestantiska, katolska och ortodoxa kyrkan ord och ämnen och om andra världsreligionerna.
Fruits of cv. Fortune mandarin were periodically :harvested throughout the ripening period to evaluate changes in carbohydrate content and metabolism in flavedo tissue and to determine the potential role of carbohydrates in the tolerance of citrus fruit to chilling injury (CI). Sucrose showed little change in the flavedo during the season, but fructose and glucose increased, in nearly equal amounts, throughout the fall and winter, reaching a maximum in January. Starch levels were less abundant than soluble carbohydrates and rose continuously until March. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 4.1.14) activity decreased from December throughout ripening. Changes in sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) and acid and alkaline invertase (Inv; EC 3.2.1.26) activities correlated with changes in the reducing sugars, but acid invertase was less active than the other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes. Carbohydrate changes in the flavedo of Fortune mandarins with fruit maturity appear not to be related to the ...
The regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and source-sink relationships among organs play a key role in plant adaptation to drought. This study aimed at characterising the dynamics of transpiration, development, growth and carbon metabolism, as well as the expression of invertase genes, in response to drought during a dry-down cycle. Three 1-month experiments were conducted in controlled environment using the rice genotype IR64 (Oryza sativa L., indica). Plant leaf relative transpiration and expansion rates decreased linearly when fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) dropped below 0.66 and 0.58, respectively. Hexose and starch concentration responses to FTSW in a given organ were generally linear and opposite: in source leaves, hexose concentration increased and starch decreased, and vice versa in sink leaves and roots. Sucrose remained constant in source leaves and increased slightly in sink leaves. Starch reserves built up during stress in sink organs were rapidly mobilised upon ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Research Summary. The Gore Lab uses microbes such as yeast and bacteria to experimentally probe fundamental theories in evolutionary dynamics, systems biology, and quantitative ecology.. As a Pappalardo Postdoctoral Fellow working together with Alexander van Oudenaarden, Jeff used sucrose metabolism in yeast as a model system to study the evolution of cooperation. The conditions required for the initiation and maintenance of cooperative behaviors is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. How can cooperators survive when they can be taken advantage of by cheaters? In the case of sucrose metabolism, Jeff found that cooperators can survive even in the presence of cheaters because the cooperators capture a small fraction (~1%) of the sugar they create before it is shared, thus making the interaction what game theorists call a snowdrift game.. Selected Publications. ...
Invertase Suc2 (EC 3.2.1.26) belongs to sucrose-hydrolyzing enzyme but plays a key role in inulin catabolism by catalyzing inulin hydrolysis in yeast S. cerevisiae [10]. However, the inulinase activity of Suc2 can be detected only in some S. cerevisiae strains although SUC2 is a constitutive genomic component [16]. As shown in Figure 1, all strains L610, NCYC625 and BY4741 could grow well in the inulin medium, whereas the Suc2 activity and ethanol production in strain L610 is much higher than that in strains NCYC625 and BY4741. It is presumed that biomass and ethanol production of strains NCYC625 and BY4741 is mainly from the residual glucose and fructose in the inulin medium but not from inulin (Figure 3B). In fact, a little inulin was catabolised by strain BY4741 compared with strain L610 after incubation in inulin medium for 48 h (Figure 3B). Therefore, both strains NCYC625 and BY4741 could weakly catabolize inulin and strain L610 could strongly utilize inulin for ethanol production.. It has ...
We isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains that are able to carry out the second fermentation of sparkling wine from spontaneously fermenting musts in El Penedès (Spain) by specifically designed selection protocols. All of them (26 strains) showed one of two very similar mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction patterns, whereas their karyotypes differed. These strains showed high rates of karyotype instability, which were dependent on both the medium and the strain, during vegetative growth. In all cases, the mtDNA restriction pattern was conserved in strains kept under the same conditions. Analysis of different repetitive sequences in their genomes suggested that ribosomal DNA repeats play an important role in the changes in size observed in chromosome XII, whereas SUC genes or Ty elements did not show amplification or transposition processes that could be related to rearrangements of the chromosomes showing these sequences. Karyotype changes also occurred in monosporidic diploid ...
Figure 4. The Suc-Tre6P nexus in sink organs. Growing sink tissues import Suc, which is catabolized by invertases and Suc synthase (SUS) to provide carbon and energy for growth and accumulation of storage reserves. Resynthesis of Suc via Suc-phosphate synthase (SPS) and Suc-phosphate phosphatase (SPP) can occur in parallel with net Suc catabolism. Tre6P regulates consumption of Suc in Suc-importing sink organs (e.g. meristems and developing seeds), mediated in part by inhibition of SnRK1. SnRK1 is activated by low energy status, so Tre6P might also influence SnRK1 activity indirectly via effects on Suc and energy levels. It is likely that Suc consumption is also regulated in ways that are not directly dependent on SnRK1. By analogy with source leaves, Tre6P might regulate turnover of transitory starch reserves in sink organs. Any changes in hexose levels or the Suc:hexose ratio are likely to trigger other sugar signaling responses mediated by TOR, hexokinase1 (HXK1), or REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN ...
package Person; use Moose; has ssn =, ( is =, rw, clearer =, clear_ssn, predicate =, has_ssn, ); ... my $person = Person-,new(); $person-,has_ssn; # false $person-,ssn(undef); $person-,ssn; # returns undef $person-,has_ssn; # true $person-,clear_ssn; $person-,ssn; # returns undef $person-,has_ssn; # false $person-,ssn(123-45-6789); $person-,ssn; # returns 123-45-6789 $person-,has_ssn; # true my $person2 = Person-,new( ssn =, 111-22-3333); $person2-,has_ssn; # ...
The Snf1 protein kinase is a central component of the signaling pathway for glucose repression in yeast. Recent studies have addressed the regulation of Snf1 kinase activity and elucidated mechanisms by which Snf1 controls repression and activation of glucose-repressed genes. Important advances incl …
Elin Gunleifsen, Attributive uttrykk for prototypisk possessivitet. En komparativ studie av talespråklig variasjon och endring i Kristiansand og Arendal. 307 s. Oslo 2010. (Novus forlag.) ISBN 978-82-7099-622-3. ...
Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated
K02809 PTS-Scr-EIIB; PTS system, sucrose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.211] K02809 PTS-Scr-EIIB; PTS system, sucrose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.211] K02809 PTS-Scr-EIIB; PTS system, sucrose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.211] K01193 INV; beta-fructofuranosidase [EC:3.2.1.26] K01187 malZ; alpha-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.20] K00692 sacB; levansucrase [EC:2.4.1.10] K00963 UGP2; UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.9] K00963 UGP2; UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.9] K01179 E3.2.1.4; endoglucanase [EC:3.2.1.4] K02759 PTS-Cel-EIIA; PTS system, cellobiose-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.196 2.7.1.205] K02759 PTS-Cel-EIIA; PTS system, cellobiose-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.196 2.7.1.205] K02760 PTS-Cel-EIIB; PTS system, cellobiose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.196 2.7.1.205] K02760 PTS-Cel-EIIB; PTS system, cellobiose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.196 2.7.1.205] K02761 PTS-Cel-EIIC; PTS system, cellobiose-specific IIC component K02761 ...
Introduction. Science Coursework: Osmosis Aim: To investigate which sucrose concentration is the same as the concentration of cell sap inside the potato by narrowing down the primarily larger ranged concentrations of the cell sap. We will do this testing an extensive variety of sucrose concentrations to discover the concentration that gives the smallest mass change in the potato. Intro: Osmosis is the diffusion of a liquid, although it is often assumed to be water; it can be any liquid solvent through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of low solvent potential to a region of high solvent potential. The selectively permeable membrane must be permeable to the solvent, but not to the solute, resulting in a pressure gradient across the membrane. See below: The image is showing us that because there is a lot more water in the cell to the left and very little in the cell to the right, the water is travelling from the region of higher water concentration i.e. the cell to the left to the ...
Finally, we found that DC sensing of HIV-1 and HIV-2 required the DNA sensor cGAS. Treatment consisted of viagra without prescription two 35-day cycles of combination chemotherapy with CPT-11 and UFT. Nerve regression and sprouting were found in animals chronically paralysed with curare over several weeks as well as in untreated frogs (winter and summer frogs, laboratory frogs, fed and unfed). However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging is now acknowledged for the noninvasive quantification of cerebral blood flow.. Structural and functional basis for JAK3-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency. Person-mean centering was applied to psychological factors to disaggregate between- and within-individual association. In this experiment, we investigated the changes in serum levels of soluble RANKL (sRANKL), OPG, IL-6, and IL-6sR in patients with glucocorticoid-induced ...
casSAR Dugability of Q7XNX6 | SUS7 | Sucrose synthase 7 - Also known as SUS7_ORYSJ, SUS7. Sucrose-cleaving enzyme that provides UDP-glucose and fructose for various metabolic pathways.
Information about FOS (Fructooligosaccharides), including dosage recommendations, uses, potential side effects, and deficiency signs
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Sucrose is the proper term for sugar. Though excess consumption of sucrose can cause many health problems, sucrose is not always...
Acetobacter- used in the production of vitamin c. Saccharomyces ceravisae which is a type of yeast - produces the enzyme invertase which converts sucrose into glucose and fructose ( a very sweet sugar found in fruits and honey) to produce the semi liquid centre in some chocolate eggs.. Aspergillus Niger - used to produce citric acid which is used as a flavour enhancer and as a preservative in fizzy drinks. Corynebacterium glutamicum - used to produce glutamicum acid which is turned into msg (a flavour enhancer). Mucor miehei- this fungus produces the enzyme chymosin which is used as an alternative to rennet(from calves stomach) to help milk curdle and office vegetarian cheeses. Bacillus theringiensis- produces a toxin that kills insects , used as a biological control agent, the gene can be put into cotton plants to produce a natural pest resistance.. Plant stanol esters -are chemicals and are used to reduce cholesterol by 10 % produced commercially by using bacteria to convert sterols ( types of ...
1. Cheng ZJ, Wang HS, Zhang ZB. et al. Genetic diversity of melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm based on AFLPs. Acta Bot Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica. 2007;27:244-248 2. Keiko O, Akio U, Tomoko T. et al. Enrichment of sugar content in melon fruits by hydrogen peroxide treatment. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:569-578 3. Song WY, Zhang ZB, Shao HB. et al. Relationship between calcium decoding elements and plant abiotic-stress resistance. Int J Biol Sci. 2008;4:116-125 4. Liu YF, Li TL, Qi HY. et al. Effects of grafting on carbohydrate accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities in muskmelon. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9:25-35 5. Lee JM, Oda M. Grafting of herbaceous vegetable and ornamental crops. Hort Rev. 2003;28:61-124 6. Pavlou G.C, Vakalonnakis DJ, Ligoxigakis EK. Control of root and stem rot of cucumber, caused by F. oxysporum f. sp radicis cucumerinum, by grafting onto resistant rootstocks. Plant Dis. 2002;86:379-382 7. Shao HB, Chu LY, Lu ZH. et al. Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging ...
Looking for online definition of Amino sugars metabolism in the Medical Dictionary? Amino sugars metabolism explanation free. What is Amino sugars metabolism? Meaning of Amino sugars metabolism medical term. What does Amino sugars metabolism mean?
Read "Sucrose Concentration at the Apoplastic Interface between Seed Coat and Cotyledons of Developing Soybean Seeds" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
0066] In the process according to the present invention, an added non-polar co-solvent capable of removing water by co-distillation, such as described in Sankey, U.S. Pat. No. 5,470,969; White, EP 0 776 903; and Vernon, EP 0 475 619, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference, is not necessary for efficient removal of the water of reaction. Consequently, in the current invention, the reaction may be carried out with, but is preferably carried out without, addition of such a non-polar co-solvent. Such solvents are typically ones that do not react with the reaction vehicle or components thereof, the organotin-based acylation promoter, or the sucrose; that produce a mixture with the reaction vehicle, the organotin-based acylation promoter, and the sucrose; that reflux with an internal reaction temperature within the range of from about 75° C. to about 153° C., preferably less than 100° C.; that co-distill with water; and that do not render the sucrose insoluble. Such solvents ...
The sucrose:sucrose-1-fructosyl transferase gene and the fructan-fructan-1-fructosyl transferase from Cynara scolymus code for enzymes involved in fructan metabolism. Potato plants were modified to constitutively express these genes leading to the production of the trisaccharide, kestose, the tetrasaccharide, nystose as well as fructans ...
Which would match my problem with my underarm? It has redness in it, and it would burn, and have pain. It did kinda itch, but not the kind where I would scra...
a3 Item Manager a3 Item Manager är en komplett och flexibel produkt för att hantera artiklar och artikelinformation. Produkten ger möjlighet att skapa och underhålla gemensam artikeldata både internt och externt hos kunder och leverantörer. Accure har som mål att kunna effektivisera och förenkla hanteringen runt artiklar. Nyttan med detta är att kunna göra smidigare och mer löns ...
购买我们的重组小鼠MIG蛋白。Ab50083为有活性的全长蛋白,在大肠杆菌中生产并经过SDS-PAGE, Functional Studies实验验证。中国80%以上现货。
INTRODUCTION. Lactobacillus reuteri is an obligatorily heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, a microaerophilic, and is a common inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of humans (28, 36) and animals such as pigs (12, 24, 33), turkeys, chickens, and monkeys (24). L. reuteri also belongs to the predominant microflora of fermented cereal products and meat (14, 15, 25). Some species of L. reuteri produce the enzyme invertase, which is used in converting sugar from sucrose (17, 26). In addition, L. reuteri also produces a large amount of glucan and fructan exopolysaccharides, which are considered prebiotics (22). These prebiotics have been investigated with regards to antitumour activity (52), immunomodulation (55), and cholesterol reduction (50). In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of probiotic microorganisms and organic acids as alternatives to antibiotics in feeds to reduce antibiotic residues in the carcass, among other excellent benefits such as diarrhea control ...
Info on benefits of fructooligosaccharides health supplement, diet, fructooligosaccharides supplement side effects, fructooligosaccharides dosage, health benefits and more.
glucose concentration in fresh samples of orange, lemon and grapefruit juice. Aim: The aim of this investigation is to produce a set of data which will
Studien har finansierats genom forskningsanslag från AFA Försäkring och Vinnova. Sveriges läkarförbund har bidragit både finansiellt och med kunskap och stöd från Arbetslivsgruppen. Mats Gautam var forskningsassistent under datainsamlingen, och Joakim Westerlund, Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, har granskat statistiken.. Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2012-01-01 Last updated: 2013-01-21Bibliographically approved ...
... beta-fructofuranosidase. The resulting mixture of fructose and glucose is called inverted sugar syrup. Related to invertases ... beta-h-fructosidase, beta-fructosidase, invertin, sucrase, maxinvert L 1000, fructosylinvertase, alkaline invertase, acid ...
... (EC 3.2.1.80, exo-beta-D-fructosidase, exo-beta-fructosidase, polysaccharide beta-fructofuranosidase ... Fructan beta-fructosidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing (2->1)- and (2->6)-linked beta-D- ... fructan exohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name beta-D-fructan fructohydrolase. ...
... beta-amylase MeSH D08.811.277.450.114 --- beta-fructofuranosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.207 --- chitinase MeSH D08.811.277.450. ... 4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 --- glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 --- ... 4-beta xylanases MeSH D08.811.277.450.950.500 --- xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase MeSH D08.811.277.656.149 --- atp-dependent ... beta-glucanase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.500 --- glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.550 --- glucan 1, ...
... beta-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate beta-glucosidase EC 3.2.1.176: cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase (reducing end) EC 3.2.1.177: ... b-fructofuranosidase EC 3.2.1.27: deleted EC 3.2.1.28: α,α-trehalase EC 3.2.1.29: deleted, included in EC 3.2.1.52 EC 3.2.1.30 ... galactan endo-beta-1,3-galactanase EC 3.2.1.182: 4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-2-yl glucoside beta-D- ... 6-beta-galactosidase EC 3.2.1.165: exo-1,4-beta-D-glucosaminidase EC 3.2.1.166: blood group B branched chain alpha-1,3- ...
  • The combination of sucrose analogues as novel substrates (substrate engineering) and highly active recombinant beta-fructofuranosidase from A. niger (genetic engineering) provides a new powerful tool for the efficient preparative synthesis of tailor-made saccharides of the important 1-kestose and 1-nystose type headed with different monosaccharides of interest. (nih.gov)
  • In patients with oral allergy syndrome (OAS), 4 proteins binding with IgE from more than half of the patients' sera were found to be polygalacturonase 2A (Lyc e 2), [beta]-fructofuranosidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and pectinesterase (PE). (phadia.com)
  • Enzyme potentiated hyposensitization II: Effect of glucose, glucosamine, N-acetylaminosugars and gelatin on the ability of beta-glucuronidase to block the anamnestic response to antigen in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing (2->1)- and (2->6)-linked beta-D-fructofuranose residues in fructans Hydrolyses inulin and levan, and also sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • A β-fructofuranosidase with a molecular weight of 49,000±5,000 daltons on SDS-PAGE, an isoelectric point of 4.6±0.5, an optimum pH of about 5.5-6.0, and an optimum temperature of about 50° C. in the presence of calcium ion. (google.com)
  • Three of their products, avidin, beta-glucuronidase and aprotinin (a protease inhibitor commonly used by surgeons), have been produced in sufficient quantities to be sold through a commercial chemical supplier, the St. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta,beta-difluorinated amino acid derivatives were synthesized via Mg(0)-promoted defluorination of alpha-trifluoromethyl iminoester. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pd-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of the bromodifluoromethyl iminoester and the subsequent transformations provided optically active beta,beta-difluoroglutamic acid and beta,beta-difluoroproline derivatives. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The antioxidant and antiradical activities of 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-3,6,4'-trimethoxyflavone or centaureidin isolated and characterized from Brickellia veronicaefolia were elucidated by heat-induced oxidation in a beta-carotene and linoleic acid system and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl decoloration test. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because children with the disease lack a functional form of an enzyme called beta-glucuronidase (GUSB), Sands and associates tried to prevent the disorder by using AAV as a viral vector to deliver the GUSB to the mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Geller AI, Freese A. Infection of cultured central nervous system neurons with a defective herpes simplex virus 1 vector results in stable expression of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. (harvard.edu)